National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination high-temperature nano-derived

  1. AOI [3] High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and - H2S Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perepezko, John; Lu-Steffes, Otto

    2014-08-31

    The emissions from coal-fired power plants remain a significant concern for air quality. This environmental challenge must be overcome by controlling the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) throughout the entire coal combustion process. One of the processes which could specifically benefit from robust, low cost, and high temperature compatible gas sensors is the coal gasification process which converts coal and/or biomass into syngas. Hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur compounds make up 33%, 43% and 2% of syngas, respectively. Therefore, development of a high temperature (>500°C) chemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of H2, H2S and SO2 levels during coal gasification is strongly desired. The selective detection of SO2/H2S in the presence of H2, is a formidable task for a sensor designer. In order to ensure effective operation of these chemical sensors, the sensor system must inexpensively function within harsh temperature and chemical environment. Currently available sensing approaches, which are based on gas chromatography, electrochemistry, and IR-spectroscopy, do not satisfy the required cost and performance targets. This work focused on the development microsensors that can be applied to this application. In order to develop the high- temperature compatible microsensor, this work addressed various issues related to sensor stability, selectivity, and miniaturization. In the research project entitled “High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and -H2S Sensors”, the team worked to develop micro-scale, chemical sensors and sensor arrays composed of nano-derived, metal-oxide composite materials to detect gases like H2, SO2, and H2S within high-temperature environments (>500C). The research was completed in collaboration with NexTech Materials, Ltd. (Lewis Center, Ohio). NexTech assisted in the testing of the sensors in syngas with contaminate levels of H2S. The idea of including nanomaterials as the sensing material within resistive-type chemical sensor platforms was to increase the sensitivity (as shown for room temperature applications). Unfortunately, nanomaterials are not stable at high temperatures due to sintering and coarsening processes that are driven by their high surface to volume ratio. Therefore, new hydrogen and sulfur selective nanomaterial systems with high selectivity and stability properties in the proposed harsh environment were investigated. Different nano-morphologies of zirconate, molybdate, and tungstate compounds were investigated. The fabrication of the microsensors consisted of the deposition of the selective nanomaterial systems over metal based interconnects on an inert substrate. This work utilized the chemi-resistive (resistive- type) microsensor architecture where the chemically and structurally stable, high temperature compatible electrodes were sputtered onto a ceramic substrate. The nanomaterial sensing systems were deposited over the electrodes using a lost mold method patterned by conventional optical lithography. The microsensor configuration with optimized nanomaterial system was tested and compared to a millimeter-size sensor e outcomes of this research will contribute to the economical application of sensor arrays for simultaneous sensing of H2, H2S, and SO2.

  2. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  3. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  4. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  5. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  6. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  7. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  8. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  9. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  10. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  11. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  12. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

  13. HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMOCOUPLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eshayu, A.M.

    1963-02-12

    This invention contemplates a high temperature thermocouple for use in an inert or a reducing atmosphere. The thermocouple limbs are made of rhenium and graphite and these limbs are connected at their hot ends in compressed removable contact. The rhenium and graphite are of high purity and are substantially stable and free from diffusion into each other even without shielding. Also, the graphite may be thick enough to support the thermocouple in a gas stream. (AEC)

  14. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate knowledge of aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures is important in many applications including nuclear waste disposal and energy extraction. Sandia's Defense Waste Management Programs is equipped with a state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system that allows us to obtain high quality kinetic and equilibrium data at temperatures and pressures of interest up to 600 o C and 1,000 bars (100 MPa). This state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system includes the

  15. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  16. High temperature detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  17. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  18. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape

    2005-12-01

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. High temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  20. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan; Logvenov, Gennady; Gozar, Adrian Mihai

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  1. Determination of the effects caused by different polymers on coal fluidity during carbonization using high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel Castro Diaz; Lucky Edecki; Karen M. Steel; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape

    2008-01-15

    The effects of blending polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET), a flexible polyurethane (FPU), and a car shredded fluff waste (CSF) on fluidity development of a bituminous coal during carbonization have been studied by means of high-torque, small-amplitude controlled-strain rheometry and in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The most detrimental effects were caused by PET and PS, which completely destroyed the fluidity of the coal. The CSF had a deleterious effect on coal fluidity similar to that of PET, although the deleterious effect on the viscoelastic properties of the coal were less pronounced than those of PET and PS. On the contrary, the addition of 10 wt % PE caused a slight reduction in the concentration of fluid hydrogen and an increase in the minimum complex viscosity, and the addition of 10 wt % FPU reduced the concentration of fluid hydrogen without changing the viscoelastic properties of the coal. Although these results suggest that these two plastics could potentially be used as additives in coking blends without compromising coke porosity, it was found that the semicoke strengths were reduced by adding 2 wt % FPU and 5 wt % PE. Therefore, it is unlikely that more than 2 wt % of a plastic waste could be added to a coal blend without deterioration in coke quality. 35 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program High Temperature ... the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program ...

  3. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashion, Avery T.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  4. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  5. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  6. Determination of the relative resistance to ignition of selected turbopump materials in high-pressure, high-temperature, oxygen environments, volume 4. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltzfus, J.M.; Benz, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    Results from frictional heating tests to determine the effects of oxygen pressure on the Pv production required for igntion are presented. Materials tested include: Monel K-500 and 1015 carbon steels at pressures varied from 100 to 3000 PSIG).

  7. Determination of the relative resistance to ignition of selected turbopump materials in high-pressure, high-temperature, oxygen environments, volume 1. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltzfus, J.M.; Benz, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    Advances in the design of the liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen engines for the Space Transportation System call for the use of warm, high-pressure oxygen as the driving gas in the liquid oxygen turbopump. The NASA Lewis Research Center requested the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to design a test program to determine the relative resistance to ignition of nine selected turbopump materials: Hastelloy X, Inconel 600, Invar 36, Monel K-500, nickel 200, silicon carbide, stainless steel 316, and zirconium copper. The materials were subjected to particle impact and to frictional heating in high-pressure oxygen.

  8. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  9. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  10. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  11. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  12. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  13. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  14. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  15. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  16. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck

    2010-08-01

    ABSTRACT Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: 1. Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. 2. Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  17. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  18. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  19. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  20. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  1. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  2. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  3. CX-002903: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 (Hydrogen) and -H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) SensorsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 07/08/2010Location(s): Morgantown, West VirginiaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultra High Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Ultra High Temperature Dictionary.png Ultra High...

  5. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  6. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  7. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D ...

  8. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  9. High temperature sealed electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentin Chung, Brice Hoani; Burke, Paul J.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2015-10-06

    A cell for high temperature electrochemical reactions is provided. The cell includes a container, at least a portion of the container acting as a first electrode. An extension tube has a first end and a second end, the extension tube coupled to the container at the second end forming a conduit from the container to said first end. A second electrode is positioned in the container and extends out of the container via the conduit. A seal is positioned proximate the first end of the extension tube, for sealing the cell.

  10. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  11. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  12. High-Temperature Behavior of Cellulose I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, James F.; Bergenstråhle, Malin; Beckham, Gregg T.; Himmel, Michael E.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Brady, John W.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2011-03-17

    We use molecular simulation to elucidate the structural behavior of small hydrated cellulose Iβ microfibrils heated to 227 °C (500 K) with two carbohydrate force fields. In contrast to the characteristic two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded layer sheets present in the cellulose Iβ crystal structure, we show that at high temperature a three-dimensional hydrogen bond network forms, made possible by hydroxymethyl groups changing conformation from trans–gauche (TG) to gauche–gauche (GG) in every second layer corresponding to “center” chains in cellulose Iβ and from TG to gauche–trans (GT) in the “origin” layer. The presence of a regular three-dimensional hydrogen bond network between neighboring sheets eliminates the possibility of twist, whereas two-dimensional hydrogen bonding allows for microfibril twist to occur. Structural features of this high-temperature phase as determined by molecular simulation may explain several experimental observations for which no detailed structural basis has been offered. This includes an explanation for the observed temperature and crystal size dependence for the extent of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and diffraction patterns of cellulose at high temperature.

  13. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  14. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  15. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  16. High temperature control rod assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  17. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-12-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston.

  18. High temperature two component explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  19. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  20. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Wilkins, S. Curt

    2011-01-18

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  1. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightweighting Materials Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus Lightweighting Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  2. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories Materials Characterization ...

  3. High Temperature Superconductivity Partners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Superconductivity Partners Map showing DOE's partnersstakeholders in the ... More Documents & Publications DOE Superconductivity Program Stakeholders DOE Provides up ...

  4. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program | Department of Energy lmp_06_wang.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Selection of a Wear-Resistant Tractor Drivetrain Material: Success stories at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program

  5. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  6. High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects A National Effort to Introduce New Technology into the Power Delivery Infrastructure PDF icon High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects More Documents & Publications HTS Cable Projects Superconductivity Program Overview Columbus HTS Power Cable

  7. High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the extent of steam saturation in the reservoir, which, together with the relative permeability characteristics of the reservoir, determines the steam fraction in the mobile fluid...

  8. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  9. Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shufeng

    2009-03-01

    Final Technical Report Project title: Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics DOE/Office of Science Program Manager Contact: Dr. James Davenport

  10. High-temperature brazed ceramic joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarvinen, Philip O.

    1986-01-01

    High-temperature joints formed from metallized ceramics are disclosed wherein the metal coatings on the ceramics are vacuum sputtered thereon.

  11. High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum Citation ... OSTI Identifier: 1245373 Report Number(s): BNL--111729-2016-JA Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473; ...

  12. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm028laracurzio2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and...

  13. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) - PSD Directorate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Collaborative Materials Research The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program is on hiatus due to federal budget reductions. However, research projects...

  14. High Temperature Electrolysis for Efficient Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Electrolysis Project History and Background * INL served as the lead ... technology for continued development toward early deployment (based on the ...

  15. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories ...

  16. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories 2012 DOE ...

  17. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success ...

  18. High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver CONTACTS Partnering Organizations: * Georgia Institute of Technology * King Saud University * Bucknell University * German Aerospace ...

  19. Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A stainless steel composition and heat treatment process for a high-temperature, titanium ... NETL has developed a stainless steel composition and heat treatment process for a ...

  20. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  1. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  2. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, ...

  3. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric ...

  4. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  5. Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on polyelectrolyte materials for high temperature fuel cells, was given by John Kerr of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory at a meeting on new fuel cell projects in February 2007.

  6. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  7. High Temperature Interfacial Superconductivity - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Temperature Interfacial Superconductivity Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication High-temperature interface superconductivity between metallic and insulating copper oxides (791 KB) <p> (a) Annular dark field image of the structure showing extended defects in the metal layer (marked by white arrows). The black arrow shows the metal-insulator interface (b) A magnified image of one defect which nucleated at the

  8. High temperature crystalline superconductors from crystallized glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Donglu

    1992-01-01

    A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor from an amorphous phase. The method involves preparing a starting material of a composition of Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 Ox or Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.4 Cu.sub.5 Ox, forming an amorphous phase of the composition and heat treating the amorphous phase for particular time and temperature ranges to achieve a single phase high temperature superconductor.

  9. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  10. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George; Armijo, James Rudolph; Frear, Darrel Richard

    2000-01-01

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  11. High temperature ceramic/metal joint structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  12. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck

    2011-08-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim fiscal year (FY) 2011 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under the Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA)-1 guidelines and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from seven test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault, including tensile tests, creep tests, and cyclic tests. Of the 5,603,682 records currently in the vault, 4,480,444 have been capture passed, and capture testing is in process for the remaining 1,123,238.

  13. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Armijo, James R.; Frear, Darrel R.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  14. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Power Electronic Systems | Department of Energy apep_05_dirk.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films

  15. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, Adam M.; Cunningham, Richard Burns; Fugate, David L.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A.; Peretz, Fred J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Wilson, Dane F.; Yoder, Jr, Graydon L.

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels with 3 cm diameter graphite-based fuel pebbles slowly circulating up through the core. Molten salt coolant (FLiBe) at 700°C flows concurrently (at significantly higher velocity) with the pebbles and is used to remove heat generated in the reactor core (approximately 1280 W/pebble), and supply it to a power conversion system. Refueling equipment continuously sorts spent fuel pebbles and replaces spent or damaged pebbles with fresh fuel. By combining greater or fewer numbers of pebble channel assemblies, multiple reactor designs with varying power levels can be offered. The PB-AHTR design is discussed in detail in Reference [1] and is shown schematically in Fig. 1. Fig. 1. PB-AHTR concept (drawing taken from Peterson et al., Design and Development of the Modular PB-AHTR Proceedings of ICApp 08). Pebble behavior within the core is a key issue in proving the viability of this concept. This includes understanding the behavior of the pebbles thermally, hydraulically, and mechanically (quantifying pebble wear characteristics, flow channel wear, etc). The experiment being developed is an initial step in characterizing the pebble behavior under realistic PB-AHTR operating conditions. It focuses on thermal and hydraulic behavior of a static pebble bed using a convective salt loop to provide prototypic fluid conditions to the bed, and a unique inductive heating technique to provide prototypic heating in the pebbles. The facility design is sufficiently versatile to allow a variety of other experimentation to be performed in the future. The facility can accommodate testing of scaled reactor components or sub-components such as flow diodes, salt-to-salt heat exchangers, and improved pump designs as well as testing of refueling equipment, high temperature instrumentation, and other reactor core designs.

  16. CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe This...

  17. High temperature membranes for DMFC (and PEFC) applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High temperature membranes for DMFCs (and PEFCs) to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  18. Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  19. High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of ANL’s high temperature polymer membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  20. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy ...

  1. Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  2. Topological Hubbard Model and Its High-Temperature Quantum Hall...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Topological Hubbard Model and Its High-Temperature Quantum Hall Effect Title: Topological Hubbard Model and Its High-Temperature Quantum Hall Effect Authors: Neupert, Titus ; ...

  3. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator A low temperature TEG has been built and tested providing ...

  4. New Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells New Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  5. Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular ...

  6. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation by an electric arc Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring high temperature phenomena related to ...

  7. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D Presented at the NREL ... DC, August 11-12, 2011. PDF icon High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) ...

  8. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes...

  9. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  10. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with ...

  11. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment ...

  12. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation ...

  13. Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage This ...

  14. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEUThorium Fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor ...

  15. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) ...

  16. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic ...

  17. High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  18. High temperature interfacial superconductivity (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High temperature interfacial superconductivity High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential ...

  19. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical ...

  20. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  1. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, Robert J. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  2. High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, K.G.; Gruninger, M.F.; Jarosinski, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders.

  3. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Drewniany, Edward (Bergen, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  4. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

  5. 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 5 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2005 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. October 20, 2005, Los Angeles, California Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes, Jim Boncella, Los Alamos National Laboratory Photo of participants at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in October 2005 May 26, 2005, Arlington, Virginia Agenda Model

  6. High temperature coatings for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

    2003-10-21

    Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

  7. Spin Hall magnetoresistance at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, Ken-ichi; Qiu, Zhiyong; Kikkawa, Takashi; Iguchi, Ryo; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-02-02

    The temperature dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in Pt/Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) bilayer films has been investigated in a high temperature range from room temperature to near the Curie temperature of YIG. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the magnetoresistance ratio induced by the SMR monotonically decreases with increasing the temperature and almost disappears near the Curie temperature. We found that, near the Curie temperature, the temperature dependence of the SMR in the Pt/YIG film is steeper than that of a magnetization curve of the YIG; the critical exponent of the magnetoresistance ratio is estimated to be 0.9. This critical behavior of the SMR is attributed mainly to the temperature dependence of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/YIG interface.

  8. Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rynders, Steven Walton; Minford, Eric; Tressler, Richard Ernest; Taylor, Dale M.

    2001-01-01

    A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

  9. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.

    2015-11-13

    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6 carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around 650.degree. C.

  10. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  11. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  12. Filter unit for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciliberti, David F.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    A filtering unit for filtering particulates from high temperature gases uses a spiral ceramic spring to bias a ceramic, tubular filter element into sealing contact with a flange about an aperture of a metallic tube sheet. The ceramic spiral spring may contact the upper edge of the filter element and be restrained by a stop member spaced from one end of the tube sheet, or the spring may contact the bottom of the filter element and be restrained by a support member spaced from the opposite end of the tube sheet. The stop member and support member are adjustably secured to the tube sheet. A filtering system uses the ceramic spiral spring to bias a plurality of ceramic, tubular filter elements in a respective plurality of apertures in a tube sheet which divides a vessel into upper and lower enclosed sections.

  13. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  14. High Temperature Battery for Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josip Caja

    2009-12-31

    In this project rechargeable cells based on the high temperature electrochemical system Na/beta''-alumina/S(IV) in AlCl3/NaCl were developed for application as an autonomous power source in oil/gas deep drilling wells. The cells operate in the temperature range from 150 C to 250 C. A prototype DD size cell was designed and built based on the results of finite element analysis and vibration testing. The cell consisted of stainless steel case serving as anode compartment with cathode compartment installed in it and a seal closing the cell. Critical element in cell design and fabrication was hermetically sealing the cell. The seal had to be leak tight, thermally and vibration stable and compatible with electrode materials. Cathode compartment was built of beta''-alumina tube which served as an electrolyte, separator and cathode compartment.

  15. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  16. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  17. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loehman, Ronald E.; Corral, Erica L.

    2012-03-20

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  18. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forster, George A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

  19. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  20. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  1. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  2. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  3. Atomic processes in high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Y.

    1991-07-01

    This is the final report on the project Atomic Processes in High Temperature Plasmas', which has been completed in June 30, 1991. The original contract started in 1978. The dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients were calculated for ions with the number of electrons N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, and 12. The result was then used to construct a new and improved rate formula. Other important resonant processes, which are closely related to DR, were also studied to interpret experiments and to test the DR theory. The plasma field and the density effects on the rate coefficients was found to be important, and a consistent correction procedure is being developed. The available data on the DR rates and their accuracy do not yet fully meet the requirement for plasma modeling; there are serious gaps in the available data, and the currently adopted theoretical procedure needs improvements. Critical assessment of the current status of the DR problem is presented, and possible future work needed is summarized.

