National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination high resolution

  1. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  2. Determination of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel using high resolution X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Kathryn G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Havrilla, George J.

    2015-05-30

    Characterization of Pu is an essential aspect of safeguards operations at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. A novel analysis technique called hiRX (high resolution X-ray) has been developed for the direct measurement of Pu in spent nuclear fuel dissolver solutions. hiRX is based on monochromatic wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (MWDXRF), which provides enhanced sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional XRF techniques. A breadboard setup of the hiRX instrument was calibrated using spiked surrogate spent fuel (SSF) standards prepared as dried residues. Samples of actual spent fuel were utilized to evaluate the performance of the hiRX. The direct detection of just 39 ng of Pu is demonstrated. Initial quantitative results, with error of 4–27% and precision of 2% relative standard deviation (RSD), were obtained for spent fuel samples. The limit of detection for Pu (100 s) within an excitation spot of 200 μm diameter was 375 pg. This study demonstrates the potential for the hiRX technique to be utilized for the rapid, accurate, and precise determination of Pu. Moreover, the results highlight the analytical capability of hiRX for other applications requiring sensitive and selective nondestructive analyses.

  3. Determination of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel using high resolution X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McIntosh, Kathryn G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Havrilla, George J.

    2015-05-30

    Characterization of Pu is an essential aspect of safeguards operations at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. A novel analysis technique called hiRX (high resolution X-ray) has been developed for the direct measurement of Pu in spent nuclear fuel dissolver solutions. hiRX is based on monochromatic wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (MWDXRF), which provides enhanced sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional XRF techniques. A breadboard setup of the hiRX instrument was calibrated using spiked surrogate spent fuel (SSF) standards prepared as dried residues. Samples of actual spent fuel were utilized to evaluate the performance of the hiRX. The direct detection of just 39more » ng of Pu is demonstrated. Initial quantitative results, with error of 4–27% and precision of 2% relative standard deviation (RSD), were obtained for spent fuel samples. The limit of detection for Pu (100 s) within an excitation spot of 200 μm diameter was 375 pg. This study demonstrates the potential for the hiRX technique to be utilized for the rapid, accurate, and precise determination of Pu. Moreover, the results highlight the analytical capability of hiRX for other applications requiring sensitive and selective nondestructive analyses.« less

  4. Unambiguous determination of H-atom positions: comparing results from neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardberg, Anna S.; Del Castillo, Alexis R.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Myles, Dean A.A.

    2010-11-19

    The locations of H atoms in biological structures can be difficult to determine using X-ray diffraction methods. Neutron diffraction offers a relatively greater scattering magnitude from H and D atoms. Here, 1.65 {angstrom} resolution neutron diffraction studies of fully perdeuterated and selectively CH{sub 3}-protonated perdeuterated crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin (D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively) at room temperature (RT) are described, as well as 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the same protein at both RT and 100 K. The two techniques are quantitatively compared in terms of their power to directly provide atomic positions for D atoms and analyze the role played by atomic thermal motion by computing the {sigma} level at the D-atom coordinate in simulated-annealing composite D-OMIT maps. It is shown that 1.65 {angstrom} resolution RT neutron data for perdeuterated rubredoxin are {approx}8 times more likely overall to provide high-confidence positions for D atoms than 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray data at 100 K or RT. At or above the 1.0{sigma} level, the joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structures define 342/378 (90%) and 291/365 (80%) of the D-atom positions for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. The X-ray-only 1.1 {angstrom} resolution 100 K structures determine only 19/388 (5%) and 8/388 (2%) of the D-atom positions above the 1.0{sigma} level for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. Furthermore, the improved model obtained from joint XN refinement yielded improved electron-density maps, permitting the location of more D atoms than electron-density maps from models refined against X-ray data only.

  5. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  6. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  7. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  8. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  9. A method to determine fault vectors in 4H-SiC from stacking sequences observed on high resolution transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Mueller, Stephan G.; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward K.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric

    2014-09-14

    A new method has been developed to determine the fault vectors associated with stacking faults in 4H-SiC from their stacking sequences observed on high resolution TEM images. This method, analogous to the Burgers circuit technique for determination of dislocation Burgers vector, involves determination of the vectors required in the projection of the perfect lattice to correct the deviated path constructed in the faulted material. Results for several different stacking faults were compared with fault vectors determined from X-ray topographic contrast analysis and were found to be consistent. This technique is expected to applicable to all structures comprising corner shared tetrahedra.

  10. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  11. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  12. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  13. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  14. Afghanistan Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However, the data is...

  15. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Eloranta, Ed

    2004-12-01

    The HSRL provided calibrated vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross section and depoloarization at a wavelength of 532 nm. Profiles were acquired at 2.5 second intervals with 7.5 meter resolution. Profiles extended from an altitude of 100 m to 30 km in clear air. The lidar penetrated to a maximum optical depth of ~ 4 under cloudy conditions. Our data contributed directly to the aims of the M-PACE experiment, providing calibrated optical depth and optical backscatter measurements which were not available from any other instrument.

  16. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  17. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  18. Atomic arrangement at ZnTe/CdSe interfaces determined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonef, Bastien; Rouvire, Jean-Luc; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Grard, Lionel; Mariette, Henri; Andr, Rgis; Bougerol, Catherine; Grenier, Adeline

    2015-02-02

    High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments reveal the presence of an intermediate layer at the interface between two binary compounds with no common atom, namely, ZnTe and CdSe for samples grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy under standard conditions. This thin transition layer, of the order of 1 to 3 atomic planes, contains typically one monolayer of ZnSe. Even if it occurs at each interface, the direct interface, i.e., ZnTe on CdSe, is sharper than the reverse one, where the ZnSe layer is likely surrounded by alloyed layers. On the other hand, a CdTe-like interface was never observed. This interface knowledge is crucial to properly design superlattices for optoelectronic applications and to master band-gap engineering.

  19. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  20. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  1. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  2. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal Title: High resolution absorption ...

  3. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New ...

  4. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, ...

  5. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  6. High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-FieldCathodolumine...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy ...

  7. Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution ...

  8. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pm029allard2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst...

  9. High resolution climate simulation over Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deque, M.; Piedelievre, J.Ph.

    1995-08-01

    Three AMIP-type 10 year simulations have been performed with climate versions of the AR-PEGE-IFS model in order to simulate the European climate. The first one uses the standard T42 truncation. The second one uses a high resolution T106 truncation. The horizontal resolution of the third one varies between about T200 over Europe and T21 over the southern Pacific. The winter time general circulation improves in the Atlantic sector as the resolution increases. This is true for the time-mean pattern and for the transient and low-frequency variability. In summer time and in the southern hemisphere, the 3 versions of the model produce reasonable climatologies. When restricted to the European continent, the model verification against the observed climatology shows a reduction of the biases in temperature and, to a lesser extent, in precipitation with the increase in resolution. The use of a variable resolution GCM is a valid alternative to model nesting. The model is too warm in winter and too cold in summer, too wet in northern Europe and too dry in southern Europe. 33 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  11. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  12. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Author University of...

  13. High-resolution photoelectron imaging of cold C{sub 60}{sup ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-resolution photoelectron imaging of cold Csub 60sup - anions and accurate determination of the electron affinity of Csub 60 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  14. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  15. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas Kenneth W. Hill, et. al. 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY High Temperature High Temperature High resolution (3; 10 000) 1D...

  16. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy EPS Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) High-resolution EPS of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov DoE_Billboard_Goodbye_Watts.EPS (17.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG

  17. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy JPG Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) High-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov DoE_Billboard_Goodbye_Watts.jpg (2.4 MB) More Documents & Publications Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS

  18. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  19. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  20. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-06-18

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution. 10 figs.

