Sample records for determination high resolution

  1. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W. (Los Alamos, NM); Fuller, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  2. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  3. Structure of a zeolite ZSM-5-Bithiophene complex as determined by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eylem, C.; Hriljac, J.A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Ramamurthy, V.; Corbin, D.R. [Du Pont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [Du Pont Co., Wilmington, DE (United States); Parise, J.B. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of a zeolite ZSM-5 complex with ca. 4 molecules/unit cell of bithiophene was determined by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. In adopts monoclinic symmetry in space group P2{sub 1}/n ({alpha} unique) between room temperature and 25 K, with refined lattice parameters at 25 K of a = 20.0614(4), b = 19.8251(4), c = 13.3623(4) {Angstrom}, and a = 90.848(2){degrees}. Structural modeling and Rietveld refinements showed that there are two crystallographically unique bithiophene molecules, each with an occupancy factor of ca. 0.5. One bithiophene is localized at the center of the straight channels with one of the rings residing at the intersection with the sinusoidal channels. The other molecule lies in the sinusoidal channels and projects partially into the straight channels. The relationship between polythiophene chain length and the formation of conducting polythiophene molecular wires in the ZSM-5 framework is discussed. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  5. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M. [National Electrostatics Corp., Middleton, Wisconsin, U. S. A. 53562-0310 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  6. High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melvin, Stephen

    High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

  7. advanced high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)...

  8. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  9. Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeder, Christopher Campbell

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

  10. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  11. arecibo high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    84 Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Using Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  12. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  13. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: High-Resolution Computational Algorithms...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WindHigh-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms This Sandia National...

  15. Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass...

  16. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum and Assignment of Vibrational Fundamentals of Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  17. Accelerated High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Hydrogen. Accelerated High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Hydrogen. Abstract: The resolving...

  18. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of an Oxygen-Linked Fullerene Dimer Dianion: C120O2-. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

  19. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectrosco...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectroscopy: A Comparison with the AirDMSO Liquid Interface. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear...

  20. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  1. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W. (Schenectady, NY); Cain, Dallas E. (Scotia, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  2. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  3. Application of neutron activation analysis and high resolution x-ray spectrometry for the determination of trace quantities of elements with short-lived activation products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, John Richard

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion Interferences and Errors 3, PROCEDURES AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Sample Preparation Pneumatic Sample Transfer System Sample Irradiation X-ray Spectrometry Data Reduction 4. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS System Analysis Analysis Problems.... C. Roentgen made the classic observation that a highly penatrative radiation, unknown at that time, was produced when fast electrons impinged on matter. This radiation, which h called x-rays, was being studied in all parts of the world less than...

  4. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  5. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and Porosity in a Plate-Like ?-Al2O3. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of...

  6. Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes in high-resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes in high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: Resolving Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes...

  7. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hydrothermal alteration) - Geologic field work - OSU detailed mapping - Geophysics * Gravity - 1km grid collected * High resolution aeromagnetic - currently being collected *...

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE High-resolution climate change mapping with gridded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    RESEARCH ARTICLE High-resolution climate change mapping with gridded historical climate products of climate research and adaptation efforts around the world. High-resolution gridded historical climate (GHC products to produce high-resolution temperature trend maps for the US Northeast from 1980 to 2009

  9. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  10. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  11. High-resolution NMR process analyzer for oxygenates in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skloss, T.W.; Kim, A.J.; Haw, J.F. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a high-resolution 42-MHz[sup 1]HFT-NMR instrument that is suitable for use as a process analyzer and demonstrate its use in the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a flowing stream of gasoline. This spectrometer is based on a 55-kg permanent magnet with essentially no fringe field. A spectral resolution of 3 Hz was typically obtained for spinning samples, and this performance was only slightly degraded with flowing samples. We report a procedure for magnet drift compensation using a software procedure rather than a field-frequency lock channel. This procedure allowed signal averaging without loss of resolution. Regulatory changes to be implemented in the near future have created a need for the development of methods for the determination of MTBE and other oxygenates in reformulated gasolines. Existing methods employing gas chromatography are not fast enough for process control of a gasoline blender and suffer from other limitations. This study demonstrates that process analysis NMR is well-suited to the determination of MTBE in a simulated gasoline blender. The detection limit of 0.5 vol % MTBE was obtained with a measurement time of 1 min. The absolute standard deviation of independent determinations was 0.17% when the MTBE concentration was 10%, a nominal value. Preliminary results also suggest that the method may be applicable to gasolines containing mixtures of oxygenate additives as well as the measurement of aromatic and olefinic hydrogens. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  12. High Spatial Resolution Observations of Loops in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David H; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Winebarger, Amy R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determining how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in July 2012. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data for a subset of 79 of these loops and find that their temperature distributions are narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of proposed physical mechanisms.

  13. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  14. A Steerable Laser System for Atmospheric Monitoring at the High Resolution Flys Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and radiometer . The energy 2 released into the sky is determined by multiplying this measurementOG 4.5.10 A Steerable Laser System for Atmospheric Monitoring at the High Resolution Flys Eye J. R. Mumford , R. C. Gray , L. R. Wiencke for the 1 1 1 High Resolution Flys Eye Collaboration 1. Physics

  15. A High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P B

    2001-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A major factor limiting the quality and usefulness of global climate models is the coarse spatial resolution of these models. Global climate models today are typically run at resolutions of {approx}300 km (or even coarser) meaning that the smallest features represented are 300 km across. As Figure 1 shows, this resolution does not allow adequate representation of small or even large topographic features (e.g. the Sierra Nevada mountains). As a result of this and other problems, coarse-resolution global models do not come close to accurately simulating climate on regional spatial scales (e.g. within California). Results on continental and larger sales are much more realistic. An important consequence of this inability to simulate regional climate is that global climate model results cannot be used as the basis of assessments of potential societal impacts of climate change (e.g. effects on agriculture in the Central Valley, on management of water resources, etc.).

  16. An Automated Platform for High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    entire image is acquired. The performance of the system is demonstrated by imaging rat brain tissue sections. High resolution mass analysis combined with MSMS experiments enabled...

  17. Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buttes, Oregon Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to Reduce...

  18. High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between different mechanisms of chemical aging. Citation: Laskin J, A Laskin, PJ Roach, GW Slysz, GA Anderson, S Nizkorodov, DL Bones, and L Nguyen.2010."High-Resolution...

  19. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  20. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  1. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  2. High resolution CMRO2 in visual cortex of macaca mulatta Y. Bohraus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the contribution of the vascular system and neural energy consumption. Measuring CMRO2 allows one to determine with previous MR and PET results such as reviewed in [7]. In conclusion, we showed that high resolution CMRO2

  3. Detection of Underground Marlpit Quarries Using High Resolution Seismic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Detection of Underground Marlpit Quarries Using High Resolution Seismic B. Piwakowski* (Ecole of high resolution reflection seismic for the detection and location of underground marlpit quarries of the geological structure, the results show that the detection of marlpit underground quarries, often considered

  4. High resolution x-ray microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I. [Adelphi Technology, Inc. 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Kurchatova 7, Minsk 220064 (Belarus)

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens (CRL) made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, compared to images with a spherical lens and without the multilayer optics. The resolution was measured using a 155-element parabolic CRL and a multilayer condenser with the microspot tube. The experiment demonstrates about 1.1 {mu}m resolution.

  5. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  6. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  7. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  8. assays high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Malbet 1995-09-14 31 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  9. analysing high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Malbet 1995-09-14 34 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  10. High Resolution, Ultrafast SFG Vibrational Spectroscopy | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILLAdministration |BasicResolution, Ultrafast

  11. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  12. High resolution image reconstruction with constrained, total-variation minimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurien, Susan

    in computed tomography (CT), see for example [1], because it is possible to account for noise in the data the resolution is arbitrarily high, because the system resolution is still limited by the discrete data sampling of the volume and ideal conditions of perfect data consistency: g = Xf, (1) where g represents the projection

  13. High resolution linkage and association study of quantitative trait loci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Jeesun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellite markers are available, high resolution mapping employing multiple markers or multiple allele markers is an important step to identify quantitative trait locus (QTL...

  14. Thin, Free-Standing Films For High Resolution Neutron Imaging.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trivelpiece, Cory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Thin, free-standing boro-phosphosilicate glass (BPSG) films were fabricated at PSU Nanofab to serve as prototype neutron converters for a proposed high resolution neutron imaging system… (more)

  15. Sapphire analyzers for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yavas, H.; Alp, E.; Sinn, H.; Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Shvydko, Y.; Toellner, T.; Khachatryan, R.; Billinge, S.; Hasan, Z.; Sturhahn, W.; Michigan State Univ.; Princeton Univ.; DESY

    2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) analyzer for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with 31-meV energy resolution. The analyzer is designed for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the CuK{sub a} absorption edge near 8990 eV. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring phonon excitations in beryllium because of its known dynamical structure and high counting rates.

  16. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert J. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  17. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, R.J.

    1984-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  18. IMPROVED DETERMINATION OF THE 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY OF NH{sub 3}D{sup +} FROM THE HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTRUM OF THE {nu}{sub 4} INFRARED BAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I. [Molecular Physics Department, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir Km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Fuente, A., E-mail: jl.domenech@csic.es [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apdo. 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-resolution spectrum of the {nu}{sub 4} band of NH{sub 3}D{sup +} has been measured by difference frequency IR laser spectroscopy in a multipass hollow cathode discharge cell. From the set of molecular constants obtained from the analysis of the spectrum, a value of 262817 {+-} 6 MHz ({+-}3{sigma}) has been derived for the frequency of the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} rotational transition. This value supports the assignment to NH{sub 3}D{sup +} of lines at 262816.7 MHz recorded in radio astronomy observations in Orion-IRc2 and the cold prestellar core B1-bS.

  19. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

  20. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)] [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The benefits are expected to be more substantial for more energetic positron emitting isotopes such as Oxygen-15 and Rubidium-82.

  1. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  2. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  3. High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens M. S, representing the highest resolution subsurface thermography to date. Keywords: thermal imaging, high

  4. Development of Superconducting High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers for Nuclear Safeguards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Jonathan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Counting 2.4.3 High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry 2.5coincidence counting and gamma spectrometry system (CANEGA)High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Isotopic correlation

  5. An Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy. An Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy....

  6. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  7. High-Resolution, Parallel Visualization of Turbomachinery Flowelds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    High-Resolution, Parallel Visualization of Turbomachinery Flowelds Michael G. List , Mark G Turbomachinery post- and co-processing and visualization tools are under development. The result has been in the analysis of turbomachinery. It has always been the way of the CFD analyst to expand and resolve simulations

  8. Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer D.G. Long', P.J. Hardin2, and RA to SASS data for the study of Greenland's ice sheet. We present a time series of the radar backscatter images over Greenland covering the time period July-September 1978. The images provide an island

  9. Absolute shape measurements using high-resolution optoelectronic holography methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furlong, Cosme

    Absolute shape measurements using high- resolution optoelectronic holography methods Cosme Furlong optoelectronic holography (OEH) methodology is described. This description addresses apparatus and analysis-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [S0091-3286(00)02601-5] Subject terms: CAD/CAE models; fiber optics; optoelectronic

  10. A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genetic Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nachman, Michael

    A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genetic Map of the Mouse Genome Sagiv Shifman1 humans. Using more than 10,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms evenly spaced across the mouse genome, we nucleotide polymorphism genetic map of the mouse genome. PLoS Biol 4(12): e395. DOI: 10.1371/journal

  11. High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements David M. Slocum,* Thomas M such as pollution monitoring and the detection of energetic chemicals using remote sensing over long path lengths through the atmosphere. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow

  12. Noninvasive high-resolution detection of the arterial and venous input function through a PET Wrist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noninvasive high-resolution detection of the arterial and venous input function through a PET Wrist using planar coincidence images. I. INTRODUCTION Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography (PET) often determine the input function. These techniques include external monitors and PET scanners that measure

  13. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  14. Applications of high resolution ICP-AES in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S.G.; Giglio, J.J.; Goodall, P.S.; Cummings, D.G.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of high resolution ICP-AES to selected problems of importance in the nuclear industry is a growing field. The advantages in sample preparation time, waste minimization and equipment cost are considerable. Two examples of these advantages are presented in this paper, burnup analysis of spent fuel and analysis of major uranium isotopes. The determination of burnup, an indicator of fuel cycle efficiency, has been accomplished by the determination of {sup 139}La by high resolution inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (HR-ICP-AES). Solutions of digested samples of reactor fuel rods were introduced into a shielded glovebox housing an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and the resulting atomic emission transmitted to a high resolution spectrometer by a 31 meter fiber optic bundle. Total and isotopic U determination by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is presented to allow for the calculation of burnup for the samples. This method of burnup determination reduces the time, material, sample handling and waste generated associated with typical burnup determinations which require separation of lanthanum from the other fission products with high specific activities. Work concerning an alternative burnup indicator, {sup 236}U, is also presented for comparison. The determination of {sup 235}U:{sup 238}U isotope ratios in U-Zr fuel alloys is also presented to demonstrate the versatility of HR-ICP-AES.

  15. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  16. Hadronic energy resolution of a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter using software compensation techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALICE Collaboration; C. Adloff; J. Blaha; J. -J. Blaising; C. Drancourt; A. Espargilière; R. Gaglione; N. Geffroy; Y. Karyotakis; J. Prast; G. Vouters; K. Francis; J. Repond; J. Smith; L. Xia; E. Baldolemar; J. Li; S. T. Park; M. Sosebee; A. P. White; J. Yu; T. Buanes; G. Eigen; Y. Mikami; N. K. Watson; T. Goto; G. Mavromanolakis; M. A. Thomson; D. R. Ward; W. Yan; D. Benchekroun; A. Hoummada; Y. Khoulaki; M. Benyamna; C. Cârloganu; F. Fehr; P. Gay; S. Manen; L. Royer; G. C. Blazey; A. Dyshkant; J. G. R. Lima; V. Zutshi; J. -Y. Hostachy; L. Morin; U. Cornett; D. David; G. Falley; K. Gadow; P. Göttlicher; C. Günter; B. Hermberg; S. Karstensen; F. Krivan; A. -I. Lucaci-Timoce; S. Lu; B. Lutz; S. Morozov; V. Morgunov; M. Reinecke; F. Sefkow; P. Smirnov; M. Terwort; A. Vargas-Trevino; N. Feege; E. Garutti; I. Marchesini; M. Ramilli; P. Eckert; T. Harion; A. Kaplan; H. -Ch. Schultz-Coulon; W. Shen; R. Stamen; A. Tadday; B. Bilki; E. Norbeck; Y. Onel; G. W. Wilson; K. Kawagoe; P. D. Dauncey; A. -M. Magnan; M. Wing; F. Salvatore; E. Calvo Alamillo; M. -C. Fouz; J. Puerta-Pelayo; V. Balagura; B. Bobchenko; M. Chadeeva; M. Danilov; A. Epifantsev; O. Markin; R. Mizuk; E. Novikov; V. Rusinov; E. Tarkovsky; N. Kirikova; V. Kozlov; P. Smirnov; Y. Soloviev; P. Buzhan; B. Dolgoshein; A. Ilyin; V. Kantserov; V. Kaplin; A. Karakash; E. Popova; S. Smirnov; C. Kiesling; S. Pfau; K. Seidel; F. Simon; C. Soldner; M. Szalay; M. Tesar; L. Weuste; J. Bonis; B. Bouquet; S. Callier; P. Cornebise; Ph. Doublet; F. Dulucq; M. Faucci Giannelli; J. Fleury; H. Li; G. Martin-Chassard; F. Richard; Ch. de la Taille; R. Pöschl; L. Raux; N. Seguin-Moreau; F. Wicek; M. Anduze; V. Boudry; J-C. Brient; D. Jeans; P. Mora de Freitas; G. Musat; M. Reinhard; M. Ruan; H. Videau; B. Bulanek; J. Zacek; J. Cvach; P. Gallus; M. Havranek; M. Janata; J. Kvasnicka; D. Lednicky; M. Marcisovsky; I. Polak; J. Popule; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; P. Ruzicka; P. Sicho; J. Smolik; V. Vrba; J. Zalesak; B. Belhorma; H. Ghazlane; T. Takeshita; S. Uozumi; J. Sauer; S. Weber; C. Zeitnitz

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy resolution of a highly granular 1 m3 analogue scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter is studied using charged pions with energies from 10 GeV to 80 GeV at the CERN SPS. The energy resolution for single hadrons is determined to be approximately 58%/sqrt(E/GeV}. This resolution is improved to approximately 45%/sqrt(E/GeV) with software compensation techniques. These techniques take advantage of the event-by-event information about the substructure of hadronic showers which is provided by the imaging capabilities of the calorimeter. The energy reconstruction is improved either with corrections based on the local energy density or by applying a single correction factor to the event energy sum derived from a global measure of the shower energy density. The application of the compensation algorithms to Geant4 simulations yield resolution improvements comparable to those observed for real data.

  17. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  18. Space to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Sensemaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Christopher P.; Endert, Alexander; North, Chris

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Space supports human cognitive abilities in a myriad of ways. The note attached to the side of the monitor, the papers spread out on the desk, diagrams scrawled on a whiteboard, and even the keys left out on the counter are all examples of using space to recall, reveal relationships, and think. Technological advances have made it possible to construct large display environments in which space has real meaning. This paper examines how increased space affects the way displays are regarded and used within the context of the cognitively demanding task of sensemaking. A study was conducted observing analysts using a prototype large, high-resolution display to solve an analytic problem. This paper reports on the results of this study and suggests a number of potential design criteria for future sensemaking tools developed for large, high-resolution displays.

  19. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  20. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, Laura N. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  1. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chritin, N; Soby, L; Lunin, A; Solyak, N; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  2. Determination of the binding energies of the np Rydberg states of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} from high-resolution spectroscopic data by multichannel quantum-defect theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.merkt@phys.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH-Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)] [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH-Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Jungen, Christian [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton du CNRS, Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)] [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton du CNRS, Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Multichannel quantum-defect theory (MQDT) is used to calculate the electron binding energies of np Rydberg states of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} around n = 60 at an accuracy of better than 0.5?MHz. The theory includes the effects of rovibronic channel interactions and the hyperfine structure, and has been extended to the calculation of the asymmetric hyperfine structure of Rydberg states of a heteronuclear diatomic molecule (HD). Starting values for the eigenquantum-defect parameters of MQDT were extracted from ab initio potential-energy functions for the low-lying p Rydberg states of molecular hydrogen and subsequently refined in a global weighted fit to available experimental data on the singlet and triplet Rydberg states of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}. The electron binding energies of high-np Rydberg states derived in this work represent important quantities for future determinations of the adiabatic ionization energies of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} at sub-MHz accuracy.

  3. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  4. High-resolution chemical imaging of gold nanoparticles using hard x-ray ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, R.; Patommel, J.; Schroer, C. G. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, J. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany) [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Germany; Hofmann, G.; Grunwaldt, J.-D. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Damsgaard, C. D. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)] [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Wellenreuther, G.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine resonant scattering with (ptychographic) scanning coherent diffraction microscopy to determine the chemical state of gold nanoparticles with high spatial resolution. Ptychographic images of the sample are recorded for a series of energies around the gold L{sub 3} absorption edge. From these data, chemical information in the form of absorption and resonant scattering spectra is reconstructed at each location in the sample. For gold nanoparticles of about 100 nm diameter, a spatial resolution of about 20-30 nm is obtained. In the future, this microscopy approach will open the way to operando studies of heterogeneous catalysts on the nanometer scale.

  5. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the distribution surrounding the most active geothermal features. The higher spectralspatial resolution SEBASS data were used to validate the lower spectralspatial resolution...

  6. High-resolution SIMS depth profiling of nanolayers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshev, S. V.; Zinovev, A. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Peng, Q.; Elam, J. W.; Veryovkin, I. V. (Energy Systems); ( MSD)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the fundamental physical limits for depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry are well understood in theory, the experimental work to achieve and demonstrate them is still ongoing. We report results of high-resolution TOF SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) depth profiling experiments on a nanolayered structure, a stack of 16 alternating MgO and ZnO {approx}5.5 nm layers grown on a Si substrate by atomic layer deposition. The measurements were performed using a newly developed approach implementing a low-energy direct current normally incident Ar{sup +} ion beam for ion milling (250 eV and 500 eV energy), in combination with a pulsed 5 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam at 60{sup o} incidence for TOF SIMS analysis. By this optimized arrangement, a noticeably improved version of the dual-beam (DB) approach to TOF SIMS depth profiling is introduced, which can be dubbed gentleDB. The mixing-roughness-information model was applied to detailed analysis of experimental results. It revealed that the gentleDB approach allows ultimate depth resolution by confining the ion beam mixing length to about two monolayers. This corresponds to the escape depth of secondary ions, the fundamental depth resolution limitation in SIMS. Other parameters deduced from the measured depth profiles indicated that a single layer thickness is equal to 6 nm so that the 'flat' layer thickness d is 3 nm and the interfacial roughness {sigma} is 1.5 nm, thus yielding d + 2{sigma} = 6 nm. We have demonstrated that gentleDB TOF SIMS depth profiling with noble gas ion beams is capable of revealing the structural features of a stack of nanolayers, resolving its original surface and estimating the roughness of interlayer interfaces, information which is difficult to obtain by traditional approaches.

  7. High-resolution radio observations of X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Miller-Jones

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an overview of important results obtained using high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of X-ray binary systems. These results derive from both astrometric observations and resolved imaging of sources, from black holes to neutron star and even white dwarf systems. I outline a number of upcoming developments in instrumentation, both new facilities and ongoing upgrades to existing VLBI instruments, and I conclude by identifying a number of important areas of investigation where VLBI will be crucial in advancing our understanding of X-ray binaries.

  8. High-Resolution Triple Resonance Autoionization of Uranium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumann, Philipp G.; Wendt, K; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-threshold autoionization (AI) spectrum of uranium has been investigated by triple-resonance excitation with single-mode continuous lasers. Spectra were recorded over the first {approx}30 cm-1 above the first ionization limit at a resolution of 3x10-4 cm 1 using intermediate states with different J values (6, 7, 8) to assign AI level total angular momentum JAI = 5 to 9. Resonances with widths ranging from 8 MHz to 30 GHz were observed; the strongest ones have JAI = 9 and widths of {approx} 60 MHz. Hyperfine structures for 235U and isotope shifts for 234,235U have been measured in the two intermediate levels and in the final AI level for the most favorable excitation path. These measurements were performed using aqueous samples containing sub-milligram quantities of uranium at natural isotopic abundances, indicating the potential of this approach for trace isotope ratio determinations.

  9. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1 Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution...

  10. Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of trans-Hexatriene-1-13C1; a Semiexperimental Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - alto high-resolution search Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . CARMENES, Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with a Near-infrared Echelle... -velocity noise. As a high-resolution ... Source: Gutirrez,...

  12. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M&O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M&O contractor at DOE`s most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes` HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M&Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M&Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M&O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M&Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M&Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner.

  13. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  14. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yael Naze; Gregor Rauw

    2008-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance (solar-like?). While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected on the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to <5 R_sol, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines.

  15. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  16. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  17. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  18. Towards wide-field high-resolution retinal imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adaptive optical correction is an efficient technique to obtain high-resolution images of the retinal surface. A main limitation of adaptive optical correction, however, is the small size of the corrected image. For medical purposes it is important to increase the size of the corrected images. This can be done through composite imaging, but a major difficulty is then the introduction of reconstruction artifacts. Another approach is multi-conjugate adaptive optics. MCAO comes in two flavors. The star- oriented approach has been demonstrated on the eye and allows to increase the diameter of the corrected image by a factor of approximately 2-3. Difficulties in the tomographic reconstruction precludes the correction of larger fields. Here we have investigate the possibility to apply a layer-oriented MCAO approach to retinal imaging.

  19. Advances of plasma diagnostics with high-resolution spectroscopy of stellar coronae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -U. Ness

    2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray emission from cool stars is an important tracer for stellar activity. The X-ray luminosity reflects different levels of activity and covers four orders of magnitude in stars of spectral types M-F. Low spectral resolution provided by X-ray observations of stellar coronae in the past allowed the determination of temperature distributions and elemental abundances making use of atomic databases (listing line emissivities and bremsstrahlung continuum for a given temperature structure). The new missions XMM-Newton and Chandra carry X-ray gratings providing sufficient spectral resolution to measure the fluxes of strategic emission lines. I describe the different approaches applicable to low-resolution and high-resolution spectra, especially focusing on the new grating spectra with X-ray lines. From only a few lines it is possible to determine plasma temperatures and associated densities, to check for any effects from resonant scattering, and to identify particular abundance anomalies. Line-based temperature- and density measurements represent only a fraction of the total plasma, but the pressure environment of different fractions can be probed simply by selection of specific lines. Selected results are presented covering all aspects of line-based analyses.

  20. but the resolution of 2 was not sufficient to determine whether the C18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thibado, Paul M.

    but the resolution of 2 was not sufficient to determine whether the C18 O emission was con- fined and AUI for funding the PT link project and to Western New Mexico Telephone Company for the use arsenide (GaAs) without losing their polar- ization, so that coherent transport through the active region

  1. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoukis, E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  2. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedrich, Stephan (San Jose, CA); , Niedermayr, Thomas R. (Oakland, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  3. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  4. Mile High: Noncompliance Determination (2012-SE-4501)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Mile High Equipment, LLC finding that Ice-O-Matic brand automatic commercial ice maker basic model ICE2106 FW, HW does not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  5. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  6. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  7. Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitry L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16. Yu. Shvyd’ko, X-Ray Optics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-rayspectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the

  8. Accurate Gravities of F, G, and K stars from High Resolution Spectra Without External Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, John M; Basu, Sarbani; Valenti, Jeff A; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a new procedure to derive accurate and precise surface gravities from high resolution spectra without the use of external constraints. Our analysis utilizes Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) with robust spectral line constraints and uses an iterative process to mitigate degeneracies in the fitting process. We adopt an updated radiative transfer code, a new treatment for neutral perturber broadening, a line list with multiple gravity constraints and separate fitting for global stellar properties and abundance determinations. To investigate the sources of temperature dependent trends in determining log g noted in previous studies, we obtained Keck HIRES spectra of 42 Kepler asteroseismic stars. In comparison to asteroseismically determined log g our spectroscopic analysis has a constant offset of 0.01 dex with a root mean square (RMS) scatter of 0.05 dex. We also analyzed 30 spectra which had published surface gravities determined using the $a/R_*$ technique from planetary transits and found a constan...

  9. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  10. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  11. Using Simulations To Determine The Energy Resolution Function Of Neutron Time-Of-Flight Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    and Analysis in Nuclear Criticality Safety--II #12;order to isolate the effects of the components INTRODUCTION High resolution nuclear data are important in their application in neutron transport calculations and their contribution to the understanding of nuclear models and interaction theory. At the Rensselaer Gaerttner Linear

  12. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  13. Determination of thickness and composition of high-k dielectrics using high-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grande, P. L. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia) [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Venkatachalam, D. K.; Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Nandi, S. K. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia) [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the application of high-energy elastic electron backscattering to the analysis of thin (2–20 nm) HfO{sub 2} overlayers on oxidized Si substrates. The film composition and thickness are determined directly from elastic scattering peaks characteristic of each element. The stoichiometry of the films is determined with an accuracy of 5%–10%. The experimental results are corroborated by medium energy ions scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements, and clearly demonstrate the applicability of the technique for thin-film analysis. Significantly, the presented technique opens new possibilities for nm depth profiling with high spatial resolution in scanning electron microscopes.

  14. Ultra-high-resolution alpha spectrometry for nuclear forensics and safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacrania, Minesh K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croce, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bond, Evelyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dry, Donald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, W. Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabin, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rim, Jung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Audrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beall, James [NIST-BOULDER; Bennett, Douglas [NIST-BOULDER; Kotsubo, Vincent [NIST-BOULDER; Horansky, Robert [NIST-BOULDER; Hilton, Gene [NIST-BOULDER; Schmidt, Daniel [NIST-BOULDER; Ullom, Joel [NIST-BOULDER; Cantor, Robin [STAR CRYOELECTRONICS

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We will present our work on the development of ultra-high-resolution detectors for alpha particle spectrometry. These detectors, based on superconducting transition-edge sensors, offer energy resolution that is five to ten times better than conventional silicon detectors. Using these microcalorimeter detectors, the isotopic composition of mixed-actinide samples can be determined rapidly without the need for actinide separation chemistry to isolate each element, or mass spectrometry to separate isotopic signatures that can not be resolved using traditional alpha spectrometry (e.g. Pu-239/Pu-240, or Pu-238/Am-241). This paper will cover the detector and measurement system, actinide source preparation, and the quantitative isotopic analysis of a number of forensics- and safeguards-relevant radioactive sources.

  15. The performance of Lagrangian perturbation schemes at high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Buchert; Georgios Karakatsanis; Robert Klaffl; Peter Schiller

    1995-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high--spatial resolution studies of the density field as predicted by Lagrangian perturbation approximations up to the third order. The first--order approximation is equivalent to the ``Zel'dovich approximation'' for the type of initial data analyzed. The study is performed for two simple models which allow studying of typical features of the clustering process in the early non--linear regime. We calculate the initial perturbation potentials as solutions of Poisson equations algebraically, and automate this calculation for a given initial random density field. The presented models may also be useful for other questions addressed to Lagrangian perturbation solutions and for the comparison of different approximation schemes. In an accompanying paper we investigate a detailed comparison with various N--body integrators using these models (Karakatsanis \\& Buchert 1995). Results of the present paper include the following: 1. The collapse is accelerated significantly by the higher--order corrections confirming previous results by Moutarde \\etal (1991); 2. the spatial structure of the density patterns predicted by the ``Zel'dovich approximation'' differs much from those predicted by the second-- and third--order Lagrangian approximations; 3. Second--order effects amount to internal substructures such as ``second generation'' --pancakes, --filaments and --clusters, as are also observed in N--body simulations; 4. The third--order effect gives rise to substructuring of the secondary mass--shells. The hierarchy of shell--crossing singularities that form features small high--density clumps at the intersections of caustics which we interprete as gravitational fragmentation.

  16. Chandra High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of AM Her

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Girish; V. R. Rana; K. P. Singh

    2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of high resolution spectroscopy of the prototype polar AM Herculis observed with Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The X-ray spectrum contains hydrogen-like and helium-like lines of Fe, S, Si, Mg, Ne and O with several Fe L-shell emission lines. The forbidden lines in the spectrum are generally weak whereas the hydrogen-like lines are stronger suggesting that emission from a multi-temperature, collisionally ionized plasma dominates. The helium-like line flux ratios yield a plasma temperature of 2 MK and a plasma density 1 - 9 x10^12 cm^-3, whereas the line flux ratio of Fe XXVI to Fe XXV gives an ionization temperature of 12.4 +1.1 -1.4 keV. We present the differential emission measure distribution of AM Her whose shape is consistent with the volume emission measure obtained by multi-temperature APEC model. The multi-temperature plasma model fit to the average X-ray spectrum indicates the mass of the white dwarf to be ~1.15 M_sun. From phase resolved spectroscopy, we find the line centers of Mg XII, S XVI, resonance line of Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI emission modulated by a few hundred to 1000 km/s from the theoretically expected values indicating bulk motion of ionized matter in the accretion column of AM Her. The observed velocities of Fe XXVI ions are close to the expected shock velocity for a 0.6 M_sun white dwarf. The observed velocity modulation is consistent with that expected from a single pole accreting binary system.