  4. Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Gerald D.; Powell, Roger W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

  5. High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the surface and bulk interactions of antimony with the Ni-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) will be discussed. High fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of SOFCs, allowing the direct use of fossil and bio fuels without a hydrogen separation unit. Synthesis gas derived from coal and biomass consists of a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and steam, but finite amounts of tars and trace impurities such as S, Se, P, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Cl, etc, are also always present. While synthesis gas is commonly treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers to remove the impurities, complete purification is not economical. Antimony is widely distributed in coals. During coal gasification antimony is volatilized, such that contact with the SOFC anodes and other SOFC parts, e.g., interconnect, current collecting wires, fuel gas supplying tubing, is most likely. This chapter addresses the following topics: high temperature Ni - Sb interactions; alteration phase, Ni3Sb, Ni5Sb2, NiSb, formation; thermochemical modeling; impact of Sb on the electrocatalytic activity of Ni toward the fuel oxidation and the presence of other impurities (sulfur, in particular); converted anode structural instability during long-term SOFC operation; comparison with nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

  6. Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature F82H is a ...

  7. High temperature thermoelectric properties of the solid-solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High temperature thermoelectric properties of the solid-solution zintl phase EuCd6-xZnxSb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High temperature ...

  8. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  9. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool This report documents work performed in the ...

  10. Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cool...

  11. High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, May 14, 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This agenda provides information about the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting on May 14, 2007 in Arlington, Va.

  12. Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This agenda provides information about the Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting on September 14, 2006.

  13. 2003 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2003 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2003 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. October 17, 2003, Orlando, Florida High T Membrane Development at Foster-Miller, Bindu Nair, Foster-Miller Highly Sulfonated Polymers for High Temperature Applications, Morton Litt, Case Western Reserve University Assessing Transport in New Electrolytes, Bryan Pivovar, LANL

  14. 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 4 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2004 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. October 8, 2004, Honolulu, Hawaii High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance of Sulfonated Poly (phenylene) Proton Conducting Polymers, Chris J. Cornelius, Cy H. Fujimoto, Michael A. Hickner, Darin Leonhardt, Sandia National Laboratories Higher Temperature PEM Composite Systems for Fuel

  15. High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape009_dirk_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films

  16. High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon pm044_smith_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Temperature Aluminum Alloys (Agreement ID:24034) Project ID:18518 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Rapidly Solidified High Temperature Aluminum Alloys

  17. Thermal-stress modeling of an optical microphone at high temperature.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Thermal-stress modeling of an optical microphone at high temperature. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-stress modeling of an optical microphone at high temperature. To help determine the capability range of a MEMS optical microphone design in harsh conditions computer simulations were carried out. Thermal stress modeling was performed up to temperatures of 1000 C. Particular concern was over stress and strain profiles due to the

  18. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  19. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  20. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  1. Controlled Chemistry Helium High Temperature Materials Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard N. WRight

    2005-08-01

    A system to test aging and environmental effects in flowing helium with impurity content representative of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) has been designed and assembled. The system will be used to expose microstructure analysis coupons and mechanical test specimens for up to 5,000 hours in helium containing potentially oxidizing or carburizing impurities controlled to parts per million levels. Impurity levels in the flowing helium are controlled through a feedback mechanism based on gas chromatography measurements of the gas chemistry at the inlet and exit from a high temperature retort containing the test materials. Initial testing will focus on determining the nature and extent of combined aging and environmental effects on microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of alloys proposed for structural applications in the NGNP, including Inconel 617 and Haynes 230.

  2. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  3. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature

  4. High temperature interfacial superconductivity (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: High temperature interfacial superconductivity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High temperature interfacial superconductivity High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting

  5. High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | DOE PAGES High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum This content will become publicly available on January 7, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum High-temperature superconductivity in ultrathin films of iron selenide deposited on strontium titanate has been attributed to various exotic mechanisms, and new experiments indicate that it may be conventional, with broader implications. Authors: Božović, Ivan [1]

  6. Particle-hole symmetry broken pseudogap in high temperature superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle-hole symmetry broken pseudogap in high temperature superconductors High-temperature (Tc) superconductivity is one of the most important topics in condensed matter physics. Despite extensive studies over more than two decades, the microscopic mechanism of high temperature superconductivity still remains elusive due to many unconventional properties that are not well understood. Among them, the most mysterious behavior of high-Tc superconductor is the nature of so called

  7. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  8. High Temperature Falling Particle Receiver | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_ho.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver - FY13 Q2 High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver - FY13 Q3 High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver

  9. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thiesen, Todd J.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the continuous high temperature measurement of materials in vessels lined with rammed or cast refractory materials. A refractory housing member is integral with the refractory lining of the vessel and contains a plurality of high temperature sensing means, such as thermocouples. A face of the housing is flush with the refractory lining and contacts the high temperature material contained in the vessel. Continuous temperature measurement is achieved by a means which is coupled to the thermocouples for indicating the temperature.

  10. 2006 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 6 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2006 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2006 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. September 14, 2006, San Francisco, California Agenda Minutes Discussion Overview, James Fenton, University of Central Florida Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications, Tom Greszler, GM Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte

  11. 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 7 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2007 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. October 10, 2007, Washington, D.C. This meeting was held in conjunction with the Electrochemical Society's fall meeting. Meeting Agenda Meeting Minutes Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Techniques, Jin Wang, Argonne National Laboratory

  12. 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 9 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View information from meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group held in 2009. November 16, 2009, Palm Springs, California This meeting was held in conjunction with the Fuel Cell Seminar. Minutes U.S. Fuel Cell Council: The Voice of the Fuel Cell Industry Membrane Requirements for Back-up Power Applications, Michael Hicks, IdaTech GenSys Blue: Fuel

  13. 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 10 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View information from meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group held in 2010. October 14, 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada Minutes Continuum Modeling of Membrane Properties, Ahmet Kusoglu and Adam Z. Weber, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Some Durability Considerations for Proton Exchange Membranes, Steven Hamrock, 3M Fuel Cell Components Program

  14. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  15. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures ...

  16. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery ...

  17. High-Temperature Downhole Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Albuquerque, NM 941,000 941,000 Feasibility and Design for a High-Temperature Downhole Tool Tennessee Oak Ridge National...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Temperature Materials for High Efficiency Engines Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and ...

  19. Project Profile: Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems Project Profile: Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems Savannah River ...

  20. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Dr. Owen Evans 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; COMPETITION; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; MARKET;...

  1. Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing Summary A new method of growing high-temperature superconductors controls hydrogen fluoride gas pressure and creates larger, more uniform crystal structures in...

  2. Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing Materials and Process Design ... Case hardening would enable major productivity gains in the forging, forming, and die ...

  3. High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Benchmarking of Competitive Technologies High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit

  4. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and ... applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with ...

  5. Seeing Stripes: Competition and Complexity in High-Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seeing Stripes: Competition and Complexity in High-Temperature Superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Seeing Stripes: Competition and Complexity in...

  6. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound...

  7. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems 2009 ...

  8. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  9. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, ... Programme 7 and additional activities in Germany Standardization of Transport Properties ...

  10. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    include high-temperature drive system materials, journal and thrust bearings, and corrosion and erosion-resistant lifting pump components. Finally, in Phase 3, the overall...

  11. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (LNT) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

  12. Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature Electrochemical MC&A ... Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  13. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  14. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  15. Project Profile: High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers Project Profile: High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers Sandia National ...

  16. Carbon Capture Turned Upside Down: High-Temperature Adsorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture Turned Upside Down: High-Temperature Adsorption & Low-Temperature Desorption (HALD) Previous Next List Joos, Lennart; Lejaeghere, Kurt; Huck, Johanna M.; Van...

  17. Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discusses: (1) Core and Fuel Analysis; (2) Spent Fuel Management; (3) Fuel Cycle Integration of the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor); (4) TRU (transuranic elements) ...

  18. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) ...

  19. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to build an efficient, microchannel-based waste heat recuperator for a high-temperature fuel cell system.

  20. Feasibility and Design Studies for a High Temperature Downhole Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Perform feasibility and design studies for a high temperature downhole tool; which uses nuclear techniques for characterization purposes; using measurements and modeling/simulation.

  1. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery ... for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Skutterudite ...

  2. A potential Rosetta Stone of high temperature superconductivity...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    for the high temperature superconductivity. Summary Superconductivity enables the flow of electricity without any loss of energy, but this extremely-low temperature...

  3. Carbocation Stability in H-ZSM5 at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, Glen A.; Cheng, Lei; Bu, Lintao; Kim, Seonah; Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2015-10-26

    Zeolites are common catalysts for multiple industrial applications, including alcohol dehydration to produce olefins, and given their commercial importance, reaction mechanisms in zeolites have long been proposed and studied. Some proposed reaction mechanisms for alcohol dehydration exhibit noncyclic carbocation intermediates or transition states that resemble carbocations, and several previous studies suggest that the tert-butyl cation is the only noncyclic cation more stable than the corresponding chemisorbed species with the hydrocarbon bound to the framework oxygen (i.e., an alkoxide). To determine if carbocations can exist at high temperatures in zeolites, where these catalysts are finding new applications for biomass vapor-phase upgrading (~500 C), the stability of carbocations and the corresponding alkoxides were calculated with two ONIOM embedding methods (M06-2X/6-311G(d,p):M06-2X/3-21G) and (PBE-D3/6-311G(d,p):PBE-D3/3-21G) and plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) using the PBE functional corrected with entropic and TkatchenkoScheffler van der Waals corrections. Additionally, the embedding methods tested are unreliable at finding minima for primary carbocations, and only secondary or higher carbocations can be described with embedding methods consistent with the periodic DFT results. The relative energy between the carbocations and alkoxides differs significantly between the embedding and the periodic DFT methods. The difference is between ~0.23 and 14.30 kcal/mol depending on the molecule, the model, and the functional chosen for the embedding method. At high temperatures, the pw-DFT calculations predict that the allyl, isopropyl, and sec-butyl cations exhibit negligible populations while acetyl and tert-butyl cations exhibit significant populations (>10%). Furthermore, the periodic DFT results indicate that mechanisms including secondary and tertiary carbocations intermediates or carbocations stabilized by adjacent oxygen or double bonds are possible at high temperatures relevant to some industrial uses of zeolite catalysts, although as the minority species in most cases.

  4. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal

  5. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  6. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  7. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  8. Advancing the technology base for high-temperature membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.; Snow, R.C. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses the major issues confronting the implementation of high-temperature membranes for separations and catalysis. We are pursuing high-temperature membrane systems that can have a large impact for DOE and be industrially relevant. A major obstacle for increased use of membranes is that most applications require the membrane material to withstand temperatures above those acceptable for polymer-based systems. Advances made by this project have helped industry and DOE move toward high-temperature membrane applications to improve overall energy efficiency.

  9. 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 8 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View information from meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group held in 2008. October 16, 2008, Honolulu, Hawaii This meeting was held in conjunction with the Pacific Rim Meeting on Electrochemical and Solid-State Science (PRIME). Meeting Agenda Minutes SEC's MEA Test Protocol, M.P. Rodgers, B. Li, P. Choi, D. Slattery, L. Bonville, H.R. Kunz, J.M.

  10. Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:...

  11. High-temperature charge and thermal transport properties of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport properties of the n -type thermoelectric material PbSe Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-temperature charge and thermal transport properties of the n ...

  12. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States Abstract...

  13. High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouple (HTIR-TC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    INL researchers have created a new thermocouple that can resist high temperature and radiation. This device will improve safety and reduce costs associated with unit failures. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  14. Enhanced Superconducting Gaps in Trilayer High-Temperature Bi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...-Temperature Bi (2) Sr (2) Ca (2) Cu (3) O (10+delta) Cuprate Superconductor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Superconducting Gaps in Trilayer High-Temperature ...

  15. High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouple (HTIR-TC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    INL researchers have created a new thermocouple that can resist high temperature and radiation. This device will improve safety and reduce costs associated with unit failures. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  16. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1984-01-01

    High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

  17. AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Authors: Landa, A ...

  18. AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM You are ...

  19. Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermoelectric power generation | Energy Frontier Research Centers Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:

  20. The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite The pressure evolution of bassanite (CaSOsub 4 centerdot 12 Hsub 2O) was ...

  1. Cryogenic deformation of high temperature superconductive composite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Peter R.; Michels, William; Bingert, John F.

    2001-01-01

    An improvement in a process of preparing a composite high temperature oxide superconductive wire is provided and involves conducting at least one cross-sectional reduction step in the processing preparation of the wire at sub-ambient temperatures.

  2. High Temperature Superconducting Reciprocating Magnetic Separator Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Maguire

    2008-06-05

    In 2001, under DOE's Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI), E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Dupont) was awarded a cost-share contract to build a fully functional full-scale model high temperature superconducting reciprocating magnet unit specifically designed for the koalin clay industry. After competitive bidding, American Superconductor (AMSC) was selected to provide the coil for the magnet. Dupont performed the statement of work until September 2004, when it stopped work, with the concurrence of DOE, due to lack of federal funds. DOE had paid all invoices to that point, and Dupont had provided all cost share. At this same time, Dupont determined that this program did not fit with its corporate strategies and notified DOE that it was not interesting in resuming the program when funding became available. AMSC expressed interest in assuming performance of the Agreement to Dupont and DOE, and in March 2005, this project was transferred to AMSC by DOE amendment to the original contract and Novation Agreement between AMSC and Dupont. Design drawings and some hardware components and subassemblies were transferred to AMSC. However, no funding was obligated by DOE and AMSC never performed work on the project. This report contains a summary of the work performed by Dupont up to the September 04 timeframe.

  3. Rare earth chalcogenides for use as high temperature thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michiels, J.

    1996-01-02

    In the first part of the thesis, the electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall effect were measured in X{sub y}(Y{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-y} (X = Cu, B, or Al), for y = 0.05 (Cu, B) or 0.025-0.075 for Al, in order to determine their potential as high- temperature (HT)(300-1000 C) thermoelectrics. Results indicate that Cu, B, Al- doped Y{sub 2}S{sub 3} are not useful as HT thermoelectrics. In the second part, phase stability of {gamma}-cubic LaSe{sub 1.47-1.48} and NdSe{sub 1.47} was measured periodically during annealing at 800 or 1000 C for the same purpose. In the Nd selenide, {beta} phase increased with time, while the Nd selenide showed no sign of this second phase. It is concluded that the La selenide is not promising for use as HT thermoelectric due to the {gamma}-to-{beta} transformation, whereas the Nd selenide is promising.

  4. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Kenneth R.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  5. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, K.R.

    1983-06-06

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

  6. DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

    2010-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INLs test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

  7. DOE Science Showcase - Understanding High-Temperature Superconductors |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Understanding High-Temperature Superconductors Credit: DOE Scientists have long worked to understand one of the great mysteries of modern physics - the origin and behavior of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that are uniquely capable of transmitting electricity with zero loss when chilled to subzero temperatures. For decades there have been competing theories and misunderstandings of how HTS materials actually work

  8. Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids With the advent of coupled chemical/hydrodynamic reactive flow models for high explosives, understanding detonation chemistry is of increasing importance to DNT. The accuracy of first principles detonation codes, such as CHEETAH, are dependent on an

  9. High Temperature Dynamics Strain Hardening Behavior in Stainless Steels and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nickel Alloys (Conference) | SciTech Connect High Temperature Dynamics Strain Hardening Behavior in Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Temperature Dynamics Strain Hardening Behavior in Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys Authors: Yu, Xinghua [1] ; Qiao, Dongxiao [1] ; Feng, Zhili [1] ; Crooker, Paul [2] ; Wang, Yanli [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1159430

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    boilers and furnaces. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning

  11. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Wednesday, 30 November 2011 00:00 Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally

  12. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheet, 2014 | Department of Energy Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Oregon State University Materials Institute, the Microproducts Breakthrough Institute, and the Oregon Nanoscience and Materials Institute, developed an efficient, microchannel-based waste heat recuperator

  13. Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Applications (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature Applications This "Blue Sky" project was directed at exploring the opportunities that would be gained by developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys based on the Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloy system. A

  14. High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60°C-80°C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel cell stacks at higher temperatures (120°C for transportation and 150°C for stationary

  15. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wells | Department of Energy High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells PDF icon fabian_ctd_ zonal_isolation_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

  16. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Device Development | Department of Energy Presentation given at the 2011 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric metrology. PDF icon konig.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within

  17. 18th Topical Conference High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (HTPD) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab May 16, 2010, 9:00am to May 20, 2010, 5:00pm Conference Wildwood, New Jersey 18th Topical Conference High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (HTPD) The 18th Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics will be held May 16-20, 2010 in Wildwood, New Jersey. This biennial conference brings together plasma physicists from a variety of fields including magnetic confinement fusion, inertial confinement fusion, space plasmas, astrophysics, and industrial

  18. Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Using magnetic fields to understand high-temperature superconductivity The eventual goal of the research would be to create a superconductor that operates at room temperature and needs no cooling at all May 1, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Brad Ramshaw conducts an experiment at the

  19. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG) those for a 530-watt BiTe TEG; design and construction of a 100-watt high temperature TEG currently in fabrication. PDF icon deer08_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Development of a Scalable 10% Efficient

  20. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace026_peden_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials

  1. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  3. Non-graphite crucible for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material. The multi-piece crucible is contained in a thermal can assembly of a high temperature induction furnace during a high temperature melt-casting operation. One embodiment of the multi-piece crucible comprises a tubular member having a vertical slot filled with a ceramic sealing material to provide expansion of the tubular member without cracking during the high temperature melt-casting operation.

  4. Non-graphite crucible for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1996-01-09

    A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material. The multi-piece crucible is contained in a thermal can assembly of a high temperature induction furnace during a high temperature melt-casting operation. One embodiment of the multi-piece crucible comprises a tubular member having a vertical slot filled with a ceramic sealing material to provide expansion of the tubular member without cracking during the high temperature melt-casting operation. 9 figs.