  1. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-01-01

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution.

  2. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  3. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  4. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-resolution measurements...

  5. PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices Funding ...

  6. NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However,...

  7. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the Community Earth System Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Performance of ...

  8. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    combine a suite of high resolution geophysical and geochemical techniques to reduce exploration risk by characterizing hydrothermal alteration, fault geometries and relationships. ...

  9. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Kaplan, Selig N.; Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  10. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  11. X-ray structure determination using low-resolution electron microscopy maps for molecular replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Ryan N.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-07-30

    Structures of multi-subunit macromolecular machines are primarily determined by either electron microscopy (EM) or X-ray crystallography. In many cases, a structure for a complex can be obtained at low resolution (at a coarse level of detail) with EM and at higher resolution (with finer detail) by X-ray crystallography. The integration of these two structural techniques is becoming increasingly important for generating atomic models of macromolecular complexes. A low-resolution EM image can be a powerful tool for obtaining the "phase" information that is missing from an X-ray crystallography experiment, however integration of EM and X-ray diffraction data has been technically challenging. Here we show a step-by-step protocol that explains how low-resolution EM maps can be placed in the crystallographic unit cell by molecular replacement, and how initial phases computed from the placed EM density are extended to high resolution by averaging maps over non-crystallographic symmetry. As the resolution gap between EM and Xray crystallography continues to narrow, the use of EM maps to help with X-ray crystal structure determination, as described in this protocol, will become increasingly effective.

  12. X-ray structure determination using low-resolution electron microscopy maps for molecular replacement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jackson, Ryan N.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-07-30

    Structures of multi-subunit macromolecular machines are primarily determined by either electron microscopy (EM) or X-ray crystallography. In many cases, a structure for a complex can be obtained at low resolution (at a coarse level of detail) with EM and at higher resolution (with finer detail) by X-ray crystallography. The integration of these two structural techniques is becoming increasingly important for generating atomic models of macromolecular complexes. A low-resolution EM image can be a powerful tool for obtaining the "phase" information that is missing from an X-ray crystallography experiment, however integration of EM and X-ray diffraction data has been technically challenging.more » Here we show a step-by-step protocol that explains how low-resolution EM maps can be placed in the crystallographic unit cell by molecular replacement, and how initial phases computed from the placed EM density are extended to high resolution by averaging maps over non-crystallographic symmetry. As the resolution gap between EM and Xray crystallography continues to narrow, the use of EM maps to help with X-ray crystal structure determination, as described in this protocol, will become increasingly effective.« less

  13. Occult Breast Cancer: Scintimammography with High-Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Occult Breast Cancer: Scintimammography with High-Resolution Breast-specific Gamma Camera in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Occult ...

  14. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer ...

  15. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal ...

  16. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  17. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ICF Plasmas (Conference) | SciTech Connect Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas High resolution (λ/Δ λ ~ 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in

  18. High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding techniques for nanofabrication of high pattern density sub-20 nm features: A fundamental materials approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Samulski, Edward [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lopez, Renee [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ruiz, Ricardo [Hitachi; DeSimone, Joseph [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Described herein is the development and investigation of PFPE-based elastomers for high resolution replica molding applications. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface energies (<25 mN/m). Using practically relevant large area master templates, we show that the resolution of the molds is strongly dependant upon the elastomeric mold modulus. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nano-grating structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  19. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  20. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, R.J.

    1984-01-10

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  1. High resolution spectroscopic study of BeΛ10

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gogami, T.; Chen, C.; Kawama, D.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; et al

    2016-03-10

    Spectroscopy of amore » $$^{10}_{\\Lambda}$$Be hypernucleus was carried out at JLab Hall C using the $$(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})$$ reaction. A new magnetic spectrometer system (SPL+HES+HKS), specifically designed for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy, was used to obtain an energy spectrum with a resolution of 0.78 MeV (FWHM). The well-calibrated spectrometer system of the present experiment using the $$p(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})\\Lambda,\\Sigma^{0}$$ reactions allowed us to determine the energy levels, and the binding energy of the ground state peak (mixture of 1$$^{-}$$ and 2$$^{-}$$ states) was obtained to be B$$_{\\Lambda}$$=8.55$$\\pm$$0.07(stat.)$$\\pm$$0.11(sys.) MeV. Furthermore, the result indicates that the ground state energy is shallower than that of an emulsion study by about 0.5 MeV which provides valuable experimental information on charge symmetry breaking effect in the $$\\Lambda N$$ interaction.« less

  2. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  3. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solid angle spectroscopy end-station at beamline 6-2 (SSRL). Three multicrystal high energy-resolution x-ray spectrometers (a 40-crystal low-q x-ray Raman spectrometer, a ...

  4. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    11 PPPL- 4811 Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas September, 2012 Kenneth W. Hill, M. Bitter, L. Delgado-Aprico, N.A. Pablant, P. ...

  5. PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices | Department of Energy High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $1,000,000 This project will develop the

  6. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  7. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy lm034_rohatgi_2011_o.pdf (1.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Lightweight Materials R&D Annual Progress Report Nanostructured Materials by Machining 2011 Annual Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials Department of Energy

    pm029_allard_2011_p.pdf (2.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst

  8. PROJECT PROFILE: Rapid QSTS Simulations for High-Resolution Comprehensive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Distributed PV Impacts (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy PROJECT PROFILE: Rapid QSTS Simulations for High-Resolution Comprehensive Assessment of Distributed PV Impacts (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Rapid QSTS Simulations for High-Resolution Comprehensive Assessment of Distributed PV Impacts (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Systems Integration Project: Location: Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM SunShot Award Amount: $4,000,000 Awardee Cost Share:

  9. Cloud properties derived from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar during

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MPACE Cloud properties derived from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar during MPACE Eloranta, Edwin University of Wisconsin Category: Field Campaigns Cloud properties were derived from data acquired with University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar during its 6-week MPACE deployment. This poster presents statistics on: 1) the altitude and temperature distribution of optical depth and cloud phase. 2) the dependence of lidar depolarization and backscatter phase function on

  10. Phase contrast in high resolution electron microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, H.H.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to a device for developing a phase contrast signal for a scanning transmission electron microscope. The lens system of the microscope is operated in a condition of defocus so that predictable alternate concentric regions of high and low electron density exist in the cone of illumination. Two phase detectors are placed beneath the object inside the cone of illumination, with the first detector having the form of a zone plate, each of its rings covering alternate regions of either higher or lower electron density. The second detector is so configured that it covers the regions of electron density not covered by the first detector. Each detector measures the number of electrons incident thereon and the signal developed by the first detector is subtracted from the signal developed by the record detector to provide a phase contrast signal. (auth)

  11. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  12. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  13. High-resolution radiography by means of a hodoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Volpi, Alexander

    1978-01-01

    The fast neutron hodoscope, a device that produces neutron radiographs with coarse space resolution in a short time, is modified to produce neutron or gamma radiographs of relatively thick samples and with high space resolution. The modification comprises motorizing a neutron and gamma collimator to permit a controlled scanning pattern, simultaneous collection of data in a number of hodoscope channels over a period of time, and computerized image reconstruction of the data thus gathered.

  14. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  15. Reproducibility and calibration of MMC-based high-resolution gamma detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bates, C. R.; Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C.; Friedrich, S.

    2016-07-15

    Here, we describe a prototype γ-ray detector based on a metallic magnetic calorimeter with an energy resolution of 46 eV at 60 keV and a reproducible response function that follows a simple second-order polynomial. The simple detector calibration allows adding high-resolution spectra from different pixels and different cool-downs without loss in energy resolution to determine γ-ray centroids with high accuracy. As an example of an application in nuclear safeguards enabled by such a γ-ray detector, we discuss the non-destructive assay of 242Pu in a mixed-isotope Pu sample.