  17. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

  18. INNER SHELL EXCITATION OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES BY ELECTRON IMPACT WITH HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INNER SHELL EXCITATION OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES BY ELECTRON IMPACT WITH HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION F. H resolution energy loss spectra for inner shell excited states, (2) the observa- tion of inner shell excited are the subject of the present review. The inner shell states that can usefully be studied with energy resolutions

  19. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 57, No. 206, 2011 1087 Using high-resolution tritium profiles to quantify the effects of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    to quantify the effects of melt on two Spitsbergen ice cores L.G. VAN DER WEL,1 H.J. STREURMAN,1 E. ISAKSSON,2 ABSTRACT. Ice cores from small ice caps provide valuable climatic information, additional. To determine to what extent this can affect such ice cores, we performed high-resolution tritium measurements

  20. High-Resolution Monitoring of Internal Layers Over the Greenland Ice Sheet P. Kanagaratnam, S.P. Gogineni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    High-Resolution Monitoring of Internal Layers Over the Greenland Ice Sheet P. Kanagaratnam, S ice plays an important role in the rise of the Earth's sea level. A key variable in assessing the mass balance of an ice sheet is accumulation rate, which is currently determined from ice cores and pits

  1. Recording high-resolution wavelength-multiplexed data pages in a Lippmann data storage system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Recording high-resolution wavelength-multiplexed data pages in a Lippmann data storage system storage densities. 2. Lippmann data storage systems Applying the Lippmann interference color photographic

  2. applying high-resolution detectors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    since Spring 1999. Stereo 3 Using High-Resolution Detector and Signal Data to Support Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: data collection and storage...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive high-resolution simulation Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    URBAN TO REGIONAL SCALE AIR QUALITY PROBLEMS Summary: are limited. We are using hourly data from a very high resolution fixed grid MMM simulation and interpolating... the adapted...

  4. RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    function (GMF) which relates wind to backscatter (0 ) is not well understood for extremely high wind speedsRAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We

  5. High resolution non-contact thermal characterization of semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    imaging can have spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit of an infrared camera and can work infrared microscopes. Also, since the thermoreflectance technique does not rely upon the emitted black body measured the heating on a 35x35 micron MOS transistor, and Mansanares5 who measured temperature

  6. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  7. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  8. High-resolution seismology and comparison of synthetic seismograms for the Powderhorn field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung-Jin

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 40. Amplitude spectra of stacked traces after deconvolution by method 3 79 Figure 41. Sonic and porosity logs of well 811111. . . . 82 Figure 42. Time-depth conversion chart for CDP 53. . . . 86 Figure 43. The impulse-response model. 88 Figure... are dependent on the resolution of the seismic signal. Seismic resolution defines the degree of detail of vertical and lateral changes in the subsurface (position, shape, amplitude and velocities). Vertical resolution determines the ability to distinguish...

  9. A NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Laboratory P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, New York 12301-1072 A new high energy resolution modular neutronA NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY capabilities at the Laboratory in and above the resolved resonance energy region from 1 keV to 600 ke

  10. Cornelis Zwaan, open principle, and the future of high-resolution solar telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    Cornelis Zwaan, open principle, and the future of high-resolution solar telescopes Robert H erected up till 30 m height with sensors at several heights for the measurement of temperature; (iii) the design consequences for the new generation of high-resolution solar telescopes. Keywords

  11. High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grütter, Peter

    High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1 William and development of a friction force microscope for high-resolution studies in electrochemical environments in liquids. The noise of the system is analyzed based on a methodology for the quantification of all

  12. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  13. High-resolution fracture aperture mapping using optical profilometry Pasha Ameli,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elkhoury, Jean

    High-resolution fracture aperture mapping using optical profilometry Pasha Ameli,1 Jean E. Elkhoury] Fractures play an important role in the Earth's crust, often controlling both mechanical and transport of fracture surfaces and the contacts and void spaces between fracture surfaces at high spatial resolution (10

  14. A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems K.-M. Shyue mapped grid approach for the efficient numerical simula- tion of compressible multiphase flow in general problems, J. Comput. Phys. 142 (1998) 208-242). A standard high-resolution mapped grid method in wave

  15. Ultra High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation Project PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James J. Hack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. This project is developing the scientific a terrestrial carbon modeling capabil- ity. #12;Ultra High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation Project elersUltra High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation Project PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James J. Hack

  16. High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumlak, Uri

    High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations Ammar H. Hakim Information and Learning, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346, 1-800-521-0600, to whom the author Abstract High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations Ammar H. Hakim Chair

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND/ICE IMAGING USING SEASAT SCATTEROMETER MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    scatterometers which would permit the method to produce 1-2 km resolution over land and ice. The highHIGH-RESOLUTION LAND/ICE IMAGING USING SEASAT SCATTEROMETER MEASUREMENTS D. G. Long*, P. T. Whiting by the scatterometer,is expected to significantly enhance the utility of sca.tteroineter data in various land, ice

  18. alveolitis high-resolution computed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geiger, Cathleen 45 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  19. Time-series analysis of high-resolution ebullition fluxes from a stratified, freshwater lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, Charuleka

    [1] Freshwater lakes can emit significant quantities of methane to the atmosphere by bubbling. The high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ebullition, combined with a lack of high-resolution field measurements, has made ...

  20. The Separate Physics and Dynamics Experiment (SPADE) framework for determining resolution awareness: A case study of microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Xiao, Heng; Singh, Balwinder; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to use multi-resolution dynamical cores for weather and climate modeling is pushing the atmospheric community towards developing scale aware or, more specifically, resolution aware parameterizations that will function properly across a range of grid spacings. Determining the resolution dependence of specific model parameterizations is difficult due to strong resolution dependencies in many pieces of the model. This study presents the Separate Physics and Dynamics Experiment (SPADE) framework that can be used to isolate the resolution dependent behavior of specific parameterizations without conflating resolution dependencies from other portions of the model. To demonstrate the SPADE framework, the resolution dependence of the Morrison microphysics from the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Morrison-Gettelman microphysics from the Community Atmosphere Model are compared for grid spacings spanning the cloud modeling gray zone. It is shown that the Morrison scheme has stronger resolution dependence than Morrison-Gettelman, and that the ability of Morrison-Gettelman to use partial cloud fractions is not the primary reason for this difference. This study also discusses how to frame the issue of resolution dependence, the meaning of which has often been assumed, but not clearly expressed in the atmospheric modeling community. It is proposed that parameterization resolution dependence can be expressed in terms of "resolution dependence of the first type," RA1, which implies that the parameterization behavior converges towards observations with increasing resolution, or as "resolution dependence of the second type," RA2, which requires that the parameterization reproduces the same behavior across a range of grid spacings when compared at a given coarser resolution. RA2 behavior is considered the ideal, but brings with it serious implications due to limitations of parameterizations to accurately estimate reality with coarse grid spacing. The type of resolution awareness developers should target in their development depends upon the particular modeler’s application.

  1. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  2. Visualization of High Resolution Spatial Mass Spectrometric Data during Acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Mathew; Heath, Brandi S.; Laskin, Julia; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Ellen C.; Hui, Katrina L.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Carson, James P.

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass Spectrometric Imaging (IMS) allows the generation of 2D ion density maps that help visualize molecules present in sections of tissues and cells. The combination of spatial and mass resolution results in large and complex data sets that require powerful and efficient analysis and interpretation. In this paper, a graphical user interface (GUI) that can visualize the large data during data acquisition itself is presented. The program also has the ability to perform processing and analysis of the dataset. The various functions of the GUI including visualization of mass spectra, generation of 2D maps for selected species, manipulation of the heat maps, and peak identification are also presented.

  3. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 12B_Lambda by Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Iodice; F. Cusanno; A. Acha; P. Ambrozewicz; K.A. Aniol; P. Baturin; P.Y. Bertin; H. Benaoum; K.I. Blomqvist; W.U. Boeglin; H. Breuer; P. Brindza; P. Byd?zovsk´y; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E.A. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; L. Coman; B.J. Craver; G. De Cataldo; C.W. de Jager; R. De Leo; A.P. Deur; C. Ferdi; R.J. Feuerbach; E. Folts; R. Fratoni; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; F. Giulani; J. Gomez; M. Gricia; J.O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; T.K. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H.F. Ibrahim; X. Jiang; L.J. Kaufman; K. Kino; B. Kross; L. Lagamba; J.J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; M. Lucentini; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; Z.E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R.W. Michaels; D.J. Millener; T. Miyoshi; B. Moffit; P.A. Monaghan; M. Moteabbed; C. Munoz Camacho; S. Nanda; E. Nappi; V.V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; Y. Okasyasu; K.D. Paschke; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; V.A. Punjabi; Y. Qiang; B. Raue; P.E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; B. Reitz; R.E. Roche; V.M. Rodriguez; A. Saha; F. Santavenere; A.J. Sarty; J. Segal; A. Shahinyan; J. Singh; S. ? Sirca; R. Snyder; P.H. Solvignon; M. Sotona; R. Subedi; V.A. Sulkosky; T. Suzuki; H. Ueno; P.E. Ulmer; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Veneroni; E. Voutier; B.B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; and C. Zorn

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on a $^{12}$C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) were added to the Hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed \\lam{12}{B} spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state {\\it s}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak and the 11 MeV {\\it p}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak.

  4. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Werner, John S. (Davis, CA); Zawadzki, Robert J. (Sacramento, CA); Laut, Sophie P. (Pasedena, CA); Jones, Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  5. COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION TOWARD ORION-KL. I. SPATIAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L. [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Friedel, Douglas N., E-mail: susanna.widicus.weaver@emory.edu, E-mail: friedel@astro.illinois.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we present high spatial resolution (<1'') observations of molecular emission in Orion-KL conducted using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. This work was motivated by recent millimeter continuum imaging studies of this region conducted at a similarly high spatial resolution, which revealed that the bulk of the emission arises from numerous compact sources, rather than the larger-scale extended structures typically associated with the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge. Given that the spatial extent of molecular emission greatly affects the determination of molecular abundances, it is important to determine the true spatial scale for complex molecules in this region. Additionally, it has recently been suggested that the relative spatial distributions of complex molecules in a source might give insight into the chemical mechanisms that drive complex chemistry in star-forming regions. In order to begin to address these issues, this study seeks to determine the spatial distributions of ethyl cyanide [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN], dimethyl ether [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O], methyl formate [HCOOCH{sub 3}], formic acid [HCOOH], acetone [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO], SiO, methanol [CH{sub 3}OH], and methyl cyanide [CH{sub 3}CN] in Orion-KL at {lambda} = 3 mm. We find that for all observed molecules, the molecular emission arises from multiple components of the cloud that include a range of spatial scales and physical conditions. Here, we present the results of these observations and discuss the implications for studies of complex molecules in star-forming regions.

  6. Random vs realistic amorphous carbon models for high resolution microscopy and electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricolleau, C., E-mail: Christian.Ricolleau@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Alloyeau, D. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, CNRS-UMR 7162, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, Case 7021, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Le Bouar, Y.; Amara, H.; Landon-Cardinal, O. [Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures, UMR CNRS/Onera, 29, avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Châtillon (France)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous carbon and amorphous materials in general are of particular importance for high resolution electron microscopy, either for bulk materials, generally covered with an amorphous layer when prepared by ion milling techniques, or for nanoscale objects deposited on amorphous substrates. In order to quantify the information of the high resolution images at the atomic scale, a structural modeling of the sample is necessary prior to the calculation of the electron wave function propagation. It is thus essential to be able to reproduce the carbon structure as close as possible to the real one. The approach we propose here is to simulate a realistic carbon from an energetic model based on the tight-binding approximation in order to reproduce the important structural properties of amorphous carbon. At first, we compare this carbon with the carbon obtained by randomly generating the carbon atom positions. In both cases, we discuss the limit thickness of the phase object approximation. In a second step, we show the influence of both carbons models on (i) the contrast of Cu, Ag, and Au single atoms deposited on carbon and (ii) the determination of the long-range order parameter in CoPt bimetallic nanoalloys.

  7. High Resolution PET with 250 micrometer LSO Detectors and Adaptive Zoom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been impressive improvements in the performance of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems since their first development in the mid 1990s, both in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which have directly contributed to the increasing adoption of this technology for a wide range of biomedical applications. Nonetheless, current systems still are largely dominated by the size of the scintillator elements used in the detector. Our research predicts that developing scintillator arrays with an element size of 250 {micro}m or smaller will lead to an image resolution of 500 {micro}m when using 18F- or 64Cu-labeled radiotracers, giving a factor of 4-8 improvement in volumetric resolution over the highest resolution research systems currently in existence. This proposal had two main objectives: (i) To develop and evaluate much higher resolution and efficiency scintillator arrays that can be used in the future as the basis for detectors in a small-animal PET scanner where the spatial resolution is dominated by decay and interaction physics rather than detector size. (ii) To optimize one such high resolution, high sensitivity detector and adaptively integrate it into the existing microPET II small animal PET scanner as a 'zoom-in' detector that provides higher spatial resolution and sensitivity in a limited region close to the detector face. The knowledge gained from this project will provide valuable information for building future PET systems with a complete ring of very high-resolution detector arrays and also lay the foundations for utilizing high-resolution detectors in combination with existing PET systems for localized high-resolution imaging.

  8. High resolution ion Doppler spectroscopy at Prairie View Rotamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houshmandyar, Saeid; Yang Xiaokang [Solar Observatory Department, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Magee, Richard [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast ion Doppler spectroscopy (IDS) diagnostic system is installed on the Prairie View Rotamak to measure ion temperature and plasma flow. The diagnostic employs a single channel photomultiplier tube and a Jarrell-Ash 50 monochromator with a diffraction grating line density of 1180 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra of 200-600 nm. The motorized gear of the monochromator allows spectral resolution of 0.01 nm. Equal IDS measurements are observed for various impurity emission lines of which carbon lines exhibit stronger intensities. Furthermore, the diagnostics is examined in an experiment where plasma experiences sudden disruption and quick recovery. In this case, the IDS measurements show {approx}130% increase in ion temperature. Flow measurements are shown to be consistent with plasma rotation.

  9. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Miyaoka

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  10. A high performance R-D readout circuitry for lg resolution microaccelerometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    A high performance R-D readout circuitry for lg resolution microaccelerometers _Ilker E. Ocak an adjustable sensitivity up to 8 V/g with a noise level of 4.8 lg/HHz in open-loop. Keywords Sigma precision accelerometers with micro-g (lg, g = 9.8 m/s2 ) resolution have many applications, including

  11. High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens Shawn inspection alone, it is necessary to develop techniques, such as thermography, with the capability ­solid immersion lens microscopy and thermography. Standard non-contact optical resolution is limited

  12. Highly ecient kinetic resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xumu

    Highly ecient kinetic resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation James resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate was observed during alkylation. In addition, the reactivity and enantioselectivity showed a strong dependence on the acetate salt with the BSA/MOAc (M=alkali metal) base system

  13. NCEP Products Available to Distribute to CONDUIT High-Resolution Window Forecast System (HIRESW) Full

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NCEP Products Available to Distribute to CONDUIT Phase 1 High-Resolution Window Forecast System Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) Full Description Product Location The RTOFS for the North Atlantic resolution nest Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast (HWRF) system Full Description Product Location (hwrf

  14. A Warm Near-Infrared High-Resolution Spectrograph with Very High Throughput (WINERED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondo, Sohei; Kobayashi, Naoto; Yasui, Chikako; Mito, Hiroyuki; Fukue, Kei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Otsubo, Shogo; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Kitano, Ayaka; Hamano, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Misaki; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WINERED is a newly built high-efficiency (throughput$ > 25-30\\%$) and high-resolution spectrograph customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 ${\\rm \\mu}$m. WINERED is equipped with ambient temperature optics and a cryogenic camera using a 1.7 ${\\rm \\mu}$m cut-off HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG array detector. WINERED has two grating modes: one with a conventional reflective echelle grating (R$\\sim$28,300), which covers 0.9-1.35 $\\mu$m simultaneously, the other with ZnSe or ZnS immersion grating (R$\\sim$100,000). We have completed the development of WINERED except for the immersion grating, and started engineering and science observations at the Nasmyth platform of the 1.3 m Araki Telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory of Kyoto-Sangyo University in Japan. We confirmed that the spectral resolution ($R\\sim$ 28,300) and the throughput ($>$ 40\\% w/o telescope/atmosphere/array QE) meet our specifications. We measured ambient thermal backgrounds (e.g., 0.06 ${\\rm [e^{-}/sec/pixel]}$ at 287 K), which are roughly consistent ...

  15. automatic high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun Melvin, Stephen 24 Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics CERN Preprints Summary: Bibliographic databases were developed from the...

  16. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W., E-mail: khill@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lu, J. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  17. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations and experiments, using fission-spectrum neutron sources to assess neutron transmission through composite low-Z attenuators.

  18. Investigation of the Behavior of Ethylene Molecular Films Using High Resolution Adsorp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, Andi M [ORNL; Telling, Mark T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Larese, John Z [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wetting behavior of ethylene adsorbed on MgO(100) was investigated from 83-135 K using high resolution volumetric adsorption isotherms. The results are compared to ethylene adsorption on graphite, a prototype adsorption system, in an effort to gain further insight into the forces that drive the observed film growth. Layering transitions for ethylene on MgO(100) are observed below the bulk triple point of ethylene (T=104.0 K). The formation of three discrete adlayers is observed on the MgO(100) surface; onset of the second and third layers occurs at 79.2 ( 1.3 K and 98.3(0.9 K, respectively. Thermodynamic quantities such as differential enthalpy and entropy, heat of adsorption, and isosteric heat of adsorption are determined and compared to the previously published values for ethylene on graphite. The average area occupied by a ethylene molecule on MgO(100) is 22.6 ( 1.1A 2 molecule-1. The locations of two phase transitions are identified (i.e., layer critical temperatures at Tc2 (n=1) at 108.6 ( 1.7 K and Tc2 (n=2) at 116.5 ( 1.2 K) and a phase diagram is proposed. Preliminary neutron diffraction measurements reveal evidence of a monolayer solid with a lattice constant of 4.2A . High resolution INS measurements show that the onset to dynamical motion and monolayer melting take place at 35 K and 65 K, respectively. The data reported here exhibit a striking similarity to ethylene on graphite which suggests that molecule-molecule interactions play an important role in determining the physical properties and growth of molecularly thin ethylene films.

  19. Design of electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, Joyce G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer were designed and implemented. The driver for a piezoelectric inkjet print head can fire its nozzles with one of three droplet sizes ranging from 6 ...

  20. A machine learning model of Manhattan air pollution at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeler, Rachel H. (Rachel Heiden)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A machine-learning model was created to predict air pollution at high spatial resolution in Manhattan, New York using taxi trip data. Urban air pollution increases morbidity and mortality through respiratory and cardiovascular ...

  1. Perfusion-Based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfusion-Based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla Josef Pfeuffer and reperfusion, blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease, HIV-cognitive motor complex dementia, and epilepsy (5

  2. High-Resolution Characterization of Reservoir Heterogeneity and Connectivity in Clastic Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Thomas Frederick

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed new concepts and interpretative methods for mapping reservoir heterogeneity and connectivity of a fault controlled Wilcox clastic reservoir in Texas, USA. The application of high-resolution seismic enhancement in this study...

  3. The genetic architecture of Down syndrome phenotypes revealed by high-resolution analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstein, Mark

    The genetic architecture of Down syndrome phenotypes revealed by high-resolution analysis of human, CA, and approved May 29, 2009 (received for review December 30, 2008) Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy

  4. Fabricating BRDFs at High Spatial Resolution Using Wave Optics Anat Levin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    spatially varying reflectance at a high resolution of up to 220dpi , orders of magnitude greater than such as a BRDF chart [Ren et al. 2011] and a planar light probe [Alldrin and Kriegman. 2006]. Recent attempts

  5. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...

  6. High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...

  7. TOWARDS AN IMPROVED HIGH RESOLUTION GLOBAL LONG-TERM SOLAR RESOURCE DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    TOWARDS AN IMPROVED HIGH RESOLUTION GLOBAL LONG- TERM SOLAR RESOURCE DATABASE Paul W. Stackhouse and test an improved production system that will enable the longest-term global solar resource database

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION EPR AND PIEZOSPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF THE LITHIUM-OXYGEN DONOR IN GERMANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LCL-8429 HIGH-RESOLUTION EPR AND PIEZOSPECTROSCOPY STUDIESLBL-8429 •^^. -r-i^irjION EPR AND PIEZOSPECTROSCOPY STUDIESBOO X V X. X. X. X x V N The EPR and IR spectra of Li-0 can

  9. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI diffusion imaging at 4 Tesla, we scanned 234 young adult twins and siblings (mean age: 23.4 ± 2.0 SD years

  10. NESTED HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION AND LIDAR VALIDATION OF A LAND BREEZE CIRCULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    NESTED HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION AND LIDAR VALIDATION OF A LAND BREEZE CIRCULATION by GIJS DE BOER local forcing. A wide range of scales is simulated using the nesting capability of the University

  11. HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Z CANIS MAJORIS SYSTEM DURING QUIESCENCE AND OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Brenner, Douglas [Astrophysics Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Bvld, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Burruss, Rick; Wallace, J. Kent; Cady, Eric; Zhai, Chengxing [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dekany, Richard [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present adaptive optics photometry and spectra in the JHKL bands along with high spectral resolution K-band spectroscopy for each component of the Z Canis Majoris system. Our high angular resolution photometry of this very young ({approx}<1 Myr) binary, comprised of an FU Ori object and a Herbig Ae/Be star, was gathered shortly after the 2008 outburst while our high-resolution spectroscopy was gathered during a quiescent phase. Our photometry conclusively determines that the outburst was due solely to the embedded Herbig Ae/Be member, supporting results from earlier works, and that the optically visible FU Ori component decreased slightly ({approx}30%) in luminosity during the same period, consistent with previous works on the variability of FU Ori type systems. Further, our high-resolution K-band spectra definitively demonstrate that the 2.294 {mu}m CO absorption feature seen in composite spectra of the system is due solely to the FU Ori component, while a prominent CO emission feature at the same wavelength, long suspected to be associated with the innermost regions of a circumstellar accretion disk, can be assigned to the Herbig Ae/Be member. These findings clarify previous analyses of the origin of the CO emission in this complex system.

  12. Optic for an endoscope/borescope having high resolution and narrow field of view

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An optic having optimized high spatial resolution, minimal nonlinear magnification distortion while at the same time having a limited chromatic focal shift or chromatic aberrations. The optic located at the distal end of an endoscopic inspection tool permits a high resolution, narrow field of view image for medical diagnostic applications, compared to conventional optics for endoscopic instruments which provide a wide field of view, low resolution image. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion. The optic is also optimized for best color correction as well as to aid medical diagnostics.

  13. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  14. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N_Lambda by Electroproduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Cusanno; G. M. Urciuoli; A. Acha; P. Ambrozewicz; K. A. Aniol; P. Baturin; P. Y. Bertin; H. Benaoum; K. I. Blomqvist; W. U. Boeglin; H. Breuer; P. Brindza; P. Bydzovsky; A. Camsonne; C. C. Chang; J. -P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. A. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; L. Coman; B. J. Craver; G. De Cataldo; C. W. de Jager; R. De Leo; A. P. Deur; C. Ferdi; R. J. Feuerbach; E. Folts; R. Fratoni; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; F. Giuliani; J. Gomez; M. Gricia; J. O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D. W. Higinbotham; T. K. Holmstrom; C. E. Hyde; H. F. Ibrahim; M. Iodice; X. Jiang; L. J. Kaufman; K. Kino; B. Kross; L. Lagamba; J. J. LeRose; R. A. Lindgren; M. Lucentini; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; Z. E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R. W. Michaels; D. J. Millener; T. Miyoshi; B. Moffit; P. A. Monaghan; M. Moteabbed; C. Munoz Camacho; S. Nanda; E. Nappi; V. V. Nelyubin; B. E. Norum; Y. Okasyasu; K. D. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; V. A. Punjabi; Y. Qiang; B. Raue; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; B. Reitz; R. E. Roche; V. M. Rodriguez; A. Saha; F. Santavenere; A. J. Sarty; J. Segal; A. Shahinyan; J. Singh; S. Sirca; R. Snyder; P. H. Solvignon; M. Sotona; R. Subedi; V. A. Sulkosky; T. Suzuki; H. Ueno; P. E. Ulmer; P. Veneroni; E. Voutier; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zeng; C. Zorn

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of the 16O(e,e'K^+)16N_Lambda reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e,e'K^+)Lambda,Sigma_0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 +/- 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N_Lambda with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O_Lambda. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p_{1/2} and p_{3/2} hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  15. High-Resolution PFPE-based Molding Techniques for Nanofabrication of High-Pattern Density, Sub-20nm Features: A Fundamental Materials Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S.; Retterer, Scott; Lopez, Rene; Ruiz, Ricardo; Samulski, Edward T.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based elastomers for high-resolution replica molding applications are explored. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface tension values (<25 mN/m). Using large area (>4 in.{sup 2}) master templates, we experimentally show the relationship between mold resolution and material properties such as modulus and surface tension for materials used in this study. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus PFPE tetramethacrylate (TMA) composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nanograting structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  16. Overshooting Convection from High-resolution NEXRAD Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon, David

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    employs the difference between 6-7 µm water vapor absorption and ?11 µm infrared window channel brightness temper- ature for overshooting convection detection (e.g., Fritz and Laszlo, 1993; Ackerman, 2 1996; Schmetz et al., 1997; Setvak et al., 2007... and in Radiative Forcing, pp. 129–234, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Fritz, S., and I. Laszlo (1993), Detection of water vapor in the stratosphere over very high clouds in the tropics, J. Geophys. Res., 98 (D12), 22,959–22,967. 32 Fromm, M. D., and R...

  17. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  18. Ultra-high angular resolution by gravitational microlensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Bogdanov

    2000-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of restoration of the source brightness distribution from an analysis of the stellar and AGNs microlensing light curves is investigated. In case of microlensing of stars by a point-mass lens as well as for caustic crossing events for binary lens the problem can be reduced to solution of the Fredholm integral equation of the 1st kind. Concrete form of the kernel of this equation depends on a type of the microlensing event. Assuming the circular symmetry of the stellar disk the search for radial brightness distribution can be carried out in the special compact sets of functions which correspond to the physics of the problem. These sets include the non-negative functions that are not increasing with increasing distance from the center of stellar disk and the upwards convex non-negative functions. The brightness distribution for the AGNs accretion disks is also circularly symmetric, but only in the locally co-moving frame. Therefore, the kernel of integral equation that determined the AGN microlensing light curve must take into account equally with the projection effect on picture plane the influence of relativistic effects. The search for solution of this equation can be carried out in the set of non-negative down convex functions. The results of analysis of microlensing light curves for the red giant MACHO Alert 95-30 and the A6 star MACHO 98-SMC-1 as well as the results of numerical simulations for the AGN microlensing observations are given.

  19. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  20. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  1. A multi-purpose modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vass, Hugh; Herzig, Eva M; Ward, F Bruce; Clegg, Paul S; Allen, Rosalind J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure. The system consists of a pressurised cell of volume ~100 microlitres, a temperature controlled holder, a ram and a piston. We have made each of these components in several versions which can be interchanged to allow a wide range of applications. Here, we report two pressure cells with pressure ranges 0.1-700MPa and 0.1-100MPa, which can be combined with hollow or solid rams and pistons. Our system is designed to work with fluorescent samples (using a confocal or epifluorescence microscope), but also allows for transmitted light microscopy via the hollow ram and piston. The system allows precise control of pressure and temperature [-20-70C], as well as rapid pressure quenching. We demonstrate its performance and versatility with two applications: time-resolved imaging of colloidal phase transitions caused by pressure changes between 0.1MPa and 101MPa, and imaging the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria at 50MPa. We ...

  2. High resolution 3D insider detection and tracking.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vulnerability analysis studies show that one of the worst threats against a facility is that of an active insider during an emergency evacuation. When a criticality or other emergency alarm occurs, employees immediately proceed along evacuation routes to designated areas. Procedures are then implemented to account for all material, classified parts, etc. The 3-Dimensional Video Motion Detection (3DVMD) technology could be used to detect and track possible insider activities during alarm situations, as just described, as well as during normal operating conditions. The 3DVMD technology uses multiple cameras to create 3-dimensional detection volumes or zones. Movement throughout detection zones is tracked and high-level information, such as the number of people and their direction of motion, is extracted. In the described alarm scenario, deviances of evacuation procedures taken by an individual could be immediately detected and relayed to a central alarm station. The insider could be tracked and any protected items removed from the area could be flagged. The 3DVMD technology could also be used to monitor such items as machines that are used to build classified parts. During an alarm, detections could be made if items were removed from the machine. Overall, the use of 3DVMD technology during emergency evacuations would help to prevent the loss of classified items and would speed recovery from emergency situations. Further security could also be added by analyzing tracked behavior (motion) as it corresponds to predicted behavior, e.g., behavior corresponding with the execution of required procedures. This information would be valuable for detecting a possible insider not only during emergency situations, but also during times of normal operation.

  3. DETERMINATION OF SUB-RESOLUTION STRUCTURE OF A JET BY SOLAR MAGNETOSEISMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Verth, G.; McLaughlin, J. A., E-mail: r.j.morton@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: gary.verth@northumbria.ac.uk [School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin dark thread is observed in a UV/EUV solar jet in the 171 A, 193 A, and 211 A, and partially in 304 A. The dark thread appears to originate in the chromosphere but its temperature does not appear to lie within the passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We therefore implement solar magnetoseismology to estimate the plasma parameters of the dark thread. A propagating kink (transverse) wave is observed to travel along the dark thread. The wave is tracked over a range of {approx}7000 km by placing multiple slits along the axis of the dark thread. The phase speed and amplitude of the wave are estimated and magnetoseismological theory is employed to determine the plasma parameters. We are able to estimate the plasma temperature, density gradient, magnetic field gradient, and sub-resolution expansion of the dark thread. The dark thread is found to be cool, T {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}, with both strong density and magnetic field gradients. The expansion of the flux tube along its length is {approx}300-400 km.

  4. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  5. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  6. High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue1 Stephen A Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 Submitted for publication September 17, 1998 Background. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a compact high-speed imaging technology which uses infrared light to acquire

  7. The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 High-Resolution Cherenkov Telescopes for the Observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 High-Resolution Cherenkov Telescopes for the Observation of High-Energy Gamma Rays F.Kajino, T.Wasio, I.Tada, T.Oda, E.Choi, S.Hayashi, M.Sakata, Y optics and camera used for recent Cherenkov telescopes is usually limited to be only about 0.1 degree

  8. Acoustically Mounted Microcrystals Yield High-Resolution X-ray Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soares, Alexei S.; Engel, Matthew A.; Stearns, Richard; Datwani, Sammy; Olechno, Joe; Ellson, Richard; Skinner, John M.; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M. (Labcyte); (BNL)

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a general strategy for determining structures from showers of microcrystals. It uses acoustic droplet ejection to transfer 2.5 nL droplets from the surface of microcrystal slurries, through the air, onto mounting micromesh pins. Individual microcrystals are located by raster-scanning a several-micrometer X-ray beam across the cryocooled micromeshes. X-ray diffraction data sets merged from several micrometer-sized crystals are used to determine 1.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures.