  5. Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, K

    2013-09-30

    At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys unsuitable for application as hydrogen separation membranes in coal fire systems.

  6. A High Temperature Hermetic Primer and a Variable Spring Tester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begeal, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    Percussion primers are used at Sandia to ignite energetic components such as pyrotechnic actuators and thermal batteries. This report describes a High Temperature Hermetic Primer (HTHP) that was developed to replace a previous G16 Percussion Primer Subassembly (Gl6PPS). The ignition mix in these primers is the same as in the discontinued Remington 44G16 (KC1O{sub 3}, SbS{sub 3}, and Ca{sub 2}Si). The HTHP has nearly the same sensitivity as the 44G16 and a significantly lower sensitivity than the G16PPS. In parallel with the HTHP development, we also designed a Variable Spring Tester (VST) to determine percussion primer ignition sensitivity with firing pins that have the same mass as those used in field applications. The tester is capable of accelerating firing pins over a velocity range of 100 to 600 inches per second for pins weighing up to 6 grams. The desired impulse can be preselected with an accuracy of better than {plus_minus}1%. The actual impulse is measured on every shot. The VST was characterized using the WW42Cl primer, as well as with the G16PPS and the HTHP. Compared to data from conventional ball drop testers, we found that ignition sensitivities were lower and there was less scatter in the sensitivity data. Our experiments indicate that ignition sensitivity is not strictly energy dependent, but also depends on the rate of deposition, or firing pin velocity in this case. Development results for the HTHP and Variable Spring Tester are discussed and design details are shown.

  7. Thermocouples For High Temperature In-Pile Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe

    2005-11-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding and structural materials. Data are needed to characeterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, oxidizing and radiation conditions. To obtain this data, robust instrumentation is needed htat can survive proposed test conditions. Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project was intiated to develop specialized thermocouples for high temperature in-pile applications (see Rempe and Wilkins, 2005). This paper summarizes efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate these specialized thermocouples.

  8. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted a number of pumping and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. These tests consisted of injecting fresh water at controlled rates up to 12 BPM (32 {ell}/s) and surface pressures up to

  9. Toward Oxide Scale Behavior Management At High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deltombe, R.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-17

    Oxide scales grow freely on bare metallic surface under environmental conditions such as high temperature and oxygen. These act as thermal and mechanical shields, especially during high hot forming processes (>1000 deg. C). But product quality can be impacted by these oxide scales due to scale remaining on product or sticking on tools. Thus the TEMPO laboratory has created an original methodology in order to characterize oxide scale under high temperature, pressure and strain gradients. An experimental device has been developed. The final purpose of this work is to understand the scale behavior as a function of temperature, reduction ratio and steel composition.

  10. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  11. Safeguards Guidance for Prismatic Fueled High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5) August 2012 Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) with Prismatic Fuel INL/CON-12-26130 Revision 0 Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Prismatic Fuel Philip Casey Durst (INL Consultant) August 2012 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes

  12. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  13. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, the worlds smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700C capability, UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  14. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, Gene H. (Downers Grove, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  15. Organic Flash Cycles for Intermediate and High Temperature Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reclamation - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Energy Storage Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Organic Flash Cycles for Intermediate and High Temperature Waste Reclamation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (682 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at Berkeley Lab

  16. Long Duration Performance of High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Joy L; Knudson, D. L.; Condie, K. G.; Wilkins, S. C.

    2007-05-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding, and structural materials. Data are needed to characterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. However, traditional methods for measuring temperature inpile degrade at temperatures above 1100 ºC. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed and evaluated the performance of a high temperature irradiation-resistant thermocouple that contains alloys of molybdenum and niobium. To verify the performance of INL’s recommended thermocouple design, a series of high temperature (from 1200 to 1800 ºC) long duration (up to six months) tests has been initiated. This paper summarizes results from the tests that have been completed. Data are presented from 4000 hour tests conducted at 1200 and 1400 ºC that demonstrate the stability of this thermocouple (less than 2% drift). In addition, post test metallographic examinations are discussed which confirm the compatibility of thermocouple materials throughout these long duration, high temperature tests.

  17. High Temperature coatings based on {beta}-NiAI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severs, Kevin

    2012-07-10

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB{sub 2} composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  18. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy A low temperature TEG has been built and tested providing over 500 watts electric power at a ∆T of 2000C PDF icon deer09_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program

  19. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace026_peden_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials

  20. HALLIBURTON SPERRY-SUN DOE HIGH TEMPERATURE LWD PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Spross

    2005-03-15

    The objective of this project was to build a high temperature, cost-effective, logging while drilling (HT-LWD) system with the ability to operate at 175 C with more than 100 hours mean time between failures (MTBF). Such a commercial real-time formation evaluation (FE) system would help operators to drill and produce hydrocarbon resources from moderately deep, hot reservoirs which otherwise might be uneconomic to drill. The project plan was to combine the existing Sperry-Sun high temperature directional and gamma logging system with lower temperature FE sensors which were upgraded to higher temperature operation as part of the project. The project was to be completed in two phases. Phase I included the development of the HT system, building two complete systems, demonstrating operational capability at 175 C and survivability at 200 C in the laboratory, and successfully testing the system in two low temperature field tests. Phase II was to test the system in a well with a bottom hole temperature of 175 C. The high temperature FE sensors developed as part of this project include gamma ray (DGR), resistivity (EWR-Phase 4), neutron (CTN), and density (SLD). The existing high temperature pulser and telemetry system was upgraded to accommodate the data and bandwidth requirements of the additional sensors. Environmental and lifetime testing of system components and modules indicates that system life and reliability goals will be substantially exceeded. The system has performed well in domestic and international high temperature wells (to 175 C). In addition to the sensor modules specified in the project contract, Sperry has now upgraded other system components to higher temperature as well. These include a LWD sonic sensor (BAT), pressure while drilling sensor (PWD), and a more powerful central system controller (CIM).

  1. Dynamic high-temperature characterization of an iridium alloy in tension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Jin, Helena; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bignell, John; Ulrich, G. B.; George, E. P.

    2015-09-01

    Iridium alloys have been utilized as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications, due to their superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties, including failure response at high strain rates and elevated temperatures of the iridium alloys need to be characterized to better understand high-speed impacts at elevated temperatures. A DOP-26 iridium alloy has been dynamically characterized in compression at elevated temperatures with high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques. However, the dynamic high-temperature compression tests were not able to provide sufficient dynamic high-temperature failure information of the iridium alloy. In this study, we modified current room-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques for obtaining dynamic tensile stress-strain curves of the DOP-26 iridium alloy at two different strain rates (~1000 and ~3000 s-1) and temperatures (~750°C and ~1030°C). The effects of strain rate and temperature on the tensile stress-strain response of the iridium alloy were determined. The DOP-26 iridium alloy exhibited high ductility in stress-strain response that strongly depended on both strain rate and temperature.

  2. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchell, Timothy D; McDuffee, Joel Lee; Thoms, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density with increasing volume. The graphite-filler particle size was noted to be influential in the volume dependency data, with finer grained graphites showing the least specimen volume/diameter effect. Here the volume dependency trends are discussed in terms of the graphite s filler-particle size and texture.

  3. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  4. Challenges in the Development of High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Carl Stoots

    2013-10-01

    Advanced reactor designs offer potentially significant improvements over currently operating light water reactors including improved fuel utilization, increased efficiency, higher temperature operation (enabling a new suite of non-electric industrial process heat applications), and increased safety. As with most technologies, these potential performance improvements come with a variety of challenges to bringing advanced designs to the marketplace. There are technical challenges in material selection and thermal hydraulic and power conversion design that arise particularly for higher temperature, long life operation (possibly >60 years). The process of licensing a new reactor design is also daunting, requiring significant data collection for model verification and validation to provide confidence in safety margins associated with operating a new reactor design under normal and off-normal conditions. This paper focuses on the key technical challenges associated with two proposed advanced reactor concepts: the helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the molten salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR).

  5. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Smith, Jeffrey D; O'Hara, Kelley; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new application techniques and systems were developed as part of this project to optimize the installation of this new family of refractory materials to maximize the properties of installed linings and to facilitate nuances such as hot installation and repair. Under this project, seven new shotcrete materials were developed for both primary and repair applications in aluminum, black liquor, coal gasification, and lime kiln environments. Developed materials were based on alumino-silicate, magnesia, and spinel forming systems. One of the developed materials was an insulating shotcrete to be used behind the high conductivity spinel linings developed under this project. Fundamental research work was carried out at MS&T throughout the life of the project to provide support for the development and production of the experimental refractory materials being developed. Work was also ongoing at ORNL and MS&T through the duration of the project on the measurement and characterization of key refractory properties as identified during year one of the project. Both materials currently being used in the industrial processes as identified and supplied by the industrial partners of this project and new materials being provided and developed by MINTEQ were evaluated as necessary. Additionally, energy savings estimates based on measured properties of the experimentally developed refractory systems from this project were made at MINTEQ to validate the energy savings estimates originally proposed for the project. As another part of the project, on-line inspection and hot repair techniques were considered. It was determined that although repair materials were successfully developed under this project for aluminum, black liquor, and coal gasification systems which enable hot repair, there was only minor interest from industry in implementing these materials. On-line inspection techniques were also identified under this project which are currently used in the steel industry, but implementation of these techniques in applications such as black liquor and coal gasification where higher temperatures and tighter access clearances exist proved difficult due to cost considerations. Therefore, on-line inspection was not further pursued under this project. Information from data collected during this and previous DOE projects was inputted into a refractory database housed at a public site (http://extwebapps.ornl.gov/crpd/Default.aspx). This database was initially populated with over twenty five refractory systems. Industrial trials of the insulating shotcrete (INSULSHOT FH) and the material for use in aluminum rotary furnaces (ROTOSHOT AL) developed under this project were performed validating the commercial potential of these materials. Additionally, the magnesia-rich spinel formulation (FAST FIRE MG-SP SHOT) for use in black liquor and lime kiln/cement applications was commercially released by MINTEQ. Industrial trials were monitored through the end of the project...

  6. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first

  7. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first

  8. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  9. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first

  10. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first

  11. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first

  12. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first

  13. Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first

  14. Cryocooler applications for high-temperature superconductor magnetic bearings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, R. C.

    1998-05-22

    The efficiency and stability of rotational magnetic suspension systems are enhanced by the use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings. Fundamental aspects of the HTS magnetic bearings and rotational magnetic suspension are presented. HTS cooling can be by liquid cryogen bath immersion or by direct conduction, and thus there are various applications and integration issues for cryocoolers. Among the numerous cryocooler aspects to be considered are installation; operating temperature; losses; and vacuum pumping.

  15. High Temperature Materials Overview Richard Wright Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Temperature Materials Overview Richard Wright Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies September 17, 2015 Objectives  Provide Technology Development to Support Future Design and Deployment of Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors: - Pressure Vessel - Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) - Support Codes and Standards Activities for SiC/SiC composites and Materials Handbook  Program Goals - Alloy 617 Code Case Submittal for ASME approval by FY15 allowing

  16. Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights October 2010 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect October 2010 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights October 2010 The DB Program monthly highlights report for September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/252, was distributed to program participants by email on October 26. This report discusses: (1) Core and Fuel Analysis; (2) Spent Fuel Management; (3)

  17. Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights September 2010 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect September 2010 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights September 2010 The DB Program monthly highlights report for August 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/184, was distributed to program participants by email on September 17. This report discusses: (1) Core and Fuel Analysis - (a) Core Design

  18. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite; Chu, Cha Y.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  19. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  20. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  1. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  2. Glass Capacitor for High-Temperature Applications - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Glass Capacitor for High-Temperature Applications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTo meet the demand for smaller, lighter capacitors that have high energy densities, an ORNL researcher developed a capacitor made of glass rods that is constructed like insulated wire. This device can be used for power factor correction, high-voltage capacitors, power electronic

  3. Current status of the advanced high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, D. E.; Iias, D.; Quails, A. L.; Peretz, F. J.; Varma, V. K.; Bradley, E. C.; Cisneros, A. T.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently under development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR design option exploration is a multidisciplinary design effort that combines core neutronic and fuel configuration evaluation with structural, thermal, and hydraulic analysis to produce a reactor and vessel concept and place it within a power generation station. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity, as key technologies require further development and a logically complete integrated design has not been finalized. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. (authors)

  4. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: ? Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments ? Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments ? Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics ? Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature ? Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: ? FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields ? Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) ? Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher temperature operation ? Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/?m. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200C and non-hermetic packages at 250C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  5. Computational and Experimental Development of Novel High Temperature Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, M.J.; Ray, P.K.; and Akinc, M.

    2010-06-29

    The work done in this paper is based on our earlier work on developing an extended Miedema model and then using it to downselect potential alloy systems. Our approach is to closely couple the semi-empirical methodologies to more accurate ab initio methods to dentify the best candidates for ternary alloying additions. The architectural framework for our material's design is a refractory base metal with a high temperature intermetallic which provides both high temperature creep strength and a source of oxidatively stable elements. Potential refractory base metals are groups IIIA, IVA and VA. For Fossil applications, Ni-Al appears to be the best choice to provide the source of oxidatively stable elements but this system requires a 'boost' in melting temperatures to be a viable candidate in the ultra-high temperature regime (> 1200C). Some late transition metals and noble elements are known to increase the melting temperature of Ni-Al phases. Such an approach suggested that a Mo-Ni-Al system would be a good base alloy system that could be further improved upon by dding Platinum group metals (PGMs). In this paper, we demonstrate the variety of microstructures that can be synthesized for the base alloy system, its oxidation behavior as well as the oxidation behavior of the PGM substituted oxidation resistant B2 NiAl phase.

  6. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Crepeau; J. L. Rempe; J. E. Daw; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; S. C. Wilkins

    2008-03-01

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped lybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them to become familiar with the techniques and equipment used for specialized high temperature instrumentation fabrication and evaluation and to author/coauthor several key conference papers and journal articles.

  7. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.C. Crepeau; J.L. Rempe; J.E. Daw; D.L. Knudson: K.G. Condie; S.C. Wilkins

    2008-03-31

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped molybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them to become familiar with the techniques and equipment used for specialized high temperature instrumentation fabrication and evaluation and to author/coauthor several key conference papers and journal articles.

  8. CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  9. A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on conductivity testing in high temperature membranes given by Jim Boncella of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting in October 2005.

  10. Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole Rechargeable Energy Storage Device Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole Rechargeable Energy ...

  11. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on maximizing the return of high temperature PEM membrane research was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  12. THE HIGH TEMPERATURE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF LI2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessinger, G.; Missimer, D.

    2009-11-13

    The ultimate purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a Li-Ca mixture for direct reduction of actinide oxides to actinide metals at temperatures below 1500 C. For such a process to be successful, the products of the reduction reaction, actinide metals, Li{sub 2}O, and CaO, must all be liquid at the reaction temperature so the resulting actinide metal can coalesce and be recovered as a monolith. Since the established melting temperature of Li{sub 2}O is in the range 1427-1700 C and the melting temperature of CaO is 2654 C, the Li{sub 2}O-CaO (lithium oxidecalcium oxide) pseudo-binary system was investigated in an attempt to identify the presence of low-melting eutectic compositions. The results of our investigation indicate that there is no evidence of ternary Li-Ca-O phases or solutions melting below 1200 C. In the 1200-1500 C range utilizing MgO crucibles, there is some evidence for the formation of a ternary phase; however, it was not possible to determine the phase composition. The results of experiments performed with ZrO{sub 2} crucibles in the same temperature range did not show the formation of the possible ternary phase seen in the earlier experiment involving MgO crucibles, so it was not possible to confirm the possibility that a ternary Li-Ca-O or Li-Mg-O phase was formed. It appears that the Li{sub 2}O-CaO materials reacted, to some extent, with all of the container materials, alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnesia (MgO), zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}), and 95% Pt-5% Au; however, to clarify the situation additional experiments are required. In addition to the primary purpose of this study, the results of this investigation led to the conclusions that: (1) The melting temperature of Li{sub 2}O may be as low as 1250 C, which is considerably lower than the previously published values in the range 1427-1700 C; (2) Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) vaporizes congruently; (3) Lithium carbonate and Li2O react with 95% Pt-5% Au, and also reacts with pure Pt; and (4) It is likely that some or all of the past high temperature phase behavior and vaporization experiments involving Li{sub 2}O(s) at temperatures above 1250 C have actually involved Li{sub 2}O(l). If these past measurements were actually measurements performed on Li{sub 2}O(l) instead of the solid, the thermochemical data for phases and species in the Li-O system will require reevaluation.

  13. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celik, Ismail B.

    2014-10-30

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that the extent of steam and current load accelerate the degradation caused by PH3. A unique filtering technique has been proposed to reduce the effect of PH3. In addition, various cell materials have been proposed to reduce the rate of degradation caused by H2S. Furthermore, a three-dimensional, transient multi-physics model has been formulated to describe primary transport processes and electro-chemical reactions occurring within the cell. This model has been validated using data gathered from accelerated tests. The validated model then has been used to study the degradation rates under a range of operating conditions and impurity levels. This has resulted in a procedure that uses both experiments and simulations to predict the life-time of a cell operating with syngas with known concentration of trace impurities. Finally all the experience and knowledge gained has been disseminated via 39 journal papers and 43 presentations/posters/conference papers.

  14. High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance of of Sulfonated Sulfonated Poly(phenylene Poly(phenylene) Proton) Proton Conducting Conducting Polymers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Sandia National Laboratories to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii October 8, 2004.

  15. Thermal Hydraulics of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh; Eung Kim; Richard Schultz; Mike Patterson; Davie Petti

    2009-10-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core will be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during reactor core-accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, perform research and development (R&D) that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. This paper presents current R&D work that addresses fundamental thermal hydraulics issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs.