  16. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  17. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  18. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E.

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  20. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Gel, Aytekin; Syamlal, M; Guenther, Chris; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  2. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of ... Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for ...

  3. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of ... Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of ...

  4. LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? Dubey, Manvendra DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Chylek, Petr DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Reisner, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory Porch, William Los Alamos National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties We report high fidelity observations of the spatial and thermal

  5. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  6. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  7. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  8. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  9. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  10. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  11. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E.; Mooney, Timothy M.; Toellner, Thomas

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  12. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  13. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, Laura N.

    1996-01-01

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  14. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  15. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  16. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  17. The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): A High Resolution Spectroscopic Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, M P; Cruddace, R G; Wood, K S; Yentis, D J; Gursky, H; Barbee, T W; Goldstein, W H; Kordas, J F; Fritz, G G; Hunter, W R; Barstow, M A; Bannister, N P; Culhane, J L; Lapington, J S

    2002-07-18

    EUVE and the ROSAT WFC have left a tremendous legacy in astrophysics at EUV wavelengths. More recently, Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated at X-ray wavelengths the power of high-resolution astronomical spectroscopy, which allows the identification of weak emission lines, the measurement of Doppler shifts and line profiles, and the detection of narrow absorption features. This leads to a complete understanding of the density, temperature, abundance, magnetic, and dynamic structure of astrophysical plasmas. However, the termination of the EUVE mission has left a gaping hole in spectral coverage at crucial EUV wavelengths ({approx}100-300 {angstrom}), where hot (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} K) plasmas radiate most strongly and produce critical spectral diagnostics. CHIPS will fill this hole only partially as it is optimized for diffuse emission and has only moderate resolution (R {approx} 150). For discrete sources, we have successfully flown a follow-on instrument to the EUVE spectrometer (A{sub eff} {approx} 1 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 400), the high-resolution spectrometer J-PEX(A{sub eff} {approx} 3 cm{sup 2}, R {approx} 3000). Here we build on the J-PEX prototype and present a strawman design for an orbiting spectroscopic observatory, APEX, a SMEX-class instrument containing a suite of 8 spectrometers that together achieve both high effective area (A{sub eff} > 20 cm{sup 2}) and high spectral resolution (R {approx} 10,000) over the range 100-300 {angstrom}. We also discuss alternate configurations for shorter and longer wavelengths.

  18. Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data Dan Getman, Anthony Lopez, Trieu Mai, and Mark Dyson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-63148 September 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  19. High-resolution, cryogenic, side-entry type specimen stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Wayne E.; Merkle, Karl L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution, cryogenic side-entry type specimen stage includes a copper block within which a specimen can be positioned in the electron beam of an electron microscope, one end of the copper block constituting a specimen heat exchanger, means for directing a flow of helium at cryogenic temperature into the heat exchanger, and electrical leads running from the specimen to the exterior of the microscope for four point D.C. electrical resistivity measurements.

  20. High regularity of Z-DNA revealed by ultra high-resolution crystal structure at 0.55;#8201;Å

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Brzuszkiewicz, Anna; Dauter, Miroslawa; Kubicki, Maciej; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2011-12-02

    The crystal structure of a Z-DNA hexamer duplex d(CGCGCG){sub 2} determined at ultra high resolution of 0.55 {angstrom} and refined without restraints, displays a high degree of regularity and rigidity in its stereochemistry, in contrast to the more flexible B-DNA duplexes. The estimations of standard uncertainties of all individually refined parameters, obtained by full-matrix least-squares optimization, are comparable with values that are typical for small-molecule crystallography. The Z-DNA model generated with ultra high-resolution diffraction data can be used to revise the stereochemical restraints applied in lower resolution refinements. Detailed comparisons of the stereochemical library values with the present accurate Z-DNA parameters, shows in general a good agreement, but also reveals significant discrepancies in the description of guanine-sugar valence angles and in the geometry of the phosphate groups.

  1. Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowla, F.U.

    1987-10-01

    A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Positron Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Ross, M.; Khainovski, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Loscutoff, P.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Vogel, V.; Meller, R.; Lyapin, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.; Frisch, J.; Hinton, S.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-07-06

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved--ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  3. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Ross, M; Khainovski, O; Kolomensky, Y; Loscutoff, P; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Vogel, V; Meller, R; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; Frisch, J; Hinton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Smith, S; Smith, T; White, G; Orimoto, T; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2005-09-12

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  4. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy EPS Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) High-resolution EPS of billboard reading, 'Which bulb is right for you? Save energy, save money. Energysaver.gov.' DoE_Billboard_Which_Bulb.eps (11.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS

  5. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy JPG Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) HIgh-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Which bulb is right for you? Save energy, save money. Energysaver.gov.' DoE_Billboard_Which_Bulb.jpg (1.94 MB) More Documents & Publications Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG

  6. Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays A. Piechaczek 1 , V. Shchepunov 1 , H. K. Carter 1 J. C. Batchelder 1 , E. F. Zganjar 2 1 UNIRIB, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 2 Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 A compact isobar separator, based on the Multi-Pass-Time-of-Flight (MTOF) principle, is developed [1]. A mass resolving power (MRP) as spectrometer of 110,000 (FWHM) is achieved in

  7. Time-resolved serial crystallography captures high-resolution intermediates of photoactive yellow protein

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tenboer, Jason; Basu, Shibom; Zatsepin, Nadia; Pande, Kanupriya; Milathianaki, Despina; Frank, Matthias; Hunter, Mark; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; Koglin, Jason E.; et al

    2014-12-05

    We report that serial femtosecond crystallography using ultrashort pulses from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) offers the possibility to study light-triggered dynamics of biomolecules. Using microcrystals of the blue light photoreceptor, photoactive yellow protein, as a model system, we present high resolution, time-resolved difference electron density maps of excellent quality with strong features, which allow the determination of structures of reaction intermediates to 1.6 Å resolution. These results open the way to the study of reversible and non-reversible biological reactions on time scales as short as femtoseconds under conditions which maximize the extent of reaction initiation throughout the crystal.

  8. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  9. High-resolution Bent-crystal Spectrometer for the Ultra-soft X-ray Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Walling, R. S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 angstrom. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda{sub 0} = 8 angstrom. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic.

  10. Modeling Spatial Dependencies in High-Resolution Overhead Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bright, Eddie A; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Human settlement regions with different physical and socio-economic attributes exhibit unique spatial characteristics that are often illustrated in high-resolution overhead imageries. For example- size, shape and spatial arrangements of man-made structures are key attributes that vary with respect to the socioeconomic profile of the neighborhood. Successfully modeling these attributes is crucial in developing advanced image understanding systems for interpreting complex aerial scenes. In this paper we present three different approaches to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. First, we show that the frequency domain of the image can be used to model the spatial context [1]. The shape of the spectral energy contours characterize the scene context and can be exploited as global features. Secondly, we explore a discriminative framework based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) [2] to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. The features derived from the edge orientation distribution calculated for a neighborhood and the associated class labels are used as input features to model the spatial context. Our third approach is based on grouping spatially connected pixels based on the low-level edge primitives to form support-regions [3]. The statistical parameters generated from the support-region feature distributions characterize different geospatial neighborhoods. We apply our approaches on high-resolution overhead imageries. We show that proposed approaches characterize the spatial context in overhead imageries.

  11. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement ...

  12. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  13. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  14. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  16. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals Title: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses ...

  17. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray ...