  9. High-resolution sedimentary record of the last deglaciation from a high-altitude lake in Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    High-resolution sedimentary record of the last deglaciation from a high-altitude lake in Ethiopia J Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia d CEREGE, Europôle de l'Arbois, B.P. 80, 13545 long core collected from Lake Garba Guracha (Ethiopia) associated with a precise AMS-14 C time

  10. High-resolution 18F-FDG PET with MRI for monitoring response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner during human imaging. Jhigh-resolution 18 F-FDG PET images (pseudocolor) overlaidMONTH High-resolution 18 F-FDG PET with MRI for monitoring

  11. X-ray Observations of Galaxies: The Importance of Deep High-Resolution Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fabbiano

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray observations of galaxies have grown from a curiosity into a full-fledged field of astronomy. These observations provide unique information on black holes, binary stars, and the hot phase of the ISM, which can be used to constrain the chemical evolution of the Universe, and the joint evolution of galaxies and massive black holes. These exciting results are due in large part to the high-resolution capability of {\\it Chandra}. To follow on {\\it Chandra} and push forward this science past the present capabilities, our community must build a high-resolution (sub-arcsecond) large-area (several square meters) X-ray telescope.

  12. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  13. Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M. [and others

    1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in producing high damage threshold KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) and (D{sub x}H{sub 1-x}){sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different {open_quotes}vintages{close_quotes} of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic`s resolution to LLNL`s standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm{sup 2} (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning.

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents results of an investigation of the effects of variation in interfacial tension (IFT) on three-phase relative permeability. We report experimental results that demonstrate the effect of low IFT between two of three phases on the three-phase relative permeabilities. In order to create three-phase systems, in which IFT can be controlled systematically, we employed analog liquids composing of hexadecane, n-butanol, isopropanol, and water. Phase composition, phase density and viscosity, and IFT of three-phase system were measured and are reported here. We present three-phase relative permeabilities determined from recovery and pressure drop data using the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann (JBN) method. The phase saturations were obtained from recovery data by the Welge method. The experimental results indicate that the wetting phase relative permeability was not affected by IFT variation whereas the other two-phase relative permeabilities were clearly affected. As IFT decreases the ''oil'' and ''gas'' phases become more mobile at the same phase saturations.

  15. High resolution n = 3 to n = 2 spectra of neon-like silver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Cohen, S.; Hill, K.W.; Timberlake, J.; Walling, R.S.; Chen, M.H.; Hagelstein, P.L.; Scofield, J.H.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectra of the n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in neon-like silver emitted from the Princeton Large Torus have been recorded with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer. The measurements cover the wavelength region 3.3 to 4.1 A and include the forbidden 3p ..-->.. 2p electric quadrupole lines. Transitions in the adjacent sodium-like, and aluminum-like charge states of silver have also been observed and identified. The Ly-..cap alpha.. spectra of hydrogen-like argon and iron, the K..cap alpha.. spectra of helium-like argon, potassium, manganese, and iron, and the K..beta.. spectrum of helium-like argon fall in the same wavelength region in first or second order and have been measured concurrently. These spectra provide a coherent set of wavelength reference data obtained with the same spectrometer and from the same tokamak. This set is used as a basis to compare wavelength predictions for one- and two-electron systems to each other and to determine the transition energies of the silver lines with great accuracy.

  16. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance activity. This will allow (i) a direct comparison of future TC activity that could be expected for an active or inactive season in an altered climate regime, and (ii) a measure of the level of uncertainty and variability in TC activity resulting from different carbon emission scenarios.

  17. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  18. CO (3 – 2) HIGH-RESOLUTION SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC PLANE: R1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, J. T.; Thomas, H. S.; Currie, M. J., E-mail: j.dempsey@jach.hawaii.edu, E-mail: h.thomas@jach.hawaii.edu, E-mail: m.currie@jach.hawaii.edu [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first release (R1) of data from the CO High-Resolution Survey (COHRS), which maps a strip of the inner Galactic plane in {sup 12}CO (J = 3 ? 2). The data are taken using the Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii, which has a 14 arcsec angular resolution at this frequency. When complete, this survey will cover |b| ? 0.°5 between 10° < l < 65°. This first release covers |b| ? 0.°5 between 10.°25 < l < 17.°5 and 50.°25 < l < 55.°25, and |b| ? 0.°25 between 17.°5 < l < 50.°25. The data are smoothed to a velocity resolution of 1 km s{sup –1}, a spatial resolution of 16 arcsec and achieve a mean rms of ?1 K. COHRS data are available to the community online at http://dx.doi.org/10.11570/13.0002. In this paper we describe the data acquisition and reduction techniques used and present integrated intensity images and longitude-velocity maps. We also discuss the noise characteristics of the data. The high resolution is a powerful tool for morphological studies of bubbles and filaments while the velocity information shows the spiral arms and outflows. These data are intended to complement both existing and upcoming surveys, e.g., the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS), ATLASGAL, the Herschel Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) and the JCMT Galactic Plane Survey with SCUBA-2 (JPS)

  19. High-Resolution 3 T MR Microscopy Imaging of Arterial Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailer, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.sailer@univie.ac.at; Rand, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Austria); Berg, Andreas [University of Vienna, Institute for Medical Physics (Austria); Sulzbacher, Irene [University of Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology (Austria); Peloschek, P. [University of Vienna, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Austria); Hoelzenbein, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Surgery (Austria); Lammer, Johannes [University of Vienna, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Austria)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose. To achieve a high spatial resolution in MR imaging that allows for clear visualization of anatomy and even histology and documentation of plaque morphology in in vitro samples from patients with advanced atherosclerosis. A further objective of our study was to evaluate whether T2-weighted high-resolution MR imaging can provide accurate classification of atherosclerotic plaque according to a modified American Heart Association classification. Methods. T2-weighted images of arteries were obtained in 13 in vitro specimens using a 3 T MR unit (Medspec 300 Avance/Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany) combined with a dedicated MR microscopy system. Measurement parameters were: T2-weighted sequences with TR 3.5 sec, TE 15-120 msec; field of view (FOV) 1.4 x 1.4; NEX 8; matrix 192; and slice thickness 600 {mu}m. MR measurements were compared with corresponding histologic sections. Results. We achieved excellent spatial and contrast resolution in all specimens. We found high agreement between MR images and histology with regard to the morphology and extent of intimal proliferations in all but 2 specimens. We could differentiate fibrous caps and calcifications from lipid plaque components based on differences in signal intensity in order to differentiate hard and soft atheromatous plaques. Hard plaques with predominantly intimal calcifications were found in 7 specimens, and soft plaques with a cholesterol/lipid content in 5 cases. In all specimens, hemorrhage or thrombus formation, and fibrotic and hyalinized tissue could be detected on both MR imaging and histopathology. Conclusion. High-resolution, high-field MR imaging of arterial walls demonstrates the morphologic features, volume, and extent of intimal proliferations with high spatial and contrast resolution in in vitro specimens and can differentiate hard and soft plaques.

  20. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.

  1. A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye cosmic ray observatory J, 800 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1156 Abstract This article describes the ber-optic based: Highest energy cosmic rays Fly's Eye Experiment HiRes YAG Laser Fiber-optics PMT PACS: 95.45.+i 95.85.Ls

  2. Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanchao

    Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy voltammetry (ASV) capability has been demonstrated for detecting heavy metal ions in water. Metal ions in water from part-per-million to sub-part-per-billion levels with good linearity. Heavy metal poisoning

  3. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet: High resolution modeling of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, Andreas

    : Kiilsholm, S., J. H. Christensen, K. Dethloff, and A. Rinke, Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheetNet accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet: High resolution modeling of climate changes Sissi, Denmark Klaus Dethloff and Annette Rinke Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research

  4. Spatially-varying SAR models and Bayesian Inference for High-Resolution Lattice Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Spatially-varying SAR models and Bayesian Inference for High-Resolution Lattice Data Chiranjit Inverse problems Lattice data Non-stationary random fields Satellite imagery data Sparse spatial model- lenge our modelling and computational abilities as data volumes increase. Similarly, as spatial scales

  5. High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in Gregory P. Asnera,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    carbon emissions by 47% over deforestation alone, and secondary regrowth provided an 18% offset againstHigh-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon Gregory P. Asnera,1 , George V. N Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depend on mapping and monitoring of tropical forest carbon stocks

  6. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SOLAR ATLAS IN PROVENCE-ALPES-CTE D'AZUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the advantages of both the satellite-based solar radiation databases and the in situ ground station measurementsHIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SOLAR ATLAS IN PROVENCE-ALPES-CÃ?TE D'AZUR Philippe Blanc 1 , Bella EspinarTech / ARMINES, Centre for Energy and Processes, Sophia Antipolis (France) 2 TRANSVALOR, Sophia Antipolis (France

  7. OVERVIEW OF SELECTED SURROGATE TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH-TEMPORAL RESOLUTION SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OVERVIEW OF SELECTED SURROGATE TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH- TEMPORAL RESOLUTION SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT for characterizing selected properties of suspended sediments in rivers are being augmented and in some cases of quantifiably accurate data for use primarily in sediment-flux computations. Turbidity is the most common

  8. High spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a total optical power proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth power. An object that hasHigh spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a) S. A. Thorne, M. G increasing lens technique to subsurface thermal emission microscopy of Si integrated circuits. We achieve

  9. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  10. High resolution spectroscopic characterization of the FGK stars in the Solar neighbourhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complutense de Madrid, Universidad

    the EW #12;FIGURE 1. Left panel: EW Li I vs. (B-V). Different colors and symbols are used for stars). The obtained values are plotted in the EW(Li I) vs. spectral type diagram in Fig. 1 (left panel). ComparingHigh resolution spectroscopic characterization of the FGK stars in the Solar neighbourhood R. M

  11. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  12. ATLAS-BASED FIBER CLUSTERING FOR MULTI-SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    ATLAS-BASED FIBER CLUSTERING FOR MULTI-SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION and a co-registered probabilistic DTI atlas to select key pathways, applied a threshold and median anatomy 3. Make tract analysis robust to differences in the atlas and subject 1. Image Data · 105-gradient

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION MOTION ESTIMATION OF SEA ICE USING AN IMPLICIT QUAD-TREE APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiger, Cathleen

    and dynamic nature of sea ice is intimately connected with the thermal regulation of planetary heat transferHIGH RESOLUTION MOTION ESTIMATION OF SEA ICE USING AN IMPLICIT QUAD-TREE APPROACH M. Thomas, C. A data products. Since the motion is extracted from the image data iteratively, the estimated field

  14. Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    constructed using a novel proxy based on the presence in sediments of a biomarker (IP25) produced by sea ice produced by sea ice algae (Figure 2), to obtain an uninterrupted, high resolution (ca. 2-5 yr) record ice reconstructions Guillaume Massé1 , Steven J. Rowland1 , Marie-Alexandrine Sicre2 , Jeremy Jacob3

  15. HighResolution Numerical Methods for MicellarPolymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trangenstein, John A.

    been used to study the micellar­ polymer flooding process in enhanced oil recovery [12], [18], [19 in practical im­ plementation of enhanced oil recovery techniques at this time, there is increasing interestHigh­Resolution Numerical Methods for Micellar­Polymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer

  16. CeBr3 as a High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Reed, Paul Guss, Christopher Contreras

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Lanthanum halide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillators have been well-documented as high-resolution gamma-ray detectors that are operated at room temperature. These scintillators have better resolution (<3% at 662 keV) relative to sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillators (7% at 662 keV), but the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 138La causes self-activity in the crystal that occludes portions of the gamma-ray spectrum. This selfactivity limits the use of LaBr3:Ce in high-sensitivity applications. Cerium, the dopant in the LaBr3:Ce matrix possesses useful scintillation properties, and its selfactivity is on the order of 3750 times less than La; however, Ce has not been fully characterized as the chief component in a scintillation detector. This work investigated Ce as the key scintillation matrix component in a scintillation detector with the hypothesis that CeBr3 promises energy resolution comparable or superior to LaBr3:Ce. The researchers involved with this work believe that CeBr3 may be the answer to obtaining high-temperature, high-resolution spectra with greater sensitivity than LaBr3:Ce.

  17. Energy Resolved High Resolution Dynamic E-Cell Materials Research. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Ray; Sharma, Renu; Mayer, James

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to develop in situ materials reaction observation capability in an intermediate voltage high resolution transmission electron microscope. To accomplish this we purchased a GATAN imaging energy filter system, a hot stage, and designed and constructed an environmental cell and real time television image recording system, and installed this equipment on our EM 430 intermediate voltage electron microscope.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    infrared emission. This initially provoked heated debate between a ``starburst'' camp and an ``activeHIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1 J. Bernard, 10Y37 m spectra of 53 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), taken using the Infrared Spectrograph

  19. High Resolution Sharp Computational Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Problems in Complex Geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Ron

    High Resolution Sharp Computational Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Problems in Complex Geometries Frédéric Gibou Chohong Min Ron Fedkiw November 2, 2012 In honor of Stan Osher's 70th birthday of chemical species (see [48] and the references therein); they are also core building blocks in fields

  20. Scene Reconstruction from High Spatio-Angular Resolution Light Fields Changil Kim1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Henning

    Scene Reconstruction from High Spatio-Angular Resolution Light Fields Changil Kim1,2 Henning Zimmer Figure 1: Our method reconstructs accurate depth from light fields of complex scenes. The images on the left show a 2D slice of a 3D input light field, a so called epipolar-plane image (EPI), and two out

  1. Compact, High-Resolution, Multi-Layer Semiconductor PET Detector Module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Compact, High-Resolution, Multi-Layer Semiconductor PET Detector Module Summary Multi tomography (PET) systems, but the conventional electrodes used require a prohibitive number of readout channels. Now, a breakthrough compact PET detector offers a specialized configuration of cross strip

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING Maite L,cerquide,davidm,anna}@maia.ub.es ABSTRACT This paper introduces a machine learning approach into the process of direct volume rendering that generates the classification func- tion within the optical property function used for rendering. Briefly

  3. High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050. Modern global climate change evaluations usually based on application of coupled atmosphere-ocean global by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A number of different anthropogenic emission scenarios have been

  4. High-resolution population grids and future scenarios for Tanzania Philip J. Platts & Ruth D. Swetnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, Rob

    this grid and the LandScan grid to remove all persons from these protected areas (Single Map Algebra Tool1 High-resolution population grids and future scenarios for Tanzania Philip J. Platts & Ruth D, were obtained by hindcasting the LandScan grid on a ward-by-ward basis, such that ward totals matched

  5. A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems K.-M. Shyue 18 August 2010 Keywords: Compressible multiphase flow Fluid-mixture model Mapped grids Wave-propagation method Stiffened gas equation of state a b s t r a c t We describe a simple mapped-grid approach

  6. A High Resolution Intergalactic Explorer for the Soft X-ray/FUV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis; Fabrizio Fiore; the CWE Team

    2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a mission concept for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with a resolving power, R~6000, (c.f. R=Web'. The Cosmic Web is predicted to contain most of the normal matter (baryons) in the nearby Universe.

  7. ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 83 LVSEM for High Resolution Topographic and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawley, James

    ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 83 LVSEM for High Resolution Topographic Surface-Imaging Scanning Electron Microscope 205 C. Electrons as Probes in Scanning Microscopes 205 D. Limitations Associated with the Use of Electrons as the Probing Radiation 206 E. Response to These Limitations

  8. Increasing the Scalability of PISM for High Resolution Ice Sheet Models Phillip Dickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickens, Phillip M.

    Increasing the Scalability of PISM for High Resolution Ice Sheet Models Phillip Dickens School at large. One important piece of the climate puzzle is how the dynamics of large-scale ice sheets developed several simulation models to predict and understand the behavior of large-scale ice sheets

  9. Gas Dynamics in the Barred Seyfert Galaxy NGC4151 - II. High Resolution HI Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. G. Mundell; A. Pedlar; D. L. Shone; A. Robinson

    1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution (6" x 5") 21-cm observations of the neutral hydrogen in the nearby barred Seyfert galaxy, NGC4151. These HI observations, obtained using the VLA in B-configuration, are the highest resolution to date of this galaxy, and reveal hitherto unprecedented detail in the distribution and kinematics of the HI on sub-kiloparsec scales. A complete analysis and discussion of the HI data are presented and the global properties of the galaxy are related to the bar dynamics presented in Paper I.

  10. J. Phys III FFance 7 (1997) 1451-1467 JULY 1997, PAGE 1451 High Resolution Electron Microscopic Studies of the Atomistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo l13, Japan (~) Institute for Solid State Physics Mechanical properties of solids PACS.61.18.-j Other methods of structure determination Abstract. Direct attempted by using high resolution electron microscopy with the electron beam incident normal

  11. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Prieto, P; Rechenmacher, R; Semenov, A; Voy, D; Wendt, M; Zhang, D; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented.

  12. Intrinsic Linear Heterogeneity of Amyloid Beta Protein Fibrils Revealed by Higher Resolution Mass-per-length Determinations*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Kim

    Intrinsic Linear Heterogeneity of Amyloid Beta Protein Fibrils Revealed by Higher Resolution Mass was strongly affected by the pH of the negative stain. We conclude that highly stable amyloid fibrils may form of the central nervous system (1). Fibrils formed by 40-residue (A40) and 42-residue (A42) amyloid proteins

  13. High resolution neutron crystallographic studies of the hydration of coenzyme cob(II)alamin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jogl, Gerwald [Brown University; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Mason, Sax [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hoffmann, Christina [ORNL; Kratky, Christoph [Institute of Biosciences, University of Graz; Langan, Paul [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydration of coenzyme cob(II)alamin has been studied using high resolution monochromatic neutron crystallographic data collected at room temperature to a resolution of surrounded by flexible side chains with terminal functional groups may be significant for 0.92 on the original diffractometer D19 with a prototype 4o x 64o detector at the high-flux reactor neutron source run by the Institute Laue Langevin. The resulting structure provides H bonding parameters for the hydration of biomacromolecules to unprecedented accuracy. These experimental parameters will be used to define more accurate force-fields for biomacromolecular structure refinement. The presence of a hydrophobic bowl motif efficient scavenging of ligands. The feasibility of extending the resolution of this structure to ultra high resolution was investigated by collecting time-of-flight neutron crystallographic data on diffractometer TOPAZ with a prototype array of 14 modular 21o x 21o detectors at the Spallation Neutron Source run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. A High-resolution TOF Detector _ A Possible Way to Compete with a RICH Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Va'vra, J; /SLAC; Ertley, C.; /Argonne; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Schwiening, J.; /SLAC

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using two identical 64-pixel Burle/Photonis MCP-PMTs to provide start and stop signals, they have achieved a timing resolution of {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 7.2 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 50 photoelectrons (N{sub pe}) with a laser diode providing a 1 mm spot on the MCP window. The limiting resolution achieved was {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 5.0 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 180, for which they estimate the MCP-PMT contribution of {sigma}{sub MCP-PMT} {approx} 4.5 ps. The electronics contribution is estimated as {sigma}{sub Electrons} = 3.42 ps. These results suggest that an ultra-high resolution TOF detector may become a reality at future experiments one day.

  15. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ?1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ?2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  16. The effect of dark matter resolution on the collapse of baryons in high redshift numerical simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regan, John A; Wise, John H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the impact of dark matter particle resolution on the formation of a baryonic core in high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations. We test the effect that both particle smoothing and particle splitting have on the hydrodynamic properties of a collapsing halo at high redshift (z > 20). Furthermore, we vary the background field intensity, with energy below the Lyman limit ( 100.0$ be satisfied, where ${M_{\\rm{core}}}$ is the enclosed baryon mass within the core and $M_{\\rm{DM}}$ is the minimum dark matter particle mass. This ratio should provide a very useful starting point for conducting convergence tests before any production run simulations. We find that dark matter particle smoothing is a useful adjunct to already highly resolved simulations.

  17. Structure of W3(OH) from Very High Spectral Resolution Observations of 5 Centimeter OH Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Loránt O. Sjouwerman

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies of methanol and ground-state OH masers at very high spectral resolution have shed new light on small-scale maser processes. The nearby source W3(OH), which contains numerous bright masers in several different transitions, provides an excellent laboratory for high spectral resolution techniques. We present a model of W3(OH) based on EVN observations of the rotationally-excited 6030 and 6035 MHz OH masers taken at 0.024 km/s spectral resolution. The 6.0 GHz masers are becoming brighter with time and show evidence for tangential proper motions. We confirm the existence of a region of magnetic field oriented toward the observer to the southeast and find another such region to the northeast in W3(OH), near the champagne flow. The 6.0 GHz masers trace the inner edge of a counterclockwise rotating torus feature. Masers at 6030 MHz are usually a factor of a few weaker than at 6035 MHz but trace the same material. Velocity gradients of nearby Zeeman components are much more closely correlated than in the ground state, likely due to the smaller spatial separation between Zeeman components. Hydroxyl maser peaks at very long baseline interferometric resolution appear to have structure on scales both smaller than that resolvable as well as on larger scales.

  18. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, T.; Jensen, R.; Christensen, M. K.; Chorkendorff, I. [Department of Physics, Danish National Research Foundation's Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, Building 312, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O. [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/{Delta}m > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH{sub 3}.

  19. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  20. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China)] [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  1. Development of High Resolution Land Surface Parameters for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Yinghai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Coleman, Andre M.; Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing need for high-resolution land surface parameters as land surface models are being applied at increasingly higher spatial resolution offline as well as in regional and global models. The default land surface parameters for the most recent version of the Community Land Model (i.e. CLM 4.0) are at 0.5° or coarser resolutions, released with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Plant Functional Types (PFTs), vegetation properties such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), Stem Area Index (SAI), and non-vegetated land covers were developed using remotely sensed datasets retrieved in late 1990’s and the beginning of this century. In this study, we developed new land surface parameters for CLM 4.0, specifically PFTs, LAI, SAI and non-vegetated land cover composition, at 0.05° resolution globally based on the most recent MODIS land cover and improved MODIS LAI products. Compared to the current CLM 4.0 parameters, the new parameters produced a decreased coverage by bare soil and trees, but an increased coverage by shrub, grass, and cropland. The new parameters result in a decrease in global seasonal LAI, with the biggest decrease in boreal forests; however, the new parameters also show a large increase in LAI in tropical forest. Differences between the new and the current parameters are mainly caused by changes in the sources of remotely sensed data and the representation of land cover in the source data. Advantages and disadvantages of each dataset were discussed in order to provide guidance on the use of the data. The new high-resolution land surface parameters have been used in a coupled land-atmosphere model (WRF-CLM) applied to the western U.S. to demonstrate their use in high-resolution modeling. A remapping method from the latitude/longitude grid of the CLM data to the WRF grids with map projection was also demonstrated. Future work will include global offline CLM simulations to examine the impacts of source data resolution and subsequent land parameter changes on simulated land surface processes.

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the extension of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents experimental results that demonstrate combined scaling effects of viscous, capillary, and gravity crossflow mechanisms that apply to the situations in which streamline models are used. We designed and ran a series of experiments to investigate combined effects of capillary, viscous, and gravity forces on displacement efficiency in layered systems. Analog liquids (isooctane, isopropanol, and water) were employed to control scaling parameters by changing interfacial tension (IFT), flow rate, and density difference. The porous medium was a two-dimensional (2-D) 2-layered glass bead model with a permeability ratio of about 1:4. In order to analyze the combined effect of only capillary and viscous forces, gravity effects were eliminated by changing the orientation of the glass bead model. We employed a commercial simulator, Eclipse100 to calculate displacement behavior for comparison with the experimental data. Experimental results with minimized gravity effects show that the IFT and flow rate determine how capillary and viscous forces affect behavior of displacement. The limiting behavior for scaling groups for two-phase displacement was verified by experimental results. Analysis of the 2-D images indicates that displacements having a capillary-viscous equilibrium give the best sweep efficiency. Experimental results with gravity effects, but with low IFT fluid systems show that slow displacements produce larger area affected by crossflow. This, in turn, enhances sweep efficiency. The simulation results represent the experimental data well, except for the situations where capillary forces dominate the displacement.

  3. Large High Resolution Displays for Co-Located Collaborative Sensemaking: Display Usage and Territoriality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradel, Lauren; Endert, Alexander; Koch, Kristen; Andrews, Christopher; North, Chris

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large, high-resolution vertical displays carry the potential to increase the accuracy of collaborative sensemaking, given correctly designed visual analytics tools. From an exploratory user study using a fictional textual intelligence analysis task, we investigated how users interact with the display to construct spatial schemas and externalize information, as well as how they establish shared and private territories. We investigated the space management strategies of users partitioned by type of tool philosophy followed (visualization- or text-centric). We classified the types of territorial behavior exhibited in terms of how the users interacted with information on the display (integrated or independent workspaces). Next, we examined how territorial behavior impacted the common ground between the pairs of users. Finally, we offer design suggestions for building future co-located collaborative visual analytics tools specifically for use on large, high-resolution vertical displays.

  4. Technologies and R&D for a High Resolution Cavity BPM for the CLIC Main Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towler, J R; Soby, L; Wendt, M; Boogert, S T; Cullinan, F J; Lyapin, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Main Beam (MB) linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires a beam orbit measurement system with high spatial (50 nm) and high temporal resolution (50 ns) to resolve the beam position within the 156 ns long bunch train, traveling on an energy-chirped, minimum dispersive trajectory. A 15 GHz prototype cavity BPM has been commissioned in the probe beam-line of the CTF3 CLIC Test Facility. We discuss performance and technical details of this prototype installation, including the 15 GHz analogue downconverter, the data acquisition and the control electronics and software. An R&D outlook is given for the next steps, which requires a system of 3 cavity BPMs to investigate the full resolution potential.

  5. High-Resolution Genomic Profiles of Breast Cancer Cell Lines Assessed by Tiling BAC Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet,

    number changes in 10 breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MCF7, HCC1937, SK-BR-3, L56Br-C1, ZR-75-1, JIMT1High-Resolution Genomic Profiles of Breast Cancer Cell Lines Assessed by Tiling BAC Array, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, and HCC2218) and one cell line derived from fibrocystic disease of the breast

  6. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  7. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  8. High time resolution observations of the solar wind and backstreaming ions in the earth's foreshock region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Formisano, V.; Orsini, S.; Bonifazi, C.; Egidi, A.; Moreno, G.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of the solar wind with ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock is studied at high time resolution. It turns out that the bulk velocity of the solar wind oscillates, both in magnitude and direction, with typical periods of approx.1 minute in presence of the 'diffuse' ion population. Oscillations of comparable periods are also observed in the angular distribution and energy spectrum of the diffuse ions.

  9. A high-resolution, four-band SAR testbed with real-time image formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, B.; Sander, G.; Thompson, M.; Burns, B.; Fellerhoff, R.; Dubbert, D.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Twin-Otter SAR Testbed developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This SAR is a flexible, adaptable testbed capable of operation on four frequency bands: Ka, Ku, X, and VHF/UHF bands. The SAR features real-time image formation at fine resolution in spotlight and stripmap modes. High-quality images are formed in real time using the overlapped subaperture (OSA) image-formation and phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithms.

  10. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall G. E.; Goncharov, V.

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  11. SUBARU HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF COMPLEX METAL ABSORPTION LINES OF THE QUASAR HS 1603+38201

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iye, Masanori

    SUBARU HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF COMPLEX METAL ABSORPTION LINES OF THE QUASAR HS 1603-resolution spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem = 2.542), observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph -- quasars: individual (HS 1603+3820) 1. INTRODUCTION The bright quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem = 2.542, B = 15

  12. Hierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC) imagery for rangeland mapping and assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and is in the process of changing from film to digital aerial image acquisition. Cur- rently, only broad land useHierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC, MSC3JER, NMSU, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8003, USA Ultra-high-resolution digital aerial imagery has great

  13. Impact of recent lake eutrophication on microbial community changes as revealed by high resolution lipid biomarkers in Rotsee (Switzerland)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Impact of recent lake eutrophication on microbial community changes as revealed by high resolution t The effects of eutrophication on short term changes in the microbial community were investigated using high resolution lipid biomarker and trace metal data for sediments from the eutrophic Lake Rotsee (Swit- zerland

  14. The Double Seismic Zone of the Nazca Plate in Northern Chile: High Resolution Velocity Structure, Petrological Implications and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Double Seismic Zone of the Nazca Plate in Northern Chile: High Resolution Velocity Structure presents an interdisciplinary study of the Northern Chile Double Seismic Zone. First, a high resolution method. The double seismic zone (DSZ) is observed between 80 and 140 km depth and the two seismic planes

  15. Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben Ticha a,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben accurate high spatial and temporal resolutions wind measurements. Offshore, satellite data are an accurate radar, scatterometer, data fusion, offshore wind energy resource assessment. 1. INTRODUCTION Since

  16. Doped GdCl3 high resolution thermometers for use near to the lambda point , A.W. Harter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodstein, David

    Doped GdCl3 high resolution thermometers for use near to the lambda point R.A.M. Lee a , A.2 K to 2.185 K. A paramagnetic salt thermometer was constructed using this salt and measurements were made of its sensitivity, noise and drift. 1 INTRODUCTION High-resolution thermometers (HRTs) were

  17. Forensic palmprint recognition, which mainly deals with high-resolution palmprints and latent-to-full palmprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Abstract Forensic palmprint recognition, which mainly deals with high-resolution palmprints of the evidence of palmprints in forensics. There are some in-depth works on high-resolution palmprint comparison algorithm was proposed as it has been proposed for forensic likelihood ratio computation using

  18. High-resolution stratospheric tracer fields estimated from satellite observations using Lagrangian trajectory calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, R.T.; Maclean, H.; Swinbank, R.; O`Neill, A.; Taylor, F.W. [Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom); [Meteorological Office, Bracknell, Berkshire (United Kingdom); [Univ. of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is introduced by which high-resolution tracer fields may be constructed from low-resolution satellite observations. The technique relies upon the continual cascade of tracer variance from large to small scales and makes use of wind fields generated by a data assimilation scheme. To demonstrate its usefulness, the technique has been applied in a study of isentropic distributions of nitrous oxide in the winter midstratosphere, using measurements made by the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The results show that the high-resolution fields significantly increase the amount of information that is available from the satellite observations. The fields give insights into the characteristic structure and evolution of tracer distributions at scales that are normally obscured from view. Two results are particularly noteworthy. First, at the interface between low and middle latitudes there is evidence of active mixing. This mixing occurs on the eastern, equatorward side of air that is being drawn toward high latitudes around the polar vortex. Second, in the anticyclone, a complex pattern of transport is revealed. Air drawn in from low latitudes spirals together with ambient midlatitude air. Small scales are generated relatively slowly in the organized flow, and persistent filamentary structures, with transverse scales of hundreds of kilometers or greater, are seen.

  19. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth W. Hill, et. al.