  16. High Temperature Transducers for Online Monitoring of Microstructure Evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lissenden, Cliff; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2015-03-30

    A critical technology gap exists relative to online condition monitoring (CM) of advanced nuclear plant components for damage accumulation; there are not capable sensors and infrastructure available for the high temperature environment. The sensory system, monitoring methodology, data acquisition, and damage characterization algorithm that comprise a CM system are investigated here. Thus this work supports the DOE mission to develop a fundamental understanding of advanced sensors to improve physical measurement accuracy and reduce uncertainty. The research involves a concept viability assessment, a detailed technology gap analysis, and a technology development roadmap.

  17. Control for monitoring thickness of high temperature refractory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caines, M.J.

    1982-11-23

    This invention teaches an improved monitoring device for detecting the changes in thickness of high-temperature refractory, the device consists of a probe having at least two electrically conductive generally parallel elements separated by a dielectric material. The probe is implanted or embedded directly in the refractory and is elongated to extend in line with the refractory thickness to be measured. Electrical inputs to the conductive elements provide that either or both the electrical conductance or capacitance can be found, so that charges over lapsed time periods can be compared in order to detect changes in the thickness of the refractory.

  18. Next-generation nuclear fuel withstands high-temperature accident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY IDAHO FALLS, IDAHO, 83403 For Immediate Release: Sept. 25, 2013 Media Contacts: Teri Ehresman, 208-526-7785 teri.ehresman@inl.gov Bill Cabage (ORNL), 865-574-4399, cabagewh@ornl.gov Next-generation nuclear fuel withstands high-temperature accident conditions IDAHO FALLS - A safer and more efficient nuclear fuel is on the horizon. A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  19. Nearly Perfect Fluidity in a High Temperature Superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rameau, J. D.; Reber, T. J.; Yang, H. -B.; Akhanjee, S.; Gu, G. D.; Johnson, P. D.; Campbell, S.

    2014-10-13

    Perfect fluids are characterized as having the smallest ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s, consistent with quantum uncertainty and causality. So far, nearly perfect fluids have only been observed in the quark-gluon plasma and in unitary atomic Fermi gases, exotic systems that are amongst the hottest and coldest objects in the known universe, respectively. We use angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the temperature dependence of an electronic analog of η/s in an optimally doped cuprate high-temperature superconductor, finding it too is a nearly perfect fluid around, and above, its superconducting transition temperature Tc.

  20. Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kasai, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuya

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating temperature and pressure, and the air to product O{sub 2} ratio. In this study, the maximum system efficiency is 56.3%. (authors)

  1. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  2. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1995-05-02

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

  3. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  4. Narrowband high temperature superconducting receiver for low frequency radio waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagor, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An underground communicating device has a low-noise SQUID using high temperature superconductor components connected to detect a modulated external magnetic flux for outputting a voltage signal spectrum that is related to the varying magnetic flux. A narrow bandwidth filter may be used to select a portion of the voltage signal spectrum that is relatively free of power line noise to output a relatively low noise output signal when operating in a portion of the electromagnetic spectra where such power line noise exists. A demodulator outputs a communication signal, which may be an FM signal, indicative of a modulation on the modulated external magnetic flux.

  5. Digital pressure transducer for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karplus, Henry H. B.

    1981-01-01

    A digital pressure sensor for measuring fluid pressures at relatively high temperatures includes an electrically conducting fiber coupled to the fluid by a force disc that causes tension in the fiber to be a function of fluid pressure. The tension causes changes in the mechanical resonant frequency of the fiber, which is caused to vibrate in a magnetic field to produce an electrical signal from a positive-feedback amplifier at the resonant frequency. A count of this frequency provides a measure of the fluid pressure.

  6. Nearly Perfect Fluidity in a High Temperature Superconductor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rameau, J. D.; Reber, T. J.; Yang, H. -B.; Akhanjee, S.; Gu, G. D.; Johnson, P. D.; Campbell, S.

    2014-10-13

    Perfect fluids are characterized as having the smallest ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s, consistent with quantum uncertainty and causality. So far, nearly perfect fluids have only been observed in the quark-gluon plasma and in unitary atomic Fermi gases, exotic systems that are amongst the hottest and coldest objects in the known universe, respectively. We use angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the temperature dependence of an electronic analog of η/s in an optimally doped cuprate high-temperature superconductor, finding it too is a nearly perfect fluid around, and above, its superconducting transition temperature Tc.

  7. Silver-bearing, high-temperature, superconducting (HTS) paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrando, W.A.

    1990-02-15

    A substantial set of device applications awaits development of a workable, durable, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) paint. Such a paint should be truly superconducting with its critical temperature T sub c>77K. For most of these applications, a high critical current (J sub c) is not required, although probably desirable. A process is described which can be used to produce silver-bearing HTS paint coatings on many engineering materials. Preliminary tests have shown good adherence to several ceramics and the ability to meet the superconducting criteria. Moreover, the coatings withstand multiple thermal cycling and stability under laboratory ambient storage conditions for periods of at least several months.

  8. Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T.

    1993-12-01

    This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

  9. Digital pressure transducer for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    A digital pressure sensor for measuring fluid pressures at relatively high temperatures includes an electrically conducting fiber coupled to the fluid by a force disc that causes tension in the fiber to be a function of fluid pressure. The tension causes changes in the mechanical resonant frequency of the fiber, which is caused to vibrate in a magnetic field to produce an electrical signal from a positive-feedback amplifier at the resonant frequency. A count of this frequency provides a measure of the fluid pressure.

  10. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O'Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  11. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas M. Lillo

    2011-04-01

    This work evaluates the suitability of iron aluminide coatings for use in high temperature fossil fuel combustion environments, such as boiler applications. The coatings are applied using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques. Iron aluminide coatings, with the nominal composition of Fe3Al, were applied to various high temperature structural materials (316 Stainless Steel, 9Cr-1Mo steel and Inconel 600) that typically lack inherent resistance to environmental degradation found in fossil fuel combustion atmospheres. Coating/substrate combinations were subjected to thermal cycling to evaluate the effect of HVOF parameters, coating thickness, substrate material and substrate surface roughness on the resistance to coating delamination and cracking. It was found that substrate surface roughness had a profound influence on the performance of a given substrate/coating system and that surface preparation techniques will need to be tailored to the specific substrate material. Also, higher particle velocity during HVOF thermal spray deposition of the iron aluminide coatings tended to result in better-performing coating/substrate systems with less delamination at the coating/substrate interface. Some combinations of HVOF parameters, coating thickness and substrate materials were found to perform extremely well even at temperatures up to 900oC. However, in some cases, substantial reactions at the interface were observed.

  12. Non-graphite crucible for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material.

  13. Non-graphite crucible for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1994-08-02

    A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material. 6 figs.

  14. SCALING OF THE SUPERFLUID DENSITY IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMES, C.C.

    2005-10-24

    A scaling relation N{sub c} {approx} 4.4{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} has been observed parallel and perpendicular to the copper-oxygen planes in the high-temperature superconductors; N{sub c} is the spectral weight and {sigma}{sub dc} is the dc conductivity just above the critical temperature T{sub c}. In addition, Nb and Pb also fall close to the this scaling line. The application of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum rule to the BCS optical properties of Nb above and below T{sub c} yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} when the normal-state scattering rate is much greater than the superconducting energy gap (1/{tau} > 2{Delta}, the ''dirty'' limit). This result implies that the high-temperature superconductors may be in the dirty limit. The superconductivity perpendicular to the planes is explained by the Josephson effect, which again yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} in the BCS formalism. The similar forms for the scaling relation in these two directions suggests that in some regime the dirty limit and the Josephson effect may be viewed as equivalent.

  15. 11th Topical conference high-temperature plasma diagnostics. Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report contains abstracts from the 11th topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics.

  16. Minutes of the October 2008 Meeting of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meeting minutes of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group from October 16, 2008, in Honolulu, Hawaii.

  17. R&D Plan for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of challenges, approaches and technical targets for HFCIT's High Temperature Membrane Working Group.

  18. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both small or medium-sized and modular by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOEs ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  19. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with advanced supercritical-water power cycles. The current design activities build upon a series of small-scale efforts over the past decade to evaluate and describe the features and technology variants of FHRs. Key prior concept evaluation reports include the SmAHTR preconceptual design report,1 the PB-AHTR preconceptual design, and the series of early phase AHTR evaluations performed from 2004 to 2006. This report provides a power plant-focused description of the current state of the AHTR. The report includes descriptions and sizes of the major heat transport and power generation components. Component configuration and sizing are based upon early phase AHTR plant thermal hydraulic models. The report also provides a top-down AHTR comparative economic analysis. A commercially available advanced supercritical water-based power cycle was selected as the baseline AHTR power generation cycle both due to its superior performance and to enable more realistic economic analysis. The AHTR system design, however, has several remaining gaps, and the plant cost estimates consequently have substantial remaining uncertainty. For example, the enriched lithium required for the primary coolant cannot currently be produced on the required scale at reasonable cost, and the necessary core structural ceramics do not currently exist in a nuclear power qualified form. The report begins with an overview of the current, early phase, design of the AHTR plant. Only a limited amount of information is included about the core and vessel as the core design and refueling options are the subject of a companion report. The general layout of an AHTR system and site showing the relationship of the major facilities is then provided. Next is a comparative evaluation of the AHTR anticipated performance and costs. Finally, the major system design efforts necessary to bring the AHTR design to a pre-conceptual level are then presented.

  20. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gougar, Hans D.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  1. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  2. Concept of an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro

    2012-06-06

    As the challenge to ensure no harmful release of radioactive materials at the accidents by deterministic approach instead to satisfy acceptance criteria or safety goal for risk by probabilistic approach, new concept of advanced reactor, an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is proposed based on the experience of the operation of the actual High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), and the design of the commercial plant (GTHTR300), utilizing the inherent safety features of the HTGR (i.e., safety features based on physical phenomena). The safety design philosophy of the inherently-safe HTGR for the safety analysis of the radiological consequences is determined as the confinement of radioactive materials is assured by only inherent safety features without engineered safety features, AC power or prompt actions by plant personnel if the design extension conditions occur. Inherent safety features to prevent the loss or degradation of the confinement function are identified. It is proposed not to apply the probabilistic approach for the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the accidents in the safety analysis because no inherent safety features fail for the mitigation of the consequences of the accidents. Consequently, there are no event sequences to harmful release of radioactive materials if the design extension conditions occur in the inherently-safe HTGR concept. The concept and future R and D items for the inherently-safe HTGR are described in this paper.

  3. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Catalyst Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Luo, Jinyong; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Kumar, Ashok; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Castagnola, Mario; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard ..

    2012-12-31

    Two primary NOx after-treatment technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringent NOx emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) 2007/2010 mandated limits, NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) and NH3 selective catalytic reduction (SCR); both are, in fact being commercialized for this application. However, in looking forward to 2015 and beyond with expected more stringent regulations, the continued viability of the NSR technology for controlling NOx emissions from lean-burn engines such as diesels will require at least two specific, significant and inter-related improvements. First, it is important to reduce system costs by, for example, minimizing the precious metal content while maintaining, even improving, performance and long-term stability. A second critical need for future NSR systems, as well as for NH3 SCR, will be significantly improved higher and lower temperature performance and stability. Furthermore, these critically needed improvements will contribute significantly to minimizing the impacts to fuel economy of incorporating these after-treatment technologies on lean-burn vehicles. To meet these objectives will require, at a minimum an improved scientific understanding of the following things: i) the various roles for the precious and coinage metals used in these catalysts; ii) the mechanisms for these various roles; iii) the effects of high temperatures on the active metal performance in their various roles; iv) mechanisms for higher temperature NOx storage performance for modified and/or alternative storage materials; v) the interactions between the precious metals and the storage materials in both optimum NOx storage performance and long term stability; vi) the sulfur adsorption and regeneration mechanisms for NOx reduction materials; vii) materials degradation mechanisms in CHA-based NH3 SCR catalysts. The objective of this CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins, Inc. is to develop a fundamental understanding of the above-listed issues. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of more realistic high temperature NSR catalysts, supplied by JM, are being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature. For this short summary, we will primarily highlight representative results from our recent studies of the stability of candidate high temperature NSR materials.

  4. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  5. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  6. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Phillip, Bradley L.

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  7. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Phillip, Bradley L.

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100.degree. C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  8. High-temperature strain cell for tomographic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacDowell, Alastair A.; Nasiatka, James; Haboub, Abdel; Ritchie, Robert O.; Bale, Hrishikesh A.

    2015-06-16

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to the high temperature mechanical testing of materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing an apparatus. The apparatus may include a chamber. The chamber may comprise a top portion and a bottom portion, with the top portion and the bottom portion each joined to a window material. A first cooled fixture and a second cooled fixture may be mounted to the chamber and configured to hold the sample in the chamber. A plurality of heating lamps may be mounted to the chamber and positioned to heat the sample. The sample may be placed in the first and the second cooled fixtures. The sample may be heated to a specific temperature using the heating lamps. Radiation may be directed though the window material, the radiation thereafter interacting with the sample and exiting the chamber through the window material.

  9. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peinado, C.O.; Koutz, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics (a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant) and engineered safety features (core auxiliary cooling, relief valve, and steam generator dump systems).

  10. Theory of intertwined orders in high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Tranquada, John M.; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2015-03-26

    The electronic phase diagrams of many highly correlated systems, and in particular the cuprate high temperature superconductors, are complex, with many different phases appearing with similarsometimes identicalordering temperatures even as material properties, such as a dopant concentration, are varied over wide ranges. This complexity is sometimes referred to as competing orders. However, since the relation is intimate, and can even lead to the existence of new phases of matter such as the putative pair-density-wave, the general relation is better thought of in terms of intertwined orders. We selectively analyze some of the experiments in the cuprates which suggest that essential aspects of the physics are reflected in the intertwining of multiple ordersnot just in the nature of each order by itself. We also summarize and critique several theoretical ideas concerning the origin and implications of this complexity.

  11. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  12. Cobalt doped lanthanum chromite material suitable for high temperature use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.

    1986-12-23

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, subject to thermal cycling temperatures of between about 25 C and about 1,200 C, capable of electronic interconnection to at least one other electrochemical cell and capable of operating in an environment containing oxygen and a fuel, is made; where the cell has a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where an improved interconnect material is applied along a portion of a supporting electrode; where the interconnect is made of a chemically modified lanthanum chromite, containing cobalt as the important additive, which interconnect allows for adjustment of the thermal expansion of the interconnect material to more nearly match that of other cell components, such as zirconia electrolyte, and is stable in oxygen containing atmospheres such as air and in fuel environments. 2 figs.

  13. Flexible high-temperature pH probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielawski, John C.; Outwater, John O.; Halbfinger, George P.

    2003-04-22

    A flexible pH probe device is provided for use in hot water and other high temperature environments up to about 590.degree. F. The pH probe includes a flexible, inert tubular probe member, an oxygen anion conducting, solid state electrolyte plug located at the distal end of the tubular member, oxide powder disposed at the distal end of the tubular member; a metal wire extending along the tubular member and having a distal end in contact with the oxide powder so as to form therewith an internal reference electrode; and a compression fitting forming a pressure boundary seal around a portion of the tubular member remote from the distal end thereof. Preferably, the tubular member is made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and the solid state electrolyte plug is made of stabilized zirconia. The flexibility of the probe member enables placement of the electrode into the area of interest, including around corners, into confined areas and the like.

  14. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  15. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Kukacka, L.; Fontana, J.

    High temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10 to 30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture is described. It consists essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures thereof. About 70 to 90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, carbon black or mixtures thereof. Optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobyutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides are used to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  16. Theory of intertwined orders in high temperature superconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Tranquada, John M.; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2015-03-26

    The electronic phase diagrams of many highly correlated systems, and in particular the cuprate high temperature superconductors, are complex, with many different phases appearing with similar—sometimes identical—ordering temperatures even as material properties, such as a dopant concentration, are varied over wide ranges. This complexity is sometimes referred to as “competing orders.” However, since the relation is intimate, and can even lead to the existence of new phases of matter such as the putative “pair-density-wave,” the general relation is better thought of in terms of “intertwined orders.” We selectively analyze some of the experiments in the cuprates which suggest that essentialmore » aspects of the physics are reflected in the intertwining of multiple orders—not just in the nature of each order by itself. We also summarize and critique several theoretical ideas concerning the origin and implications of this complexity.« less

  17. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeldin, Arkady; Carciello, Neal; Kukacka, Lawrence; Fontana, Jack

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  18. Design of High Field Solenoids made of High Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartalesi, Antonio; /Pisa U.

    2010-12-01

    This thesis starts from the analytical mechanical analysis of a superconducting solenoid, loaded by self generated Lorentz forces. Also, a finite element model is proposed and verified with the analytical results. To study the anisotropic behavior of a coil made by layers of superconductor and insulation, a finite element meso-mechanic model is proposed and designed. The resulting material properties are then used in the main solenoid analysis. In parallel, design work is performed as well: an existing Insert Test Facility (ITF) is adapted and structurally verified to support a coil made of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Finally, a technological winding process was proposed and the required tooling is designed.

  19. Damping in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    2009-12-15

    Methods and apparatuses for improved damping in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems are disclosed. A superconducting element (e.g., a stator) generating a magnetic field and a magnet (e.g. a rotor) supported by the magnetic field are provided such that the superconducting element is supported relative to a ground state with damped motion substantially perpendicular to the support of the magnetic field on the magnet. Applying this, a cryostat housing the superconducting bearing may be coupled to the ground state with high damping but low radial stiffness, such that its resonant frequency is less than that of the superconducting bearing. The damping of the cryostat may be substantially transferred to the levitated magnetic rotor, thus, providing damping without affecting the rotational loss, as can be derived applying coupled harmonic oscillator theory in rotor dynamics. Thus, damping can be provided to a levitated object, without substantially affecting the rotational loss.