  18. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  19. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  20. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  1. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling Andrew Pohl, Jay Johnson, Santiago Sena, Robert Broderick, and Jimmy Quiroz Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, USA Abstract - Data from of a highly instrumented residential feeder in Ota City, Japan was used to determine 1 second load variability for the aggregation of 50, 100, 250, and 500 homes. The load variability is categorized by binning the data into seasons, weekdays vs. weekends, and time of day to

  2. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Hiller, Larry J.; Barfknecht, Andrew T.

    2003-03-04

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  3. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedrich, Stephan; , Niedermayr, Thomas R.; Labov, Simon E.

    2008-11-04

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  4. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  5. Mile High: Noncompliance Determination (2012-SE-4501)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Mile High Equipment, LLC finding that Ice-O-Matic brand automatic commercial ice maker basic model ICE2106 FW, HW does not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  6. High resolution evaluation techniques in thinly laminated shaly sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coll, C.; Chacartegui, F.; Suarez, O.; Alvarez, G. ); Monsegui, G.; Lambertini, R.; Haines, P. )

    1993-02-01

    Significant hydrocarbon production may occur from thin layers which were previously considered non-economic. Improved processing methods for detecting and evaluating thin beds have shown these reservoirs to be attractive prospects. Such thinly bedded laminated shale-sand sequences exist within some of the producing formations in Venezuela. These shale sand packages may contain significant bypassed or undeveloped reserves. A new technique using deconvolution of the deep resistivity through the microresistivity curves (Microlog) identifies potential thinly bedded reservoirs. This methodology appears to be the most reliable permeability indicator of the prospective intervals within the Misoa Formation at Ceuta Field in Maracaibo Lake. The prospective intervals within this field have been calibrated with cores and with sedimentological information. This calibration shows only two lithofacies contained hydrocarbons previously not evaluated as oil saturated by traditional methods. These facies exhibited low values for deep resistivity curves which indicated high levels of water saturation. Deep resistivity deconvolution processing has been successfully applied to solve this problem in the Ceuta field. The resulting resistivity curve exhibits a vertical resolution of better than 1 ft., while retaining the essential advantages of deep resistivity curve. Laminated sand analyses were carried out and prove to be very useful in the integration of petrophysical and sedimentological data for detection of prospective intervals.

  7. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  8. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  9. High time-resolution photodetectors for PET applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes recent developments aiming at the improvement of the time resolution of photodetectors used in positron emission tomography (PET). Promising photodetector candidates for future PET-time-of-flight (TOF) applications are also discussed.

  10. Design of a high-resolution high-stability positioning mechanism for crystal optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    1999-10-11

    The authors present a novel miniature multi-axis driving structure that will allow positioning of two crystals with better than 50-nrad angular resolution and nanometer linear driving sensitivity.The precision and stability of this structure allow the user to align or adjust an assembly of crystals to achieve the same performance as does a single channel-cut crystal, so they call it an artificial channel-cut crystal. In this paper, the particular designs and specifications, as well as the test results,for a two-axis driving structure for a high-energy-resolution artificial channel-cut crystal monochromator are presented

  11. Study of fish response using particle image velocimetry and high-speed, high-resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Z.; Richmond, M. C.; Mueller, R. P.; Gruensch, G. R.

    2004-10-01

    Fish swimming has fascinated both engineers and fish biologists for decades. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging are recently developed analysis tools that can help engineers and biologists better understand how fish respond to turbulent environments. This report details studies to evaluate DPIV. The studies included a review of existing literature on DPIV, preliminary studies to test the feasibility of using DPIV conducted at our Flow Biology Laboratory in Richland, Washington September through December 2003, and applications of high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging with advanced motion analysis to investigations of fish injury mechanisms in turbulent shear flows and bead trajectories in laboratory physical models. Several conclusions were drawn based on these studies, which are summarized as recommendations for proposed research at the end of this report.

  12. An optimal merging technique for high-resolution precipitation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation products are currently available from various sources at higher spatial and temporal resolution than any time in the past. Each of the precipitation products has its strengths and weaknesses in availability, accuracy, resolution, retrieval techniques and quality control. By merging the precipitation data obtained from multiple sources, one can improve its information content by minimizing these issues. However, precipitation data merging poses challenges of scale-mismatch, and accurate error and bias assessment. In this paper we present Optimal Merging of Precipitation (OMP), a new method to merge precipitation data from multiple sources that are of different spatial and temporal resolutions and accuracies. This method is a combination of scale conversion and merging weight optimization, involving performance-tracing based on Bayesian statistics and trend-analysis, which yields merging weights for each precipitation data source. The weights are optimized at multiple scales to facilitate multiscale merging and better precipitation downscaling. Precipitation data used in the experiment include products from the 12-km resolution North American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) system, the 8-km resolution CMORPH and the 4-km resolution National Stage-IV QPE. The test cases demonstrate that the OMP method is capable of identifying a better data source and allocating a higher priority for them in the merging procedure, dynamically over the region and time period. This method is also effective in filtering out poor quality data introduced into the merging process.

  13. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machek, Pavel; Froeba, Michael; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brueggmann, Ulf; Draeger, Guenter

    2007-01-19

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 {mu}m thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5x1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  14. High Resolution Studies of the Origins of Polyatomic Ions in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill Wisnewski Ferguson

    2006-08-09

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Traditionally, the plasma is sampled via a sampler cone. A supersonic jet develops behind the sampler, and this region is pumped down to a pressure of approximately one Torr. A skimmer cone is located inside this zone of silence to transmit ions into the mass spectrometer. The position of the sampler and skimmer cones relative to the initial radiation and normal analytical zones of the plasma is key to optimizing the useful analytical signal [1]. The ICP both atomizes and ionizes the sample. Polyatomic ions form through ion-molecule interactions either in the ICP or during ion extraction [l]. Common polyatomic ions that inhibit analysis include metal oxides (MO{sup +}), adducts with argon, the gas most commonly used to make up the plasma, and hydride species. While high resolution devices can separate many analytes from common interferences, this is done at great cost in ion transmission efficiency--a loss of 99% when using high versus low resolution on the same instrument [2]. Simple quadrupole devices, which make up the bulk of ICP-MS instruments in existence, do not present this option. Therefore, if the source of polyatomic interferences can be determined and then manipulated, this could potentially improve the figures of merit on all ICP-MS devices, not just the high resolution devices often utilized to study polyatomic interferences.

  15. Performance improvements of wavelength-shifting-fiber neutron detectors using high-resolution positioning algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, C. L.

    2016-05-17

    On the basis of FluoroBancroft linear-algebraic method [S.B. Andersson, Opt. Exp. 16, 18714 (2008)] three highly-resolved positioning methodswere proposed for wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF) neutron detectors. Using a Gaussian or exponential-decay light-response function (LRF), the non-linear relation of photon-number profiles vs. x-pixels was linearized and neutron positions were determined. The proposed algorithms give an average 0.03-0.08 pixel position error, much smaller than that (0.29 pixel) from a traditional maximum photon algorithm (MPA). The new algorithms result in better detector uniformity, less position misassignment (ghosting), better spatial resolution, and an equivalent or better instrument resolution in powder diffraction than the MPA. Moreover,more » these characters will facilitate broader applications of WLSF detectors at time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction beamlines, including single-crystal diffraction and texture analysis.« less

  16. High-resolution multi-band imaging for validation and characterization of small Kepler planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Mark E.; Silva, David R.; Barclay, Thomas; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Horch, Elliott P.; Crepp, Justin R.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution ground-based optical speckle and near-infrared adaptive optics images are taken to search for stars in close angular proximity to host stars of candidate planets identified by the NASA Kepler Mission. Neighboring stars are a potential source of false positive signals. These stars also blend into Kepler light curves, affecting estimated planet properties, and are important for an understanding of planets in multiple star systems. Deep images with high angular resolution help to validate candidate planets by excluding potential background eclipsing binaries as the source of the transit signals. A study of 18 Kepler Object of Interest stars hosting a total of 28 candidate and validated planets is presented. Validation levels are determined for 18 planets against the likelihood of a false positive from a background eclipsing binary. Most of these are validated at the 99% level or higher, including five newly validated planets in two systems: Kepler-430 and Kepler-431. The stellar properties of the candidate host stars are determined by supplementing existing literature values with new spectroscopic characterizations. Close neighbors of seven of these stars are examined using multi-wavelength photometry to determine their nature and influence on the candidate planet properties. Most of the close neighbors appear to be gravitationally bound secondaries, while a few are best explained as closely co-aligned field stars. Revised planet properties are derived for each candidate and validated planet, including cases where the close neighbors are the potential host stars.