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution (?/?#3;? ~ 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-?m 55 Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10-8 -10-6 times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  20. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, Marco; Mills, Andrew D; Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, modeling investment and dispatch problems in electricity economics has been limited by computation power. Due to this limitation, simplifications are applied. One common practice, for example, is to reduce the temporal resolution of the dispatch by clustering similar load levels. The increase of intermittent electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) changes the validity of this assumption. RES-E already cover a certain amount of the total demand. This leaves an increasingly volatile residual demand to be matched by the conventional power market. This paper quantifies differences in investment decisions by applying three different time-resolution residual load patterns in an investment and dispatch power system model. The model optimizes investment decisions in five year steps between today and 2030 with residual load levels for 8760, 288 and 16 time slices per year. The market under consideration is the four zone ERCOT market in Texas. The results show that investment decisions significantly differ across the three scenarios. In particular, investments into base-load technologies are substantially reduced in the high resolution scenario (8760 residual load levels) relative to the scenarios with lower temporal resolution. Additionally, the amount of RES-E curtailment and the market value of RES-E exhibit noteworthy differences.

  1. A high spatial resolution Stokes polarimeter for motional Stark effect imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorman, Alex; Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an enhanced temporally switched interfero-polarimeter that has been successfully deployed for high spatial resolution motional Stark effect imaging on the KSTAR superconducting tokamak. The system utilizes dual switching ferroelectric liquid crystal waveplates to image the full Stokes vector of elliptically polarized and Doppler-shifted Stark-Zeeman Balmer-alpha emission from high energy neutral beams injected into the magnetized plasma. We describe the optical system and compare its performance against a Mueller matrix model that takes account of non-ideal performance of the switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplates and other polarizing components.

  2. A design for a high resolution very-low-Q time-of flight diffractometer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelm, R. P.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a high resolution view low-Q time of flight diffractometer was motivated by the anticipated need to perform small-angle neutron scattering measurements at far lower momentum transfer and higher precision than currently available at either pulsed or steady state sources. In addition, it was recognized that flexibility in the configuration of the instrument and ease in which data is acquired are important. The design offers two configurations, a high intensity/very low Q geometry employing a focusing mirror and a medium to high Q-precision/low Q configuration using standard pinhole collimation geometry. The quality of the mirror optics is very important to the performance of the high intensity/very low Q configuration. We believe that the necessary technology exists to fabricate the high quality mirror optics required for the instrument.

  3. High resolution simulations of ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Cook, A W; Edwards, M J; Hammel, B A; Koning, J M; Marinak, M M

    2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)] have continued to evolve in light of improved physical data inputs, improving simulation techniques, and - most recently - experimental data from a growing number of NIF sub-ignition experiments. This paper summarizes a number of recent changes to the cryogenic capsule design and some of our latest techniques in simulating its performance. Specifically, recent experimental results indicated harder x-ray drive spectra in NIF hohlraums than were predicted and used in previous capsule optimization studies. To accommodate this harder drive spectrum, a series of high-resolution 2-D simulations, resolving Legendre mode numbers as high as two thousand, were run and the germanium dopant concentration and ablator shell thicknesses re-optimized accordingly. Simultaneously, the possibility of cooperative or nonlinear interaction between neighboring ablator surface defects has motivated a series of fully 3-D simulations run with the massively parallel HYDRA code. These last simulations include perturbations seeded on all capsule interfaces and can use actual measured shell surfaces as initial conditions. 3-D simulations resolving Legendre modes up to two hundred on large capsule sectors have run through ignition and burn, and higher resolution simulations resolving as high as mode twelve hundred have been run to benchmark high-resolution 2-D runs. Finally, highly resolved 3-D simulations have also been run of the jet-type perturbation caused by the fill tube fitted to the capsule. These 3-D simulations compare well with the more typical 2-D simulations used in assessing the fill tube's impact on ignition. Coupled with the latest experimental inputs from NIF, our improving simulation capability yields a fuller and more accurate picture of NIF ignition capsule performance.

  4. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  5. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson, B.N.P. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  6. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  7. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, J.; Huang, X.; Steinbrener, J.; Shapiro, D.; Kirz, J.; Marchesini, S.; Neiman, A. M.; Turner, J. J.; Jacobsen, C.

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolu- tion limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11–13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of mole- cular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lec- tin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  8. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  9. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)] [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  10. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  11. Background and Scattered Light Subtraction in the High-Resolution Echelle Modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Christopher Howk; Kenneth R. Sembach

    1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple, effective approach for estimating the on-order backgrounds of spectra taken with the highest-resolution modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our scheme for determining the on-order background spectrum uses polynomial fits to the inter-order scattered light visible in the two-dimensional STIS MAMA images. We present a suite of high-resolution STIS spectra to demonstrate that our background subtraction routine produces the correct overall zero point, as judged by the small residual flux levels in the centers of strongly-saturated interstellar absorption lines. Although there are multiple sources of background light in STIS echelle mode data, this simple approach works very well for wavelengths longward of Lyman-alpha. At shorter wavelengths, the smaller order separation and generally lower signal-to-noise ratios of the data can reduce the effectiveness of our background estimation procedure. Slight artifacts in the background-subtracted spectrum can be seen in some cases, particularly at wavelengths <1300 Ang. Most of these are caused by echelle scattering of strong spectral features into the inter-order light. We discuss the limitations of high-resolution STIS data in light of the uncertainties associated with our background subtraction procedure. We compare our background-subtracted STIS spectra with GHRS Ech-A observations of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B and GHRS first-order G160M observations of the early-type star HD 218915. We find no significant differences between the GHRS data and the STIS data reduced with our method in either case.

  12. THE USE OF THE HIGH RESOLUTION VISIBLE IN SAFNWC/MSG Marcel Derrien, Herv Le Glau, Marie-Paule Raoul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in this paper is an output of this task. HRV IMAGERY CHARACTERISTICS SEVIRI has one high resolution (HRes) broadband solar channel (0.3-1.1 m) and 11 lower resolution (LRes) channels; 3 narrowband solar channels (0 scheme of HRV data.

  13. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  14. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  15. Scientific system for high-resolution measurement of the circumsolar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrott, Simeon, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Schmidt, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Hornung, Thorsten, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Nitz, Peter, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a camera based system for measurements of the circumsolar radiation with a high angular resolution of 0.1 mrad. Subsequent measurements may be taken at intervals as short as 15 s. In this publication we describe the optical system in detail and discuss some aspects of the measurement method. First results from two days of measurement at Freiburg i. Br., Germany, are presented and compared to data from literature. The good results encourage us to perform longer measurement campaigns in future to better understand the influence of circumsolar radiation on the power yield of concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  16. High-Resolution Infrared and Electron-Diffraction Studies of Trimethylenecyclopropane ([3]-Radialene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Corey R.; Holmes, Joshua; Nibler, Joseph W.; Hedberg, Kenneth; White, James D.; Hedberg, Lise; Weber, Alfons; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined high-resolution spectroscopic, electron-diffraction, and quantum theoretical methods are particularly advantageous for small molecules of high symmetry and can yield accurate structures that reveal subtle effects of electron delocalization on molecular bonds. The smallest of the radialene compounds, trimethylenecyclopropane, [3]-radialene, has been synthesized and examined in the gas phase by these methods. The first high-resolution infrared spectra have been obtained for this molecule of D3h symmetry, leading to an accurate B0 rotational constant value of 0.1378629(8) cm-1, within 0.5% of the value obtained from electronic structure calculations (density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/cc-pVTZ). This result is employed in an analysis of electron-diffraction data to obtain the rz bond lengths (in Å): C-H = 1.072 (17), C-C = 1.437 (4), and C=C = 1.330 (4). The analysis does not lead to an accurate value of the HCH angle; however, from comparisons of theoretical and experimental angles for similar compounds, the theoretical prediction of 117.5? is believed to be reliable to within 2?. The effect of electron delocalization in radialene is to reduce the single C-C bond length by 0.07 Å compared to that in cyclopropane.

  17. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom)] [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)] [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  18. Large area, high spatial resolution tracker for new generation of high luminosity experiments in Hall A at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellini, V; Castelluccio, D; Colilli, S; Cisbani, E; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Guiliani, F; Guisa, A; Gricia, M; Lucentini, M; Meddi, F; Minutoli, S; Musico, P; Noto, F; De Oliveira, R; Santavenere, F; Sutera, M C

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2014 the CEBAF electron accelerator at Jefferson Lab (JLab) will deliver a longitudinally polarized (up to 85%), high intensity (up to 100 ?A) beam with maximum energy of 12 GeV, twice the present value. To exploit the new opportunities that the energy upgrade will offer, a new spectrometer (Super BigBite - SBS) is under development, featuring very forward angle, large acceptance and ability to operate in high luminosity environment. The tracking system of SBS will consist of large area (40×150 cm2 and 50×200 cm2), high spatial resolution (better than 100 ?m) chambers based on the GEM technology and 2 small (10×20 cm) Silicon Strip Detector planes. The design of the GEM chambers and its sub-components such as the readout electronics is resented here.

  19. High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Bevin

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    S-wave reflection profiling has many theoretical advantages, when compared to P-wave profiling, such as high-resolution potential, greater sensitivities to lithologic changes and insensitivity to the water table and pore ...

  20. Astron. Nachr./AN 32X (2002) X, XXXXXX Imaging Magnetographs for High-Resolution Solar Observations in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnetograph (VIM) is basically a twin of IRIM for observations in the wavelength range from 550 nm to 700 nm goals of VIM and IRIM are high temporal and spatial resolution observations while maintaining moderate

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a 0.5-mm lutetium oxyorthosilicate detector array for high-resolution PET applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stickel, Jennifer R; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive51:2131–2142. 0.5- MM LSO A RRAY FOR PET • Stickel et al.Instrumentation aspects of animal PET. Annu Rev Biomed Eng.

  2. High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Bevin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??S-wave reflection profiling has many theoretical advantages, when compared to P-wave profiling, such as high-resolution potential, greater sensitivities to lithologic changes and insensitivity to the… (more)

  3. High-resolution calorimetric study of the nematic to smectic- A transition in aligned liquid crystal–aerosil gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garland, Carl W.

    High-resolution ac calorimetry has been used to study the nematic to smectic-A (N-SmA) phase transition in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined in aligned colloidal aerosil gels. A stable and robust nematic ...

  4. A Curved Image-Plate Detector System for High-Resolution Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarin, P.; Haggerty, R; Yoon, W; Knapp, M; Berghaeuser, A; Zschack, P; Karapetrova, E; Yang, N; Kriven, W

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The developed curved image plate (CIP) is a one-dimensional detector which simultaneously records high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns over a 38.7 2{theta} range. In addition, an on-site reader enables rapid extraction, transfer and storage of X-ray intensity information in {le}30 s, and further qualifies this detector to study kinetic processes in materials science. The CIP detector can detect and store X-ray intensity information linearly proportional to the incident photon flux over a dynamical range of about five orders of magnitude. The linearity and uniformity of the CIP detector response is not compromised in the unsaturated regions of the image plate, regardless of saturation in another region. The speed of XRD data acquisition together with excellent resolution afforded by the CIP detector is unique and opens up wide possibilities in materials research accessible through X-ray diffraction. This article presents details of the basic features, operation and performance of the CIP detector along with some examples of applications, including high-temperature XRD.

  5. High spatial and temporal resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Y. L.; Yu, D. L., E-mail: yudl@swip.ac.cn; Liu, L.; Cao, J. Y.; Sun, A. P.; Ma, Q.; Chen, W. J.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Hellermann, M. von [ITER Diagnostic Team, IO, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); FOM-Institute for Plasma physics “Rijnhuizen,” Association EURATOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 32/64-channel charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system is developed on the HL-2A tokamak (R = 1.65 m, a = 0.4 m), monitoring plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity simultaneously. A high throughput spectrometer (F/2.8) and a pitch-controlled fiber bundle enable the temporal resolution of the system up to 400 Hz. The observation geometry and an optimized optic system enable the highest radial resolution up to ?1 cm at the plasma edge. The CXRS system monitors the carbon line emission (C VI, n = 8–7, 529.06 nm) whose Doppler broadening and Doppler shift provide ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity during the neutral beam injection. The composite CX spectral data are analyzed by the atomic data and analysis structure charge exchange spectroscopy fitting (ADAS CXSFIT) code. First experimental results are shown for the case of HL-2A plasmas with sawtooth oscillations, electron cyclotron resonance heating, and edge transport barrier during the high-confinement mode (H-mode)

  6. Diamond-machined ZnSe immersion grating for NIR high-resolution spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Yasui, C; Kondo, S; Minami, A; Motohara, K

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnSe immersion gratings (n {approx} 2.45) provide the possibility of high-resolution spectroscopy for the near-infrared (NIR) region. Since ZnSe has a lower internal attenuation than other NIR materials, it is most suitable for immersion grating, particularly in short NIR region (0.8-1.4 {micro}m). We are developing an extremely high-resolution spectrograph with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 100,000, WINERED, customized for the short NIR region, using ZnSe (or ZnS) immersion grating. However, it had been very difficult to make fine grooves on ZnSe substrate with a small pitch of less than 50 {micro}m because ZnSe is a soft/brittle material. We have overcome this problem and successfully machined sharp grooves with fine pitch on ZnSe substrates by nano precision fly-cutting technique at LLNL. The optical testing of the sample grating with HeNe laser shows an excellent performance: the relative efficiency more than 87.4 % at 0.633 {micro}m for a classical grating configuration. The diffraction efficiency when used as an immersion grating is estimated to be more than 65 % at 1 {micro}m. Following this progress, we are about to start machining a grating on a large ZnSe prism with an entrance aperture of 23mm x 50mm and the blaze angle of 70{sup o}.

  7. First high-resolution analysis of the 41+3 band of nitrogen dioxide near 1.5 m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 1 First high-resolution analysis of the 41+3 band of nitrogen dioxide near 1.5 µm Agnès Perrin a. Keywords: 14 N16 O2; Nitrogen dioxide; High-resolution infrared spectrum; Electron spin- rotation resonance, CRDS hal-00563141,version1-4Feb2011 #12;3 3 1. Introduction Nitrogen dioxide (14 N16 O2

  8. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui, E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); Bitter, M., E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Kerr, S. [Department of Applied Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  9. High Spatial Resolution Fast-Neutron Imaging Detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mor, I; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Katz, D; Sayag, E; Shmueli, I; Cohen, Y; Tal, A; Vagish, Z; Bromberger, B; Dangendorf, V; Mugai, D; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1 - 10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several images, each at a different neutron energy (TOF). In addition, a gamma-ray image can also be simultaneously registered, allowing combined neutron/gamma inspection of objects. This permits combining the sensitivity of the fast-neutron resonance method to low-Z elements with that of gamma radiography to high-Z materials.

  10. High resolution coherent diffractive imaging with a table-top extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vu Le, Hoang, E-mail: vuhoangle@swin.edu.au; Ba Dinh, Khuong; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a resolution of 45?nm with a sample size down to 3??m × 3??m is achieved in a short exposure time of 2?s, from the diffraction pattern generated by a table-top high harmonic source at around 30?nm. By using a narrow-bandwidth focusing mirror, the diffraction pattern's quality is improved and the required exposure time is significantly reduced. In order to obtain a high quality of the reconstructed image, the ratio of the beam size to the sample size and the curvature of the focused beam need to be considered in the reconstruction process. This new experimental scheme is very promising for imaging sub-10?nm scale objects with a table-top source based on a small inexpensive femtosecond laser system.

  11. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure: Final project report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, R.W.; Lin, S.H.

    1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Work includes studies of interface and grain boundary chemistry and structure in silicon nitride matrix/silicon carbide whisker composites, and in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide synthesized by several different methods. Off-stoichiometric, impurity, and sintering aid elemental distributions in these materials (and other ceramics) have been of great interest because of expected effects on properties but these distributions have proven very difficult to measure because the spatial resolution required is high. The authors made a number of these measurements for the first time, using techniques and instrumentation developed here. Interfaces between metals and SiC are the basis for important metal matrix composites and contacts for high temperature SiC-based solid state electronic devices. The authors have investigated ultrapure interfaces between Ti, Hf, Ti-Hf alloys, Pt, and Co and Si-terminated (0001) 6H SiC single crystals for the first time.

  12. High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yin; Wang, Wen; Wysocki, Gerard, E-mail: gwysocki@princeton.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Soskind, Michael G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersy 08901 (United States)

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we present a method of performing broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy with conventional, free-running, continuous wave Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (FP-QCLs). The measurement method is based on multi-heterodyne down-conversion of optical signals. The sample transmission spectrum probed by one multi-mode FP-QCL is down-converted to the radio-frequency domain through an optical multi-heterodyne process using a second FP-QCL as the local oscillator. Both a broadband multi-mode spectral measurement as well as high-resolution (?15?MHz) spectroscopy of molecular absorption are demonstrated and show great potential for development of high performance FP-laser-based spectrometers for chemical sensing.

  13. The Application of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (HRGS) to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, Walter R.; Lemley, James R.; Forman, Leon

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    While well-developed methodologies exist for the employment of high- resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) in determining the isotopic composition of plutonium samples, the potential capabilities of such measurements in determining the properties of nuclear materials otherwise remain largely unexploited. These measurements contain information sufficiently detailed such that not only can the isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium materials be determined, but the details of the spectrum obtained will depend reproducibly upon other factors including the total mass, density, chemical composition, and geometrical configuration of the material, and for certain materials, the elapsed time since chemical processing. The potential thus exists to obtain a `gamma-ray fingerprint` for typical containers or assemblies of nuclear material which will then serve to identify that class of item in a later confirmatory measurement. These measurements have the additional advantage that, by comparison with active interrogation techniques which usually require the introduction of some extraneous form of radiation or other intrusive activity, they are totally passive, and thus impose only minimal additional safety or regulatory burdens on the operators. In the application of these measurements to the verification of treaty-limited items, where the information acquired may be sensitive in nature, the use of the CIVET (Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technique) approach, where a computer-based interface is employed to limit access to the information obtained, may be followed.

  14. Nanosecond molecular relaxations in lipid bilayers studied by high energy resolution neutron scattering and in-situ diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maikel C. Rheinstädter; Tilo Seydel; Tim Salditt

    2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a high energy-resolution neutron backscattering study to investigate slow motions on nanosecond time scales in highly oriented solid supported phospholipid bilayers of the model system DMPC -d54 (deuterated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine), hydrated with heavy water. Wave vector resolved quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is used to determine relaxation times $\\tau$, which can be associated with different molecular components, i.e., the lipid acyl chains and the interstitial water molecules in the different phases of the model membrane system. The inelastic data are complemented both by energy resolved and energy integrated in-situ diffraction. From a combined analysis of the inelastic data in the energy and time domain, the respective character of the relaxation, i.e., the exponent of the exponential decay is also determined. From this analysis we quantify two relaxation processes. We associate the fast relaxation with translational diffusion of lipid and water molecules while the slow process likely stems from collective dynamics.

  15. Study of Fish Response Using Particle Image Velocimetry and High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2004-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing literature of previous particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of fish swimming has been reviewed. Historically, most of the studies focused on the performance evaluation of freely swimming fish. Technological advances over the last decade, especially the development of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique, make possible more accurate, quantitative descriptions of the flow patterns adjacent to the fish and in the wake behind the fins and tail, which are imperative to decode the mechanisms of drag reduction and propulsive efficiency. For flows generated by different organisms, the related scales and flow regimes vary significantly. For small Reynolds numbers, viscosity dominates; for very high Reynolds numbers, inertia dominates, and three-dimensional complexity occurs. The majority of previous investigations dealt with the lower end of Reynolds number range. The fish of our interest, such as rainbow trout and spring and fall chinook salmon, fall into the middle range, in which neither viscosity nor inertia is negligible, and three-dimensionality has yet to dominate. Feasibility tests have proven the applicability of PIV to flows around fish. These tests have shown unsteady vortex shedding in the wake, high vorticity region and high stress region, with the highest in the pectoral area. This evident supports the observations by Nietzel et al. (2000) and Deng et al. (2004) that the operculum are most vulnerable to damage from the turbulent shear flow, because they are easily pried open, and the large vorticity and shear stress can lift and tear off scales, rupture or dislodge eyes, and damage gills. In addition, the unsteady behavior of the vortex shedding in the wake implies that injury to fish by the instantaneous flow structures would likely be much higher than the injury level estimated using the average values of the dynamics parameters. Based on existing literature, our technological capability, and relevance and practicability to Department of Energy's Hydropower Program, we identified three major research areas of interest: free swimming, the boundary layer over fish, and kinematic response of fish. We propose that the highest priority is to characterize the kinematic response of fish to different turbulent environments such as high shear/turbulence and hydrodynamic disturbances created by solid structures such as deflector and turbine runner blade; the next priority is to map the boundary layer over swimming fish; the last is to document the behavior of freely swimming fish, focusing on fish of our interest. Grid turbulence and Karman vortex street will be employed to map the boundary layers over fish and investigate the effects of environmental disturbances on the swimming performance of fish, because they are well established and documented in engineering literature and are representative of fish's swimming environments. Extreme conditions characteristic of turbine environments, such as strong shear environment and collision, will be investigated. Through controlled laboratory studies, the fish injury mechanism from different sources will be evaluated in isolation. The major goals are to: gain first-hand knowledge of the biological effects under such extreme hydraulic environments in which fish could lack the capability to overcome the perturbations and be vulnerable to injury; Better understand field results by integrating the laboratory studies with the responses of sensor fish device; More importantly, provide well-defined validation cases and boundary conditions for geometry-based computational fluid-structure interaction modeling in order to simulate the complex hydraulic environments in advanced hydropower systems and their effects on fish, greatly enhancing the potential to use CFD as a bio-hydraulic design alternative.

  16. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms. Analysis of low concentration ions, at the ppm level, required a separate analysis using ion ejection techniques. Chemical ionization due to the formation of the MH{sup +} ion or MD{sup +} increased the complexity of the spectra compared to magnetic sector mass spectra and formation of the protonated or deuterated complex was a dynamic function of the trap ion concentration. This made quantitative measurement more of a challenge. However, the resolution of the instrument was far superior to any other mass spectrometry technique that has been applied to the analysis of the hydrogen isotopes. The piezo-electric picoliter injection device offers a new way of submitting small quantities of atmospheric pressure sample gas for analysis. The new software had many improvements over the previous version but significant flaws in the beta codes remain that make the prototype units less than ideal. The instrument is a promising new technology that experience will likely improve. Unfortunately, Siemens has concluded that the technology will not be a commercial success and has decided to stop producing this product.

  17. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelley, Martin [Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Parsons, David [Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Women's and Children's Health Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Department of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Department of Paediatircs Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Morgan, Kaye [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Siu, Karen [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 {mu}m and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron.Overcoming these challenges has permitted increasingly sophisticated imaging of animals with synchrotron X-rays, and we expect a bright future for these techniques.

  18. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  19. Submillimeter Array High-angular Resolution Observations of the Monoceros R2 Star Forming Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dierickx, Marion; Rivilla, Victor; Zhang, Qizhou

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first high-angular resolution study of the MonR2 star-forming complex carried out with the Submillimeter Array at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We image the continuum and molecular line emission toward the young stellar objects in MonR2 at 0.85mm and 1.3mm, with resolutions ranging from 0.5" to ~3". While free-free emission dominates the IRS1 and IRS2 continuum, dust thermal emission prevails for IRS3 and IRS5, giving envelope masses of ~0.1-0.3 M_Sun. IRS5 splits into at least two sub-arcsecond scale sources, IRS5B and the more massive IRS5A. Our 12CO(2-1) images reveal 11 previously unknown molecular outflows in the MonR2 clump. Comparing these outflows with known IR sources in the IRS5 and IRS3 subclusters allows for tentative identification of driving stars. Line images of molecular species such as CH3CN or CH3OH show that, besides IRS3 (a well-known hot molecular core), IRS5 is also a chemically active source in the region. The gas excitation temperature derived from CH3CN lines toward IRS...

  20. High-resolution spectra of solar magnetic features. I. Analysis of penumbral fine structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lites, B.W.; Skumanich, A.; Scharmer, G.B. (High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (USA) Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Swedish Vacuum Telescope on La Palma was used to obtain spectra of the magnetic-sensitive Fe I 630.25 nm line under conditions of exceptional angular resolution (0.32 arcsec) and high spectral resolution (FWHM 2.5 pm). Simultaneous 0.02 s CCD exposures of both the spectrum and the slit-jaw image effectively 'freeze' the atmospheric seeing motions and permit unambiguous identification of the spectra of the various penumbral structures. These spectra reveal the magnetic field strength in penumbral filaments through an intensity fit of the Zeeman splitting of this line. The observations show that: (1) the field strength varies from about 2100 G near the umbra-penumbra boundary to about 900 G at the outer edge of the penumbra, (2) the observed fluctuation of penumbral magnetic field is much less dramatic than the fluctuation in intensity, (3) there is a suggestion of a rapid change in field inclination between some light and dark filaments near the edge of the penumbra, and (4) there is no obvious correlation between Doppler shift (in part due to the Evershed flow) and filament intensity. 43 refs.

  1. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, R J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The \\textit{High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C)} has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads, that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of $440\\pm190$~km (Full Width Half Maximum). {The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere.} The emission decreases along the features implying the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation {of physical displacements of the moss fine-structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic b...

  2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  3. High-resolution mapping of quantum efficiency of silicon photodiode via optical-feedback laser microthermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cemine, Vernon Julius; Blanca, Carlo Mar; Saloma, Caesar

    2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We map the external quantum efficiency (QE) distribution of a silicon photodiode (PD) sample via a thermographic imaging technique based on optical-feedback laser confocal microscopy. An image pair consisting of the confocal reflectance image and the 2D photocurrent map is simultaneously acquired to delineate the following regions of interest on the sample: the substrate, the n-type region, the pn overlay, and the bonding pad. The 2D QE distribution is derived from the photocurrent map to quantify the optical performance of these sites. The thermal integrity of the sample is then evaluated by deriving the rate of change of QE with temperature T at each point on the silicon PD. These gradient maps function not only as stringent measures of local thermal QE activity but they also expose probable defect locations on the sample at high spatial resolution - a capability that is not feasible with existing bulk measurement techniques.

  4. Plasma Diagnostics in High-Resolution X-ray Spectra of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher W. Mauche

    2001-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Chandra HETG spectrum of EX Hya as an example, we discuss some of the plasma diagnostics available in high-resolution X-ray spectra of magnetic cataclysmic variables. Specifically, for conditions appropriate to collisional ionization equilibrium plasmas, we discuss the temperature dependence of the H- to He-like line intensity ratios and the density and photoexcitation dependence of the He-like R line ratios and the Fe XVII I(17.10 A)/I(17.05 A) line ratio. We show that the plasma temperature in EX Hya spans the range from ~ 0.5 to ~ 10 keV and that the plasma density n > 2E14 cm^{-3}, orders of magnitude greater than that observed in the Sun or other late-type stars.

  5. Recent results on high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction at Jefferson Lab, Hall A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Garibaldi; H. Breuer; P. Brindza; P. Bydzovski; G. Chang; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; F. Cusanno; R. De Leo; G. De Cataldo; K. De Jager; R. Feuerbach; E. Folts; R. Fratoni; S. Frullani; F. Giuliani; M. Gricia; D. Higinbotham; M. Iodice; B. Kross; L. Lagamba; J.J.Le Rose; M. Lucentini; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; R. Michaels; E. Nappi; Y. Qiang; B. Reitz; F. Santavenere; J. Segal; M. Sotona; G.M.Urciuoli; P. Veneroni; B.Wojtsekhowski; C. Zorn

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first ''systematic'' study of 1 p shell hypernuclei with electromagnetic probes has started in Hall A at Jefferson Lab [?]. The aim is to perform hypernuclear high resolution spectroscopy by the electroproduction of strangeness on four 1p-shell targets: 12C, 9Be, 16O, 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in 2004, the second part (16O and 7Li) is scheduled for June 2005. To overcome the major experimental difficulties, namely the low counting rate and the challenging Particle IDentification (PID), two septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector had to be added to the existing apparatus. After underlining the particular role the electroproduction reaction plays in hypernuclear physics we describe the challenging modifications of the Hall A apparatus. Preliminary results on 12C and 9Be are presented.

  6. Optical multichannel analyzer-based high-resolution, multipoint spectroscopic apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniades, J.A.; Peyser, T.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-wavelength resolution (..delta..lambdaless than or equal to0.02 A) spectroscopic apparatus has been developed and applied to the measurements of spectral line profiles emitted by thermonuclear plasmas yielding important plasma parameters, such as ion temperature and fluid velocity. The experimental apparatus consists of a spectrometer, an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA), and a lens. It allows precise wavelength measurements (..delta..lambda/sub error/less than or equal to0.02 A) when a computer and a ThI electrodeless discharge lamp (EDL) are used to calibrate the instrument. The apparatus yields single-shot space and time-resolved spectra for radiation in the 2000--8000-A range.

  7. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  8. High resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from a Mesophilic Eubacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, Joerg; Schluenzen, Frank; Zarivach, Raz; Bashan, Anat; Gat, Sharon; Agmon, Ilana; Bartels, Heike; Franceschi, Francois; Yonath, Ada (Weizmann Inst Israel); (Mac Planck Germany); (Max Planck Germany)

    2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the high resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Deinococcus radiodurans (D50S), a gram-positive mesophile suitable for binding of antibiotics and functionally relevant ligands. The over-all structure of D50S is similar to that from the archae bacterium Haloarcula marismortui (H50S); however, a detailed comparison revealed significant differences, for example, in the orientation of nucleotides in peptidyl transferase center and in the structures of many ribosomal proteins. Analysis of ribosomal features involved in dynamic aspects of protein biosynthesis that are partially or fully disordered in H50S revealed the conformations of intersubunit bridges in unbound subunits, suggesting how they may change upon subunit association and how movements of the L1-stalk may facilitate the exit of tRNA.

  9. Solar wind turbulence from MHD to sub-ion scales: high-resolution hybrid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wave numbers. The simulation results exhibit simultaneously several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm's law.

  10. Air Fluorescence Calorimetry with the High Resolution Fly's Eye and Telescope Array Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jui, Charles C. H. [Department of Physics, University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The air fluorescence technique was first successfully deployed on the Fly's Eye Experiment (1981-1993) by the University of Utah. Its successor, the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment has further exploited this technique, first in hybrid mode with the MIA muon array (1993-1996), and then in monocular and stereoscopic modes (1997-2006). Results from HiRes will be presented, including evidence for the Greisen-Zatsepin-K'uzmin (GZK) Effect predicted 40 years ago. Most recently, members of the HiRes are collaborating with groups from Japan, led by University of Tokyo, to construct and operate the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, which will deploy a large scintillation-based ground array in combination with fluorescence detectors. Funding for TA in the US has already been approved by NSF. TA will begin operation in 2007.