  20. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  1. Cobalt doped lanthanum chromite material suitable for high temperature use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, subject to thermal cycling temperatures of between about 25.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C., capable of electronic interconnection to at least one other electrochemical cell and capable of operating in an environment containing oxygen and a fuel, is made; where the cell has a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where an improved interconnect material is applied along a portion of a supporting electrode; where the interconnect is made of a chemically modified lanthanum chromite, containing cobalt as the important additive, which interconnect allows for adjustment of the thermal expansion of the interconnect material to more nearly match that of other cell components, such as zirconia electrolyte, and is stable in oxygen containing atmospheres such as air and in fuel environments.

  2. High temperature seal for joining ceramics and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maiya, P.S.; Picciolo, J.J.; Emerson, J.E.; Dusek, J.T.; Balachandran, U.

    1998-03-10

    For a combination of a membrane of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} and an Inconel alloy, a high-temperature seal is formed between the membrane and the alloy. The seal is interposed between the alloy and the membrane, and is a fritted compound of Sr oxide and boric oxide and a fritted compound of Sr, Fe and Co oxides. The fritted compound of SrFeCo{sub 0.50}O{sub x} is present in the range of from about 30 to 70 percent by weight of the total sealant material and the fritted compound of Sr oxide and boric oxide has a mole ratio of 2 moles of the Sr oxide for each mole of boric oxide. A method of sealing a ceramic to an Inconel metal alloy is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  3. High temperature seal for joining ceramics and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maiya, P. Subraya (Darien, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL); Emerson, James E. (Plainfield, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL); Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    1998-01-01

    For a combination of a membrane of SrFeCo.sub.0.5 O.sub.x and an Inconel alloy, a high-temperature seal is formed between the membrane and the alloy. The seal is interposed between the alloy and the membrane, and is a fritted compound of Sr oxide and boric oxide and a fritted compound of Sr, Fe and Co oxides. The fritted compound of SrFeCo.sub.0.50 O.sub.x is present in the range of from about 30 to 70 percent by weight of the total sealant material and the fritted compound of Sr oxide and boric oxide has a mole ratio of 2 moles of the Sr oxide for each mole of boric oxide. A method of sealing a ceramic to an Inconel metal alloy is also disclosed.

  4. The DARPA manufacturing initiative in high temperature superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, K.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a very aggressive Technology Base program in high temperature superconductivity. This program is expected to provide the basis for a specialized set of military products - passive microwave and millimeter wave devices - within the next three years. In order to get these high leverage products into military systems, a manufacturing base must be developed for HTSC components. A plan for DARPA in HTSC manufacturing is directly coupled with the ongoing DARPA materials and device oriented R and D program. In essence, this plan recommends a three phased effort: 1. Phase I (two years); Fund companies through R and D contracts for specialized HTSC components; prepare a detailed plan and develop an HTSC consortium. 2. Phase II (six years): Establish an HTSC Sematech initiative for electronic applications, including active devices. 3. Phase III (optional): Continue the HTSC Sematech with emphasis on high power applications.

  5. Supercell Depletion Studies for Prismatic High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ortensi

    2012-10-01

    The traditional two-step method of analysis is not accurate enough to represent the neutronic effects present in the prismatic high temperature reactor concept. The long range coupling of the various regions in high temperature reactors poses a set of challenges that are not seen in either LWRs or fast reactors. Unlike LWRs, which exhibit large, localized effects, the dominant effects in PMRs are, for the most part, distributed over larger regions, but with lower magnitude. The 1-D in-line treatment currently used in pebble bed reactor analysis is not sufficient because of the 2-D nature of the prismatic blocks. Considerable challenges exist in the modeling of blocks in the vicinity of reflectors, which, for current small modular reactor designs with thin annular cores, include the majority of the blocks. Additional challenges involve the treatment of burnable poisons, operational and shutdown control rods. The use of a large domain for cross section preparation provides a better representation of the neutron spectrum, enables the proper modeling of BPs and CRs, allows the calculation of generalized equivalence theory parameters, and generates a relative power distribution that can be used in compact power reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effects of the reflector, burnable poison, and operational control rods on an LEU design and to delineate an analysis approach for the Idaho National Laboratory. This work concludes that the use of supercells should capture these long-range effects in the preparation of cross sections and along with a set of triangular meshes to treat BPs, and CRs a high fidelity neutronics computation is attainable.

  6. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh; Aaron, Dick; Macpherson, John

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100 hours.

  7. Materials for high-temperature hydrogen fluorine environments. Final report, June 1976-December 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.

    1981-03-01

    A determination has been made of the stability of 35 materials under high-temperature, fluorine rich, hydrogen fluoride torch testing. Refractory materials tested included 4 borides, 3 carbides, 3 nitrides, 12 oxides, 1 oxynitride, 1 sulfide, 10 metals, and carbon (10 types). Three materials distinctly performed better than nickel: lanthanum hexaboride, calcium hexaboride, and lanthanum silicon oxynitride. Of these, lanthanum hexaboride is the best candidate tested since it has an estimated upper use temperature > 1726 K, which is above the melting point and more than 300 K above the upper use temperature of nickel.

  8. Residence time distribution studies in a multiphase reactor under high temperature and pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.; Davies, O.L.

    1987-06-01

    The residence time distribution of the slurry phase in a coal liquefaction reactor is determined experimentally under high temperature and pressure conditions using native radioactive tracers. The experimental data are fitted to several exit age distribution models, and a model is selected based on the best fit. The effect of process conditions such as recycle gas rate, coal feed rate, reactor temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on the degree of backmixing and mean residence time is studied. Gas holdup is estimated from the experimental mean residence time, the nominal residence time, and the total reactor holdup. The effect of gas superficial velocity on gas holdup is studied.

  9. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  10. Field Testing of Thermoplastic Encapsulants in High-Temperature Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Moseley, John M.; Shah, Qurat A.; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Inoue, Masanao; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Samuels, Sam L.; Vanderpan, Crystal E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently there has been increased interest in using thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules, but concerns have been raised about whether these would be mechanically stable at high temperatures in the field. This has become a significant topic of discussion in the development of IEC 61730 and IEC 61215. We constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass thin-film mock modules using different encapsulant materials, of which only two were formulated to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with thermal insulation on the back side in Mesa, Arizona, in the summer (hot-dry), and an identical module set was exposed in environmental chambers. High-precision creep measurements (±20 μm) and electrical performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials operating in the melt or rubbery state during outdoor deployment, no significant creep was seen because of their high viscosity, lower operating temperature at the edges, and/or the formation of chemical crosslinks in many of the encapsulants with age despite the absence of a crosslinking agent. Only an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant formulated without a peroxide crosslinking agent crept significantly. When the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet reduced creep further and was not detectable even for the EVA without peroxide. Because of the propensity of some polymeric materials to crosslink as they age, typical thermoplastic encapsulants would be unlikely to result in creep in the vast majority of installations.

  11. Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

    2009-06-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

  12. Overcharge tolerant high-temperature cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    In a lithium-alloy/metal sulfide high temperature electrochemical cell, cell damage caused by overcharging is avoided by providing excess lithium in a high-lithium solubility phase alloy in the negative electrode and a specified ratio maximum of the capacity of a matrix metal of the negative electrode in the working phase to the capacity of a transition metal of the positive electrode. In charging the cell, or a plurality of such cells in series and/or parallel, chemical transfer of elemental lithium from the negative electrode through the electrolyte to the positive electrode provides sufficient lithium to support an increased self-charge current to avoid anodic dissolution of the positive electrode components above a critical potential. The lithium is subsequently electrochemically transferred back to the negative electrode in an electrochemical/chemical cycle which maintains high self-discharge currents on the order of 3-15 mA/cm.sup.2 in the cell to prevent overcharging.

  13. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, or during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.

  14. Materials for the scavenging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Phillip, B.L.

    1997-12-30

    A hydrogen getter composition is described comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100 C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluoropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases. 7 figs.

  15. Materials for the scavenging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Phillip, B.L.

    1997-04-29

    A hydrogen getter composition is described comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluoropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases. 7 figs.

  16. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R.; Hale, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  17. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

    2010-10-01

    Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

  18. Segmented lasing tube for high temperature laser assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Alger, Terry W.; Finucane, Raymond G.; Hall, Jerome P.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature laser assembly capable of withstanding operating temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. is described comprising a segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube having a plurality of cylindrical ceramic lasing tube segments of the same inner and outer diameters non-rigidly joined together in axial alignment; insulation of uniform thickness surround the walls of the ceramic lasing tube; a ceramic casing, preferably of quartz, surrounding the insulation; and a fluid cooled metal jacket surrounds the ceramic casing. In a preferred embodiment, the inner surface of each of the ceramic lasing tube segments are provided with a pair of oppositely spaced grooves in the wall thereof parallel to the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube, and both of the grooves and the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube lie in a common plane, with the grooves in each ceramic lasing tube segment in circumferential alignment with the grooves in the adjoining ceramic lasing tube segments; and one or more ceramic plates, all lying in a common plane to one another and with the central axis of the segmented ceramic lasing tube, are received in the grooves to provide additional wall area in the segmented ceramic lasing tube for collision and return to ground state of metastable metal atoms within the segmented ceramic lasing tube.

  19. Screening study on high temperature energy transport systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the study described in this document is to identify the options for transporting thermal energy over long distances. The study deals specifically and exclusively with high temperature (> 400/sup 0/C(752/sup 0/F)) energy for industrial use. Energy transport is seen as a potential solution to: high unit cost of small coal and nuclear steam generators, and opposition to siting of coal or nuclear plants near populated areas. The study is of a preliminary nature but covers many options including steam, molten salts, organics, and chemical heat pipes. The development status and potential problems of these and other energy transport methods are discussed. Energy transport concepts are compared on a fundamental level based on physical properties and also are subjected to an economic study. The economic study indicated that the chemical heat pipe, under a specific set of circumstances, appeared to be the least expensive for distances greater than about 32 km (20 miles). However, if the temperature of the energy was lowered, the heat transfer salt (sodium nitrate/nitrite) system would apparently be a better economic choice for less than about 80 km (50 miles). None of the options studied appear to be more attractive than small coal-fired boilers when the transport distance is over about 64 km (40 miles). Several recommendations are made for refining the analysis.

  20. Cryogenic System for a High Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-07-12

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed.

  1. Advancing the Technology Base for High Temperature Hydrogen Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, Robert C.; Moss, Thomas S.

    1997-12-31

    High purity hydrogen is a critical component for at least two major industrial processes: 1) the refining of conventional steels and raw pig iron into low carbon steels and high purity iron used for high performance magnets in motors, generators, alternators, transformers, and etc.; and 2) refining metallurgical grade silicon to the high- purity, polycrystalline silicon used in fabricating single crystal silicon wafers for semiconductor manufacturing. In the process of producing low carbon iron products, CO and CO2 impurities prevent efficient removal of the carbon already in the raw iron. In the refining of metallurgical grade silicon, the presence of any impurity above the part-per- million level prevents the ultimate fabrication of the large scale single crystals that are essential to the semiconductor device. In a lesser magnitude role, high quality hydrogen is used in a variety of other processes, including specialty metals refining (e.g., iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, and ruthenium) and R{ampersand}D in areas such as organic synthesis and development of certain types of fuel cells. In all of these applications, a high-temperature hydrogen membrane can provide a method for achieving a very high purity level of hydrogen in a manner that is more economical and/or more rugged than existing techniques.

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Congleton, J.; Parkins, R.N.; Hemsworth, B.

    1987-01-01

    Slow strain rate stress corrosion tests have been performed on specimens cut from four separate heats of alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Material was tested in the mill annealed and thermally stabilized conditions and after various low temperature aging treatments. Only limited cracking was observed, even for tests at 340/sup 0/C, but the initiation of intergranular cracking was easier on the inner than on the outer surfaces of the tubing. Polarization data has been obtained in high temperature water and in saturated boric acid and saturated lithium hydroxide at the atmospheric boiling points, and slow strain tests were performed at controlled potentials in these environments. Again, only very short cracks formed during the slow strain rate tests which were performed at a strain rate of about 10/sup -6/ s/sup -1/. The data is discussed in terms of the probable crack tip strain rates that would exist in these tests and at other strain rates. It is argued that if cracking occurs, the main role of very low strain rate tests is to provide time for initiation and crack growth, so that cyclic loading or intermittent loading long tests are likely to be more successful in sustaining crack growth in this alloy.

  3. High Temperature Tolerant Ceramic Composites Having Porous Interphases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kriven, Waltraud M.; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2005-05-03

    In general, this invention relates to a ceramic composite exhibiting enhanced toughness and decreased brittleness, and to a process of preparing the ceramic composite. The ceramic composite comprises a first matrix that includes a first ceramic material, preferably selected from the group including alumina (Al2O3), mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2), yttrium aluminate garnet (YAG), yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), celsian (BaAl2Si2O8) and nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4). The ceramic composite also includes a porous interphase region that includes a substantially non-sinterable material. The non-sinterable material can be selected to include, for example, alumina platelets. The platelets lie in random 3-D orientation and provide a debonding mechanism, which is independent of temperature in chemically compatible matrices. The non-sinterable material induces constrained sintering of a ceramic powder resulting in permanent porosity in the interphase region. For high temperature properties, addition of a sinterable ceramic powder to the non-sinterable material provides sufficiently weak debonding interphases. The ceramic composite can be provided in a variety of forms including a laminate, a fibrous monolith, and a fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix. In the laminated systems, intimate mixing of strong versus tough microstructures were tailored by alternating various matrix-to-interphase thickness ratios to provide the bimodal laminate.

  4. Systems Engineering Provides Successful High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Park; Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes two Systems Engineering Studies completed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the High Temperature Stream Electrolysis (HTSE) process. HTSE produces hydrogen from water using nuclear power and was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integration with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The first study was a reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) analysis to identify critical areas for technology development based on available information regarding expected component performance. An HTSE process baseline flowsheet at commercial scale was used as a basis. The NGNP project also established a process and capability to perform future RAM analyses. The analysis identified which components had the greatest impact on HTSE process availability and indicated that the HTSE process could achieve over 90% availability. The second study developed a series of life-cycle cost estimates for the various scale-ups required to demonstrate the HTSE process. Both studies were useful in identifying near- and long-term efforts necessary for successful HTSE process deployment. The size of demonstrations to support scale-up was refined, which is essential to estimate near- and long-term cost and schedule. The life-cycle funding profile, with high-level allocations, was identified as the program transitions from experiment scale R&D to engineering scale demonstration.

  5. High temperature corrosion problems in waste incineration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, H.H.

    1986-03-01

    Corrosion of high temperature metal surfaces in waste incineration systems results primarily from compounds of chlorine, sulfur, and metals such as lead, zinc, and tin. The presence of such compounds in municipal refuse and chemical wastes can result in severe metal wastage in energy recovery systems. The corrosion mechanism involves interaction of sulfur oxides with chlorides in deposits to generate HCl and chlorine at the metal surface. Metal chlorides also can contribute by forming low melting eutectics. Reducing atmospheres, particularly carbon monoxide, in the combustion gases also appear to be a factor in corrosion. Corrosion rates of carbon and low alloy steels increase significantly with both metal temperature and gas temperature. The rates for stainless steels initially decrease as the metal temperature increases, and are less sensitive to gas temperature. Corrosion by chlorine can be inhibited by maintaining a sufficiently high concentration of sulfur or silica in the fuel. The results of corrosion probe exposures in waste-fueled boilers are presented to illustrate these mechanisms.

  6. Support tube for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Rossing, Barry R.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a compound having a fluorite-like structure comprising a solid solution having the general formula [(ZrO.sub.2).sub.1-x (MO.sub.s).sub.x ].sub.1-y [(La.sub.m A.sub.1-m).sub.2-z (Mn.sub.n B.sub.1-n).sub.z O.sub.r ].sub.y where MO.sub.5 is an oxide selected from the group consisting of calcia, yttria, rare earth oxides, and mixtures thereof, x is about 0.1 to 0.3, y is about 0.005 to about 0.06, z is about 0.1 to about 1.9, A is yttrium, rare earth element, alkaline earth element, or mixture thereof, B is iron, nickel, cobalt, or mixture thereof, m is 0.3 to 1, n is 0.5 to 1, and r is 2 to 4. A porous tube made from such a composition can be coated with an electrically conducting mixed oxide electrode such as lanthanum manganite, and can be used in making high temperature electrochemical cells such as solid electrolyte fuel cells.

  7. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore » during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  8. Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

    2005-03-01

    SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

  9. Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems This presentation was ...

  10. High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  11. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

  12. Project Profile: A Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power Cycles Project Profile: A Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power Cycles SDSU logo ...

  13. Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power Cycles Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power Cycles This fact sheet describes a ...

  14. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  15. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Yb-filled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Yb-filled Skutterudites with FeSb2 Nanoinclusions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Temperature Thermoelectric ...

  16. Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Richard N. Christensen; Raymond R. Unocic; Richard E. Glosup; Mike W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) using gas-cooled reactor technology is anticipated to be the reactor type for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). In this reactor concept with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation, hydrogen production, and/or industrial process heat applications. At present, there is no proven IHX concept for VHTRs. The current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reduced nominal reactor outlet temperatures of 750800 degrees C is 3 on a 110 scale, with 10 indicating omplete technological maturity. Among the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP with Alloy 617, a candidate high-temperature structural material for NGNP applications, are the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 has been demonstrated, although the optimum diffusion bonding process parameters to engineer a quasi interface-free joint are yet to be determined. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical etching and diffusion bonding are discussed for Alloy 617 plates. In addition, the authors experiences with these non-conventional machining and joining techniques are discussed. Two PCHEs are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and are being experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a High-Temperature Helium Facility (HTHF). The HTHF is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800 degrees C and 3 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, some preliminary microstructural and mechanical property characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented. The characterization studies are restricted and less severe from an NGNP perspective but provide sufficient confidence to ensure safe operation of the heat exchangers in the HTHF. The test results are used to determine the design operating conditions for the PCHEs fabricated.

  17. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTMWG) held October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C.

  18. NREL Particle Receiver Will Enable High-Temperature CSP (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    Near-blackbody enclosed particle receiver can support high-temperature thermal energy storage and high-efficiency power cycles.