  17. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  18. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Samoson, Ago

    1990-01-01

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  19. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma ...

  20. A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A ...

  1. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemoreexcitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.less

  2. High-Resolution Simulation for Climate Means, Variability, and Extreme |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility A plot of precipitable water (gray scale) and precipitation rate (colors) in a simulation of the Earth's atmosphere. A plot of precipitable water (gray scale) and precipitation rate (colors) in a simulation of the Earth's atmosphere using The Community Earth System Model version 1.2. The atmosphere component used the spectral element dynamical core running on a cubed-sphere grid with an average horizontal resolution of 1/8 degree (13km). At this

  3. Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getman, Dan; Lopez, Anthony; Mai, Trieu; Dyson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we introduce a methodology to achieve multiple levels of spatial resolution reduction of solar resource data, with minimal impact on data variability, for use in energy systems modeling. The selection of an appropriate clustering algorithm, parameter selection including cluster size, methods of temporal data segmentation, and methods of cluster evaluation are explored in the context of a repeatable process. In describing this process, we illustrate the steps in creating a reduced resolution, but still viable, dataset to support energy systems modeling, e.g. capacity expansion or production cost modeling. This process is demonstrated through the use of a solar resource dataset; however, the methods are applicable to other resource data represented through spatiotemporal grids, including wind data. In addition to energy modeling, the techniques demonstrated in this paper can be used in a novel top-down approach to assess renewable resources within many other contexts that leverage variability in resource data but require reduction in spatial resolution to accommodate modeling or computing constraints.

  4. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris; Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, B.P. 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette ; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris ; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05; CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  5. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  6. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, Peter (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  7. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  8. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Satellite-based retrievals of cloudmore phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ...

  9. A Global Climate Model Agent for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Lynn S.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Henry, Michael J.; Palmer, Bruce J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Dazlich, Donald A.; Heikes, Ross P.; Randall, David

    2015-02-01

    Fine cell granularity in modern climate models can produce terabytes of data in each snapshot, causing significant I/O overhead. To address this issue, a method of reducing the I/O latency of high-resolution climate models by identifying and selectively outputting regions of interest is presented. Working with a Global Cloud Resolving Model and running with up to 10240 processors on a Cray XE6, this method provides significant I/O bandwidth reduction depending on the frequency of writes and size of the region of interest. The implementation challenges of determining global parameters in a strictly core-localized model and properly formatting output files that only contain subsections of the global grid are addressed, as well as the overall bandwidth impact and benefits of the method. The gains in I/O throughput provided by this method allow dual output rates for high-resolution climate models: a low-frequency global snapshot as well as a high-frequency regional snapshot when events of particular interest occur.

  10. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  11. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Miyaoka

    2012-03-06

    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  12. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  13. Beam collimation with polycapillary x-ray optics for high contrast high resolution monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiro, Francisca R.; Li Danhong; MacDonald, C.A.

    2004-12-01

    Monochromatic imaging can provide better contrast and resolution than conventional broadband radiography. In broadband systems, low energy photons do not contribute to the image, but are merely absorbed, while high energy photons produce scattering that degrades the image. By tuning to the optimal energy, one can eliminate undesirable lower and higher energies. Monochromatization is achieved by diffraction from a single crystal. A crystal oriented to diffract at a particular energy, in this case the characteristic line energy, diffracts only those photons within a narrow range of angles. The resultant beam from a divergent source is nearly parallel, but not very intense. To increase the intensity, collimation was performed with polycapillary x-ray optics, which can collect radiation from a divergent source and redirect it into a quasi parallel beam. Contrast and resolution measurements were performed with diffracting crystals with both high and low angular acceptance. Testing was first done at 8 keV with an intense copper rotating anode x-ray source, then 17.5 keV measurements were made with a low power molybdenum source. At 8 keV, subject contrast was a factor of five higher than for the polychromatic case. At 17.5 keV, monochromatic contrast was two times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. The subject contrasts measured at both energies were in good agreement with theory. An additional factor of two increase in contrast, for a total gain of four, is expected at 17.5 keV from the removal of scatter. Scatter might be simply removed using an air gap, which does not degrade resolution with a parallel beam.

  14. COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES AT HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION TOWARD ORION-KL. I. SPATIAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Friedel, Douglas N. E-mail: friedel@astro.illinois.edu

    2012-08-01

    Here we present high spatial resolution (<1'') observations of molecular emission in Orion-KL conducted using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. This work was motivated by recent millimeter continuum imaging studies of this region conducted at a similarly high spatial resolution, which revealed that the bulk of the emission arises from numerous compact sources, rather than the larger-scale extended structures typically associated with the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge. Given that the spatial extent of molecular emission greatly affects the determination of molecular abundances, it is important to determine the true spatial scale for complex molecules in this region. Additionally, it has recently been suggested that the relative spatial distributions of complex molecules in a source might give insight into the chemical mechanisms that drive complex chemistry in star-forming regions. In order to begin to address these issues, this study seeks to determine the spatial distributions of ethyl cyanide [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN], dimethyl ether [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O], methyl formate [HCOOCH{sub 3}], formic acid [HCOOH], acetone [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO], SiO, methanol [CH{sub 3}OH], and methyl cyanide [CH{sub 3}CN] in Orion-KL at {lambda} = 3 mm. We find that for all observed molecules, the molecular emission arises from multiple components of the cloud that include a range of spatial scales and physical conditions. Here, we present the results of these observations and discuss the implications for studies of complex molecules in star-forming regions.

  15. Rhode Island High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Detailed license and usage information for this dataset Preview Download 50m GIS NREL Rhode Island energy high resoltuion renewable shapefile wind wind data wind...

  16. allows researchers to capture high-resolution images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  17. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; et al

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observedmore » degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  18. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Hui, Dafeng

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-17

    In high material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. Our paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 degrees C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. Our work covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.

  20. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; et al

    2015-12-17

    In high material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. Our paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 degrees C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition,more » examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. Our work covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.« less

  1. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N.; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Molaison, Jamie J.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-15

    High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. This covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.

  2. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopies | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies Tuesday, July 23, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dimosthenis Sokaras, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical tool for

  3. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Colloidal Nanocrystal Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuk, Jong Min; Park, Jungwon; Ercius, Peter; Kim, Kwanpyo; Hellebusch, Danny J.; Crommie, Michael F.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Zettl, A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-12-12

    We introduce a new type of liquid cell for in-situ electron microscopy based upon entrapment of a liquid film between layers of graphene. We employ this cell to achieve high-resolution imaging of colloidal platinum nanocrystal growth. The ability to directly image and resolve critical steps at atomic resolution provides new insights into nanocrystal coalescence and reshaping during growth.