  11. Deflection Measurements of a Thermally Simulated Nuclear Core using a High-Resolution CCD-Camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanojev, B.J. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Al, 35812 (United States); Houts, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space fission systems under consideration for near-term missions all use compact, fast-spectrum reactor cores. Reactor dimensional change with increasing temperature, which affects neutron leakage, is the dominant source of reactivity feedback in these systems. Accurately measuring core dimensional changes during realistic non-nuclear testing is therefore necessary in predicting the system 'nuclear' equivalent behavior. This paper discusses one key technique being evaluated for measuring such changes. The proposed technique is to use a Charged Couple Device (CCD) sensor to obtain deformation readings of electrically heated prototypic reactor core geometry. This paper introduces a technique by which a single high spatial resolution CCD camera is used to measure core deformation in Real-Time (RT). Initial system checkout results are presented along with a discussion on how additional cameras could be used to achieve a three-dimensional deformation profile of the core during test. (authors)

  12. A High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Identify Buried Faults at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Richard Paul; Grauch, V. J. S.; Blackwell, David D.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary results from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey (200m line spacing) acquired in Dixie Valley early in 2002 provide confirmation of intra-basin faulting based on subtle surface indications. In addition the data allow identification of the locations and trends of many faults that have not been recognized at the surface, and provide a picture of intrabasin faulting patterns not possible using other techniques. The data reveal a suite of northeasterly-trending curving and branching faults that surround a relatively coherent block in the area of Humboldt Salt Marsh, the deepest part of the basin. The producing reservoir occurs at the north end of this coherent block, where rampart faults from the northwest side of the valley merge with anthithetic faults from the central and southeast parts of the valley.

  13. CX-009354: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Determination CX-009354: Categorical Exclusion Determination High Resolution 3D Laser Imaging for Inspection, Maintenance, Repair and Operations - Phase II CX(s) Applied:...

  14. CX-009331: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Determination CX-009331: Categorical Exclusion Determination High Resolution 3D Laser Imaging for Inspection, Maintenance, Repair and Operations Phase II CX(s) Applied:...

  15. High resolution radio observations of the colliding-wind binary WR140

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Dougherty; A. J. Beasley; M. J. Claussen; B. A. Zauderer; N. J. Bolingbroke

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Milli-arcsecond resolution Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of the archetype WR+O star colliding-wind binary (CWB) system WR140 are presented for 23 epochs between orbital phases 0.74 and 0.97. At 8.4 GHz, the emission in the wind-collision region (WCR) is clearly resolved as a bow-shaped arc that rotates as the orbit progresses. We interpret this rotation as due to the O star moving from SE to approximately E of the WR star, which leads to solutions for the orbit inclination of 122+/-5 deg, the longitude of the ascending node of 353+/-3 deg, and an orbit semi-major axis of 9.0+/-0.5 mas. The distance to WR140 is determined to be 1.85+/-0.16 kpc, which requires the O star to be a supergiant. The inclination implies the mass of the WR and O star to be 20+/-4 and 54+/-10 solar masses respectively. We determine a wind-momentum ratio of 0.22, with an expected half-opening angle for the WCR of 63 deg, consistent with 65+/-10 deg derived from the VLBA observations. Total flux measurements from Very Large Array (VLA) observations show the radio emission from WR140 is very closely the same from one orbit to the next, pointing strongly toward emission, absorption and cooling mechanism(s) that are controlled largely by the orbital motion. The synchrotron spectra evolve dramatically through the orbital phases observed, exhibiting both optically thin and optically thick emission. We discuss a number of absorption and cooling mechanisms that may determine the evolution of the synchrotron spectrum with orbital phase.

  16. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  17. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  18. Seismic data obtained using. 50-caliber machine gun as high-resolution seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeber, M.D.; Steeples, D.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic line across a shoestring sandstone served as a test of a .50-caliber machine gun as a high-resolution seismic source in exploring for shallow sandstones. The line crosses part of the Bronson-Xenia oil field, which produces from the Bartlesville sandstone of the Cherokee Group (Pennsylvanian) in Bourbon County, Kansas, at a depth of 622 ft (190 m). The reservoir, which has a flat base and an irregular top, may represent a superposition of fluvial sandstones. The seismic line clearly depicts a lenticular sandstone that is up to 56 ft (17 m) thick. Both the lateral extent of the sandstone body and a slight velocity pull-up of the underlying layers are evident. In addition to the target sandstone, two additional sandstone bodies may be present at the east end of the line, where well control is not available. Analysis of the seismic data indicates that the frequency of the .50-caliber sources is from 30 to 170 Hz. The high frequencies are retained deep into the section. Two shots per shotpoint are the minimum number necessary for acquiring high-quality data, and 12-fold is the minimum acceptable common-depth-point (CDP) coverage. 11 figures.

  19. COMPARISON OF WIND AND WIND SHEAR CLIMATOLOGIES DERIVED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIOSONDES AND THE ECMWF MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    COMPARISON OF WIND AND WIND SHEAR CLIMATOLOGIES DERIVED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIOSONDES wind and its vertical gradient, i.e. wind-shear, is characterized as a function of climate region. For a better representation of the average atmospheric wind and shear and their variabilities, high

  20. High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy with the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, F S; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is a production-class 36 pixel x-ray calorimeter spectrometer that has been continuously operating at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for almost 2 years. The ECS was designed to be a long-lifetime, turn-key spectrometer that couples high performance with ease of operation and minimal operator intervention. To this end, a variant of the Suzaku/XRS spaceflight detector system has been coupled to a low-maintenance cryogenic system consisting of a long-lifetime liquid He cryostat, and a closed cycle, {sup 3}He pre-cooled adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The ECS operates for almost 3 weeks between cryogenic servicing and the ADR operates at 0.05 K for more than 60 hours between automatic recycles under software control. Half of the ECS semiconductor detector array is populated with mid-band pixels that have a resolution of 4.5 eV FWHM, a bandpass from 0.05-12 keV, and a quantum efficiency of 95% at 6 keV. The other half of the array has thick HgTe absorbers that have a bandpass from 0.3 to over 100 keV, an energy resolution of 33 eV FWHM, and a quantum efficiency of 32% at 60 keV. In addition, the ECS uses a real-time, autonomous, data collection and analysis system developed for the Suzaku/XRS instrument and implemented in off-the-shelf hardware for the ECS. Here we will discuss the performance of the ECS instrument and its implementation as a turnkey cryogenic detector system.

  1. Calcium silicate hydrates investigated by solid-state high resolution {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meducin, Fabienne [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: meducin@cnrs-orleans.fr; Bresson, Bruno [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, ESPCI (France); Lequeux, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des polymeres et des milieux disperses, ESPCI (France); Noirfontaine, Marie-Noelle de [Laboratoire CECM-CNRS, 15, rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry sur Seine (France); Zanni, Helene [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This work focuses on phases formed during cement hydration under high pressure and temperature: portlandite Ca(OH){sub 2} (CH); hillebrandite Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({beta}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H); jaffeite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 6} (tricalcium silicate hydrate); {alpha}-C{sub 2}SH Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({alpha}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); xonotlite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 17})(OH){sub 2} and kilchoanite Ca{sub 6}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}). Portlandite and hillebrandite were synthesized and characterised by high resolution solid-state {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In addition, information from the literature concerning the last five phases was gathered. In certain cases, a schematic 3D-structure could be determined. These data allow identification of the other phases present in a mixture. Their morphology was also observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  2. MAINTAINING HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY CAPABILITIES FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrick, S.; Cordaro, J.; Reeves, G.; Mcintosh, J.; Mauldin, C.; Tietze, K.; Varble, D.

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a specialized need for analyzing low mass gas species at very high resolutions. The currently preferred analytical method is electromagnetic sector mass spectrometry. This method allows the NNSA Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) to resolve species of similar masses down to acceptable minimum detection limits (MDLs). Some examples of these similar masses are helium-4/deuterium and carbon monoxide/nitrogen. Through the 1980s and 1990s, there were two vendors who supplied and supported these instruments. However, with declining procurements and down turns in the economy, the supply of instruments, service and spare parts from these vendors has become less available, and in some cases, nonexistent. The largest NSE user of this capability is the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) Group in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) investigated the areas of instrument support that were needed to extend the life cycle of these aging instruments. Their conclusions, as to the focus areas of electromagnetic sector mass spectrometers to address, in order of priority, were electronics, software and hardware. Over the past 3-5 years, the R&DE Group has designed state of the art electronics and software that will allow high resolution legacy mass spectrometers, critical to the NNSA mission, to be operated for the foreseeable future. The funding support for this effort has been from several sources, including the SRS Defense Programs, NNSA Readiness Campaign, Pantex Plant and Sandia National Laboratory. To date, electronics systems have been upgraded on one development system at SRNL, two production systems at Pantex and one production system at Sandia National Laboratory. An NSE working group meets periodically to review strategies going forward. The R&DE Group has also applied their work to the electronics for a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) instrument, which applies a similar mass spectrometric technology for resolving high mass isotopes, such as plutonium and uranium. Due to non-compete clauses for DOE, all work has been performed and applied to instruments which are obsolete and are no longer supported by the original vendor.

  3. High resolution gas phase infrared spectroscopy of the hydrogen bonded complex HCN---HF and its deuterated isotopic species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Marc William

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constants, The resolution of combination bands, overtones and/or hot bands permitted the calculation of a number of harmonic constants and anharmonic cross terms. Once the molecular parameters for a particular vibration were determined..., it was then possible to use these constants with a specially written Voigt transition profiles program to simulate the recorded spectra. It was possible to determine the excited metastable vibrational predissociation state lifetimes by matching line profiles...

  4. High-Resolution Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated by Ozonolysis of Isoprene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Bateman, Adam P.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of isoprene (C5H8) in the presence of an OH scavenger was examined using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The chemical composition of SOA is complex, with more than 1000 assigned peaks observed in the positive and negative ion mode spectra. Only a small fraction of peaks corresponds to known products of isoprene oxidation, such as pyruvic acid, glycolic acid, methylglyoxal, etc. The absolute majority of the detected peaks correspond to highly oxidized oligomeric constituents of SOA, with an average O:C molar ratio of ~0.6. The corresponding organic mass (OM) to organic oxygen (OO) ratio is OM/OO?2.4. Approximately 8% of oxygen atoms in SOA are in the form of peroxides as quantified with an iodide test. Double bond equivalency (DBE) factors, representing the sum of all double bonds and rings, increase by 1 for every 2-3 additional carbon atoms in the molecule. The prevalent oligomer building blocks are therefore carbonyls or carboxylic acids with a C2-C3 skeleton. Kendrick analysis suggests that simple aldehydes, specifically formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and methylglyoxal can serve as monomeric building blocks in the observed oligomers. The large number of reactive functional groups, especially organic peroxides and carbonyls, suggests that isoprene/O3 SOA should be prone to chemical and photochemical aging.

  5. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  6. High-Resolution Radio Imaging of Gravitational Lensing Candidates in the 1 Jansky BL Lac Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Rector; J. T. Stocke

    2003-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    While BL Lacertae objects are widely believed to be highly beamed, low-luminosity radio galaxies, many radio-selected BL Lacs have extended radio power levels and optical emission lines that are too luminous to be low-luminosity radio galaxies. Also, Stocke & Rector discovered an excess of MgII absorption systems along BL Lac sightlines compared to quasars, suggesting that gravitational lensing may be another means of creating the BL Lac phenomenon in some cases. We present a search for gravitationally-lensed BL Lacs with deep, high-resolution, two-frequency VLA radio maps of seven lensing candidates from the 1 Jansky BL Lac sample. We find that none of these objects are resolved into an Einstein ring like B 0218+357, nor do any show multiple images of the core. All of the lensing candidates that were resolved show a flat-spectrum core and very unusual, steep-spectrum extended morphology that is incompatible with a multiply lensed system. Thus, while these observations do not rule out microlensing, no macrolensing is observed.

  7. Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Simulation of In-Situ Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margot Gerritsen; Tony Kovscek

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report describes work performed for the project 'Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Numerical Simulator of In-Situ Combustion Processes', DE-FC26-03NT15405. In summary, this work improved our understanding of in-situ combustion (ISC) process physics and oil recovery. This understanding was translated into improved conceptual models and a suite of software algorithms that extended predictive capabilities. We pursued experimental, theoretical, and numerical tasks during the performance period. The specific project objectives were (i) identification, experimentally, of chemical additives/injectants that improve combustion performance and delineation of the physics of improved performance, (ii) establishment of a benchmark one-dimensional, experimental data set for verification of in-situ combustion dynamics computed by simulators, (iii) develop improved numerical methods that can be used to describe in-situ combustion more accurately, and (iv) to lay the underpinnings of a highly efficient, 3D, in-situ combustion simulator using adaptive mesh refinement techniques and parallelization. We believe that project goals were met and exceeded as discussed.

  8. Extended-range grazing-incidence spectrometer for high-resolution extreme ultraviolet measurements on an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Träbert, E.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for performing very high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Å to above 300 Å. The instrument operates without an entrance slit and focuses the light emitted by highly charged ions located in the roughly 50 ?m wide electron beam onto a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The measured line widths are below 0.025 Å above 100 Å, and the resolving power appears to be limited by the source size and Doppler broadening of the trapped ions. Comparisons with spectra obtained with existing grating spectrometers show an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution.

  9. Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L

    2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that is critically important for materials science and structural biology applications. The knowledge gained from past developments has resulted in far-reaching advances in engineering, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, to name a few. New facilities for neutron generation at much higher flux, such as the SNS at Oak Ridge, TN, will greatly enhance the capabilities of neutron scattering, with benefits that extend to many fields and include, for example, development of improved drug therapies and materials that are stronger, longer-lasting, and more impact-resistant. In order to fully realize this enhanced potential, however, higher neutron rates must be met with improved detection capabilities, particularly higher count rate capability in large size detectors, while maintaining practicality. We have developed a neutron detector with the technical and economic advantages to accomplish this goal. This new detector has a large sensitive area, offers 3D spatial resolution, high sensitivity and high count rate capability, and it is economical and practical to produce. The proposed detector technology is based on B-10 thin film conversion of neutrons in long straw-like gas detectors. A stack of many such detectors, each 1 meter in length, and 4 mm in diameter, has a stopping power that exceeds that of He-3 gas, contained at practical pressures within an area detector. With simple electronic readout methods, straw detector arrays can provide spatial resolution of 4 mm FWHM or better, and since an array detector of such form consists of several thousand individual elements per square meter, count rates in a 1 m^2 detector can reach 2?10^7 cps. Moreover, each individual event can be timetagged with a time resolution of less than 0.1 ?sec, allowing accurate identification of neutron energy by time of flight. Considering basic elemental cost, this novel neutron imaging detector can be commercially produced economically, probably at a small fraction of the cost of He-3 detectors. In addition to neutron scattering science, the fully developed base technology can be used as a rugged, low-cost neutron detector in area monitoring and surveying. Radiation monitors are used in a number of other settings for occupational and environmental radiation safety. Such a detector can also be used in environmental monitoring and remote nuclear power plant monitoring. For example, the Department of Energy could use it to characterize nuclear waste dumps, coordinate clean-up efforts, and assess the radioactive contaminants in the air and water. Radiation monitors can be used to monitor the age and component breakdown of nuclear warheads and to distinguish between weapons and reactor grade plutonium. The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses radiation monitors for treaty verification, remote monitoring, and enforcing the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. As part of treaty verification, monitors can be used to certify the contents of containers during inspections. They could be used for portal monitoring to secure border checkpoints, sea ports, air cargo centers, public parks, sporting venues, and key government buildings. Currently, only 2% of all sea cargo shipped is inspected for radiation sources. In addition, merely the presence of radiation is detected and nothing is known about the radioactive source until further testing. The utilization of radiation monitors with neutron sensitivity and capability of operation in hostile port environments would increase the capacity and effectiveness of the radioactive scanning processes.

  10. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, Eric [Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)], E-mail: johnsen@stanford.edu; Larsson, Johan [Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)], E-mail: jola@stanford.edu; Bhagatwala, Ankit V. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cabot, William H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Moin, Parviz [Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Olson, Britton J. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Rawat, Pradeep S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shankar, Santhosh K. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sjoegreen, Bjoern [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Yee, H.C. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zhong Xiaolin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lele, Sanjiva K. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

  11. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt(M), SFB/TR49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  12. Doppler tomography of the Little Homunculus: High resolution spectra of [Fe II] 16435 around Eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution spectra of [Fe II] 16435 around eta Carinae provide powerful diagnostics of the geometry and kinematics of the ``Little Homunculus'' (LH) growing inside the larger Homunculus nebula. The LH expansion is not perfectly homologous: while low-latitudes are consistent with linear expansion since 1910, the polar caps imply ejection dates around 1920--1930. However, the expansion speed of the LH is slower than the post-eruption wind, so the star's powerful wind may accelerate it. With an initial ejection speed of 200 km/s in 1890, the LH would have been accelerated to its present speed if the mass is roughly 0.1 Msun. This agrees with an independent estimate of the LH mass based on its density and volume. In any case, an ejection after 1930 is ruled out. Using the LH as a probe of the 1890 event, then, it is evident that its most basic physical parameters (total mass and kinetic energy; 0.1 Msun and 10^46.9 ergs, respectively) are orders of magnitude less than during the giant eruption in the 1840s. Thus, the ultimate energy sources were different for these two events -- yet their ejecta have the same bipolar geometry. This clue may point toward a collimation mechanism separate from the underlying causes of the outbursts.

  13. Characterization of Monoenergetic Neutron Reference Fields with a High Resolution Diamond Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimbal, A; Nolte, R; Schuhmacher, H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel radiation detector based on an artificial single crystal diamond was used to characterize in detail the energy distribution of neutron reference fields at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and their contamination with charged particles. The monoenergetic reference fields at PTB in the neutron energy range from 1.5 MeV up to 19 MeV are generated by proton and deuteron beams impinging on solid and gas targets of tritium and deuterium. The energy of the incoming particles and the variation of the angle under which the measurement is performed produce monoenergetic reference fields with different mean energies and line shapes. In this paper we present high resolution neutron spectrometry measurements of different monoenergetic reference fields. The results are compared with calculated spectra taking into account the actual target parameters. Line structures in the order of 80 keV for a neutron energy of 9 MeV were resolved. The shift of the mean energy and the increasing of the width of the ...

  14. A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - I. Observations and measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alecian, E; Catala, C; Grunhut, J H; Landstreet, J D; Bagnulo, S; Böhm, T; Folsom, C P; Marsden, S; Waite, I

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we describe and report the analysis of a large survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars in circular spectropolarimetry. Using the ESPaDOnS and Narval high-resolution spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii and Bernard Lyot Telescopes, respectively, we have acquired 132 circularly-polarised spectra of 70 Herbig Ae/Be stars and Herbig candidates. The large majority of these spectra are characterised by a resolving power of about 65,000, and a spectral coverage from about 3700 ang to 1 micron. The peak SNR per CCD pixel ranges from below 100 (for the faintest targets) to over 1000 (for the brightest). The observations were acquired with the primary aim of searching for magnetic fields in these objects. However, our spectra are suitable for a variety of other important measurements, including rotational properties, variability, binarity, chemical abundances, circumstellar environment conditions and structure, etc. In this first paper, we describe the sample selection, ...

  15. A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - II. Rotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alecian, E; Catala, C; Grunhut, J H; Landstreet, J D; Böhm, T; Folsom, C P; Marsden, S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the analysis of the rotational properties of our sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) and related stars for which we have obtained high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Using the projected rotational velocities measured at the surface of the stars, we have calculated the angular momentum of the sample and plotted it as a function of age. We have then compared the angular momentum and the vsini distributions of the magnetic to the non-magnetic HAeBe stars. Finally we have predicted the vsini of the non-magnetic, non-binary ("normal") stars in our sample when they reach the ZAMS, and compared them to various catalogues of the vsini of main-sequence stars. First, we observe that magnetic HAeBe stars are much slower rotators than normal stars, indicating that they have been more efficiently braked than the normal stars. In fact, the magnetic stars have already lost most of their angular momentum, despite their young ages (lower than 1 Myr for some of them). Secondly, our analysis suggests that the...

  16. High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Roach, Patrick J.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Bones, David L.; Nguyen, Lucas

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of the chemical composition and chemical transformations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is both a major challenge and the area of greatest uncertainty in current aerosol research. This study presents the first application of desorption electrospray ionization combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for detailed chemical characterization and studies of chemical aging of OA collected on Teflon substrates. DESI-MS offers unique advantages both for detailed characterization of chemically labile components in OA that cannot be detected using more traditional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and for studying chemical aging of OA. DESI-MS enables rapid characterization of OA samples collected on substrates by eliminating the sample preparation stage. In addition, it enables detection and structural characterization of chemically labile molecules in OA samples by minimizing the residence time of analyte in the solvent. SOA produced by the ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA) was allowed to react with gaseous ammonia. Chemical aging resulted in measurable changes in the optical properties of LSOA observed using UV- visible spectroscopy. DESI-MS combined with tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS/MS) enabled identification of species in aged LSOA responsible for absorption of the visible light. Detailed analysis of the experimental data allowed us to identify chemical changes induced by reactions of LSOA constituents with ammonia and distinguish between different mechanisms of chemical aging.

  17. SOFIA/EXES Observations of Water Absorption in the Protostar AFGL 2591 at High Spectral Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indriolo, Nick; DeWitt, C N; Richter, M J; Boogert, A C A; Harper, G M; Jaffe, D T; Kulas, K R; McKelvey, M E; Ryde, N; Vacca, W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high spectral resolution (~3 km/s) observations of the nu_2 ro-vibrational band of H2O in the 6.086--6.135 micron range toward the massive protostar AFGL 2591 using the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Ten absorption features are detected in total, with seven caused by transitions in the nu_2 band of H2O, two by transitions in the first vibrationally excited nu_2 band of H2O, and one by a transition in the nu_2 band of H2{18}O. Among the detected transitions is the nu_2 1(1,1)--0(0,0) line which probes the lowest lying rotational level of para-H2O. The stronger transitions appear to be optically thick, but reach maximum absorption at a depth of about 25%, suggesting that the background source is only partially covered by the absorbing gas, or that the absorption arises within the 6 micron emitting photosphere. Assuming a covering fraction of 25%, the H2O column density and rotational temperature that best fit the observed abs...

  18. Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-Ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natale, Giovanni; Tuffs, Richard J; Debattista, Victor P; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-Ray, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive SED library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-Ray to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, bo...

  19. High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy of flares on the east and west limbs of the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Harris; V. Tatischeff; J. Kiener; M. Gros; G. Weidenspointner

    2006-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generation of Ge-based high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers has allowed accurate measurements to be made of the profiles, widths and energies of the gamma-ray lines emitted in the impulsive phases of solar flares. Here we present measurements in two flares of the energies of the de-excitation lines of 12C and 16O at 4.4 and 6.1 MeV respectively by the Ge spectrometer SPI on board INTEGRAL, from which Doppler shifts are derived and compared with those expected from the recoil of 12C and 16O nuclei which were excited by the impacts of flare-accelerated ions. An anomalous Doppler measurement (in terms of recoil theory) has been reported by the Ge spectrometer RHESSI in a flare near the east limb, and explained by a tilt of the magnetic field lines at the footpoint of a magnetic loop away from the vertical, and towards the observer. This might be interpreted to imply a significant difference between the Doppler shifts on the east and west limbs, if it is a general phenomenon. SPI observed both east and west limb flares and found no significant difference in Doppler shifts. We also measured the shapes and fluences of these lines, and their fluence ratio to the 2.2 MeV line from the capture of flare-generated neutrons. Analyses of both quantities using thick-target models parametrized by solar physical and geometric quantities suggest that the two flares studied here also have magnetic fields tilted towards the observer, though the significance of the measurements is not high.

  20. A high-throughput, high-resolution spectrometer for mapping the heliopause and 3-D Solar Wind using He+ 30.4nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A high-throughput, high-resolution spectrometer for mapping the heliopause and 3-D Solar Wind using Entrance slit farm with ~ 1000 slits Photon counting imager Concave grating used near normal incidence >> Need a higher throughput diffuse EUV spectrometer solar wind respond to coronal

  1. High-Resolution Mn EXAFS of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex inPhotosystem II: Structural Implications for the Mn4Ca Cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yano, Junko; Pushkar, Yulia; Glatzel, Pieter; Lewis, Azul; Sauer,Kenneth; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological generation of oxygen by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (PS II) is one of natures most important reactions. The recent X-ray crystal structures, while limited by resolutions of 3.2 to 3.5 A, have located the electron density associated with the Mn4Ca complex within the multi-protein PS II complex. Detailed structures critically depend on input from spectroscopic techniques such as EXAFS and EPR/ENDOR, as the XRD resolution does not allow for accurate determination of the position of Mn/Ca or the bridging and terminal ligand atoms. The number and distances of Mn-Mn/Ca/ligand interactions determined from EXAFS provide important constraints for the structure of the Mn cluster. Here we present data from a high-resolution EXAFS method using a novel multi-crystal monochromator that show three short Mn-Mn distances between 2.7 and 2.8 A and hence the presence of three di-mu-oxobridged units in the Mn4Ca cluster. This result imposes clear limitations on the proposed structures based on spectroscopic and diffraction data and provides input for refining such structures.

  2. High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Mei

    High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1 H Revised 13 May 2009 Available online 21 May 2009 Keywords: Low-power decoupling Lipid membranes Solid such as WALTZ-16. We demonstrate this moderate MAS low-power decoupling technique on hydrated POPC lipid

  3. ASTRO-H White Paper - High Resolution Spectroscopy of Interstellar and Circumgalactic Gas in the Milky Way and Other Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paerels, F; Anabuki, N; Costantini, E; de Vries, C; Fujimoto, R; Hornschemeier, A; Iizuka, R; Kilbourne, C; Konami, S; LaMassa, S; Loewenstein, M; McCammon, D; Matsushita, K; McNamara, B; Mitsuishi, I; Nagino, R; Nakagawa, T; Porter, S; Sakai, K; Smith, R K; Takei, Y; Tsuru, T; Uchiyama, H; Yamaguchi, H; Yamauchi, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the potential of high resolution imaging spectroscopy with the SXS on ASTRO-H to advance our understanding of the interstellar- and circumgalactic media of our own Galaxy, and other galaxies. Topics to be addressed range from absorption spectroscopy of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium, to observations to constrain the total mass-, metal-, and energy flow out of starburst galaxies.

  4. Central South Pacific thermocline water circulation from a high-resolution ocean model validated against satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Central South Pacific thermocline water circulation from a high-resolution ocean model validated. Introduction [2] Most South Pacific Ocean studies have been focused on its western or eastern part, leaving 12 January 2009; accepted 28 January 2009; published 13 May 2009. [1] The oceanic circulation

  5. Designing Large High-Resolution Display Workspaces Alex Endert, Lauren Bradel, Jessica Zeitz, Christopher Andrews, Chris North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    configuration (i.e. form factor), technology used for construction, and usage [1]. In size, they range from Large, high-resolution displays have enormous potential to aid in scenarios beyond their current usage. Their current usages are primarily limited to presentations, visualization demonstrations, or conducting

  6. CONDENSATION IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION. A. V. Fedkin1 , L. Grossman1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Lawrence

    CONDENSATION IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION. A. V. Fedkin1 , B. S. Meyer2 , L expand and cool, and condensation occurs as the total pressure (Pt ) falls with temperature (T). Observa to radioac- tive decay during condensation. Thermodynamic cal- culations have been used to predict

  7. PILOT_PROTEIN: Identification of Unmodified and Modified Proteins via High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Mixed-Integer Linear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, James

    accuracy with a lower false positive rate. All materials are freely available to the scientific community and protein identification and can help reduce the number of false positive resulPILOT_PROTEIN: Identification of Unmodified and Modified Proteins via High-Resolution Mass

  8. Current Theoretical Models and Future High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST ASP Conference Series, Vol. ???, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observatory, China derived with a solar scintillometer (Seykora 1992) and a Solar Differential Image MotionCurrent Theoretical Models and Future High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST ASP-Site Observatory Carsten Denker New Jersey Institute of Technology, Center for Solar Research 323 Martin Luther

  9. Probing Structural Dynamics with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Research Team: Nigel Browning, James Evans, Patricia Abellan, Russell Tonkyn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Probing Structural Dynamics with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Research Team: Nigel Browning of the structural dynamics that occur on the µs-ns timescale We will make use of a unique aberration-corrected dynamic TEM (DTEM), where a photoemission source will enable these time-resolved images to be obtained at

  10. High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low energy Carbon emissions a b s t r a c t Decarbonizing electricity production is central to reducing of resource cost scenarios, most coal power plants would be replaced by solar, wind, gas, and/or nuclear

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 023408 (2014) High-spectral-resolution attosecond absorption spectroscopy of autoionization in xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    formalism is introduced that correctly accounts for the observed energy dependence. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 023408 (2014) High-spectral-resolution attosecond absorption spectroscopy Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA (Received 25 November 2013

  12. A HIGH RESOLUTION, STICTIONLESS, CMOS COMPATIBLE SOI ACCELEROMETER WITH A LOW NOISE, LOW POWER, 0.25M CMOS INTERFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    interfaced with a high resolution, low noise and low power switched-capacitor integrated circuit (IC, vibration analysis, GPS-augmented navigation, and spacecraft guidance/stabilization [2]. The use of thick equivalent acceleration (BNEA) is expressed by: MQ Tk M TDk BNEA BB 044 == Hz sm 2 / (5) The air

  13. Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques have been applied to hydrous silicate and aluminosilicate glasses: simple as to completely exclude any of the different previously proposed models for water incorporation in silicate

  14. 2402 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 20, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2010 Compact Miniature High-Resolution Thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Yuki

    Miniature High-Resolution Thermometer Supradeep Narayana and Yuki Sato Abstract--We report a compact available Neodymium (NdFeB) magnets. The thermometer utilizes the temperature dependence of magnetic coil connected to a dc-SQUID. Based on this approach, we have developed a self- contained thermometer

  15. High-resolution paleomagnetic secular variations and relative paleointensity since the Late Pleistocene in southern South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaudoin, Georges

    ; however the uneven distribution of the records on Earth does not allow addressing the possible global records from the Southern Hemisphere are rare. As a consequence, global stacks are truly derived from excursion at 20 ka cal BP. Nonetheless, a global-scale comparison with other high-resolution records located

  16. High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas reservoir.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas, UNOCAL Corporation Summary Geostatistical inversion is applied on a Gulf-of-Mexico, 3D post-stack seismic in this paper is located in the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Louisiana. Existing development wells reach two

  17. Phys. Med. Biol. 43 (1998) 10011013. Printed in the UK PII: S0031-9155(98)90627-3 High-resolution 3D Bayesian image reconstruction using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leahy, Richard M.

    -resolution 3D Bayesian image reconstruction using the microPET small-animal scanner Jinyi Qi, Richard M Leahy of high-resolution 3D images from the microPET small-animal scanner. Resolution recovery is achieved 2 mm when using an analytic 3D reprojection (3DRP) method with a ramp filter. These results also

  18. High-resolution microcalorimeter detectors as a tool in the future of nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoteling, Nathan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New measurements are presented from the LANL-NIST microcalorimeter array for two standard plutonium sources. The results demonstrate substantially smaller error bars obtained from the spectral analysis program FRAM. Some areas of improvement to the analysis technique have been identified, indicating that the micro calorimeter results can be improved upon. These results support the viability of a device for performing real nuclear safeguards measurements in the near future. The challenge of providing reliably accurate and precise data is a critical component of any safeguards initiative. In the realm of nuclear safeguards, this is an especially daunting task since inaccurate and/or imprecise data could have very serious international consequences. As such, there is a constant drive within the community to establish better measurement and analysis techniques in order to further reduce the associated errors and uncertainties. Even with todays state of the art equipment, measurement uncertainties can extend to several significant quantities worth of material over a relatively modest period of time. Furthermore, there is a strong desire for improved nondestructive analysis techniques in order to reduce both the cost, turnover rate, and inconvenience of destructive analyses. One promising new technology that may help to realize these goals is that of gamma-ray microcalorimeter detectors. The hallmark quality of this new technique is the ability to achieve energy resolution nearly an order of magnitude better than typical planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Such an improvement may help reduce uncertainties associated with, for instance, plutonium isotopics or uranium enrichment measurements. This may, in turn, help to reduce uncertainties in total plutonium and/or uranium content in a given sample without the need for destructive analysis. In this paper, we will describe this new detector technology as well as some recent measurements carried out with the LANL-NIST gamma-ray microcalorimeter ({micro}cal) array. Discussion will focus on the capabilities of this technology as well as the progress toward a practical measurement device.