  19. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  20. High-Temperature Circuit Boards for Use in Geothermal Well Monitoring Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature; multilayer electronic circuits capable of sustained operation at 300˚ C.

  1. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for high-temperature packaging.

  2. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of research at NREL on high temperature air-cooled power electronics thermal design.

  3. Novel High Temperature Materials for In-Situ Sensing Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florian Solzbacher; Anil Virkar; Loren Rieth; Srinivasan Kannan; Xiaoxin Chen; Hannwelm Steinebach

    2009-12-31

    The overriding goal of this project was to develop gas sensor materials and systems compatible with operation at temperatures from 500 to 700 C. Gas sensors operating at these temperatures would be compatible with placement in fossil-energy exhaust streams close to the combustion chamber, and therefore have advantages for process regulation, and feedback for emissions controls. The three thrusts of our work included investigating thin film gas sensor materials based on metal oxide materials and electroceramic materials, and also development of microhotplate devices to support the gas sensing films. The metal oxide materials NiO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated for their sensitivity to H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, at high temperatures (T > 500 C), where the sensing properties of these materials have received little attention. New ground was broken in achieving excellent gas sensor responses (>10) for temperatures up to 600 C for NiO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. The gas sensitivity of these materials was decreasing as temperatures increased above 500 C, which indicates that achieving strong sensitivities with these materials at very high temperatures (T {ge} 650 C) will be a further challenge. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reliability of these materials were investigated across a wide range of deposition conditions, temperatures, film thickness, as using surface active promoter materials. We also proposed to study the electroceramic materials BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} and BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} for their ability to detect H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, respectively. This report focuses on the properties and gas sensing characteristics of BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} (Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}), as significant difficulties were encounter in generating BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} sensors. Significant new results were achieved for Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including sensitivities of more than 60 atm{sup -1} for H{sub 2}O vapor at 400 C. These results were achieved despite significant difficulties with a strong Ba deficiency in the deposited films, and difficulties with stress in the targets and films. Ultimately, these films achieved good sensitivity, selectivity, and reliability in our gas sensing tests. The final thrust of our project was to develop microhotpates. We proposed the use of SiC thin films for the heater of the microhotplate, but despite extensive efforts we were not able to secure a reliable source of SiC. An alternative microhotplate architecture using SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} suspended membrane structures, and a polysilicon heater were developed, which could be fabricate at commercial MEMs foundries. These microhotplates were fabricated at Microtechnology Services Frankfurt (MSF) in Germany. The fabricated heaters were able to achieve temperatures > 600 C using {approx} 0.25 W, and when combined with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films demonstrated sensor systems with sensor responses up to 50 for 25 ppm NO{sub x}, and time constants of less than 10 s.

  4. Final Scientific Report - "Novel Steels for High Temperature Carburizing"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.; Liu, Tianjun; Maniruzzaman, Md

    2012-07-27

    This program was undertaken to develop a microalloy-modified grade of standard carburizing steel that can successfully exploit the high temperature carburizing capabilities of current commercial low pressure (i.e. 'vacuum') carburizing systems. Such steels can lower the amount of energy required for commercial carburizing operations by reducing the time required for deep-case carburizing operations. The specific technical objective of the work was to demonstrate a carburizing steel composition capable of maintaining a prior austenite grain size no larger than ASTM grain size number 5 after exposure to simulated carburizing conditions of 1050 C for 8 hr. Such thermal exposure should be adequate for producing carburized case depths up to about 2 mm. Such carburizing steels are expected to be attractive for use across a wide range of industries, including the petroleum, chemical, forest products, automotive, mining and industrial equipment industries. They have potential for reducing energy usage during low pressure carburizing by more than 25%, as well as reducing cycle times and process costs substantially. They also have potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from existing low pressure carburizing furnaces by more than 25%. High temperature carburizing can be done in most modern low pressure carburizing systems with no additional capital investment. Accordingly, implementing this technology on carburizing furnaces will provide a return on investment significantly greater than 10%. If disseminated throughout the domestic carburizing community, the technology has potential for saving on the order of 23 to 34 trillion BTU/year in industrial energy usage. Under the program, two compositions of microalloyed, coarsening-resistant low alloy carburizing steels were developed, produced and evaluated. After vacuum annealing at 1050oC for 8 hrs and high pressure gas quenching, both steels exhibited a prior austenite ASTM grain size number of 5.0 or finer. For comparison, a control alloy of similar composition but without the microalloy additions exhibited a duplex prior austenite grain size with grains ranging from ASTM grain size 3 down to ASTM grain size 1 after similar processing and thermal exposure. These results confirm the potential for using microalloy additions of Ti, B, Nb, Al, rare earths and/or N for austenite grain size control in Cr-Mo (i.e. 4000-series) low alloy carburizing steels. They also demonstrate that these microalloy additions will not compromise the processability of the steel; all three materials produced under the program could be hot worked readily using normal steel processing protocols. To fully realize the technical and commercial potential of these steels, there is a need to continue development work using larger-scale heats. These larger-scale heats are needed to provide adequate material for fatigue testing of quenched and tempered alloys, to conduct more complete investigations of potential alloy chemistries and to provide additional material for processing studies. It will also be beneficial to carefully review intellectual property issues associated with this family of steels, since existing Japanese patent literature suggests that significant microstructural and/or process characterization work may be needed on new materials to confirm that these materials fall outside existing patent claims.

  5. Field Testing of Thermoplastic Encapsulants in High-Temperature Installations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Moseley, John M.; Shah, Qurat A.; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Inoue, Masanao; Doi, Takuya; et al

    2015-11-01

    Recently there has been increased interest in using thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules, but concerns have been raised about whether these would be mechanically stable at high temperatures in the field. This has become a significant topic of discussion in the development of IEC 61730 and IEC 61215. We constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass thin-film mock modules using different encapsulant materials, of which only two were formulated to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with thermal insulation on the back side in Mesa, Arizona, in the summer (hot-dry), and an identicalmore » module set was exposed in environmental chambers. High-precision creep measurements (±20 μm) and electrical performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials operating in the melt or rubbery state during outdoor deployment, no significant creep was seen because of their high viscosity, lower operating temperature at the edges, and/or the formation of chemical crosslinks in many of the encapsulants with age despite the absence of a crosslinking agent. Only an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant formulated without a peroxide crosslinking agent crept significantly. When the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet reduced creep further and was not detectable even for the EVA without peroxide. Because of the propensity of some polymeric materials to crosslink as they age, typical thermoplastic encapsulants would be unlikely to result in creep in the vast majority of installations.« less

  6. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R.

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  7. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  8. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

    1996-05-14

    The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

  9. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Richards, Von L.

    1996-01-01

    The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

  10. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  11. Method of manufacturing a high temperature superconductor with improved transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Siegel, Richard W.; Askew, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor. A method of preparing a superconductor includes providing a powdered high temperature superconductor and a nanophase paramagnetic material. These components are combined to form a solid compacted mass with the paramagnetic material disposed on the grain boundaries of the polycrystaline high temperature superconductor.

  12. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to

  13. High temperature superconducting composite conductor and method for manufacturing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holesinger, Terry G.; Bingert, John F.

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting composite conductor is provided including a high temperature superconducting material surrounded by a noble metal layer, the high temperature superconducting composite conductor characterized as having a fill factor of greater than about 40. Additionally, the conductor can be further characterized as containing multiple cores of high temperature superconducting material surrounded by a noble metal layer, said multiple cores characterized as having substantially uniform geometry in the cross-sectional dimensions. Processes of forming such a high temperature superconducting composite conductor are also provided.

  14. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  15. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Presents concept for hermetic encapsulation of TE modules addressing key failure mechanism, TE material oxidation, which severely impacts long term performance PDF icon deer12_whalen.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-013743: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-013467: Categorical Exclusion Determination Materials, Modules, and Systems: An Atoms to Autos Approach to Automotive Thermoelectric Systems Development

  17. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Based on a visual and tactile inspection, it was not possible to determine if a particular ... a high, uniform, and repeatable confining pressure is difficult and is in part an art. ...

  18. Pu-ZR Alloy high-temperature activation-measurement foil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-08-02

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron flux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  19. Pu-Zr alloy for high-temperature foil-type fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron reflux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  20. Solubility and Surface Adsorption Characteristics of Metal Oxides to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.J. Wesolowski; M.L. Machesky; S.E. Ziemniak; C. Xiao; D.A. Palmer; L.M. Anovitz; P. Benezeth

    2001-05-04

    The interaction of high temperature aqueous solutions with mineral surfaces plays a key role in many aspects of fossil, geothermal and nuclear energy production. This is an area of study in which the subsurface geochemical processes that determine brine composition, porosity and permeability changes, reservoir integrity, and fluid flow rates overlap with the industrial processes associated with corrosion of metal parts and deposition of solids in pipes and on heat exchanger surfaces. The sorption of ions on mineral surfaces is also of great interest in both the subsurface and ''above ground'' regimes of power production, playing a key role in subsurface migration of contaminants (nuclear waste disposal, geothermal brine re-injection, etc.) and in plant operations (corrosion mitigation, migration of radioactive metals from reactor core to heat exchanger, etc.). In this paper, results of the solubility and surface chemistry of metal oxides relevant to both regimes are summarized.

  1. 0.351 micron Laser Beam propagation in High-temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froula, D; Divol, L; Meezan, N; Ross, J; Berger, R L; Michel, P; Dixit, S; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Moody, J D; Neumayer, P; Pollock, B; Wallace, R; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-12-10

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes have been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The plasma emulator is produced in a gas-filled hohlraum; a blue 351-nm laser beam propagates along the axis of the hohlraum interacting with a high-temperature (T{sub e} = 3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3}), long-scale length (L {approx} 2 mm) plasma. Experiments at these conditions have demonstrated that the interaction beam produces less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for laser intensities less than I < 2 x 10{sup 15} W-cm{sup -2}. The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. A plasma length scaling is also investigated extending our measurements to 4-mm long high-temperature plasmas. At intensities I < 5 x 10{sup 14} W-cm{sup -2}, greater than 80% of the energy in the laser is transmitted through a 5-mm long, high-temperature (T{sub e} > 2.5 keV) high-density (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20} w-cm{sup -3}) plasma. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows a stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold (R=10%) for a linear gain of 15; these high temperature, low density experiments produce plasma conditions comparable to those along the outer beams in ignition hohlraum designs. By increasing the gas fill density (n{sub e} = 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in these targets, the inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions are accessed. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes and we show that scattering is small for gains less than 20 which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity. The first three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a high power 0.351 {micro}m laser beam propagating through a high-temperature hohlraum plasma are also reported. We show that 3D linear kinetic modeling of Stimulated Brillouin scattering reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements, provided it is coupled to detailed hydrodynamics simulation and a realistic description of the laser beam from its millimeter-size envelop down to the micron scale speckles. These simulations accurately predict the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.

  2. Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis This report documents verification and validation studies carried out to assess the performance of the SCALE code system methods and nuclear data for modeling and analysis of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) configurations. Validation data were

  3. High-Temperature Circuit Boards for Use in Geothermal Well Monitoring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature; multilayer electronic circuits capable of sustained operation at 300 C. PDF icon highhookerhtcircuitboards.pdf...

  4. Sandia Energy - High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectomet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies Home Carbon Capture & Storage Climate News News & Events Carbon Capture Carbon...

  5. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  6. High Temperature Membrane Working Group, Minutes of Meeting on September 14, 2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These meeting minutes provide information about the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting on September 14, 2006 in San Francisco, Ca.

  7. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature ESP motor windings for use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems and operation at 300˚C.

  8. A Discussion of Testing Protocols and LANL's Contribution to High Temperature Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of LANL?s testing protocol work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  9. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  10. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production Project...

  11. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next-Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Los Alamos ...

  12. Investigation of Opportunities for High-Temperature Solar Energy in the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.

    2006-05-01

    This report gives the conclusions drawn from a study of the potential application of high-temperature solar process heat for production of aluminum.

  13. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Summary of Colorado School of Mines heteropolyacid research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 "

  14. Project Profile: A Novel Storage Method for CSP Plants Allowing Operation at High Temperature

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City College of New York (CCNY), under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing and testing a novel thermal storage method that allows operation at very high temperatures.

  15. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  16. Effects of surface diffusion on high temperature selective emitters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peykov, Daniel; Yeng, Yi Xiang; Celanovic, Ivan; Joannopoulos, John D.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Using morphological and optical simulations of 1D tantalum photonic crystals at 1200K, surface diffusion was determined to gradually reduce the efficiency of selective emitters. This was attributed to shifting resonance peaks and declining emissivity caused by changes to the cavity dimensions and the aperture width. Decreasing the structures curvature through larger periods and smaller cavity widths, as well as generating smoother transitions in curvature through the introduction of rounded cavities, was found to alleviate this degradation. An optimized structure, that shows both high efficiency selective emissivity and resistance to surface diffusion, was presented.

  17. Advanced Triso fuels with zirconium carbide for high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobach, Sergiy Y.; Knight, Travis W.; Jacob, Norman P.; Athon, Clifton E.

    2007-07-01

    There are several options for the advanced TRISO fuel: one is primarily replacement SiC with ZrC and the other is a concept involving a thin ZrC layer coating on the kernel, which is then enclosed in usual TRISO coatings. An effort at modeling, fabrication and testing of an advanced TRISO coated UO{sub 2} fuel particle design incorporating an added layer of ZrC over the fuel kernel is under investigation. The objectives of the coated particle development program are to define the essentials of a production route for the manufacture of kernels and coated particles and to identify the important process parameters that determine the particle properties. Still, the integrity of the ZrC coating is important, but not the main goal. The primary purpose of a ZrC coating examination in this study is to determine hot it serves as an oxygen getter to limit CO production and hence pressure buildup that would stress coatings leading to failure. This additional ZrC coating also aids in retaining fission products within the kernel, and carbon diffusion in the particle is limited hence kernel migration rates are slowed. The combined result being that failure rates of coated particles should decrease. (authors)

  18. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 C to 950 C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions.

  19. High temperature Hexoloy{trademark} SX silicon carbide. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, G.V.; Lau, S.K.; Storm, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    HEXOLOY{reg_sign} SX-SiC, fabricated with Y and Al containing compounds as sintering aids, has been shown to possess significantly improved strength and toughness over HEXOLOY{reg_sign}SA-SiC. This study was undertaken to establish and benchmark the complete mechanical property database of a first generation material, followed by a process optimization task to further improve the properties. Mechanical characterization on the first generation material indicated that silicon-rich pools, presumably formed as a reaction product during sintering, controlled the strength from room temperature to 1,232 C. At 1,370 C in air, the material was failing due to a glass-phase formation at the surface. This glass-phase formation was attributed to the reaction of yttrium aluminates, which exist as a second phase in the material, with the ambient. This process was determined to be a time-dependent one that leads to slow crack growth. Fatigue experiments clearly indicated that the slow crack growth driven by the reaction occurred only at temperatures >1,300 C, above the melting point of the glass phase. Process optimization tasks conducted included the selection of the best SiC powder source, studies on mixing/milling conditions for SiC powder with the sintering aids, and a designed experiment involving a range of sintering and post-treatment conditions. The optimization study conducted on the densification variables indicated that lower sintering temperatures and higher post-treatment pressures reduce the Si-rich pool formation, thereby improving the room-temperature strength. In addition, it was also determined that furnacing configuration and atmosphere were critical in controlling the Si-rich formation.

  20. Trace-Metal Scavenging from Biomass Syngas with Novel High-Temperature Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, Thomas K.; Walsh, Pete M.

    2007-03-21

    Effective syngas cleanup is one of the remaining major technical challenges yet to be resolved and one that will provide the most benefit to the suite of bio-thermochemical process technologies. Beyond tars and acid gases, which are themselves a significant detriment to reforming catalysts and associated equipment, semi-volatile metals can also damage cleanup systems, catalysts, and contaminate the fungible products. Metals are a difficult challenge to deal with whether using hot-gas filtration or low-temperature processing. Even though most of the metal tends to condense before the barrier filter of hot-gas cleanup systems, some small percentage of the metal (large enough to damage syngas-reforming catalysts, the candle filters themselves, and gas turbine blades) does pass through these barrier filters along with the clean syngas. Low-temperature processing requires expensive measures to remove metals from the process stream. Significant costs are required to remove these metals and if they are not removed before contacting the catalyst, they will significantly reduce the life of the catalyst. One approach to solving the metals problem is to use high-temperature sorbents to capture all of the semi-volatile metals upstream of the barrier filter, which would prevent even small amounts of metal from passing through the filter with the clean syngas. High Temperature sorbents have already been developed that have been shown to be effective at capturing semi-volatile metals from vitiated combustion effluent, i.e., high-temperature flue gas. The objective on this project was to evaluate these same sorbents for their ability to scavenge metals from inert, reducing, and real syngas environments. Subsequently, it was the objective of this project to develop designer sorbents and an injection technology that would optimize the effectiveness of these sorbents at capturing metals from syngas, protecting the barrier filters from damage, and protecting the catalysts and other downstream equipment from damage. Finally, the high-temperature sorbent technology would be expanded to look at the role that these sorbents play in relation to tars and acid gases, which are the other significant pollutants within syngas. In addition to the technology development work described above, all of the information obtained in this work was to be incorporated into a syngas speciation model, which would allow direct prediction of transformations that occur in syngas as it passes from the gasifier and the sorbent-injection section and through the barrier filters. Unfortunately, Congressional budget cuts prevented most of this work from being accomplished. Hopefully, additional funds will be provided to this work in the future, which will allow its completion. However, at the halting point of this project, the following has been accomplished. A major initial objective of the project was accomplished, which was to determine whether or not high-temperature sorbents found to work within vitiated air might also work in an inert environment. Kaolinite, one of the sorbents previously investigated as a high-temperature sorbent for incinerators, was found to effectively capture potassium. In addition, while previous work on short-time (i.e., 1 to 2 seconds) dispersed-phase reactions found that sorbent utilization was limited to two metal oxide species captured for every one aluminosilicate crystal structure, the present investigation found that many times higher insoluble metal/sorbent capture ratios were obtained. This result not only suggests that small additions of sorbent might be highly effective, but the fact that the products were insoluble (in part due to the temperature of sorbent injection, i.e., < 1500 °F) may be an indication that the products are unlikely to react with, corrode, or otherwise damage the candle-filter elements. There has been little work on the capture of potassium metal vapor by high-temperature sorbents, prior to this work. The fact that potassium can be effectively captured by kaolinite clay powder is a significant finding of this work, which applies both to combustion and gasification. The effect of different temperatures and pressures on the effectiveness of sorbent at capturing metal and protecting the filters needs to be evaluated. The impact of tars on sorbents and sorbents on tars also needs to be considered, and is one of the major questions about this technology. There is much left to be done in this area, which if performed will greatly benefit the advancement of this technology and the world through its application.