  4. Applying high resolution SyXRD analysis on sulfate attacked concrete field samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroh, J.; Schlegel, M.-C.; Irassar, E.F.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2014-12-15

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) was applied for a microstructural profile analysis of concrete deterioration after sulfate attack. The cement matrices consist of ordinary Portland cement and different amounts of supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash, natural pozzolana and granulated blast furnace slag. The changes of the phase composition were determined along the direction of sulfate ingress. This approach allows the identification of reaction fronts and zones of different phase compositions and conclusions about the mechanisms of sulfate attack. Two reaction fronts were localized in the initial 4 mm from the sample surface. The mechanism of deterioration caused by the exposition in the sulfate-bearing soil is discussed. SyXRD is shown to be a reliable method for investigation of cementitious materials with aggregates embedded in natural environments.

  5. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissues usingprojected Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Jachmann, Rebecca C.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Pines, Alexander

    2005-01-27

    High-resolution NMR spectra of materials subject toanisotropic broadening are usually obtained by rotating the sample aboutthe magic angle, which is 54.7 degrees to the static magnetic field. Inprojected Magic Angle Spinning (p-MAS), the sample is spun about twoangles, neither of which is the magic angle. This provides a method ofobtaining isotropic spectra while spinning at shallow angles. The p-MASexperiment may be used in situations where spinning the sample at themagic angle is not possible due to geometric or other constraints,allowing the choice of spinning angle to be determined by factors such asthe shape of the sample, rather than by the spin physics. The applicationof this technique to bovine tissue samples is demonstrated as a proof ofprinciple for future biological or medical applications.

  6. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  7. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  8. City of Irving utilizes high resolution multispectral imagery for NPDES compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monday, H.M.; Urban, J.S.; Mulawa, D.; Benkelman, C.A.

    1994-04-01

    A case history of using high resolution multispectral imagery is described. A statistical clustering method was applied to identify the primary spectral signatures present within the image data. This was for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  9. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging ...

  10. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  11. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  12. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at Glass Buttes, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review - 2010. The primary objective of this project is to combine a suite of high resolution geophysical and geochemical techniques to reduce exploration risk by characterizing hydrothermal alteration, fault geometries and relationships.

  13. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal ...

  14. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal ...

  15. Optic for an endoscope/borescope having high resolution and narrow field of view

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2003-10-28

    An optic having optimized high spatial resolution, minimal nonlinear magnification distortion while at the same time having a limited chromatic focal shift or chromatic aberrations. The optic located at the distal end of an endoscopic inspection tool permits a high resolution, narrow field of view image for medical diagnostic applications, compared to conventional optics for endoscopic instruments which provide a wide field of view, low resolution image. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion. The optic is also optimized for best color correction as well as to aid medical diagnostics.

  16. Post-Delivery test report for light duty utility arm high resolution stereoscopic video system (HRSVS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pardini, A.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-07

    This report documents the post delivery testing of the High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS) LDUA system,designed for use by the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) project.The post delivery test shows by demonstration that the high resolution stereoscopic video camera system is fully operational to perform the task of aligning the LDUA arm and mast with the entry riser during deployment operations within a Hanford Site waste tank.

  17. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  18. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  19. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  20. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  1. High-Resolution Characterization of Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 in High-Temperature Primary Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2000-06-01

    Intergranular (IG) attack regions and stress-corrosion cracks in alloy 600 U-bend samples tested in 330C, pressurized-water-reactor water have been characterized by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Observations of cross-sectional samples revealed short oxidized zones preceding crack tips and narrow (10-nm wide), deeply penetrated, oxidized zones along grain boundaries exposed along open cracks. High-resolution TEM imaging and fine-probe analysis were used to determine the local chemistries and structures in these corrosion-affected zones. Matrix areas surrounding the crack tips appeared highly strained, whereas the IG penetrations generally did not. The predominant oxide structure found along crack walls and just ahead of crack tips was NiO with metal-atom ratios similar to the alloy. The attacked grain boundaries off open cracks contained similar fine-grained NiO-structure oxide together with local areas of Cr-rich oxide and Ni-rich metal. In contrast, Cr-rich oxide identified as Cr2O3 predominated at the leading edges of the IG attack. Stereoscopic imaging of these tip structures revealed nm-scale porosity and tunnels within the oxide and pores along the grain-boundary plane ahead of the oxide. The general interpretation of these results is that IG attack and cracking follows local dissolution or oxidation and the formation of pores at grain boundaries. This degradation occurs at the nanometer scale and therefore requires high-resolution ATEM methods to reveal detailed characteristics. Experimental support for several possible IG degradation mechanisms is considered.

  2. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  3. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  4. High-resolution structure of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilski, Miroslaw [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Kazmierczyk, Maciej; Krzywda, Szymon [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Zbransk, Helena [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Cooper, Seth; Popovi?, Zoran [University of Washington, Box 352350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Khatib, Firas; DiMaio, Frank; Thompson, James; Baker, David [University of Washington, Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pichov, Iva [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-11-01

    The crystal structure of MasonPfizer monkey virus protease folded as a monomer has been solved by molecular replacement using a model generated by players of the online game Foldit. The structure shows at high resolution the details of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer which can guide rational design of protease dimerization inhibitors as retroviral drugs. MasonPfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), a D-type retrovirus assembling in the cytoplasm, causes simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus monkeys. Its pepsin-like aspartic protease (retropepsin) is an integral part of the expressed retroviral polyproteins. As in all retroviral life cycles, release and dimerization of the protease (PR) is strictly required for polyprotein processing and virion maturation. Biophysical and NMR studies have indicated that in the absence of substrates or inhibitors M-PMV PR should fold into a stable monomer, but the crystal structure of this protein could not be solved by molecular replacement despite countless attempts. Ultimately, a solution was obtained in mr-rosetta using a model constructed by players of the online protein-folding game Foldit. The structure indeed shows a monomeric protein, with the N- and C-termini completely disordered. On the other hand, the flap loop, which normally gates access to the active site of homodimeric retropepsins, is clearly traceable in the electron density. The flap has an unusual curled shape and a different orientation from both the open and closed states known from dimeric retropepsins. The overall fold of the protein follows the retropepsin canon, but the C{sup ?} deviations are large and the active-site DTG loop (here NTG) deviates up to 2.7 from the standard conformation. This structure of a monomeric retropepsin determined at high resolution (1.6 ) provides important extra information for the design of dimerization inhibitors that might be developed as drugs for the treatment of retroviral infections, including

  5. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super

  6. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  7. High-Resolution PFPE-based Molding Techniques for Nanofabrication of High-Pattern Density, Sub-20 nm Features: A Fundamental Materials Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S.; Retterer, Scott; Lopez, Rene; Ruiz, Ricardo; Samulski, Edward T.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-04-14

    Several perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based elastomers for high-resolution replica molding applications are explored. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface tension values (<25 mN/m). Using large area (>4 in.{sup 2}) master templates, we experimentally show the relationship between mold resolution and material properties such as modulus and surface tension for materials used in this study. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus PFPE tetramethacrylate (TMA) composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nanograting structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  8. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  9. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  10. Electromagnetic model for near-field microwave microscope with atomic resolution: Determination of tunnel junction impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reznik, Alexander N.

    2014-08-25

    An electrodynamic model is proposed for the tunneling microwave microscope with subnanometer space resolution as developed by Lee et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183111 (2010)]. Tip-sample impedance Z{sub a} was introduced and studied in the tunneling and non-tunneling regimes. At tunneling breakdown, the microwave current between probe and sample flows along two parallel channels characterized by impedances Z{sub p} and Z{sub t} that add up to form overall impedance Z{sub a}. Quantity Z{sub p} is the capacitive impedance determined by the near field of the probe and Z{sub t} is the impedance of the tunnel junction. By taking into account the distance dependences of effective tip radius r{sub 0}(z) and tunnel resistance R{sub t}(z)?=?Re[Z{sub t}(z)], we were able to explain the experimentally observed dependences of resonance frequency f{sub r}(z) and quality factor Q{sub L}(z) of the microscope. The obtained microwave resistance R{sub t}(z) and direct current tunnel resistance R{sub t}{sup dc}(z) exhibit qualitatively similar behavior, although being largely different in both magnitude and the characteristic scale of height dependence. Interpretation of the microwave images of the atomic structure of test samples proved possible by taking into account the inductive component of tunnel impedance ImZ{sub t}?=??L{sub t}. Relation ?L{sub t}/R{sub t}???0.235 was obtained.