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION, DIFFERENTIAL, NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF GJ 1214b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossfield, I. J. M.; Hansen, Brad M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barman, Travis, E-mail: ianc@astro.ucla.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nearby star GJ 1214 hosts a planet intermediate in radius and mass between Earth and Neptune, resulting in some uncertainty as to its nature. We have observed this planet, GJ 1214b, during transit with the high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II telescope, in order to characterize the planet's atmosphere. By cross-correlating the spectral changes through transit with a suite of theoretical atmosphere models, we search for variations associated with absorption in the planet atmosphere. Our observations are sufficient to rule out tested model atmospheres with wavelength-dependent transit depth variations {approx}> 5 x 10{sup -4} over the wavelength range 2.1-2.4 {mu}m. Our sensitivity is limited by variable slit loss and telluric transmission effects. We find no positive signatures but successfully rule out a number of plausible atmospheric models, including the default assumption of a gaseous, H-dominated atmosphere in chemical equilibrium. Such an atmosphere can be made consistent if the absorption due to methane is reduced. Clouds can also render such an atmosphere consistent with our observations, but only if they lie higher in the atmosphere than indicated by recent optical and infrared measurements. When taken in concert with other observational constraints, our results support a model in which the atmosphere of GJ 1214b contains significant H and He, but where CH{sub 4} is depleted. If this depletion is the result of photochemical processes, it may also produce a haze that suppresses spectral features in the optical.

  20. High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of FUors and FUor-like stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Greene; Colin Aspin; Bo Reipurth

    2008-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new high resolution (R=18,000) near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of classical FU Orionis stars (FUors) and other young stars with FUor characteristics that are sources of Herbig-Haro flows. Spectra are presented for the region 2.203 - 2.236 microns which is rich in absorption lines sensitive to both effective temperatures and surface gravities of stars. Both FUors and FUor-like stars show numerous broad and weak unidentified spectral features in this region. Spectra of the 2.280 - 2.300 micron region are also presented, with the 2.2935 micron v=2-0 CO absorption bandhead being clearly the strongest feature seen in the spectra all FUors and Fuor-like stars. A cross-correlation analysis shows that FUor and FUor-like spectra in the 2.203 - 2.236 micron region are not consistent with late-type dwarfs, giants, nor embedded protostars. The cross-correlations also show that the observed FUor-like Herbig-Haro energy sources have spectra that are substantively similar to those of FUors. Both object groups also have similar near-infrared colors. The large line widths and double-peaked nature of the spectra of the FUor-like stars are consistent with the established accretion disk model for FUors, also consistent with their near-infrared colors. It appears that young stars with FUor-like characteristics may be more common than projected from the relatively few known classical FUors.

  1. High-Energy Nanoscale-Resolution X-ray Microscopy Based on Refractive Optics on a Long Beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snigireva, I.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Snigirev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The long length and good coherence properties of ID11 at the ESRF have led to the development of x-ray microscopy based on compound refractive lenses (CRLs). For the highest resolution full-field microscopy, the sample is placed {approx}40 m from the source, which can be micro-focused by a transfocator as a condenser. Due to the long length of the beamline and consequent long sample-detector distance, a CRL objective can be placed up to a meter behind the sample and still allow for magnification of 60x on a detector located at 99 m--enough to achieve easily 100-nm resolution with a typical high-resolution detector.

  2. Optimization of <= 200 um pitch CZT detectors for future high-resolution X-ray instrumentation in astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zajczyk, Anna; Dowkontt, Paul; Guo, Qingzhen; Kislat, Fabian; Krawczynski, Henric; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Li, Shaorui; Beilicke, Matthias

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride and Cadmium Telluride are the detector materials of choice for the detection of X-rays in the X-ray energy band E >= 5keV with excellent spatial and spectral resolution and without cryogenic cooling. Owing to recent breakthroughs in grazing incidence mirror technology, next-generation hard X-ray telescopes will achieve angular resolution between 5 and 10 arc seconds - about an order of magnitude better than that of the NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope. As a consequence, the next generation of X-ray telescopes will require pixelated X-ray detectors with pixels on a grid with a lattice constant of energy threshold of less than 5keV and an energy resolution of less than one keV. The science drivers for a high angular-resolution X-ray mission include studies and measurements of black hole spins, the cosmic evolution of super-massive black holes, active galactic nuclei feedback, and the behaviour of matter at very high densities. In this...

  3. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

  4. Reconstruction of a high-resolution late holocene arctic paleoclimate record from Colville River delta sediments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiner, Kathryn Melissa; Lowry, Thomas Stephen

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was partially supported by the Sandia National Laboratories,Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (LDRD) fellowship program in conjunction with Texas A&M University (TAMU). The research described herein is the work of Kathryn M. Schreiner (Katie') and her advisor, Thomas S. Bianchi and represents a concise description of Katie's dissertation that was submitted to the TAMU Office of Graduate Studies in May 2013 in partial fulfillment of her doctorate of philosophy degree. High Arctic permafrost soils contain a massive amount of organic carbon, accounting for twice as much carbon as what is currently stored as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, with current warming trends this sink is in danger of thawing and potentially releasing large amounts of carbon as both carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. It is difficult to make predictions about the future of this sink without knowing how it has reacted to past temperature and climate changes. This project investigated long term, fine scale particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery by the high-Arctic Colville River into Simpson's Lagoon in the near-shore Beaufort Sea. Modern POC was determined to be a mixture of three sources (riverine soils, coastal erosion, and marine). Downcore POC measurements were performed in a core close to the Colville River output and a core close to intense coastal erosion. Inputs of the three major sources were found to vary throughout the last two millennia, and in the Colville River core covary significantly with Alaskan temperature reconstructions.

  5. Estimating quality factor and mean grain size of sediments from high-resolution marine seismic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Oceanography Centre Southampton

    30 m of unconsolidated marine sediments. Our spectral-ratio technique does not require assumptions-resolution seismic-reflection data, and shows how such estimates can be related to mean grain sizes of unconsolidated for intrinsic atten- uation in saturated, unconsolidated marine sediments. Biot-Stoll Biot, 1956a, 1956b; Stoll

  6. Measurement method for roll angular displacement with a high resolution by using diffraction gratings and a heterodyne interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Shanzhi, E-mail: shanzhit@gmail.com [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)] [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Gao, Jianmin; Guo, Junjie [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The roll angle measurement is difficult to be achieved directly using a typical commercial interferometer due to its low sensitivity in axial direction, where the axial direction is orthogonal to the plane of the roll angular displacement. A roll angle measurement method combined diffraction gratings with a laser heterodyne interferometer is discussed in this paper. The diffraction grating placed in the plane of a roll angular displacement and the interferometer arranged in the plane's orthogonal direction, constitute the measurement pattern for the roll angle with high resolution. The roll angular displacement, considered as the linear, can be tested precisely when the corresponding angle is very small. Using the proposed method, the angle roll measurement obtains the high resolution of 0.002{sup ?}. Experiment has proved its feasibility and practicability.

  7. High-Resolution Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy, Pennsylvanian Snaky Canyon Formation, East-Central Idaho: Implications for Regional and Global Correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jolley, Casey

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of Committee, Michael C. Pope Committee Members, Ethan L. Grossman Debbie J. Thomas Head of Department, Rick Giardino May 2012 Major Subject: Geology iii ABSTRACT High-Resolution Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy, Pennsylvanian Snaky Canyon..., and my committee members, Dr. Ethan Grossman and Dr. Debbie Thomas, for their time and guidance. Special thanks goes to my primary advisor, Dr. Pope, for his extra guidance and time away from family collecting samples. Additionally, I?d like to thank...

  8. Frontal Scale AirSea Interaction in High-Resolution Coupled Climate Models FRANK O. BRYAN, ROBERT TOMAS, AND JOHN M. DENNIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Frontal Scale Air­Sea Interaction in High-Resolution Coupled Climate Models FRANK O. BRYAN, ROBERT The emerging picture of frontal scale air­sea interaction derived from high-resolution satellite observations have revealed fundamentally different air­sea coupling mechanisms on the scale of ocean fronts

  9. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  10. High resolution measurements of the {sup 241}Am(n,2n) reaction cross section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sage, C. [Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC/LEPh, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Semkova, V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bouland, O. [Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC/LEPh, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dessagne, P.; Rudolf, G. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Fernandez, A.; Naestren, C.; Ottmar, H.; Somers, J.; Wastin, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gunsing, F. [Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noguere, G. [Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC/LEPh, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Plompen, A. J. M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Romain, P. [Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the {sup 241}Am(n,2n) reaction cross section have been performed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Geel in the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission (EC) JRC and French laboratories from CNRS and the Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (CEA) Cadarache. Raw material coming from the Atalante facility of CEA Marcoule has been transformed by JRC Karlsruhe into suitable {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} samples embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrices specifically designed for these measurements. The irradiations were carried out at the 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The {sup 241}Am(n,2n) reaction cross section was determined relative to the {sup 27}Al(n,alpha){sup 24}Na standard cross section. The measurements were performed in four sessions, using quasi-mono-energetic neutrons with energies ranging from 8 to 21 MeV produced via the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He and the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reactions. The induced activity was measured by standard gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector. Below 15 MeV, the present results are in agreement with data obtained earlier. Above 15 MeV, these measurements allowed the experimental investigation of the {sup 241}Am(n,2n) reaction cross section for the first time. The present data are in good agreement with predictions obtained with the talys code that uses an optical and fission model developed at CEA.

  11. All-optical high-resolution magnetic resonance using a nitrogen-vacancy spin in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen-Yu Wang; Jian-Ming Cai; Alex Retzker; Martin B. Plenio

    2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an all-optical scheme to prolong the quantum coherence of a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Optical control of the NV spin suppresses energy fluctuations of the $^{3}\\text{A}_{2}$ ground states and forms an energy gap protected subspace. By optical control, the spectral linewidth of magnetic resonance is much narrower and the measurement of the frequencies of magnetic field sources has higher resolution. The optical control also improves the sensitivity of the magnetic field detection and can provide measurement of the directions of signal sources.

  12. Development of a high-resolution bathymetry dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Larson, Kyle B.; Lettrick, Joseph W.

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A bathymetric and topographic data collection and processing effort involving existing and newly collected data has been performed for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach in central Washington State, extending 60-miles from the tailrace of Priest Rapids Dam (river mile 397) to near the vicinity of the Interstate 182 bridge just upstream of the Yakima River confluence (river mile 337). The contents of this report provide a description of the data collections, data inputs, processing methodology, and final data quality assessment used to develop a comprehensive and continuous merged 1m resolution bathymetric and topographic surface dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach.

  13. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  14. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noroozian, Omid [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States) [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Kang, Zhao [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/?(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=?/??>10{sup 3}.

  15. Zoomed Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla with Simultaneous High Spatial and High Temporal Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoomed Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla with Simultaneous High Spatial and High and is mainly limited by sensitivity. Here, signal-to-noise gains at high magnetic fields (7 Tesla

  16. High-resolution emissions of CO{sub 2} from power generation in the USA - article no. G04008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petron, G.; Tans, P.; Frost, G.; Chao, D.L.; Trainer, M. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth Systems Research Laboratory

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity generation accounts for close to 40% of the U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning, making it the economic sector with the largest source of CO{sub 2}. Since the late 1990s, the Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Markets Division (EPA CAMD) has kept a repository of hourly CO{sub 2} emission data for most power plants in the conterminous United States. In this study, the CAMD CO{sub 2} data are used to derive a high spatiotemporal resolution CO{sub 2} emissions inventory for the electricity generation sector (inventory available on request). Data from 1998 to 2006 have been processed. This unique inventory can be used to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle at fine temporal and spatial scales. The CAMD data set provides the first quantitative estimates of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the emissions as well as the year to year variability. Emissions peak in the summertime owing to the widespread use of air conditioning. Summertime emissions are in fact highly correlated with the daily average temperature. In conjunction with the EPA Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), we have derived high-resolution maps of CO{sub 2} emissions by fossil fuel burned (coal, gas, oil) for the year 2004. The CAMD data set also reflects regional anomalies in power generation such as the August 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and the 2000-2001 increase in production in California. We recommend that all sectors of the economy report similar high-resolution CO{sub 2} emissions because of their great usefulness both for carbon cycle science and for greenhouse gases emissions mitigation and regulation.

  17. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Ji Hyun

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 ?m) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 ?m was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial distribution of targeted metabolites, mainly waxes and flavonoids, was systematically explored on various organs, including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots at high spatial resolution of ~ 12-50 ?m and the changes in the abundance level of these metabolites were monitored on the cer1 mutant with respect to the wild-type. This study revealed the metabolic biology of CER1 gene on each individual organ level with very detailed high spatial resolution. The separate MS images of isobaric metabolites, i.e. C29 alkane vs. C28 aldehyde could be constructed on both genotypes from MS imaging at high mass resolution. This allows tracking of abundance changes for those compounds along with the genetic mutation, which is not achievable with low mass resolution mass spectrometry. This study supported previous hypothesis of molecular function of CER1 gene as aldehyde decarbonylase, especially by displaying hyper accumulation of aldehydes and C30 fatty acid and decrease in abundance of alkanes and ketones in several plant organs of cer1 mutant. The scope of analytes was further directed toward internal cell metabolites from the surface metabolites of the plant. MS profiling and imaging of internal cell metabolites were performed on the vibratome section of Arabidopsis leaf. Vibratome sectioning of the leaf was first conducted to remove the surface cuticle layer and it was followed by enzymatic treatment of the section to induce the digestion of primary cell walls, middle lamella, and expose the internal cells underneath to the surface for detection with the laser by LDI-MS. The subsequent MS imaging onto the enzymatically treated vibratome section allowed us to map the distribution of the metabolites in the internal cell layers, linolenic acid (C18:3 FA) and linoleic acid (C18:2 FA). The development of an assay for relative quantification of analytes at the single subcellular/organelle level by LDI-MS imaging was attempted and both plausibility and significant obstacles were seen. As a test system, native plant organelle, chloroplasts isolated from the spinach leaves were used

  18. A MEMS-based, high-resolution Electric-Field meter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafran, John Sawa

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In MEMS-based inertial sensors, such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, known electrical waveforms are applied to a modulating capacitive element to determine an unknown deflection. However, the inverse of this scheme can ...

  19. Cryogenic microcalorimeter system for ultra-high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabin, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bacrania, Mnesh K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croce, Mark P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoteling, N J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, S P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plionis, A A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dry, D E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ullom, J N [NIST; Bennett, D A [NIST; Horansky, R [NIST; Kotsubo, V [NIST; Cantor, R [STAR CRYOELECTRONICS

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with {approx}15 uK peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis, This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha spectrometer, and will show recent results.

  20. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Petry; the VERITAS Collaboration

    2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  1. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petry, D

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  2. CONSTRAINING THE PLANETARY SYSTEM OF FOMALHAUT USING HIGH-RESOLUTION ALMA OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, A. C.; Payne, M. J.; Ford, E. B.; Shabram, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Corder, S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical evolution of planetary systems leaves observable signatures in debris disks. Optical images trace micron-sized grains, which are strongly affected by stellar radiation and need not coincide with their parent body population. Observations of millimeter-sized grains accurately trace parent bodies, but previous images lack the resolution and sensitivity needed to characterize the ring's morphology. Here we present ALMA 350 GHz observations of the Fomalhaut debris ring. These observations demonstrate that the parent body population is 13-19 AU wide with a sharp inner and outer boundary. We discuss three possible origins for the ring and suggest that debris confined by shepherd planets is the most consistent with the ring's morphology.

  3. High Resolution RANS NLH Study of Stage 67 Tip Injection Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matheson, Michael A [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical prediction of the Stage 67 transonic fan stage employing wall jet tip injection flow control and study of the physical mechanisms leading to stall suppression and stability enhancement afforded by endwall recirculation/injection is the focus of this paper. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes computations were used to perform detailed analysis of the Stage 67 configuration experimentally tested at NASA s Glenn Research Center in 2004. Time varying prediction of the stage plus recirculation and injection flowpath were performed utilizing the Nonlinear Harmonic approach. Significantly higher grid resolution per passage was achieved than what has been generally employed in prior reported numerical studies of spike stall phenomena in transonic compressors. This paper focuses on characterizing the physics of spike stall embryonic stage phenomena and the impact of tip injection, resulting in experimentally and numerically demonstrated stall suppression

  4. Results of the High Resolution OTR Measurements at KEK and comparison with simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolzon, B; Mazzoni, S; Welsch, C P; Karataev, P; Kruchinin, K; Aryshev, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) is emitted when a charged particle crosses the interface between two media with different dielectric properties. It has become a standard tool for beam imaging and transverse beam size measurements. At the KEK Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2), OTR is used at the beginning of the final focus system to measure micrometre beam size using the visibility of the OTR Point Spread Function (PSF). In order to study in detail the PSF and improve the resolution of the monitor, a novel simulation tool has been developed. Based on the physical optic propagation mode of ZEMAX, the propagation of the OTR electric field can be simulated very precisely up to the image plane, taking into account aberrations and diffraction. This contribution presents the comparison between Zemax simulations and measurements performed at ATF2.

  5. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  6. Structural Characterization of the 216-Z-9 Crib Prior to Decontamination and Demolition Using Robot Crawler and High Resolution Photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; Klos, D.B. [Fluor Hanford, Richland, WA (United States); Teal, J.A. [Fluor Government Group, Operations West, Richland WA (United States); Oates, L. [Environmental Quality Management, Richland, WA (United States); Bond, F.W. [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States); Mattlin, E.; Clarke, S. [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland WA (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office is preparing to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action for the decontamination and demolition of the above-grade mining structures and equipment at the 216-Z-9 Crib. An investigation of the condition of the mining complex was initiated to determine constraints necessary for safely conducting the removal of the buildings. While crib headspace chemical analysis and nondestructive analysis of the interior of the buildings was completed to address radiological contamination concerns, the primary concern regarding the removal of the above-grade structures located on the crib cover involves determining the loading capacity and structural integrity of the crib cover slab. Additional concerns included headspace gases and radionuclide contamination. Until the structural analysis was completed, loading limits on the crib cover had been restricted. Photographic documentation revealed the loss of protective tiles and acid resistant coating from the underside of the cover raising a question of concrete stability. The investigation relied heavily on the use of high resolution photography with high intensity lighting for photographic documentation of the underside of the crib cover, followed by structural analysis of the documentation by a team of qualified engineers. Deployment of a robot crawler with attached camera and positioning of a fixed camera were integral to this structural characterization effort. Results of the photographic documentation were of sufficient quality to allow for bounding decisions to be made regarding the loading of the crib cover while performing the demolition of the mining structures (glovebox, excavator, bucket) and the associated buildings. The 216-Z-9 Crib, also known as the 216 Z-9 Recuplex CAW (CA column waste) Waste Disposal Cavern, the Z-9 Trench and the Z-9 Crib was constructed as an engineered trench with an open area beneath a concrete slab. The crib is located near the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility, at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Eastern Washington State. The crib was used as a disposal site for effluent chemical and radiological wastes from the recovery of uranium and plutonium through extraction or RECUPLEX process, a method that recovered uranium and plutonium from liquid and solid wastes and scraps from other PFP processes. During its operating life, from 1955 through 1962, the Z-9 Crib received liquid wastes totaling approximately four million liters, or one million gallons. Analyses of the crib soil in seven locations to a depth of up to two meters (six feet) beneath the crib floor indicated that the plutonium content of the crib soil ranged from 50 to 150 kg (the highest concentration measured was 34.5 g/L of soil). While performing the structural evaluation of the crib cover, additional characterization information was obtained on the radiological and chemical conditions of the crib and structures. (authors)

  7. High resolution cortical thickness measurement from clinical CT data G.M. Treece, A.H. Gee, P.M. Mayhew and K.E.S. Poole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drummond, Tom

    ) methods of assessing hip structure, most notably with multi-detector computed tomography, MDCT (Bouxsein and technically limited by thresholding errors caused by relatively low resolution data sets. Ideally, we wouldHigh resolution cortical thickness measurement from clinical CT data G.M. Treece, A.H. Gee, P

  8. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late Middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Bridget S.; Norris, Richard D.; Kroom, Dick

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recrystallization on 18 O/ 16 O values of deep- sea sediments. Nature, 301:594?597. Norris, R.D., Kroon, D., Klaus, A., et al., 1998. Proc. ODP, Init. Repts., 171B: College Sta- tion, TX (Ocean Drilling Program). Pearson, P.N., and Shackleton, N.J., 1995. Neogene...Kroon, D., Norris, R.D., and Klaus, A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Volume 171B 5. DATA REPORT: HIGH-RESOLUTION STABLE ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY OF THE LATE MIDDLE EOCENE AT SITE 1051, BLAKE NOSE 1 Bridget S. Wade...

  9. High resolution study of the Lambda p final state interaction in the reaction p + p -> K+ + (Lambda p)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Budzanowski; A. Chatterjee; H. Clement; E. Dorochkevitch; P. Hawranek; F. Hinterberger; R. Jahn; R. Joosten; K. Kilian; S. Kliczewski; Da. Kirillov; Di. Kirillov; D. Kolev; M. Kravcikova; M. Lesiak; H. Machner; A. Magiera; G. Martinska; N. Piskunov; J. Ritman; P. von Rossen; B. J. Roy; A. Sibirtsev; I. Sitnik; R. Siudak; R. Tsenov; K. Ulbrich; J. Urban; G. J. Wagner

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction pp -> K+ + (Lambda p) was measured at Tp=1.953 GeV and Theta = 0 deg with a high missing mass resolution in order to study the Lambda p final state interaction. The large final state enhancement near the Lambda p threshold can be described using the standard Jost-function approach. The singlet and triplet scattering lengths and effective ranges are deduced by fitting simultaneously the Lambda p invariant mass spectrum and the total cross section data of the free Lambda p scattering.

  10. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kozub, T. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Faust, I. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  11. High resolution mass spectrometry method and system for analysis of whole proteins and other large molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Harris, William A. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method and related system for analyzing high molecular weight analytes includes the steps of providing at least one matrix-containing particle inside an ion trap, wherein at least one high molecular weight analyte molecule is provided within the matrix-containing particle, and MALDI on the high molecular weight particle while within the ion trap. A laser power used for ionization is sufficient to completely vaporize the particle and form at least one high molecular weight analyte ion, but is low enough to avoid fragmenting the high molecular weight analyte ion. The high molecular weight analyte ion is extracted out from the ion trap, and is then analyzed using a detector. The detector is preferably a pyrolyzing and ionizing detector.

  12. High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soft x-ray scattering has been recently boosted mainly by results on high Tc superconductors and other cuprates, where orbital and magnetic excitations could be studied with...

  13. agn ii high-resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in young stellar objects with Spitzer traces disk gas and its response to high energy radiation, but such Ne II emission may also originate in shocks within powerful...

  14. Calibration and application of the `clumped isotope' thermometer to foraminifera for high-resolution climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Calibration and application of the `clumped isotope' thermometer to foraminifera for high proxies. Here, we present a new calibration of the `clumped isotope' thermometer to foraminifera based

  15. Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

  16. A digital map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This dataset represent a map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for the arctic coastal plain at Barrow, Alaska. The polygon troughs are considered as the surface expression of the ice-wedges. The troughs are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The trough widths were initially identified from LiDAR data, and the boundary between two polygons assumed to be located along the lowest elevations on trough widths between them.

  17. A digital map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    This dataset represent a map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for the arctic coastal plain at Barrow, Alaska. The polygon troughs are considered as the surface expression of the ice-wedges. The troughs are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The trough widths were initially identified from LiDAR data, and the boundary between two polygons assumed to be located along the lowest elevations on trough widths between them.

  18. A Very High Spectral Resolution Study of Ground-State OH Masers in W3(OH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Walter F. Brisken; Loránt O. Sjouwerman

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present VLBA observations of the ground-state hydroxyl masers in W3(OH) at 0.02 km s-1 spectral resolution. Over 250 masers are detected, including 56 Zeeman pairs. Lineshapes are predominantly Gaussian or combinations of several Gaussians, with normalized deviations typically of the same magnitude as in masers in other species. Typical FWHM maser linewidths are 0.15 to 0.38 km s-1 and are larger in the 1665 MHz transition than in the other three ground-state transitions. The satellite-line 1612 and 1720 MHz masers show no evidence of sigma^+/-2,3 components. The spatial positions of most masers are seen to vary across the line profile, with many spots showing clear, organized positional gradients. Equivalent line-of-sight velocity gradients in the plane of the sky typically range from 0.01 to 1 km s-1 AU-1 (i.e., positional gradients of 1 to 100 AU (km s-1)-1). Small velocity gradients in the 1667 MHz transition support theoretical predictions that 1667 MHz masers appear in regions with small velocity shifts along the amplification length. Deconvolved maser spot sizes appear to be larger in the line wings but do not support a spherical maser geometry.

  19. Fiber scrambling for high-resolution spectrographs. II. A double fiber scrambler for Keck Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spronck, Julien F P; Kaplan, Zachary; Jurgenson, Colby; Valenti, Jeff; Moriarty, John; Szymkowiak, Andrew E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed a fiber scrambler as a prototype for the Keck HIRES spectrograph, using double scrambling to stabilize illumination of the spectrometer and a pupil slicer to increase spectral resolution to R = 70,000 with minimal slit losses. We find that the spectral line spread function (SLSF) for the double scrambler observations is 18 times more stable than the SLSF for comparable slit observations and 9 times more stable than the SLSF for a single fiber scrambler that we tested in 2010. For the double scrambler test data, we further reduced the radial velocity scatter from an average of 2.1 m/s to 1.5 m/s after adopting a median description of the stabilized SLSF in our Doppler model. This demonstrates that inaccuracies in modeling the SLSF contribute to the velocity RMS. Imperfect knowledge of the SLSF, rather than stellar jitter, sets the precision floor for chromospherically quiet stars analyzed with the iodine technique using Keck HIRES and other slit-fed spectrometers. It is increasingly common pra...

  20. Recent progress of avalanche photodiodes in high-resolution X-rays and Gamma-rays detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kataoka; T. Saito; Y. Kuramoto; T. Ikagawa; Y. Yatsu; J. Kotoku; M. Arimoto; N. Kawai; Y. Ishikawa; N. Kawabata

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the performance of large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) recently developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K, in high-resolution X-rays and Gamma-rays detections. We show that reach-through APD can be an excellent soft X-ray detector operating at room temperature or moderately cooled environment. We obtain the best energy resolution ever achieved with APDs, 6.4 % for 5.9 keV X-rays, and obtain the energy threshold as low as 0.5 keV measured at -20deg. Thanks to its fast timing response, signal carriers in the APD device are collected within a short time interval of 1.9 nsec (FWHM). This type of APDs can therefore be used as a low-energy, high-counting particle monitor onboard the forthcoming Pico-satellite Cute1.7. As a scintillation photon detector, reverse-type APDs have a good advantage of reducing the dark noise significantly. The best FWHM energy resolutions of 9.4+-0.3 % and 4.9+-0.2 % were obtained for 59.5 keV and 662 keV Gamma-rays, respectively, as measured with a CsI(Tl) crystal. Combination of APDs with various other scintillators (BGO, GSO, and YAP) also showed better results than that obtained with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). These results suggest that APD could be a promising device for replacing traditional PMT usage in some applications. In particular 2-dim APD array, which we present in this paper, will be a promising device for a wide-band X-ray and Gamma-ray imaging detector in future space research and nuclear medicine.

  1. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, A. C.

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

  2. A Search for Pulsed TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Crab Pulsar using the Whipple High Resolution GRANITE III Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kildea

    2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a search for pulsed TeV emission from the Crab pulsar using 97 hours of data recorded with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera of the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope.

  3. A Search for Pulsed TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Crab Pulsar using the Whipple High Resolution GRANITE III Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kildea, J

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a search for pulsed TeV emission from the Crab pulsar using 97 hours of data recorded with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera of the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope.

  4. Results from the HiRes Experiment Charles C.H. Jui, for the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Res) Collaboration Department of Physics, University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah, USA E-mail: juiResults from the HiRes Experiment Charles C.H. Jui, for the High Resolution Fly's Eye (Hi

  5. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kyoohyun

    We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed ...

  6. Conditions and mechanism for the formation of iron-rich Montmorillonite in deep sea sediments (Costa Rica Margin): Coupling high resolution mineralogical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (Costa Rica Margin): Coupling high resolution mineralogical characterization and geochemical modeling D potential transformation to glauconite. The study combines a detailed mineralogical investigation on natural samples and a chemical modeling approach to assess mineralogical reactions and pathways. Transmission

  7. Thin optic surface analysis for high resolution X-ray telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akilian, Mireille

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The art of glass developed throughout the years has covered artifacts ranging from crude ornaments to high precision optics used in flat panel displays, hard disk drives, and x-ray telescopes. Methods for manufacturing ...

  8. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolosi, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superpeaker OCGT CCGT Coal Nuclear Generation Capacities [generation options considered in THEA are nuclear, coal,Generation Share [%] Wind Low Wind Scenario High Wind Scenario Hydro Superpeaker OCGT CCGT Coal

  9. High resolution reanalysis of wind speeds over the British Isles for wind energy integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Samuel Lennon

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The UK has highly ambitious targets for wind development, particularly offshore, where over 30GW of capacity is proposed for development. Integrating such a large amount of variable generation presents enormous challenges. ...

  10. HIGH-RESOLUTION HELIOSEISMIC IMAGING OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES AND FLOWS OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Junwei; Kosovichev, Alexander G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Sekii, Takashi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a solar active region observed by the Hinode Ca II H line using the time-distance helioseismology technique, and infer wave-speed perturbation structures and flow fields beneath the active region with a high spatial resolution. The general subsurface wave-speed structure is similar to the previous results obtained from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager observations. The general subsurface flow structure is also similar, and the downward flows beneath the sunspot and the mass circulations around the sunspot are clearly resolved. Below the sunspot, some organized divergent flow cells are observed, and these structures may indicate the existence of mesoscale convective motions. Near the light bridge inside the sunspot, hotter plasma is found beneath, and flows divergent from this area are observed. The Hinode data also allow us to investigate potential uncertainties caused by the use of phase-speed filter for short travel distances. Comparing the measurements with and without the phase-speed filtering, we find out that inside the sunspot, mean acoustic travel times are in basic agreement, but the values are underestimated by a factor of 20%-40% inside the sunspot umbra for measurements with the filtering. The initial acoustic tomography results from Hinode show a great potential of using high-resolution observations for probing the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.