  1. Materials Properties Database for Selection of High-Temperature Alloys and Concepts of Alloy Design for SOFC Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z Gary; Paxton, Dean M.; Weil, K. Scott; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2002-11-24

    To serve as an interconnect / gas separator in an SOFC stack, an alloy should demonstrate the ability to provide (i) bulk and surface stability against oxidation and corrosion during prolonged exposure to the fuel cell environment, (ii) thermal expansion compatibility with the other stack components, (iii) chemical compatibility with adjacent stack components, (iv) high electrical conductivity of the surface reaction products, (v) mechanical reliability and durability at cell exposure conditions, (vii) good manufacturability, processability and fabricability, and (viii) cost effectiveness. As the first step of this approach, a composition and property database was compiled for high temperature alloys in order to assist in determining which alloys offer the most promise for SOFC interconnect applications in terms of oxidation and corrosion resistance. The high temperature alloys of interest included Ni-, Fe-, Co-base superal

  2. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  3. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Lillo; Richard Wright

    2009-05-01

    HVOF coatings have shown high resistance to corrosion in fossil energy applications and it is generally accepted that mechanical failure, e.g. cracking or spalling, ultimately will determine coating lifetime. The high velocity oxygen-fuel method (HVOF) for applying coatings is one of the most commercially viable and allows the control of various parameters including powder particle velocity and temperature which influence coating properties, such as residual stress, bond coat strength and microstructure. The mechanical durability of coatings is being assessed using a dual eddy current coil method to monitor crack formation in real time during thermal cycling. Absolute impedence signals from two coils, which interrogate two different areas on the sample, are collected. Crack detection can be determined from the differential signal generated from these absolute signals. The coils are operated at two different frequencies, resulting in two differential signals used for crack detection. Currently this crack detection method is being used to elucidate the influence of thermal cycling temperature and coating thickness on cracking. Recent results (cycles to failure) will be presented for FeAl coatings thermally sprayed (HVOF) onto carbon steel to two coating thicknesses (160 microns and 250 microns thick) and subsequently cycled at temperatures up to 700oC. Thinner coatings exhibit greater resistance to cracking. Ultimately the resistance to cracking will be used to explore the relationship between HVOF spraying parameters, the mechanical properties of the coating and coating bond strength to develop optimized thermal spray parameters. To this end thermal spray coatings (FeAl and Fe3Al) have been applied to additional alloy substrates (Grade 91 steel, 316 SS, etc.) relevant to the fossil industry. Future plans also include a direct comparison to conventional weld overlay coatings currently used in the industry as well as exploration of new coatings. The room temperature mechanical strength and coating adhesion to the substrate is also of considerable importance. Eddy current methods are being developed to detect coating failure during room temperature tensile tests to optimize surface preparation as well as aid in the optimization of the HVOF thermal spray parameters.

  4. High Temperature Electrolysis using Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots

    2010-07-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. The cells currently under study were developed primarily for the fuel cell mode of operation. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes (~10 m thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes (~1400 m thick), and manganite (LSM) air-side electrodes (~90 m thick). The purpose of the present study was to document and compare the performance and degradation rates of these cells in the fuel cell mode and in the electrolysis mode under various operating conditions. Initial performance was documented through a series of DC potential sweeps and AC impedance spectroscopy measurements. Degradation was determined through long-duration testing, first in the fuel cell mode, then in the electrolysis mode over more than 500 hours of operation. Results indicate accelerated degradation rates in the electrolysis mode compared to the fuel cell mode, possibly due to electrode delamination. The paper also includes details of the single-cell test apparatus developed specifically for these experiments.

  5. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, Curtis L.; Morris, John S.; Agnew, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  6. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  7. Intermediate coating layer for high temperature rubbing seals for rotary regenerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schienle, James L.; Strangman, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A metallic regenerator seal is provided having multi-layer coating comprising a NiCrAlY bond layer, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer, and a ceramic high temperature solid lubricant surface layer comprising zinc oxide, calcium fluoride, and tin oxide. Because of the YSZ intermediate layer, the coating is thermodynamically stable and resists swelling at high temperatures.

  8. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Katoh, Yutai; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Wilson, Dane F

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. The focus of this document will be the overall range of DOE's structural materials research activities being conducted to support VHTR development. By far, the largest portion of material's R&D supporting VHTR development is that being performed directly as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Supplementary VHTR materials R&D being performed in the DOE program, including university and international research programs and that being performed under direct contracts with the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, will also be described. Specific areas of high-priority materials research that will be needed to deploy the NGNP and provide a basis for subsequent VHTRs are described, including the following: (1) Graphite: (a) Extensive unirradiated materials characterization and assessment of irradiation effects on properties must be performed to qualify new grades of graphite for nuclear service, including thermo-physical and mechanical properties and their changes, statistical variations from billot-to-billot and lot-to-lot, creep, and especially, irradiation creep. (b) Predictive models, as well as codification of the requirements and design methods for graphite core supports, must be developed to provide a basis for licensing. (2) Ceramics: Both fibrous and load-bearing ceramics must be qualified for environmental and radiation service as insulating materials. (3) Ceramic Composites: Carbon-carbon and SiC-SiC composites must be qualified for specialized usage in selected high-temperature components, such as core stabilizers, control rods, and insulating covers and ducting. This will require development of component-specific designs and fabrication processes, materials characterization, assessment of environmental and irradiation effects, and establishment of codes and standards for materials testing and design requirements. (4) Pressure Vessel Steels: (a) Qualification of short-term, high-temperature properties of light water reactor steels for anticipated VHTR off-normal conditions must be determined, as well as the effects of aging on tensile, creep, and toughness properties, and on thermal emissivity. (b) Large-scale fabrication process for higher temperature alloys, such as 9Cr-1MoV, including ensuring thick-section and weldment integrity must be developed, as well as improved definitions of creep-fatigue and negligible creep behavior. (5) High-Temperature Alloys: (a) Qualification and codification of materials for the intermediate heat exchanger, such as Alloys 617 or 230, for long-term very high-temperature creep, creep-fatigue, and environmental aging degradation must be done, especially in thin sections for compact designs, for both base metal and weldments. (b) Constitutive models and an improved methodology for high-temperature design must be developed.

  9. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750800 C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 C/1.02.7 MPa for the cold side and 208790 C/1.02.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic entrance region parameters, such as incremental pressure drop number, apparent Fanning friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct have been numerically estimated.

  10. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Wu; Belieres, Jean-Philippe; Yoshizawa, Masahiro

    2011-01-11

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  11. Dynamic High-temperature Testing of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High-strain Rates: Dynamic High-temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, B.; Nelson, K.; Lipinski, R.; Bignell, J.; Ulrich, G.; George, E. P.

    2014-08-21

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-strain -rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain -rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. In our study, we analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens in compression. We made appropriate modifications using the current high-temperature Kolsky bar technique in order to obtain reliable compressive stress–strain response of an iridium alloy at high-strain rates (300–10 000 s-1) and temperatures (750 and 1030°C). The compressive stress–strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to both strain rate and temperature.

  12. Dynamic High-temperature Testing of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High-strain Rates: Dynamic High-temperature Testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, B.; Nelson, K.; Lipinski, R.; Bignell, J.; Ulrich, G.; George, E. P.

    2014-08-21

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-strain -rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain -rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. In our study, we analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens in compression. We made appropriate modifications using themore » current high-temperature Kolsky bar technique in order to obtain reliable compressive stress–strain response of an iridium alloy at high-strain rates (300–10 000 s-1) and temperatures (750 and 1030°C). The compressive stress–strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to both strain rate and temperature.« less

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high-temperature

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high-temperature gas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high-temperature gas Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements of alkali in the high-temperature exhaust of a glass furnace show an attenuation of the Na and K LIBS signals that correlates with the stoichiometry of the bath gas surrounding the spark. The results

  14. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.; Takeyama, Masao

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250.degree. C. and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr.sub.2 Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements.

  15. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, C.T.; Takeyama, Masao.

    1994-02-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250 C and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr[sub 2]Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements. 14 figures.

  16. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Scoping Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Project has the objective of developing the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology to supply high temperature process heat to industrial processes as a substitute for burning of fossil fuels, such as natural gas. Applications of the HTGR technology that have been evaluated by the NGNP Project for supply of process heat include supply of electricity, steam and high-temperature gas to a wide range of industrial processes, and production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in petrochemical, refining, coal to liquid fuels, chemical, and fertilizer plants.

  17. Separation Requirements for a Hydrogen Production Plant and High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Scott Beck; Bill Galyean

    2005-09-01

    This report provides the methods, models, and results of an evaluation for locating a hydrogen production facility near a nuclear power plant. In order to answer the risk-related questions for this combined nuclear and chemical facility, we utilized standard probabilistic safety assessment methodologies to answer three questions: what can happen, how likely is it, and what are the consequences? As part of answering these questions, we developed a model suitable to determine separation distances for hydrogen process structures and the nuclear plant structures. Our objective of the model-development and analysis is to answer key safety questions related to the placement of one or more hydrogen production plants in the vicinity of a high-temperature nuclear reactor. From a thermal-hydraulic standpoint we would like the two facilities to be quite close. However, safety and regulatory implications force the separation distance to be increased, perhaps substantially. Without answering these safety questions, the likelihood for obtaining a permit to construct and build such as facility in the U.S. would be questionable. The quantitative analysis performed for this report provides us with a scoping mechanism to determine key parameters related to the development of a nuclear-based hydrogen production facility. From our calculations, we estimate that when the separation distance is less than 100m, the core damage frequency is large enough (greater than 1E-6/yr) to become problematic in a risk-informed environment. However, a variety of design modifications, for example blast-deflection barriers, were explored to determine the impact of potential mitigating strategies. We found that these mitigating cases may significantly reduce risk and should be explored as the design for the hydrogen production facility evolves.

  18. EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide...

  19. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water treatment gas for ...

  20. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2011 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric metrology.

  1. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasto, Arvid

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  2. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  3. High Temperature Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures High Temperature Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, ...

  4. A review of high-temperature geothermal developments in the Northern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    review of high-temperature geothermal developments in the Northern Basin and Range Province Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: A review of...

  5. Test Results From The Idaho National Laboratory 15kW High Temperature Electrolysis Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl M. Stoots; Keith G. Condie; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2009-07-01

    A 15kW high temperature electrolysis test facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This facility is intended to study the technology readiness of using high temperature solid oxide cells for large scale nuclear powered hydrogen production. It is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high temperature gas handling, heat recuperation), multiple-stack hot zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, etc. Heat recuperation and hydrogen recycle are incorporated into the design. The facility was operated for 1080 hours and successfully demonstrated the largest scale high temperature solid-oxide-based production of hydrogen to date.

  6. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Trace species detection: Spectroscopy and molecular energy transfer at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    Monitoring the concentration of trace species such as atomic and molecular free radicals is essential in forming predictive models of combustion processes. LIF-based techniques have the necessary sensitivity for concentration and temperature measurements but have limited accuracy due to collisional quenching in combustion applications. The goal of this program is to use spectroscopic and kinetic measurements to quantify nonradiative and collisional effects on LIF signals and to develop new background-free alternatives to LIF. The authors have measured the natural linewidth of several OH A-X (3,0) rotational transitions to determine predissociation lifetimes in the upper state, which were presumed to be short compared to quenching lifetimes, and as a result, quantitative predictions about the applicability of predissociation fluorescence methods at high pressures are made. The authors are investigating collisional energy transfer in the A-state of NO. Quenching rates which enable direct corrections to NO LIF quantum yields at high temperature were calculations. These quenching rates are now being used in studies of turbulence/chemistry interactions. The authors have measured the electric dipole moment {mu} of excited-state NO using Stark quantum-beat spectroscopy. {mu} is an essential input to a harpoon model which predicts quenching efficiencies for NO (A) by a variety of combustion-related species. The authors are developing new coherent multiphoton techniques for measurements of atomic hydrogen concentration in laboratory flames to avoid the quenching problems associated with previous multiphoton LIF schemes.

  8. Phonon densities of states and related thermodynamic properties of high temperature ceramics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loong, C.-K.

    1998-08-28

    Structural components and semiconductor devices based on silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and gallium nitride are expected to function more reliably at elevated temperatures and at higher levels of performance because of the strong atomic bonding in these materials. The degree of covalency, lattice specific heat, and thermal conductivity are important design factors for the realization of advanced applications. We have determined the phonon densities of states of these ceramics by the method of neutron scattering. The results provide a microscopic interpretation of the mechanical and thermal properties. Moreover, experimental data of the static, structures, and dynamic excitations of atoms are essential to the validation of interparticle potentials employed for molecular-dynamics simulations of high-temperature properties of multi-component ceramic systems. We present an overview of neutron-scattering investigations of the atomic organization, phonon excitations, as well as calculations of related thermodynamic properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, {beta}-sialon, AlN and GaN. The results are compared with those of the oxide analogs such as SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds This content will become publicly available on September 29, 2017 Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Authors: Gasc, Julien ; Wang, Yanbin ; Yu, Tony ; Benea, Ion C. ; Rosczyk, Benjamin R. ; Shinmei, Toru ; Irifune, Tetsuo Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1249858 Grant/Contract Number: FG02-94ER14466; NSF DMR-1121262; NSF EEC-0647560

  10. Analyzing the Radiation Properties of High-Z Impurities in High-Temperature

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Analyzing the Radiation Properties of High-Z Impurities in High-Temperature Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analyzing the Radiation Properties of High-Z Impurities in High-Temperature Plasmas Most tokamak-based reactor concepts require the use of noble gases to form either a radiative mantle or divertor to reduce conductive heat exhaust to tolerable levels for plasma facing components. Predicting the power loss necessary from

  11. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 29, 2017 Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Authors: Gasc, Julien ; Wang, Yanbin ; Yu, Tony ; Benea, Ion C. ; Rosczyk, Benjamin R. ; Shinmei, Toru ; Irifune, Tetsuo Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI

  12. Project Profile: High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver Project Profile: High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver SNL logo Sandia National Laboratories with partners Georgia Tech, Bucknell University, King Saud University, and DLR, are developing a falling-particle receiver and heat-exchanger system to increase efficiency and lower costs under the 2012 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) SunShot R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA). Approach

  13. Deep Burn Develpment of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactors - July 2010 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Burn Develpment of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors - July 2010 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Burn Develpment of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors - July 2010 The DB Program Quarterly Progress Report for April - June 2010, ORNL/TM/2010/140, was distributed to program participants on August 4. This report discusses the following: (1) TRU (transuranic elements) HTR

  14. High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling. Multiparameter Fiber Optic Sensing System for Monitoring Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Dr. Aaron J. Knobloch, GE Global Research High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Norman Turnquist, GE Global Research Pressure Sensor and Telemetry Methods for Measurement While Drilling in Geothermal Wells, Vinayak

  15. Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rechargeable Energy Storage Device | Department of Energy First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole Rechargeable Energy Storage Device Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole Rechargeable Energy Storage Device July 2, 2014 - 10:50am Addthis The Energy Department today announced commercialization of a rechargeable energy storage device capable of operating in the extreme temperatures necessary for geothermal energy production. Industry partner FastCAP

  16. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2. Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.

  17. Thermal-stress modeling of an optical microphone at high temperature.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Thermal-stress modeling of an optical microphone at high temperature. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-stress modeling of an optical microphone at high temperature. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  18. Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  19. Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems | Department of Energy garciadiaz.pdf More Documents & Publications Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems - FY13 Q2 Halide and Oxy-halide Eutectic Systems for High Performance High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids Degradation Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings for TES and HTF Containment Materials - F13 Q1

  20. Full Reviews: High-temperature Tools and Drilling | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-temperature Tools and Drilling. GUFI: Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager Doug Patterson and Baker Hughes, Oilfield Operations Incorporated Project Presentation | Peer Reviewer Comments High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production Matthew Hooker, Composite Technology Development, Inc. Project Presentation | Peer Reviewer Comments 300°C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Vinayak Tilak, GE

  1. Facility Configuration Study of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. L. Austad; L. E. Guillen; D. S. Ferguson; B. L. Blakely; D. M. Pace; D. Lopez; J. D. Zolynski; B. L. Cowley; V. J. Balls; E.A. Harvego, P.E.; C.W. McKnight, P.E.; R.S. Stewart; B.D. Christensen

    2008-04-01

    A test facility, referred to as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Component Test Facility or CTF, will be sited at Idaho National Laboratory for the purposes of supporting development of high temperature gas thermal-hydraulic technologies (helium, helium-Nitrogen, CO2, etc.) as applied in heat transport and heat transfer applications in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Such applications include, but are not limited to: primary coolant; secondary coolant; intermediate, secondary, and tertiary heat transfer; and demonstration of processes requiring high temperatures such as hydrogen production. The facility will initially support completion of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. It will secondarily be open for use by the full range of suppliers, end-users, facilitators, government laboratories, and others in the domestic and international community supporting the development and application of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor technology. This pre-conceptual facility configuration study, which forms the basis for a cost estimate to support CTF scoping and planning, accomplishes the following objectives: • Identifies pre-conceptual design requirements • Develops test loop equipment schematics and layout • Identifies space allocations for each of the facility functions, as required • Develops a pre-conceptual site layout including transportation, parking and support structures, and railway systems • Identifies pre-conceptual utility and support system needs • Establishes pre-conceptual electrical one-line drawings and schedule for development of power needs.