  11. Feasibility of High Resolution P- and S-Wave Seismic Reflection to Detect Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, J.A.

    2000-08-02

    In March, 1999, a combined geophysical field team from the Kansas Geological Survey, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Geological Survey of Canada, performed some experimental high resolution seismic testing at the Mallik drill site in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, where drilling and sampling had previously identified gas hydrates at depth beneath a thick permafrost zone. In this information document, we show data from this seismic test, along with comparisons and observations significant to the effective use of high resolution imaging and important considerations about high resolution operations in this environment. Included are discussions and examples based on previous studies at this site, data acquisition, processing, correlation of results with other data sets and some recommendations for future surveying.

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-04-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about -180 km s{sup -1}) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s{sup -1}. Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s{sup -1}, clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfven waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 {mu}G while for the clouds they are about 4 {mu}G. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  13. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device First results of ion and electron temperature pro le measurements from the x-ray imaging

  14. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  15. High resolution capillary column development for selective separations in gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybyciel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of techniques for the preparation of high resolution capillary columns for gas chromatography is presented. Surface roughing, surface deactivation, stationary phase coating, and stationary phase crosslinking are discussed. Criteria for the selection of GC stationary phases and procedures for column evaluation are presented. A method is proposed for the isolation and determination of crude oil contamination in tropical plants and sediments. The method uses Florisil (TM) chromatography for the simultaneous clean-up and fractionation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Crosslinked SE-54 fused silica capillary columns prepared in our laboratory were employed for all GC separations. Mass spectrometry was used to help locate and identify specific oil components despite the intense background of the chromatogram. Crude oil components were identified in extracts of mangrove plant samples collected from the Peck Slip oil spill site at Media Munda, Puerto Rico. Crude oil components were also identified in sediment samples from controlled oil spill of Prudhoe Bay oil at Laguna de Chiriqui, Panama.

  16. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  17. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup 1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  18. LandScan 2012 High Resolution Global Population DataSet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x20" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts at sub-national level were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets.

  19. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  20. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  1. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.

  2. Modeling of Arctic Storms with a Variable High-Resolution General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Roesler, Erika Louise; Bosler, Peter Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research project, “Water Cycle and Climate Extremes Modeling” is improving our understanding and modeling of regional details of the Earth’s water cycle. Sandia is using high resolution model behavior to investigate storms in the Arctic.

  3. High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges Tuesday, November 22, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Giacomo Ghiringhelli, CNR/SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Visiting scholar at SIMES-Department of physics, Stanford University The interest in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering has been recently boosted mainly by results on high Tc superconductors and other cuprates, where orbital

  4. Real-Time High Resolution Quantitative Imaging by Three Wavelength Digital

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holography - Energy Innovation Portal Real-Time High Resolution Quantitative Imaging by Three Wavelength Digital Holography Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary An optical system capable of reproducing three-dimensional images was invented at ORNL. This system can detect height changes of a few nanometers or less and render clear, single shot images. These types of precise, high speed measurements are important for a variety of

  5. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  6. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  7. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  8. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY OF LANTHANUM IN Ar DISCHARGE IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Güzelçimen, F.; Başar, Gö.; Tamanis, M.; Kruzins, A.; Ferber, R.; Windholz, L.; Kröger, S. E-mail: sophie.kroeger@htw-berlin.de

    2013-10-01

    A high-resolution spectrum of lanthanum has been recorded by a Fourier Transform spectrometer in the wavelength range from 833 nm to 1666 nm (6000 cm{sup –1} to 12,000 cm{sup –1}) using as light source a hollow cathode lamp operated with argon as the discharge carrier gas. In total, 2386 spectral lines were detected in this region, of which 555 lines could be classified as La I transitions and 10 lines as La II transitions. All La II transitions and 534 of these La I transitions were classified for the first time, and 6 of the La II transitions and 433 of the classified La I transitions appear to be new lines, which could not be found in the literature. The corresponding energy level data of classified lines are given. Additionally, 430 lines are assigned as Ar I lines and 394 as Ar II lines, of which 179 and 77, respectively, were classified for the first time. All 77 classified Ar II transitions as well as 159 of the classified Ar I transitions are new lines. Furthermore, the wavenumbers of 997 unclassified spectral lines were determined, 235 of which could be assigned as La lines, because of their hyperfine pattern. The remaining 762 lines may be either unclassified Ar lines or unresolved and unclassified La lines with only one symmetrical peak with an FWHM in the same order of magnitude as the Ar lines. The accuracy of the wavenumber for the classified lines with signal-to-noise-ratio higher than four is better than 0.006 cm{sup –1} which corresponds to an accuracy of 0.0004 nm at 830 nm and 0.0017 nm at 1660 nm, respectively.

  10. Analysis of several high-resolution infrared bands of spiropentane, C5H8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maki, Arthur G.; Price, Joseph E.; Harzan, J.; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons; Masiello, Tony; Blake, Thomas A.

    2015-06-01

    he high-resolution infrared absorption spectrum of spiropentane (C5H8) has been measured from 200 to 4000 cm 1, and a detailed analysis is presented for eight bands in the region from 700 to 2200 cm 1. Two fundamental perpendicular bands were analyzed, m22 and m24 near 1050 and 780 cm 1, respectively, along with two fundamental parallel bands, m14 and m16 near 1540 and 990 cm1, respectively. Two other fundamentals, m17 and m23, are seen as intense overlapping bands near 880 cm*1 and are Coriolis-coupled, producing a complex mixture in which only P-branch transitions could be tentatively assigned for m17. In addition, three binary combination bands were fit at about 1570, 2082, and 2098 cm*1 which are assigned as either 2m24 or m5 + m16 in the first case, m4 + m22 in the second case, and 2m22 in the latter case. The two l-type resonance constants, q+ and q*, were determined for each of the two perpendicular fundamentals m22 and m24. Those two constants were also responsible for splittings observed in the K = 3 levels of m24. For the ground state the order of the split K = 2 B1/B2 levels has been reversed from that reported previously, based on the measurements and assignments for the m24 band. Rovibrational parameters deduced from the analyses are compared with those obtained from density functional Gaussian calculations at the anharmonic level.

  11. Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu ... A better understanding of cloud water content and its large-scale distribution ...

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled CH{sub 5}{sup +}: Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, C.; Dong, F.; Nesbitt, D. J.

    2015-01-22

    Protonated methane (CH{sub 5}{sup +}) is thought to be a highly abundant molecular ion in interstellar medium, as well as a potentially bright μwave- mm wave emitter that could serve as a tracer for methane. This paper describes progress and first successful efforts to obtain a high resolution, supersonically cooled spectrum of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in the 2900-3100 cm{sup −1} region, formed in a slit supersonic discharge at low jet temperatures and with sub-Doppler resolution. Short term precision in frequency measurement (< 5 MHz on an hour time scale) is obtained from a thermally controlled optical transfer cavity servoloop locked onto a frequency stabilized HeNe laser. Long term precision (< 20 MHz day-to-day) due to pressure, temperature and humidity dependent index of refraction effects in the optical transfer cavity is also present and discussed.