  11. High resolution analysis of soil elements with laser-induced breakdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebinger, Michael H. (Santa Fe, NM); Harris, Ronny D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a system and method of detecting a concentration of an element in a soil sample wherein an opening or slot is formed in a container that supports a soil sample that was extracted from the ground whereupon at least a length of the soil sample is exposed via the opening. At each of a plurality of points along the exposed length thereof, the soil sample is ablated whereupon a plasma is formed that emits light characteristic of the elemental composition of the ablated soil sample. Each instance of emitted light is separated according to its wavelength and for at least one of the wavelengths a corresponding data value related to the intensity of the light is determined. As a function of each data value a concentration of an element at the corresponding point along the length of the soil core sample is determined.

  12. Near-optimum procedure for half-life measurement by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, J.L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-optimum procedure for using high-resolution /gamma/-ray spectrometry to measure the half-lives of appropriate /gamma/-ray- emitting-nuclides is presented. Among the important points of the procedure are the employment of the reference source method for implicit correction of pileup and deadtime losses; the use of full-energy peak-area ratios as the fundamental measured quantities; and continuous, high-rate data acquisition to obtain good results in a fraction of a half-life if desired. Equations are given for estimating the precision of the computed half-lives in terms of total measurement time, number of spectral acquisitions, and the precision of peak-area ratios. Results of /sup 169/Yb half-life measurements are given as an example of the procedure's application. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Exoplanet Science with the European Extremely Large Telescope. The Case for Visible and Near-IR Spectroscopy at High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udry, S; Bouchy, F; Cameron, A Collier; Henning, T; Mayor, M; Pepe, F; Piskunov, N; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Rauer, H; Rebolo, R; Santos, N C; Snellen, I; Zerbi, F

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exoplanet science is booming. In 20 years our knowledge has expanded considerably, from the first discovery of a Hot Jupiter, to the detection of a large population of Neptunes and super-Earths, to the first steps toward the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. Between today and 2025, the field will evolve at an even faster pace with the advent of several space-based transit search missions, ground-based spectrographs, high-contrast imaging facilities, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Especially the ESA M-class PLATO mission will be a game changer in the field. From 2024 onwards, PLATO will find transiting terrestrial planets orbiting within the habitable zones of nearby, bright stars. These objects will require the power of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) to be characterized further. The technique of ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is establishing itself as a crucial pathway to measure chemical composition, atmospheric structure and atmospheric circulation in transiting exoplanets. A hig...

  14. High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2MLLC High-Rate, High-Capacityand ModelingStanford

  15. Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan [Palo Alto Research Center Inc., 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Max Planck Research Group, Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors.

  16. 13.4 A HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE LANDFALL OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmson, Robert

    the cyclone center. High winds, destructive storm surge and torrential rainfall often occur near the hurricane and buoyancy are favorable for the generation of tornado producing storms (McCaul 1991). * Corresponding author interactions. Additionally, 35 vertical layers were employed, from the surface to 70 mb with significantly

  17. A numerical investigation of high resolution multispectral absorption tomography for flow thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commission under Grant No. ASHTCSC 330840 and was partly performed using the Darwin Supercomputer of the University of Cambridge High Performance Computing Service. Clemens F. Kaminski also wishes to acknowledge EPSRC for funding (grant EP/L015889/1). 10...

  18. Digital Image Processing "Cookbook": A method to derive bathymetric data from high spatial resolution multi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Digital Image Processing "Cookbook": A method to derive bathymetric data from high spatial;Processing Method: Overview 1) Viewing of Images Software: ENVI, ArcGIS 2) Data Conversion from DN (digital by step outline, with comments concerning processing methods and accuracy issues, for a methodology

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH EMISSIONS DURING TWO X-CLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppler Imager (MDI) and hard X-ray (HXR) data of the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, Newark, NJ 07102 2. Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 yx2@njit cadence images gave us the first chance to measure the cooling time of flares at photospheric height. We

  20. The High Resolution Fly's Eye ( HiRes ) Project D.J. Bird,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Australia 4 High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Department of Physics, U. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 to the measurement of cosmic rays in this energy range: large ground arrays ( Area > 100 km2 ), and the Nitrogen USA ABSTRACT At the present time, the origin of cosmic rays in the EH E region ( Energy > 1018 e

  1. Standard guide for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of soil samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide covers the identification and quantitative determination of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in soil samples by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. It is applicable to nuclides emitting gamma rays with an approximate energy range of 20 to 2000 keV. For typical gamma-ray spectrometry systems and sample types, activity levels of about 5 Bq (135 pCi) are measured easily for most nuclides, and activity levels as low as 0.1 Bq (2.7 pCi) can be measured for many nuclides. It is not applicable to radionuclides that emit no gamma rays such as the pure beta-emitting radionuclides hydrogen-3, carbon-14, strontium-90, and becquerel quantities of most transuranics. This guide does not address the in situ measurement techniques, where soil is analyzed in place without sampling. Guidance for in situ techniques can be found in Ref (1) and (2). This guide also does not discuss methods for determining lower limits of detection. Such discussions can be found in Refs (3), (4), (5), and (6). 1.2 This guide can be us...

  2. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buratto, Steven K. [UC Santa Barbara

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  3. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  4. Atomic and molecular interstellar absorption lines toward the high galactic latitude stars HD~141569 and HD~157841 at ultra-high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Sahu; J. C. Blades; L. He; D. Hartmann; M. J. Barlow; I. A. Crawford

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ultra-high resolution (0.32 km/s) spectra obtained with the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and Ultra-High-Resolution Facility (UHRF), of interstellar NaI D1, D2, Ca II K, K I and CH absorption toward two high galactic latitude stars HD141569 and HD157841. We have compared our data with 21-cm observations obtained from the Leiden/Dwingeloo HI survey. We derive the velocity structure, column densities of the clouds represented by the various components and identify the clouds with ISM structures seen in the region at other wavelengths. We further derive abundances, linear depletions and H2 fractional abundances for these clouds, wherever possible. Toward HD141569, we detect two components in our UHRF spectra : a weak, broad component at - 15 km/s, seen only in CaII K absorption and another component at 0 km/s, seen in NaI D1, D2, Ca II K, KI and CH absorption. In the case of the HD157841 sightline, a total of 6 components are seen on our UHRF spectra in NaI D1, D2 Ca II K, K I and CH absorption. 2 of these 6 components are seen only in a single species.

  5. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. This algorithm assumed radial 1D variations of fluid saturation due to mud-filtrate invasion. Subsequently, we adapted the estimation method to interpret borehole field measurements acquired in both a shaly-sand sedimentary sequence and a tight-gas sandstone formation. In the two cases, we simulated the process of mud-filtrate invasion and concomitantly honored sonic and EM measurements. We produced reliable estimates of permeability and dry-rock moduli that were successfully validated with rock-core measurements. Finally, we introduced a new stochastic inversion procedure to estimate elastic, electrical, and petrophysical properties of layered media jointly from waveform sonic and frequency-domain EM measurements. The procedure was based on Bayesian statistical inversion and delivered estimates of uncertainty under various forms of a-priori information about the unknown properties. Tests on realistic synthetic models confirmed the reliability of this procedure to estimate elastic and petrophysical properties jointly from sonic and EM measurements. Several extended abstracts and conference presentations stemmed from this project, including 2 SEG extended abstracts, 1 SPE extended abstract, and 2 SPWLA extended abstracts. Some of these extended abstracts have been submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals.

  6. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

  7. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings.

  8. Experiments with the High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer at Jlab Hall C and the New Spectroscopy of ^12_Lambda B Hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Liguang; Chen, Chunhua; Gogami, Toshiyuki; Kawama, Daisuke; Han, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lulin; Matsumura, Akihiko; Okayasu, Yuichi; Seva, Tomislav; Rodriguez, Victor; Baturin, Pavlo; Acha Quimper, Armando; Achenbach, Carsten; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Androic, Darko; Asaturyan, Arshak; Asaturyan, Razmik; Ates, Ozgur; Badui, Rafael; Baker, Oliver; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Boeglin, Werner; Bono, Jason; Bosted, Peter; Brash, Edward; Carter, Philip; Carlini, Roger; Chiba, Atsushi; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Dalton, Mark; Danagoulian, Samuel; Daniel, Aji; De Leo, Raffaele; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Doi, Daisuke; Egiyan, Kim; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Furic, Miroslav; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gasparian, Ashot; Gibson, Edward; Gueye, Paul; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, D.; Horn, Tanja; Hu, Bitao; Hungerford, Ed; Jayalath, Chandana; Jones, Mark; Johnston, Kathleen; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M.; Kato, F.; Kato, Seigo; Kawai, Masaharu; Keppel, Cynthia; Khanal, Hari; Kohl, M.; Kramer, Laird; Lan, Kejian; Li, Ya; Habarakada Liyanage, Anusha; Luo, Wei; Mack, David; Maeda, Kazushige; Malace, Simona; Margaryan, Amur; Marikyan, Gagik; Markowitz, Pete; Maruta, Tomofumi; Maruyama, Nayuta; Maxwell, Victor; Millener, David; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Motoba, Toshio; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Narayan, Amrendra; Neville, Casey; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Nunez, Angel; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Nomura, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Kenichi; Ohtani, Atsushi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Perez, Naipy; Petkovic, Tomislav; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, Xiyu; Randeniya, Kapugodage; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Rivera, R.; Roche, Julie; Samanta, Chhanda; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segbefia, Edwin; Schott, Diane; Shichijo, Ayako; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Song, Yushou; Sumihama, Mizuki; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Taniya, Naotaka; Tsukada, Kyo; Tvaskis, Vladas; Veilleux, Micah; Vulcan, William; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yamamoto, Taku; Yan, Chen; Ye, Z.; Yokota, Kosuke; Zhamkochyan, Simon; Zhu, Lingyan

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the pioneering experiment, E89-009 studying hypernuclear spectroscopy using the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction was completed, two additional experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, were performed at Jefferson Lab. These later experiments used a modified experimental design, the "Tilt Method", to dramatically suppress the large electromagnetic background, and allowed for a substantial increase in luminosity. Additionally, a new kaon spectrometer, HKS (E01-011), a new electron spectrometer, HES, and a new splitting magnet were added to produce precision, high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. These two experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, resulted in two new data sets, producing sub-MeV energy resolution in the spectra of ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{28}_{\\Lambda} \\text{Al}$ and ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{10}_{\\Lambda}\\text{Be}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{52}_{\\Lambda}\\text{V}$. All three experiments obtained a ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$, spectrum, which is the most characteristic $p$-shell hypernucleus and is commonly used for calibration. Independent analyses of these different experiments demonstrate excellent consistency and provide the clearest level structure to date of this hypernucleus as produced by the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction. This paper presents details of these experiments, and the extraction and analysis of the observed ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ spectrum.

  9. The Ultraviolet Emission Properties of Five Low-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei at High Signal to Noise and Spectral Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Laor; John N. Bahcall; Buell T. Jannuzi; Donald P. Schneider; Richard F. Green; George F. Hartig

    1993-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the ultraviolet (UV) emission line and continuum properties of five low-redshift active galactic nuclei (four luminous quasars: PKS~0405$-$123, H1821+643, PG~0953+414, and 3C273, and one bright Seyfert 1 galaxy: Mrk~205). The HST spectra have higher signal-to-noise ratios (typically $\\sim 60$ per resolution element) and spectral resolution ($R = 1300$) than all previously- published UV spectra used to study the emission characteristics of active galactic nuclei. We include in the analysis ground-based optical spectra covering \\hb\\ and the narrow [O III] $\\lambda\\lambda$4959,5007 doublet. The following new results are obtained: \\lyb/\\lya=0.03$-$0.12 for the four quasars, which is the first accurate measurement of the long-predicted \\lyb\\ intensity in QSOs. The cores of \\lya\\ and C~IV are symmetric to an accuracy of better than 2.5% within about 2000 km s$^{-1}$ of the line peak. This high degree of symmetry of \\lya\\ argues against models in which the broad line cloud velocity field has a significant radial component. The observed smoothness of the \\lya\\ and C~IV line profiles requires at least $\\sim 10^4$ individual clouds if bulk velocity is the only line-broadening mechanism. The overall similarity of the \\lya\\ and C IV $\\lambda$1549 profiles rules out models for the broad line region (BLR) with a radial distribution of virialized....

  10. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. 20 figs.

  11. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, Oliver; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Welgand, M.; Umbach, E.; Bar, M.; Heske, C.; Denlinger, J.; Chuang, Y.-D.; McKinney, W.; Hussain, Z.; Gullikson, E.; Jones, M.; Batson, P.; Nelles, B.; Follath, R.

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft s-rays that coverst the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite is slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as (30 x 3000) micrometers squared, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scatters (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken with 10 min.

  12. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, Oliver; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Umbach, E.; Bar, M.; Heske, Clemens; Denlinger, Jonathan; Chuang, Y.-D.; McKinney, Wayne; Hussain, Zahid; Gullikson, Eric; Jones, M.; Batson, Phil; Nelles, B.; Follath, R.

    2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft x-rays that covers the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite its slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as 30x3000 mu m2, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken within 10 min.

  13. Accurate correction of magnetic field instabilities for high-resolution isochronous mass measurements in storage rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Shuai; H. S. Xu; Y. H. Zhang; Yu. A. Litvinov; M. Wang; X. L. Tu; K. Blaum; X. H. Zhou; Y. J. Yuan; G. Audi; X. L. Yan; X. C. Chen; X. Xu; W. Zhang; B. H. Sun; T. Yamaguchi; R. J. Chen; C. Y. Fu; Z. Ge; W. J. Huang; D. W. Liu; Y. M. Xing; Q. Zeng

    2014-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) in storage rings is a successful technique for accurate mass measurements of short-lived nuclides with relative precision of about $10^{-5}-10^{-7}$. Instabilities of the magnetic fields in storage rings are one of the major contributions limiting the achievable mass resolving power, which is directly related to the precision of the obtained mass values. A new data analysis method is proposed allowing one to minimise the effect of such instabilities. The masses of the previously measured at the CSRe $^{41}$Ti, $^{43}$V, $^{47}$Mn, $^{49}$Fe, $^{53}$Ni and $^{55}$Cu nuclides were re-determined with this method. An improvement of the mass precision by a factor of $\\sim 1.7$ has been achieved for $^{41}$Ti and $^{43}$V. The method can be applied to any isochronous mass experiment irrespective of the accelerator facility. Furthermore, the method can be used as an on-line tool for checking the isochronous conditions of the storage ring.

  14. Relativistic electron flux comparisons at low and high altitudes with fast time resolution and broad spatial coverage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imhof, W.L.; Gaines, E.E.; McGlennon, J.P. [Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States)] [and others] [Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States); and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses are presented for the first high-time resolution multisatellite study of the spatial and temporal characteristics of a relativistic electron enhancement event with a rapid onset. Measurements of MeV electrons were made from two low-altitude polar orbiting satellites and three spacecraft at synchronous altitude. The electron fluxes observed by the low-altitude satellites include precipitating electrons in both the bounce and drift loss cones as well as electrons that are stably trapped, whereas the observations at geosynchronous altitude are dominated by the trapped population. The fluxes of >1 MeV electrons at low-satellite altitude over a wide range of L shells tracked very well the fluxes >0.93 MeV at synchronous altitude. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Time-Resolved Molecular Characterization of Limonene/Ozone Aerosol using High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular composition of limonene/O3 secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) as a function of reaction time. SOA was generated by ozonation of D-limonene in a reaction chamber and sampled at different time intervals using a cascade impactor. The SOA samples were extracted into acetonitrile and analyzed using a HR-ESI-MS instrument with a resolving power of 100,000 (m/?m). The resulting mass spectra provided detailed information about the extent of oxidation inferred from the O:C ratios, double bond equivalency (DBE) factors, and aromaticity indexes (AI) in hundreds of identified individual SOA species.

  16. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  17. High Spatial Resolution KAO Far-Infrared Observations of the Central Regions of Infrared-Bright Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly J. Smith; P. M. Harvey

    1996-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new high spatial resolution Kuiper Airborne Observatory 50 micron and/or 100 micron data for 11 infrared-bright galaxies. We also tabulate previously published KAO data for 11 other galaxies, along with the IRAS data for the bulges of M 31 and M 81. We find that L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) correlate with CO (1 - 0) intensity and tau(100). Galaxies with optical or near-infrared signatures of OB stars in their central regions have higher values of I(CO) and tau(100), as well as higher far-infrared surface brightnesses and L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) ratios. L(FIR)/L(H(alpha)) does not correlate strongly with CO and tau(100). These results support a scenario in which OB stars dominate dust heating in the more active galaxies and older stars are important in quiescent bulges.

  18. Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana [Department of Physics and Center for Micro and Nano Sciences and Technologies, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Li Luhua; Chen Ying [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds Campus, 3217 (Australia); Cowie, Bruce C. C. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

  19. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  20. A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR THE REMAINING DONOR FOR TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Yong, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jeffery, C. Simon [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Anderson, Jay [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Podsiadlowski, Philipp [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Venn, Kim A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Elliott Building, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: wkerzend@mso.anu.edu.au [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report on our analysis using Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and Keck-I HIRES spectroscopy of the central six stars of Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572). With these data, we measured the proper motions, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and chemical abundances of these objects. Regarding the chemical abundances, we do not confirm the unusually high [Ni/Fe] ratio previously reported for Tycho-G. Rather, we find that for all metrics in all stars, none exhibit the characteristics expected from traditional Type Ia supernova single-degenerate-scenario calculations. The only possible exception is Tycho-B, a rare, metal-poor A-type star; however, we are unable to find a suitable scenario for it. Thus, we suggest that SN 1572 cannot be explained by the standard single-degenerate model.

  1. Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Kobayashi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 {mu}m pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

  2. Investigation of a high spatial resolution method based on polar coordinate maximum entropy method for analyzing electron density fluctuation data measured by laser phase contrast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, K. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Iguchi, H.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser phase contrast is a powerful diagnostic method to determine the spatial distribution of electron density fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas, although its applicability depends on magnetic field configurations. The spatial resolution of fluctuations is linked with the resolution of the propagation direction that is derived from the two-dimensional spectral analysis of the wavenumber for the fluctuations. The method was applied to fluctuation measurements in a compact helical system. In order to improve the resolution of the propagation direction with a relatively small number of data points, the maximum entropy method with polar coordinates was employed. A spatial resolution of the order of 1 cm was obtained, which is satisfactory in a plasma with a 20 cm minor radius.

  3. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spernjak, Dusan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairweather, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operation. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and neutron radiography were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells under various operating conditions. Variables examined include: sub-freezing conditions, inlet relative humidities, cell temperature, current density and response transients, different flow field orientations and different component materials (membranes, GDLs and MEAs). Quantification of the water within the membrane was made by neutron radiography after equilibration to different humidified gases, during fuel cell operation and in hydrogen pump mode. The water content was evaluated in bare Nafion{reg_sign} membranes as well as in MEAs operated in both fuel cell and H{sub 2} pump mode. These in situ imaging results allow measurement of the water content and gradients in the PEFC membrane and relate the membrane water transport characteristics to the fuel cell operation and performance under disparate materials and operational combinations. Flow geometry makes a large impact on MEA water content. Higher membrane water with counter flow was measured compared with co-flow for sub-saturated inlet RH's. This correlates to lower HFR and higher performance compared with co-flow. Higher anode stoichiometry helps remove water which accumulates in the anode channels and GDL material. Cell orientation was measured to affect both the water content and cell performance. While membrane water content was measured to be similar regardless of orientation, cells with the cathode on top show flooding and loss of performance compared with similarly operated cells with the anode on top. Transient fuel cell current measurements show a large degree of hysteresis in terms of membrane hydration as measured by HFR. Current step transients from 0.01 A cm{sup -2} to 0.68 A cm{sup -2} consistently show PEM wetting occurring within 5 to 20 sec. Whereas the PEM drying response to the reverse step transient of 0.68 A cm{sup -2} to 0.01 A cm{sup -2}, takes several minutes. The observed faster wetting response is due to reaction water being produced in the cathode and back diffusing into the membrane. The slower PEM drying is due to the water slowly being removed out of the wetted GDLs. This rate of removal of water and hence the PEM hydration level was found to be influenced strongly by the PTFE loadings in the GDL substrate and Microporous layer (MPL). The drying of the membrane is influenced by both the anode and cathode GDL PTFE loadings. Lower PTFE loading in the anode GDL leads to better membrane hydration probably due to the easier incorporation of water from the anode GDL into the membrane. Similarly a lower PTFE loading in the cathode GDL also results in better membrane hydration probably due to the better water retention properties (less hydrophobic) of this GDL. Fuel cells operated isothermal at sub-freezing temperatures show gradual cell performance decay over time and eventually drops to zero. AC impedance analysis indicates that losses are initially due to increasing charge transfer resistance. After time, the rate of decay accelerates rapidly due to mass transport limitations. High frequency resistance also increases over time and is a function of the initial membrane water content. These results indicate that catalyst layer ice formation is influenced strongly by the MEA and is responsible for the long-term degradation of fuel cells operated at sub-freezing temperatures. Water distribution measurements indicate that ice may be fonning mainly in the GDLs at -10 C but are concentrated in the catalyst layer at -20 C.

  4. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  5. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  6. High-resolution multi-MeV x-ray radiography using relativistic laser-solid interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Barbotin, M.; Bazzoli, S.; Brebion, D.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Le Dain, L.; Lefebvre, E.; Pichoff, N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Biddle, L.; Drew, D.; Gardner, M.; Ramsay, M.; Simons, A.; Sircombe, N. [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When high intensity ({>=}10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}) laser light interacts with matter, multi-MeV electrons are produced. These electrons can be utilized to generate a MeV bremsstrahlung x-ray emission spectrum as they propagate into a high-Z solid target positioned behind the interaction area. The short duration (<10 ps) and the small diameter (<500 {mu}m) of the x-ray pulse combined with the MeV x-ray spectrum offers an interesting alternative to conventional bremsstrahlung x-ray sources based on an electron accelerator used to radiograph dense, rapidly moving objects. In experiments at the Omega EP laser, a multi-MeV x-ray source is characterized consistently with number of independent diagnostics. An unfiltered x-ray dose of approximately 2 rad in air at 1 m and a source diameter of less than 350 {mu}m are inferred. Radiography of a complex and high area density (up to 61 g/cm{sup 2}) object is then performed with few hundred microns spatial resolution.

  7. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyu, B., E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, M. Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  8. Profile of Professor of High-Resolution Electron Microscopy for Nanomaterials in the Quantum Nanoscience department (Kavli Institute, faculty of Applied Sciences)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscience department (Kavli Institute, faculty of Applied Sciences) Workload and duration The Quantum Nanoscience department is planning to appoint a permanent full-time professor in the research area of High the High-Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) group in the Quantum Nanoscience department at TU Delft

  9. Gravity-mode period spacings as seismic diagnostic for a sample of gamma Doradus stars from Kepler space photometry and high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Reeth, T; Aerts, C; Papics, P I; Triana, S A; Zwintz, K; Degroote, P; Debosscher, J; Bloemen, S; Schmid, V S; De Smedt, K; Fremat, Y; Fuentes, A S; Homan, W; Hrudkova, M; Karjalainen, R; Lombaert, R; Nemeth, P; Oestensen, R; Van De Steene, G; Vos, J; Raskin, G; Van Winckel, H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma Doradus stars (hereafter gamma Dor stars) are gravity-mode pulsators of spectral type A or F. Such modes probe the deep stellar interior, offering a detailed fingerprint of their structure. Four-year high-precision space-based Kepler photometry of gamma Dor stars has become available, allowing us to study these stars with unprecedented detail. We selected, analysed, and characterized a sample of 67 gamma Dor stars for which we have Kepler observations available. For all the targets in the sample we assembled high-resolution spectroscopy to confirm their F-type nature. We found fourteen binaries, among which four single-lined binaries, five double-lined binaries, two triple systems and three binaries with no detected radial velocity variations. We estimated the orbital parameters whenever possible. For the single stars and the single-lined binaries, fundamental parameter values were determined from spectroscopy. We searched for period spacing patterns in the photometric data and identified this diagnosti...

  10. MILLIMETER AND SUBMILLIMETER HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS: DUST IN THE HEART OF IRAS 18162-2048

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez-Lopez, M.; Curiel, S. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Ho, P. T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Patel, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gomez, Y., E-mail: manferna@gmail.com, E-mail: scuriel@astroscu.unam.mx, E-mail: girart@ieec.cat, E-mail: y.gomez@astrosmo.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacan 58089 (Mexico)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The GGD27 complex includes the HH 80-81-80N system, which is one of the most powerful molecular outflows associated with a high-mass star-forming region observed to date. This outflow is powered by the star associated with the source IRAS 18162-2048. Here, we report on the detection of continuum emission at subarcsec/arcsec resolution with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 1.36 mm and 456 {mu}m, respectively. We detected dust emission arising from two compact cores, MM1 and MM2, separated by about 7'' ({approx}12,000 AU in projected distance). MM1 spatially coincides with the powerful thermal radio continuum jet that powers the very extended molecular outflow, while MM2 is associated with the protostar that drives the compact molecular outflow recently found in this region. High angular resolution observations at 1.36 mm show that MM1 is unresolved and that MM2 splits into two subcomponents separated by {approx}1''. The mass of MM1 is about 4 M{sub sun} and it has a size of {approx}<300 AU. This is consistent with MM1 being associated with a massive and dense (n(H{sub 2}) {approx}> 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) circumstellar dusty disk surrounding a high-mass protostar, which has not yet developed a compact H II region. On the other hand, the masses of the two separate components of MM2 are about 2 M{sub sun} each. One of these components is a compact core with an intermediate-mass young protostar inside and the other component is probably a prestellar core. MM1 is the brightest source at 1.36 mm, while MM2 dominates the emission at 456 {mu}m. These are the only (sub)millimeter sources detected in the SMA observations. Hence, it seems that both sources may contribute significantly to the bolometric luminosity of the region. Finally, we argue that the characteristics of these two sources indicate that MM2 is probably in an earlier evolutionary stage than MM1.

  11. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu [Department 'Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Wegmann, Urs [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Maier, Urs [Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel [SPECS Zurich GmbH, Technoparkstr. 1, CH-8005 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 {mu}m in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program 'SARINA,' which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  12. Separating strain from composition in unit cell parameter maps obtained from aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, T.; Remmele, T.; Korytov, M.; Markurt, T.; Albrecht, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, Max-Born-Straße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Duff, A.; Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Chèze, C. [TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Skierbiszewski, C. [TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the evaluation of lattice parameter maps in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we propose a simple method that allows quantifying the composition and disorder of a semiconductor alloy at the unit cell scale with high accuracy. This is realized by considering, next to the out-of-plane, also the in-plane lattice parameter component allowing to separate the chemical composition from the strain field. Considering only the out-of-plane lattice parameter component not only yields large deviations from the true local alloy content but also carries the risk of identifying false ordering phenomena like formations of chains or platelets. Our method is demonstrated on image simulations of relaxed supercells, as well as on experimental images of an In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N quantum well. Principally, our approach is applicable to all epitaxially strained compounds in the form of quantum wells, free standing islands, quantum dots, or wires.

  13. A Method of Mass Measurement in Black Hole Binaries Using Timing and High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vikhlinin

    1999-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In X-ray binaries, several percent of the compact object luminosity is intercepted by the surface of the normal companion and re-radiated through Compton reflection and the K-fluorescence. This reflected emission follows the variability of the compact object with a delay approximately equal to the orbital radius divided by the speed of light. This provides the possibility of measuring the orbital radius and thus substantially refining the compact object mass determination compared to using optical data alone. We demonstrate that it may be feasible to measure the time delay between the direct and reflected emission using cross-correlation of the light curves observed near the Kalpha line and above the K-edge of neutral iron. In the case of Cyg X-1, the time delay measurement is feasible with a 300--1000 ksec observation by a telescope with a 1000 cm^2 effective area near 6.4 keV and with a ~5eV energy resolution. With longer exposures, it may be possible to obtain mass constraints even if an X-ray source in the binary system lacks an optical counterpart.

  14. The Need For High Resolution In Studies Of The 3-D Magnetic Field Structure Of AGN Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shane P. O'Sullivan; Denise C. Gabuzda

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We are using "broadband" (4.6 to 43 GHz) multi-frequency VLBA polarization observations of compact AGN to investigate the 3-D structure of their jet magnetic (B) fields. Observing at several frequencies, separated by short and long intervals, enables reliable determination of the distribution of Faraday Rotation, and thereby the intrinsic B field structure. Transverse Rotation Measure (RM) gradients were detected in the jets of 0954+658 and 1418+546, providing evidence for the presence of a helical B field surrounding the jet. The RM in the core regions of 2200+420 (BL Lac), 0954+658 and 1418+546 display different signs in different frequency-intervals (on different spatial scales); we suggest an explanation for this in terms of modest bends in a helical B field surrounding their jets. In future, polarization observations with a combination of VSOP-2 at 8, 22 and 43 GHz and ground arrays at frequencies with corresponding resolution will help map out the distributions of Faraday rotation, spectral index and the 3-D B field structure both across the jet and closer to the central engine, providing strong constraints for any jet B field models.

  15. The design and construction of a high-resolution velocity-map imaging apparatus for photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    León, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Lai-Sheng, E-mail: Lai-Sheng-Wang@brown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new velocity-map imaging apparatus equipped with a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected cluster anions. Vibrationally cold anion clusters are produced using a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source, size-selected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and then focused co-linearly into the interaction zone of the high-resolution velocity-map imaging (VMI) system. The multilens VMI system is optimized via systematic simulations and can reach a resolution of 1.2 cm{sup ?1} (FWHM) for near threshold electrons while maintaining photoelectron kinetic energy resolutions (?KE/KE) of ?0.53% for higher energy electrons. The new VMI lens has superior focusing power over a large energy range, yielding highly circular images with distortions no larger than 1.0025 between the long and short radii. The detailed design, simulation, construction, testing, and performance of the high-resolution VMI apparatus are presented.

  16. High Resolution EELS | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILLAdministration |Basic Research

  17. Y High-Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun1ofRadiative Heating inforModel Y ear 2Y

  18. Insights into Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms from High-Resolution Measurements of Crack-Tip Structures and Compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental basis for mechanistic understanding and modeling of SCC remains in question for many systems. Specific mechanisms controlling SCC can vary with changes in alloy characteristics, applied/residual stress or environmental conditions. The local crack electrochemistry, crack-tip mechanics and material metallurgy are the main factors controlling crack growth. These localized properties are difficult or impossible to measure in active cracks. Nevertheless, it is essential to quantitatively interrogate these crack-tip conditions if mechanistic understanding is to be obtained. A major recent advance has been the ability to investigate SCC cracks and crack tips using high-resolution ATEM techniques. ATEM enables the characterization of SCC cracks including trapped tip solution chemistries, corrosion product/film compositions and structures, and elemental composition gradients and defect microstructures along the crack walls and at the crack tip. A wide variety of methods for imaging and analyses at resolutions down to the atomic level can be used to examine the crack and corrosion film characteristics. Surface films and reaction layers have been examined by cross-sectional TEM techniques, but little work had been conducted on environmentally induced internal cracks until that of Lewis and co-workers [1-3] and the current authors [4-17]. This capability combined with modern ATEM techniques has enabled exciting new insights into corrosion processes occurring at buried interfaces and is being used to identify mechanisms controlling IGSCC in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) components. The objective of this paper is to summarize certain results focused on IGSCC of Fe- base and Ni-base stainless alloys in high-temperature water environments. Representative crack-tip examples will be shown to illustrate specific aspects that are characteristic of SCC in the material/environment combinations. Differences and similarities in crack-tip structures- chemistries will be highlighted comparing Fe-base 316/304SS to Ni-base alloy 600/182 and for tests in oxidizing versus hydrogenated water environments.