  2. Alternative Passive Decay-Heat Systems for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a low-pressure, liquid-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The high-temperature (950 deg C) variant is defined as the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR). The AHTR has the same safety goals and uses the same graphite-matrix coated particle fuel as do modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the large AHTR power output [2400 to 4000 MW(t)] implies the need for a different type of passive decay-heat removal system. Because the AHTR is a low-pressure, liquid-cooled reactor like sodium-cooled reactors, similar types of decay-heat-removal systems can be used. Three classes of passive decay heat removal systems have been identified: the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system which is similar to that proposed for the General Electric S-PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor; the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system, which is similar to that used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II; and a new pool reactor auxiliary cooling system. These options are described and compared. (author)

  3. Experimental and Analytic Study on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schultz

    2012-04-01

    Core bypass flow has been one of key issues in the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design for securing core thermal margins and achieving target temperatures at the core exit. The bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core occurs through the control element holes and the radial and axial gaps between the graphite blocks for manufacturing and refueling tolerances. These gaps vary with the core life cycles because of the irradiation swelling/shrinkage characteristic of the graphite blocks such as fuel and reflector blocks, which are main components of a core's structure. Thus, the core bypass flow occurs in a complicated multidimensional way. The accurate prediction of this bypass flow and counter-measures to minimize it are thus of major importance in assuring core thermal margins and securing higher core efficiency. Even with this importance, there has not been much effort in quantifying and accurately modeling the effect of the core bypass flow. The main objectives of this project were to generate experimental data for validating the software to be used to calculate the bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core, validate thermofluid analysis tools and their model improvements, and identify and assess measures for reducing the bypass flow. To achieve these objectives, tasks were defined to (1) design and construct experiments to generate validation data for software analysis tools, (2) determine the experimental conditions and define the measurement requirements and techniques, (3) generate and analyze the experimental data, (4) validate and improve the thermofluid analysis tools, and (5) identify measures to control the bypass flow and assess its performance in the experiment.

  4. Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, David Lewis

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the detailed background information that has been compiled to support the preparation of a much shorter white paper on the design features and fuel cycles of Very High-Temperature Reactors (VHTRs), including the proposed Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), to identify the important proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) aspects of the proposed concepts. The shorter white paper derived from the information in this report was prepared for the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Science and Technology for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) VHTR Systems Steering Committee (SSC) as input to the GIF Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PR&PPWG) (http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/horizontal/proliferation.htm). The short white paper was edited by the GIF VHTR SCC to address their concerns and thus may differ from the information presented in this supporting report. The GIF PR&PPWG will use the derived white paper based on this report along with other white papers on the six alternative Generation IV design concepts (http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/systems/index.htm) to employ an evaluation methodology that can be applied and will evolve from the earliest stages of design. This methodology will guide system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders in evaluating the response of each system, to determine each system's resistance to proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats, and thereby guide future international cooperation on ensuring safeguards in the deployment of the Generation IV systems. The format and content of this report is that specified in a template prepared by the GIF PR&PPWG. Other than the level of detail, the key exception to the specified template format is the addition of Appendix C to document the history and status of coated-particle fuel reprocessing technologies, which fuel reprocessing technologies have yet to be deployed commercially and have only been demonstrated in testing at a laboratory scale.

  5. Vacuum encapsulated, high temperature diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, Josh; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2015-12-29

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first high-temperature solder weld disposed between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and a second high-temperature solder weld disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the cathode element. The cathode capsule is formed by a high temperature weld process under vacuum such that the first solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and the second solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the cathode element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  6. High-temperature fiber optic cubic-zirconia pressure sensor - article no. 124402

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, W.; Pickrell, G.R.; Wang, A.B.

    2005-12-15

    There is a critical need for pressure sensors that can operate reliably at high temperatures in many industrial segments such as in the combustion section of gas turbine engines for both transportation and power generation, coal gasifiers, coal fired boilers, etc. Optical-based sensors are particularly attractive for the measurement of a wide variety of physical and chemical parameters in high-temperature and high-pressure industrial environments due to their small size and immunity to electromagnetic interference. A fiber optic pressure sensor utilizing single-crystal cubic zirconia as the sensing element is reported. The pressure response of this sensor has been measured at temperatures up to 1000{sup o}C. Additional experimental results show that cubic zirconia could be used for pressure sensing at temperatures over 1000{sup o}C. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a novel cubic-zirconia sensor for pressure measurement at high temperatures.

  7. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack initiation processes, and (4) modeling.

  8. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a hydrogen economy. The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  9. A Process Model for the Production of Hydrogen Using High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. Mc Kellar; E. A. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

    2006-07-01

    High temperature electrolysis (HTE) involves the splitting of stream into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. The primary advantage of HTE over conventional low temperature electrolysis is that considerably higher hydrogen production efficiencies can be achieved. Performing the electrolysis process at high temperatures results in more favorable thermodynamics for electrolysis, more efficient production of electricity, and allows direct use of process heat to generate steam. This paper presents the results of process analyses performed to evaluate the hydrogen production efficiencies of an HTE plant coupled to a 600 MWt Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) that supplies both the electricity and process heat needed to drive the process. The MHR operates with a coolant outlet temperature of 950 C. Approximately 87% of the high-temperature heat is used to generate electricity at high efficiency using a direct, Brayton-cycle power conversion system. The remaining high-temperature heat is used to generate a superheated steam / hydrogen mixture that is supplied to the electrolyzers. The analyses were performed using the HYSYS process modeling software. The model used to perform the analyses consisted of three loops; a primary high temperature helium loop, a secondary helium loop and the HTE process loop. The detailed model included realistic representations of all major components in the system, including pumps, compressors, heat exchange equipment, and the electrolysis stack. The design of the hydrogen production process loop also included a steam-sweep gas system to remove oxygen from the electrolysis stack so that it can be recovered and used for other applications. Results of the process analyses showed that hydrogen production efficiencies in the range of 45% to 50% are achievable with this system.

  10. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  11. The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite The pressure evolution of bassanite (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O) was investigated by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction along three isotherms: at room temperature up to 33 GPa, at 109 C up to 22 GPa, and at 200 C up to 12 GPa. The room-temperature cell-volume data, from 0.001 to 33 GPa, were fitted to a

  12. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electric arc (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc We report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to 100 μs.

  13. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of

  14. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Yb-filled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Skutterudites with FeSb2 Nanoinclusions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Yb-filled Skutterudites with FeSb2 Nanoinclusions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Yb-filled Skutterudites with FeSb2 Nanoinclusions Authors: Zhou, Chen ; Sakamoto, Jeffrey ; Morelli, Donald T Publication Date: 2011-12-09 OSTI Identifier: 1066327 DOE Contract Number: SC0001054 Resource Type: Journal

  15. Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature F82H is a primary candidate of structural material and coolant pipe material in a blanket of a fusion reactor. Understanding tritium permeation behavior through F82H is important. In a normal operation of a fusion reactor, the temperature of F82H will be controlled below 550 C. degrees because it is

  16. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, Raimond; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Liepins, Leila Z.

    1993-01-01

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO.sub.3 +RCHO.fwdarw.Ag.degree.+RCOOH and R.sub.3 M.fwdarw.M.degree.+3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R.sub.3 M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone.

  17. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, Raimond; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Liepins, Leila Z.

    1989-01-01

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO.sub.3 +RCHO.fwdarw.AG.sup.0 +RCOOH and R.sub.3 M.fwdarw.M.sup.0 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R.sub.3 M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone.

  18. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1993-12-21

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers are described. The in situ reactions: AgNO[sub 3] + RCHO [yields] Ag + RCOOH and R[sub 3]M [yields] M + 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R[sub 3]M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrone.

  19. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1987-08-27

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO/sub 3/ + RCHO ..-->.. Ag/sup 0/ + RCOOH and R/sub 3/M ..-->.. M/sup 0/ + 3R, where M = Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high- temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R/sub 3/M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone. 3 tabs.

  20. AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SYSTEM (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AB INITIO PHASE STABILITY AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES IN THE V-Cr SYSTEM Authors: Landa, A ; Soderlind, P ; Yang, L H Publication Date: 2013-10-29 OSTI Identifier: 1116979 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-645443 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review

  1. NOx/O2 Sensors for High-Temperature Applications | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory NOx/O2 Sensors for High-Temperature Applications Technology available for licensing: Low-cost bifunctional high-temperature NOx/oxygen sensor that provides real-time sensing inside a combustion chamber without the requirement of a reference air supply. Placement in combustion chamber provide accurate oxygen-sensing, extremely low drift 2-10% energy saving from sensor optimization of air-flow ratio and fuel oil viscosity PDF icon high-temp_NOx-O2_sensor

  2. Mechanical and functional behavior of high-temperature Ni-Ti-Pt shape

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Mechanical and functional behavior of high-temperature Ni-Ti-Pt shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 22, 2017 Title: Mechanical and functional behavior of high-temperature Ni-Ti-Pt shape memory alloys A series of Ti-rich Ni-Ti-Pt ternary alloys with 13 to 18 at. pct Pt were processed by vacuum arc melting and characterized for their transformation behavior to identify

  3. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with LEU/Thorium Fuel (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope

  4. High-temperature thermodynamics of the ferromagnetic Kondo-lattice model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roeder, H.; Singh, R.R.; Zang, J.

    1997-09-01

    We present a high-temperature series expansion for the ferromagnetic Kondo-lattice model in the large coupling limit, which is used to model colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) perovskites. Our results show the expected crossover to Curie-Weiss behavior at a temperature related to the bandwidth. Estimates for the magnetic transition temperatures are in the experimentally observed range. The compressibility shows that the high-temperature charge excitations can be modeled by spinless fermions. The CMR effect itself, however, warrants the inclusion of dynamic effects and cannot be explained by a static calculation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. 3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01

    3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-Electrolysis Grant Hawkes1, James O’Brien1, Carl Stoots1, Stephen Herring1 Joe Hartvigsen2 1 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, grant.hawkes@inl.gov 2 Ceramatec Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a planar solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of planar solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for syn-gas production from CO2 and steam. Various runs have been performed under different run conditions to help assess the performance of the SOE. This paper presents CFD results of this model compared with experimental results. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to produce syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A strong interest exists in the large-scale production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam to be reformed into a usable transportation fuel. If biomass is used as the carbon source, the overall process is climate neutral. Consequently, there is a high level of interest in production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam electrolysis. With the price of oil currently around $60 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas – hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of syn-gas production from CO2 and water, with no consumption of fossil fuels, and no production of greenhouse gases. Thermal CO2-splitting and water splitting for syn-gas production can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis, using high-temperature nuclear process heat and electricity. A high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-syn-gas conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%.

  6. Secondary heat exchanger design and comparison for advanced high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, P.; Kim, E. S.; Siahpush, A.; McKellar, M.; Patterson, M.

    2012-07-01

    Next generation nuclear reactors such as the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR) are designed to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers - helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger - as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with distributed load analysis and comparison. Comparison is provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations. (authors)

  7. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of a Minimum Soiling Level to Affect Photovoltaic Devices Patrick D. Burton and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA...

  8. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the spreadsheets when better information is available or to allow the performance of sensitivity studies. The selected reference plant design for this study was a 1500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant operating in the thermal-neutral mode. The plant utilized industrial natural gas-fired heaters to provide process heat, and grid electricity to supply power to the electrolyzer modules and system components. Modifications to the reference design included replacing the gas-fired heaters with electric resistance heaters, changing the operating mode of the electrolyzer (to operate below the thermal-neutral voltage), and considering a larger 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant design. Total H2A-calculated hydrogen production costs for the reference 1,500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant were $3.42/kg. The all-electric plant design using electric resistance heaters for process heat, and the reference design operating below the thermal-neutral voltage had calculated lifecycle hydrogen productions costs of $3.55/kg and $5.29/kg, respectively. Because of its larger size and associated economies of scale, the 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant was able to produce hydrogen at a cost of only $2.89/kg.

  9. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber geometry to optical properties, and the development of a sensor packaging prototype for laboratory testing. Analysis and experiments determined that a bonding technique using a CO2 laser is the most suitable joining technique. Pore morphology alteration showed that transmission improved with increasing annealing temperature (producing smaller pores), while the sensor response time increased and the mechanical strength decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Software was developed for data acquisition and signal processing to collect and interpret spectral gas absorption data. Gas detection on porous glass sensors was completed and the detection limit was evaluated using acetylene and was found to be around 1- 200ppm. A complete materials package for porous glass sensors was manufactured for testing.

  10. Effects of high temperature surface oxides on room temperature aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Perrin, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing, heat treatment (750 {degrees}C in air, one hour) or simulated in-service-type oxidation (1000{degrees}C in air, 24 hours) on the room-temperature aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of iron aluminides. Materials evaluated included the Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides, FA-84, FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo, a FeAl-based iron aluminide, FA-385, and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy, FAPY. Tests were performed in a mild acid-chloride solution to simulate aggressive atmospheric corrosion. Cyclic-anodic-polarization tests were employed to evaluate resistances to localized aqueous corrosion. The high-temperature oxide surfaces consistently produced detrimental results relative to mechanically or chemically cleaned surfaces. Specifically, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the as-processed and 750{degrees} C surfaces, relative to the cleaned surfaces, for FA-84, FA-129, FAL-Mo, FA-385 and FAPY. Furthermore, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the 1000{degrees}C surfaces, relative to cleaned surfaces, for FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo.

  11. Grain Boundary Character Along Intergranular Stress Corrosion Crack Paths in Austenitic Stainless Alloys Removed from High-Temperature Water Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gertsman, Valerii Y.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracks produced in high-temperature water environments were examined in alloy 600 and stainless steel samples. The alloy 600 samples were removed from pressurized-water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing after exhibiting cracking in service or after model-boiler stress corrosion cracking tests. The 304 and 316 stainless steel samples also experienced intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-temperature-water environments similar to a PWR steam generator. Grain boundary misorientations were measured along IG crack paths as well as in the bulk. In general, only twin Sigma 3 boundaries exhibited improved resistance to crack propagation. If the Sigma 3 were factored out, the fractions of grain boundary types of cracked boundaries corresponded to their frequency of occurrence in the bulk alloy. Other boundaries with coincident site lattice misorientations, including Sigma 9 and Sigma 27, were observed to crack. The cracks were often (but not always) arrested at grain boundary junctions containing Sigma 3 boundaries. The results obtained indicate that grain boundary crystallography does not fully determine its susceptibility to IGSCC in typical commercial alloys. Other factors must be taken into account when assessing material?s propensity to IG failure.

  12. High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered structure in Inconel 939 superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Nuhfer, Thomas; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Laughlin, David E.

    2013-04-20

    In the integrated oxy-fuel combustion and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation that results in the loss of the strengthening precipitates. In an earlier study of the oxidation of Inconel 939 Ni-based superalloy exposed to oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 hours, a high-temperature-oxidation-induced phase transformation in the sub-surface region was noticed and a two-phase region formed at the expense of strengthening γ' phase. While one of the two phases was identified as the Ni-matrix (γ solid solution, face-center-cubic) phase, the other product phase remained unidentified. In this study, the crystal structure of the unknown phase and its orientation relationship with the parent Ni-matrix phase was investigated through electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that the crystal structure of the unknown phase could be modeled as a ternary derivative of the ordered η-Ni3Ti phase (D024) structure with lattice parameters of a = 0.5092 nm and c = 0.8336 nm, α = 90º, β = 90º and γ = 120º.

  13. The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2013-08-01

    The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250C, the temperature may reach 1600C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

  14. Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1987-04-28

    An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

  15. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning medium-enriched uranium/thorium once-through fuel cycle; medium-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle fuel; high-enrichment uranium-235/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; high-enrichment uranium-233/thorium recycle (spiked) fuel cycle; and gas-turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

  16. A Review of High-Temperature Geothermal Developments in the Northern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intensive geothermal exploration i n the northernBasin.and Range province has r e s u l t e d i n thethe discovery of nine high-temperature (>ZOO"C)geothermal r e s e r v o i r...

  17. High strength porous support tubes for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossing, Barry R.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having an electrode and a solid electrolyte disposed on a porous, sintered support material containing thermally stabilized zirconia powder particles and from about 3 wt. % to about 45 wt. % of thermally stable oxide fibers.

  18. Thermally Stable Nanocatalyst for High Temperature Reactions: Pt-Mesoporous Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, J.Y.; Tsung, C.-K.; Yamada, Y.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-10-25

    Recent advances in colloidal synthesis enabled the precise control of size, shape and composition of catalytic metal nanoparticles, allowing their use as model catalysts for systematic investigations of the atomic-scale properties affecting catalytic activity and selectivity. The organic capping agents stabilizing colloidal nanoparticles, however, often limit their application in high-temperature catalytic reactions. Here we report the design of a high-temperature stable model catalytic system that consists of Pt metal core coated with a mesoporous silica shell (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}). While inorganic silica shells encaged the Pt cores up to 750 C in air, the mesopores directly accessible to Pt cores made the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as catalytically active as bare Pt metal for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation. The high thermal stability of Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles permitted high-temperature CO oxidation studies, including ignition behavior, which was not possible for bare Pt nanoparticles because of their deformation or aggregation. The results suggest that the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are excellent nanocatalytic systems for high-temperature catalytic reactions or surface chemical processes, and the design concept employed in the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} core-shell catalyst can be extended to other metal-metal oxide compositions.

  19. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, Douglas

    2015-06-10

    This is a technical review of the DOE VTO EDT project EDT063, Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging. A procedure for analyzing the reliability of sintered-silver through experimental thermal cycling and crack propagation modeling has been outlined and results have been presented.

  20. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1990-05-22

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed. 2 figs.