  19. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huenemoerder, David P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Phillips, Kenneth J. H. [Visiting Scientist, Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara, E-mail: dph@space.mit.edu, E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com, E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl, E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first ionization potential (FIP) values. The low FIP elements do not show enhancement in the stellar coronae as they do in the Sun, except perhaps for K in {sigma} Gem. While {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 differ in their emission measure distributions, they have very similar elemental abundances.

  20. An attempt to study LiH and Li{sub 2} molecules by high resolution pulsed laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouloufa, Nadia; Cabaret, Louis; Cacciani, Patrice; Camus, Pierre; Pitcheev, Boris; Vetter, Raymond [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS II, Bat 505, Campus d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As we start a program to study alkali hydrides and dimers, we have developed a two-step photoionisation experiment on Li{sub 2} molecules based on the use of an atomic beam and two pulsed dye lasers. The first resonant step which excites the A {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}-X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}Li{sub 2} dimer systems is a home-made cw-seeded DCM dye laser with a laser linewidth of 55 MHz (FWHM) and near the Fourier transform limit. The second step is a larger width fixed frequency UV laser which allows the photoionisation of the selectively excited molecules. The three {sup 6}Li{sub 2}, {sup 6}Li {sup 7}Li and {sup 7}Li{sub 2} spectra are recorded simultaneously by the use of a doubly-accelerating time-of-flight ion analyser. Comparison between recorded and calculated absorption spectra using Dunham parameters found in the literature is satisfactory. To develop similar pulsed high-resolution investigations in LiH, we have characterized our molecular beam by using the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique with a cw blue dye laser. Two Franck-Condon LiH Doppler-free resonances have been observed.

  1. Are AGN Broad Emission Lines Formed by Discrete Clouds? --- Analysis of Keck High Resolution Spectroscopy of NGC 4151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahum Arav; Thomas A. Barlow; Ari Laor; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Roger D. Blandford

    1998-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We search for a direct signature of discrete ''clouds'' in the broad line region (BLR) of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. For this purpose we apply cross correlation (CC) analysis to a high resolution KECK spectrum of the galaxy. No such signature is found in the data. In order for cloud models to be compatible with this result, there must be at least $\\sim3\\times10^7$ emitting clouds in the BLR, where the limit is based on simulation of a homogeneous cloud population. More realistic distributions increase the lower limit to above $10^8$. These numbers are an order of magnitude improvement on our previous limit from Mrk 335, where the improvement comes from higher S/N, broader lines, and refined simulations. Combined with the predicted upper limit for the number of emitting clouds in NGC 4151 ($10^6-10^7$), the derived lower limit puts a strong constraint on the cloud scenario in the BLR of this object. Similar constraints can be paled on models where the emission originates in streams and sheets. Thus, this investigation suggests that the BELs in NGC 4151, and by extension in all AGNs, are not made of an ensemble of discrete independent emitters.

  2. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time for the analysis of liquid petroleum crude oil samples. The analysis was performed in both positive and negative ionization modes using three solvents one of which (acetonitrile/toluene mixture) is commonly used in petroleomics studies while two other polar solvents (acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures) are generally not compatible with petroleum characterization using mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that nano-DESI analysis efficiently ionizes petroleum constituents soluble in a particular solvent. When acetonitrile/toluene is used as a solvent, nano-DESI generates electrospray-like spectra. In contrast, strikingly different spectra were obtained using acetonitrile/water and methanol/water. Comparison with the literature data indicates that these solvents selectively extract water-soluble constituents of the crude oil. Water-soluble compounds are predominantly observed as sodium adducts in nano-DESI spectra indicating that addition of sodium to the solvent may be a viable approach for efficient ionization of water-soluble crude oil constituents. Nano-DESI enables rapid screening of different classes of compounds in crude oil samples using solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization.

  3. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Revercomb, David Tobin, Robert Knuteson, Lori Borg, Leslie Moy

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the “grand tour” of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004. More specifically, our major achievements for ARM include 1. Development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) to function like a satellite on the ground for ARM, providing a steady stream of accurately calibrated spectral radiances for Science Team clear sky and cloud applications (Knuteson et al. 2004a), 2. Detailed radiometric calibration and characterization of AERI radiances, with uncertainty estimates established from complete error analyses and proven by inter-comparison tests (Knuteson et al. 2004b), 3. AERI data quality assessment and maintenance over the extended time frames needed to support ARM (Dedecker et al., 2005) 4. Key role in the radiative transfer model improvements from the AERI/LBLRTM QME (Turner et al. 2004) and AERI-ER especially from the SHEBA experiment (Tobin et al. 1999), 5. Contributed scientific and programmatic leadership leading to significant water vapor accuracy improvements and uncertainty assessments for the low to mid troposphere (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003), 6. Leadership of the ARM assessment of the accuracy of water vapor observations from radiosondes, Raman Lidar and in situ aircraft observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (Tobin et al. 2002, Ferrare et al. 2004), 7. New techniques for characterizing clouds from AERI (DeSlover et al. 1999, Turner 2003b, Turner et al. 2003b), 8. Initial design and development of the Scanning-HIS aircraft instrument and application to ARM UAV Program missions (Revercomb et al. 2005), and 9. Coordinated efforts leading to the use of ARM observations as a key validation tool for the high resolution Atmospheric IR Sounder on the NASA Aqua platform (Tobin et al. 2005a) 10. Performed ARM site and global clear sky radiative closure studies that shows closure of top-of-atmosphere flux at the level of ~1 W/m2 (Moy et al 2008 and Section 3 of this appendix) 11. Performed studies to characterize SGP site cirrus cloud property retrievals and assess impacts on computed fluxes and heating rate profiles (Borg et al. 2008 and Section 2 of this appendix).

  4. High-Resolution Neutron Capture and Total Cross-Section Measurements, and the Astrophysical 95Mo(n,gamma) Reaction Rate at s-process Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. E. Koehler; J. A. Harvey; K. H. Guber; D. Wiarda

    2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Abundances of Mo isotopes predicted by stellar models of the s process are, except for 95Mo, in good agreement with data from single grains of mainstream presolar SiC. Because the meteorite data seemed sound and no reasonable modification to stellar theory resulted in good agreement for 95Mo, it has been suggested that the recommended neutron capture reaction rate for this nuclide is 30% too low. Therefore, we have made a new determination of the 95Mo(n,gamma) reaction rate via high-resolution measurements of the neutron-capture and total cross sections of 95Mo at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. These data were analyzed with the R-matrix code SAMMY to obtain parameters for resonances up to En = 10 keV. Also, a small change to our capture apparatus allowed us to employ a new technique to vastly improve resonance spin and parity assignments. These new resonance parameters, together with our data in the unresolved range, were used to calculate the 95Mo(n,gamma) reaction rate at s-process temperatures. We compare the currently recommended rate to our new results and discuss their astrophysical impact.

  5. A High-Resolution Very Large Array Observation of a Protostar in OMC-3: Shock-induced X-ray Emission by a Protostellar Jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; N. Kobayashi; M. Saito; Y. Tsuboi; C. J. Chandler

    2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Very Large Array (VLA) in the A-configuration, we have obtained a high-resolution 3.6 cm map of a hard X-ray source detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in a protostellar clump in Orion molecular cloud 3. Two radio continuum sources were detected in the vicinity of the X-ray source, both of which have NIR counterparts. We conclude that these VLA sources are free-free emission produced by shocks in protostellar jets from the NIR class I protostars. Using the centimeter data, we determined the power and orientation of the protostellar jets. The center position of the X-ray emission was found to be ~1--2" offset from the exciting sources of the jets, and the displacement is in the direction of the jets and molecular outflows. We discuss the nature of the X-ray emission as the shock-excited plasma at the shock front where the jet propagates through interstellar medium at a speed of ~1000 km/s.

  6. A High-Resolution Very Large Array Observation of a Protostar in OMC-3: Shock-induced X-ray Emission by a Protostellar Jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Kobayashi, N; Saitó, M; Tsuboi, Y; Chandler, C J

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Very Large Array (VLA) in the A-configuration, we have obtained a high-resolution 3.6 cm map of a hard X-ray source detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in a protostellar clump in Orion molecular cloud 3. Two radio continuum sources were detected in the vicinity of the X-ray source, both of which have NIR counterparts. We conclude that these VLA sources are free-free emission produced by shocks in protostellar jets from the NIR class I protostars. Using the centimeter data, we determined the power and orientation of the protostellar jets. The center position of the X-ray emission was found to be ~1--2" offset from the exciting sources of the jets, and the displacement is in the direction of the jets and molecular outflows. We discuss the nature of the X-ray emission as the shock-excited plasma at the shock front where the jet propagates through interstellar medium at a speed of ~1000 km/s.

  7. Coronal Evolution of the Sun in Time: High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of Solar Analogs with Different Ages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Telleschi; M. Guedel; K. Briggs; M. Audard; J. -U. Ness; S. L. Skinner

    2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) We investigate the long-term evolution of X-ray coronae of solar analogs based on high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and photometry with XMM-Newton. Six nearby main-sequence G stars with ages between ~0.1 Gyr and \\~1.6 Gyr and rotation periods between ~1d and 12.4d have been observed. We derive coronal element abundances and the coronal emission measure distribution (EMD). The abundances change from an inverse-First Ionization Potential (FIP) distribution in stars with ages around 0.1 Gyr to a solar-type FIP distribution in stars at ages of 0.3 Gyr and beyond. The coronal EMDs show shapes characterized by power-laws on each side of the EMD peak. The latter shifts from temperatures of about 10 MK in the most rapidly rotating, young stars to temperatures around 4 MK in the oldest target considered here. The power-law index on the cooler side of the EMD exceeds expected slopes for static loops, with typical values being 1.5-3. We interpret this slope with a model in which the coronal emission is due to a superposition of stochastically occurring flares, with an occurrence rate that is distributed in radiated energy E as a power-law, dN/dE ~ E^-a. Our EMDs indicate a ~ 2.2-2.8, in excellent agreement with values previously derived from light curves of magnetically active stars. We derive the range of flare energies required to explain the light-curve modulation. In an overall scenario, we propose that flaring activity plays a larger role in more active stars. In this model, the higher flare rate is responsible both for the higher average coronal temperature and the high coronal X-ray luminosity, two parameters that are indeed found to be correlated.

  8. Design, assembly, and testing of a high-resolution relay lens used for holography with operation at both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Danny S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pazuchanics, Peter D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [NSTEC; Cox, Brian C [NSTEC; Frogget, Brent C [NSTEC; Kaufman, Morris I [NSTEC; Capelle, Gene A [NSTEC/SB; Grover, M [NSTEC/SB; Stevens, Gerald D [NSTEC/SB; Turley, William D [NSTEC/SB

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 1p/mm resolution at a 355-nm wavelength (ultraviolet) has been completed. By adding a doublet to this lens system, operation at a 532-nm wavelength (green) with > 1100 1p/mm resolution is achieved. This lens is used with high-power laser light to record holograms of fast-moving ejecta particles from a shocked metal surface located inside a test package. Part of the lens and the entire test package are under vacuum with a 1-cm air gap separation. Holograms have been recorded with both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser light. The UV operation is very sensitive to the package window's tilt. If this window is tilted by more than 0.1 degrees, the green operation performs with better resolution than that of the UV operation. The setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording can be done with either UV light or green light. A resolution plate can be temporarily placed inside the test package so that a television microscope located beyond the hologram position can archive images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires., interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens are presented. Resolution variation across the 12-mm field of view and throughout the 5-mm depth of field is discussed for both wavelengths.

  9. EnKF assimilation of high-resolution, mobile Doppler radar data of the 4 May 20071 Greensburg, Kansas supercell into a numerical cloud model2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    , and low-level vortex strength and20 longevity.21 22 #12;2 1. Introduction1 Radar is one of few atmospheric routinely collected9 across most of the contiguous United States. The two measured radar variables mostEnKF assimilation of high-resolution, mobile Doppler radar data of the 4 May 20071 Greensburg

  10. "High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K. Balasubramiam and R. Radick, Procs. NSO/SP Summer Workshop Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    using 90-degree beam folding, or behind the primary mirror by deflecting the secondary beam around"High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K. The future of optical solar physics at Utrecht hinges on a recently-funded three- year DOT science validation

  11. A detailed pore characterization in 2D and 3D by means of optical and fluorescence microscopy combined with high-resolution X-ray CT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    combined with high-resolution X-ray CT. Research Unit: Sedimentary Geology and Engineering Geology Topic about oil reservoirs, aquifers, building stone weathering). In the past, the pore network was mainly/or laboratory work: Precise sampling of the geological material. Petrographical research with optical

  12. 115 year ice-core data from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya: high-resolution record of Eurasian Arctic climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus

    115 year ice-core data from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya: high-resolution record ABSTRACT. From 1999 to 2001 a 724 m deep ice core was drilled on Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya Greenland are needed. Therefore, in the Eurasian Arctic several ice cores from ice caps on Svalbard

  13. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Å spectral band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  14. Seeing inside chips and cells: High-resolution subsurface imaging of integrated circuits, quantum dots and subcellular structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    techniques for IC failure analysis ­ solid immersion lens microscopy and solid immersion lens thermography improvement from >5µm to a resolution of 1.3µm, representing the best subsurface thermography to date

  15. SPIE Proceedings BIOS 2005, Ophthalmic Technologies XV, vol. 5688A, paper 37 Towards High-Resolution Optoelectronic Retinal Prosthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    -Resolution Optoelectronic Retinal Prosthesis Daniel Palankera,b , Philip Huiea,b , Alexander Vankovb , Alon Ashera , Steven a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array

  16. HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF THE REIONIZATION OF AN ISOLATED MILKY WAY-M31 GALAXY PAIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l'Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Knebe, A.; Yepes, G. [Grupo de Astrofísica, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Modulo C-8, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-280049 (Spain); Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S. [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Hoffman, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a set of numerical simulations aimed at studying reionization at the galactic scale. We use a high-resolution realization of the formation of the Milky Way (MW)-M31 system to simulate the reionization of the Local Group. The reionization calculation was performed with the post-processing radiative transfer code ATON and the underlying cosmological simulation was performed as part of the CLUES project (http://www.clues-project.org). We vary the source models to bracket the range of source properties used in the literature. We investigate the structure and propagation of the galactic ionization fronts by a visual examination of our reionization maps. Within the progenitors, we find that reionization is patchy and proceeds locally inside-out. The process becomes patchier with decreasing source photon output. It is generally dominated by one major H II region and one to four additional isolated smaller bubbles, which eventually overlap. Higher emissivity results in faster and earlier local reionization. In all models, the reionization of the MW and M31 are similar in duration, i.e., between 203 Myr and 22 Myr depending on the source model, placing their z{sub reion} between 8.4 and 13.7. In all models except the most extreme, the MW and M31 progenitors reionize internally, ignoring each other despite being relatively close to each other, even during the epoch of reionization. Only in the case of strong supernova feedback suppressing star formation in halos less massive than 10{sup 9} M{sub ?}, and using our highest emissivity, do we find that the MW is reionized by M31.

  17. Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of Variable Early-Type Be and B stars Derived from High-Resolution IUE Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myron A. Smith

    2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High-dispersion IUE data encode significant information about aggregate line absorptions that cannot be conveniently extracted from individual spectra. We apply a new technique in which fluxes from each echelle order of a short wavelength IUE spectrum are binned together to construct low-resolution spectra of a rapidly varying B or Be star. The ratio of binned spectra obtained bright- star and faint-star phases contains information about the mechanism responsible for a star's variability, such as from pulsations or occultations of the star by ejected matter. We model the variations caused by these mechanism by means of model atmosphere and absorbing-slab codes. Line absorptions strength changes are sensitive to conditions in circumstellar clouds with T = 8,000--13,000K. To demonstrate proofs of concept, we construct spectral ratios for circumstellar structures associated with flux variability in various Be stars: (1) Vela X1 has bow-shock wind trailing its neutron star companion and shows signatures of gas at 13,000K or 26,000K medium in different sectors, (2) 88 Her undergoes episodic outbursts as its UV flux fades, followed a year later by a dimming in visible wavelengths, a result of a gray opacity that dominates as the shell expands and cools, and (3) zeta Tau and 60 Cyg exhibit periodic spectrum and flux changes, which match model absorptions for occulting clouds. Also, ratioed UV spectra of strongly pulsating stars show unique spectrophotometric signatures which can be simulated with models. An analysis of ratioed spectra obtained for a typical sample of 18 classical Be stars known to have rapid periodic flux variations indicates that 13 of them have ratioed spectra which are relatively featureless or have signatures of pulsation. Ratioed spectra of 3 others in the sample are consistent with the presence of co-rotating clouds.

  18. First VUV full-Sun spectrum of the transition region with high spectral resolution compared to cool stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardi Peter

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the first full-Sun vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission line profile originating from the transition region from the chromosphere to the corona. It is based on a raster scan of the whole solar disk using SUMER/SOHO. The full-Sun spectrum has a spectral resolution which allows an investigation of details in the line profile as well as a thorough comparison to stellar spectra as obtained, e.g. with FUSE or STIS/HST. The full-Sun spectrum shows enhanced emission in the wings, and is well described by a double Gaussian fit with a narrow and a broad component. It is shown that the broad component is due to structures on the solar surface, especially those related to the magnetic chromospheric network. Thus it is proposed that the broad components of other solar-like stars are also a consequence of the mixture of surface structures, and not necessarily a signature of small-scale heating processes like explosive events, as it is commonly argued. A comparison to spectra of luminous cool stars shows that the line asymmetries of these stars might also be a surface structure effect and not or only partly due to opacity effects in their cool dense winds. These comparisons show the potential of high quality full-Sun VUV spectra and their value for the study of solar-stellar connections. As an example, this study proposes that alpha Cen A has a considerably higher amount of magnetic flux concentrated in the chromospheric magnetic network than the Sun.

  19. The link between a negative high resolution resist contrast/developer performance and the Flory-Huggins parameter estimated from the Hansen solubility sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    StCaire, Lorri; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Chao, Weilun L.; Lewis, Mark D.; Lu, Haoren; Dhuey, Scott D.; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have implemented a technique to identify candidate polymer solvents for spinning, developing, and rinsing for a high resolution, negative electron beam resist hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene to elicit the optimum pattern development performance. Using the three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters for over 40 solvents, we have constructed a Hansen solubility sphere. From this sphere, we have estimated the Flory Huggins interaction parameter for solvents with hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene and found a correlation between resist development contrast and the Flory-Huggins parameter. This provides new insights into the development behavior of resist materials which are necessary for obtaining the ultimate lithographic resolution.

  20. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High-­Resolution X-­ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M; Gates, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Roquemore, A L; Morita, S; Goto, M; Yamada, H; Rice, J

    2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose instrumental concept was thoroughly tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is presently being designed for LHD. The instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar16+ and provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of 1 cm and > 10 ms which are obtained by a tomographic inversion of the spectral data, using the stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES. Since the spectrometer will be equipped with radiation hardened, high count rate, PILATUS detectors,, it is expected to be operational for all experimental conditions on LHD, which include plasmas of high density and plasmas with auxiliary RF and neutral beam heating. The special design features required by the magnetic field structure at LHD will be described.

  1. Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both

  2. High-resolution spatial mapping of the temperature distribution of a Joule self-heated graphene nanoribbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    signal, which is proportional to the local temperature change of the thermal probe. In order to cal) with a spatial resolution finer than 100 nm by scanning thermal microscopy (SThM). The SThM probe is calibrated using the Raman G mode Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratio as a function of electric power applied

  3. IAS 2001 Davos: Excursion A3: A. Wetzel & A. Strasser Sedimentology, palaeoecology, and high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Andreas

    -resolution sequence stratigraphy of a carbonate-siliciclastic shelf (Oxfordian, Swiss Jura Mountains) Andreas Wetzel1 or distance to coast. The use of sequence stratigraphy emphasizes the role of eustatic sea- level changes variability of depositional environments on a strongly structured, carbonate-siliciclastic shelf

  4. Breaking the Crowther Limit: Combining Depth-Sectioning and Tilt Tomography for High-Resolution, Wide-Field 3D Reconstructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hovden, Robert; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruna, Hector D; Elser, Veit; Muller, David A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, high-resolution ( 6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over one hundred dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability.

  5. Direct observation of the intergrown {alpha}-phase in {beta}-TmAlB{sub 4} via high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yubuta, Kunio, E-mail: yubuta@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mori, Takao [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Grin, Yuri [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoeffe, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Okada, Shigeru [Department of Science and Engineering, Kokushikan University, Tokyo 154-8515 (Japan); Shishido, Toetsu [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A TmAlB{sub 4} crystal with a ThMoB{sub 4}-type ({beta}-type) structure phase related to a hexagonal AlB{sub 2}-type structure was studied by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. A high-resolution image clearly exhibits an intergrown lamellar structure of a YCrB{sub 4}-type ({alpha}-type) phase in the matrix of the {beta}-type phase in TmAlB{sub 4} crystal. The lamellar structure can be characterized by a tiling of deformed hexagons, which are a common structure unit in the {alpha}-type and {beta}-type structures. The intergrown nanostructure is considered to be attributed to the origin of low temperature anomalies in physical properties.

  6. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aiken, Allison; Salcedo, D.; Cubison, Michael J.; Huffman, J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Sueper, D. T.; Kimmel, Joel; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Trimborn, Achim; Northway, Megan; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Schauer, James J.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Fortner, Edward; de Foy, B.; Wang, Jian; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Zheng, Junsheng; Zhang, Renyi; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Molina, Luisa T.; Sosa, G.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Mass concentrations, diurnal cycles, and size distributions of inorganic and organic species are similar to results from the CENICA supersite in April 2003 with organic aerosol (OA) comprising about half of the fine PM mass. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the high resolution OA spectra identifies three major components: chemically-reduced urban primary emissions (hydrocarbon-like OA, HOA), oxygenated OA (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA) that correlates with levoglucosan and acetonitrile. BBOA includes several very large plumes from regional fires and likely also some refuse burning.

  7. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  8. Laser hazard analysis for LASIRIS Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45[degree]-K diode laser associated with high resolution pulsed scanner.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the LASIRISTM Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45o-K diode laser associated with the High Resolution Pulse Scanner based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The laser was evaluated for both indoor and outdoor use.

  9. High-resolution spectroscopy for Doppler-broadening ion temperature measurements of implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J. A.; Stewart, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Schneider, M. B.; Miles, A. R.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Hsing, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-493, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Future implosion experiments at the national ignition facility (NIF) will endeavor to simultaneously measure electron and ion temperatures with temporal and spatial resolution in order to explore non-equilibrium temperature distributions and their relaxation toward equilibrium. In anticipation of these experiments, and with understanding of the constraints of the NIF facility environment, we have explored the use of Doppler broadening of mid-Z dopant emission lines, such as krypton He-{alpha} at 13 keV, as a diagnostic of time- and potentially space-resolved ion temperature. We have investigated a number of options analytically and with numerical raytracing, and we have identified several promising candidate spectrometer designs that meet the expected requirements of spectral and temporal resolution and data signal-to-noise ratio for gas-filled exploding pusher implosions, while providing maximum flexibility for use on a variety of experiments that potentially include burning plasma.

  10. Simultaneous High-Resolution 2-Dimensional Spatial and 1-Dimensional Picosecond Streaked X-ray Pinhole Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steel, A B; Nagel, S R; Dunn, J; Baldis, H A

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kentech x-ray streak camera was run at the LLNL Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser to record simultaneous space- and time-resolved measurements of picosecond laser-produced plasmas. Four different x-ray energy channels were monitored using broad-band filters to record the time history of Cu targets heated at irradiances of 10{sup 16} - 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Through the Cu filter channel, a time-resolution below 3ps was obtained. Additionally, an array of 10 {micro}m diameter pinholes was placed in front of the camera to produce multiple time-resolved x-ray images on the photocathode and time-integrated images on the phosphor with 10 and 15 times magnification, respectively, with spatial resolution of <13 {micro}m.

  11. IMPLICATIONS OF A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION IMAGE OF THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT IN RXJ1347-1145

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, B. S.; Cotton, W. D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Devlin, M. J.; Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Koch, P. M.; Molnar, S. M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sievers, J. [The Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Benford, D.; Staguhn, J. G.; Moseley, H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, K. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Ade, P., E-mail: bmason@nrao.ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The most X-ray luminous cluster known, RXJ1347-1145 (z = 0.45), has been the object of extensive study across the electromagnetic spectrum. We have imaged the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) at 90 GHz ({lambda} = 3.3 mm) in RXJ1347-1145 at 10'' resolution with the 64 pixel MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope, confirming a previously reported strong, localized enhancement of the SZE 20'' to the southeast of the center of X-ray emission. This enhancement of the SZE has been interpreted as shock-heated (>20 keV) gas caused by an ongoing major (low mass ratio) merger event. Our data support this interpretation. We also detect a pronounced asymmetry in the projected cluster pressure profile, with the pressure just east of the cluster core {approx}1.6x higher than just to the west. This is the highest resolution image of the SZE made to date.

  12. High resolution seismic and paleomagnetic study of the structure and sedimentation of Sweet and Phleger Banks, northern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singleton, Scott Wayne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core Analysis Geologic Descriptions Magnetic Analysis CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 70 70 73 77 Stratigraphy . Unit 1 . 77 77 Unit 2 79 Unit 3 81 Structure 83 Phleger Bank Dome Development Sweet Bank Dome Development Radial Faults Magnetic... of resolution. The bathymetry data was then plotted and contoured at a 10 m interval. This interva! was fine enough to reveal the details of dome shape, but broad enough to allow for navigation errors. Seismic Stratigraphy The seismic stratigraphic analysis...

  13. High Resolution 1H NMR Spectroscopy of Metabolically Active Microorganisms Using Non-Destructive Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Wind, Robert A.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Resch, Charles T.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the resolution of the 1H NMR metabolite spectra of densely packed microbial cells or biofilms attached to solid surfaces can be significantly enhanced with the so-called PASS R.F pulse sequence combined with slow (40-100 Hz) magic angle spinning of the sample. Hence this technique can be used to study biofilm metabolism under environmentally relevant conditions in a minimally invasive way.

  14. High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Shin; Aono, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Odaka, Hirokazu; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Onishi, Mitsunobu; Kuroda, Yoshikatsu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was ob...

  15. Determination of Monomethylhydrazine with a High-Throughput, All-Fiber Near-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Determination of Monomethylhydrazine with a High-Throughput, All-Fiber Near-Infrared Spectrometer-throughput near-infrared spectrophotometer has been successfully constructed by synergistic use of this integrated and wide spectral band- width in the near-infrared region from 1500 to 1600 nm. This spectral region

  16. IN-SITU ASSAY OF TRANSURANIC RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTRAL GAMMA LOGGING - A HANFORD CASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHAY VJ; HENWOOD P; MCCAIN R

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes is used to detect and quantify transuranic radionuclides in the subsurface. Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-241, and Np-237 are identified based on characteristic decay gammas. Typical minimum detectable levels are on the order of 20 to 40 nCi/g. In intervals of high transuranic concentrations, gamma rays from other sources may complicate analysis and interpretation. Gamma rays detected in the borehole may originate from three sources: decay of the parent transuranic radionuclide or a daughter; alpha interactions; and interactions with neutrons resulting from either spontaneous fission or alpha particle interactions.

  17. A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL] [ORNL; Naz, Bibi S [ORNL] [ORNL; Tootle, Glenn [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To extend geographical coverage, refine spatial resolution, and improve modeling efficiency, a computation- and data-intensive effort was conducted to organize a comprehensive hydrologic dataset with post-calibrated model parameters for hydro-climate impact assessment. Several key inputs for hydrologic simulation including meteorologic forcings, soil, land class, vegetation, and elevation were collected from multiple best-available data sources and organized for 2107 hydrologic subbasins (8-digit hydrologic units, HUC8s) in the conterminous United States at refined 1/24 (~4 km) spatial resolution. Using high-performance computing for intensive model calibration, a high-resolution parameter dataset was prepared for the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC simulation was driven by DAYMET daily meteorological forcing and was calibrated against USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff observations for each HUC8. The results showed that this new parameter dataset may help reasonably simulate runoff at most US HUC8 subbasins. Based on this exhaustive calibration effort, it is now possible to accurately estimate the resources required for further model improvement across the entire conterminous United States. We anticipate that through this hydrologic parameter dataset, the repeated effort of fundamental data processing can be lessened, so that research efforts can emphasize the more challenging task of assessing climate change impacts. The pre-organized model parameter dataset will be provided to interested parties to support further hydro-climate impact assessment.

  18. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  19. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Gourab, E-mail: gourab@tifr.res.in; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Kumar, G. Ravindra, E-mail: grk@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump-probe polarimetric technique is demonstrated, which provides a complete, temporally and spatially resolved mapping of the megagauss magnetic fields generated in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions. A normally incident time-delayed probe pulse reflected from its critical surface undergoes a change in its ellipticity according to the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect due to the azimuthal nature of the ambient self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. The temporal resolution of the magnetic field mapping is typically of the order of the pulsewidth, limited by the laser intensity contrast, whereas a spatial resolution of a few ?m is achieved by this optical technique. High-harmonics of the probe can be employed to penetrate deeper into the plasma to even near-solid densities. The spatial and temporal evolution of the megagauss magnetic fields at the target front as well as at the target rear are presented. The ?m-scale resolution of the magnetic field mapping provides valuable information on the filamentary instabilities at the target front, whereas probing the target rear mirrors the highly complex fast electron transport in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  20. High energy resolution hard X-ray and gamma-ray imagers using CdTe diode devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin Watanabe; Shin-nosuke Ishikawa; Hiroyuki Aono; Shin'ichiro Takeda; Hirokazu Odaka; Motohide Kokubun; Tadayuki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Hiroyasu Tajima; Mitsunobu Onishi; Yoshikatsu Kuroda

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed CdTe double-sided strip detectors (DSDs or cross strip detectors) and evaluated their spectral and imaging performance for hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Though the double-sided strip configuration is suitable for imagers with a fine position resolution and a large detection area, CdTe diode DSDs with indium (In) anodes have yet to be realized due to the difficulty posed by the segmented In anodes. CdTe diode devices with aluminum (Al) anodes were recently established, followed by a CdTe device in which the Al anodes could be segmented into strips. We developed CdTe double-sided strip devices having Pt cathode strips and Al anode strips, and assembled prototype CdTe DSDs. These prototypes have a strip pitch of 400 micrometer. Signals from the strips are processed with analog ASICs (application specific integrated circuits). We have successfully performed gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy with a position resolution of 400 micrometer. Energy resolution of 1.8 keV (FWHM: full width at half maximum) was obtained at 59.54 keV. Moreover, the possibility of improved spectral performance by utilizing the energy information of both side strips was demonstrated. We designed and fabricated a new analog ASIC, VA32TA6, for the readout of semiconductor detectors, which is also suitable for DSDs. A new feature of the ASIC is its internal ADC function. We confirmed this function and good noise performance that reaches an equivalent noise charge of 110 e- under the condition of 3-4 pF input capacitance.