  13. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  14. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  15. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  16. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    11 PPPL- 4811 Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas September, 2012 Kenneth W. Hill, M. Bitter, L. Delgado-Aprico, N.A. Pablant, P. Beiersdorfer, M. Schneider, K. Widmann, M. Sanchez del Rio and L. Zhang Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report Disclaimers Full Legal Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.

  18. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  19. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, Marco; Mills, Andrew D; Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-10-08

    Traditionally, modeling investment and dispatch problems in electricity economics has been limited by computation power. Due to this limitation, simplifications are applied. One common practice, for example, is to reduce the temporal resolution of the dispatch by clustering similar load levels. The increase of intermittent electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) changes the validity of this assumption. RES-E already cover a certain amount of the total demand. This leaves an increasingly volatile residual demand to be matched by the conventional power market. This paper quantifies differences in investment decisions by applying three different time-resolution residual load patterns in an investment and dispatch power system model. The model optimizes investment decisions in five year steps between today and 2030 with residual load levels for 8760, 288 and 16 time slices per year. The market under consideration is the four zone ERCOT market in Texas. The results show that investment decisions significantly differ across the three scenarios. In particular, investments into base-load technologies are substantially reduced in the high resolution scenario (8760 residual load levels) relative to the scenarios with lower temporal resolution. Additionally, the amount of RES-E curtailment and the market value of RES-E exhibit noteworthy differences.

  20. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  1. Impact of surface coupling grids on tropical cyclone extremes in high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarzycki, Colin M.; Reed, Kevin A.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Craig, Anthony P.; Bates, Susan C.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.

    2016-02-25

    This article discusses the sensitivity of tropical cyclone climatology to surface coupling strategy in high-resolution configurations of the Community Earth System Model. Using two supported model setups, we demonstrate that the choice of grid on which the lowest model level wind stress and surface fluxes are computed may lead to differences in cyclone strength in multi-decadal climate simulations, particularly for the most intense cyclones. Using a deterministic framework, we show that when these surface quantities are calculated on an ocean grid that is coarser than the atmosphere, the computed frictional stress is misaligned with wind vectors in individual atmospheric gridmore » cells. This reduces the effective surface drag, and results in more intense cyclones when compared to a model configuration where the ocean and atmosphere are of equivalent resolution. Our results demonstrate that the choice of computation grid for atmosphere–ocean interactions is non-negligible when considering climate extremes at high horizontal resolution, especially when model components are on highly disparate grids.« less

  2. High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

  3. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  4. A high spatial resolution Stokes polarimeter for motional Stark effect imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorman, Alex; Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    We describe an enhanced temporally switched interfero-polarimeter that has been successfully deployed for high spatial resolution motional Stark effect imaging on the KSTAR superconducting tokamak. The system utilizes dual switching ferroelectric liquid crystal waveplates to image the full Stokes vector of elliptically polarized and Doppler-shifted Stark-Zeeman Balmer-alpha emission from high energy neutral beams injected into the magnetized plasma. We describe the optical system and compare its performance against a Mueller matrix model that takes account of non-ideal performance of the switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplates and other polarizing components.

  5. High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the pyrimidine-type nucleobases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, D.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Aguilar, A. A.

    2015-06-14

    High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the gas phase pyrimidine-type nucleobases, thymine, uracil, and cytosine, were collected using synchrotron radiation over the photon energy range 17 ≤ hν ≤ 150 eV. These data provide the highest resolution photoelectron spectra of thymine, uracil, and cytosine published to date. By comparing integrated regions of the energy dependent photoelectron spectra of thymine, the ionization potentials of the first four ionic states of thymine were estimated to be 8.8, 9.8, 10.3, and 10.8 eV. The thymine data also show evidence for low energy shape resonances in three of the outermost valence electronic states. Comparing the uracil spectrum with the thymine spectrum, the four outermost valence electronic states of uracil likely begin at binding energies 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.0 eV. High-resolution spectra indicate only one tautomeric form of cytosine contributes significantly to the spectrum with the four outermost valence electronic states beginning at binding energies 8.9, 9.9, 10.4, and 10.85 eV.

  6. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  7. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm thatmore » is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. In addition, this reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.« less

  8. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. In addition, this reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  9. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  10. [S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John H.; Turner, Jean L.; Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt; Crosthwaite, Lucian P.

    2012-08-10

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 {mu}m line of S{sup +3} at 3.8 km s{sup -1} spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s{sup -1} and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s{sup -1} centered {approx}20 km s{sup -1} to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

  11. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  12. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  13. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  14. Effects of downscaled high-resolution meteorological data on the PSCF identification of emission sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Kabela, Erik D.

    2016-04-30

    The Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) model has been successfully used for identifying regions of emission source at a long distance in this study, the PSCF model relies on backward trajectories calculated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In this study, we investigated the impacts of grid resolution and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterization (e.g., turbulent transport of pollutants) on the PSCF analysis. The Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and Yonsei University (YUS) parameterization schemes were selected to model the turbulent transport in the PBL within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF version 3.6) model. Two separate domain grid sizesmore » (83 and 27 km) were chosen in the WRF downscaling in generating the wind data for driving the HYSPLIT calculation. The effects of grid size and PBL parameterization are important in incorporating the influ- ence of regional and local meteorological processes such as jet streaks, blocking patterns, Rossby waves, and terrain-induced convection on the transport of pollutants by a wind trajectory. We found high resolution PSCF did discover and locate source areas more precisely than that with lower resolution meteorological inputs. The lack of anticipated improvement could also be because a PBL scheme chosen to produce the WRF data was only a local parameterization and unable to faithfully duplicate the real atmosphere on a global scale. The MYJ scheme was able to replicate PSCF source identification by those using the Reanalysis and discover additional source areas that was not identified by the Reanalysis data. In conclusion, a potential benefit for using high-resolution wind data in the PSCF modeling is that it could discover new source location in addition to those identified by using the Reanalysis data input.« less

  15. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, N.; Briegel, C.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Zhang, D.; Terunuma, N.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-08-17

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented. The next generation of linear colliders require ultra-low vertical emittance of <2 pm-rad. The damping ring at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is designed to demonstrate this mission critical goal. A high resolution beam position monitor (BPM) system for the damping ring is one of the key tools for realizing this goal. The BPM system needs to provide two distnict measurements. First, a very high resolution ({approx}100-200nm) closed-orbit measurement which is averaged over many turns and realized with narrowband filter techniques - 'narrowband mode'. This is needed to monitor and steer the beam along an optimum orbit and to facilitate beam-based alignment to minimize non-linear field effects. Second, is the ability to make turn by turn (TBT) measurements to support optics studies and corrections necessary to achieve the design performance. As the TBT measurement necessitates a wider bandwidth, it is often referred to as 'wideband mode'. The BPM upgrade was initiated as a KEK/SLAC/FNAL collaboration in the frame of the Global Design Initiative of the International Linear Collider. The project was realized and completed using Japan-US funds with Fermilab as the core partner.

  16. Spatial disaggregation of satellite-derived irradiance using a high-resolution digital elevation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin; Cebecauer, Tomas; Suri, Marcel

    2010-09-15

    Downscaling of the Meteosat-derived solar radiation ({proportional_to}5 km grid resolution) is based on decomposing the global irradiance and correcting the systematic bias of its components using the elevation and horizon shadowing that are derived from the SRTM-3 digital elevation model (3 arc sec resolution). The procedure first applies the elevation correction based on the difference between coarse and high spatial resolution. Global irradiance is split into direct, diffuse circumsolar and diffuse isotropic components using statistical models, and then corrections due to terrain shading and sky-view fraction are applied. The effect of reflected irradiance is analysed only in the theoretical section. The method was applied in the eastern Andalusia, Spain, and the validation was carried out for 22 days on April, July and December 2006 comparing 15-min estimates of the satellite-derived solar irradiance and observations from nine ground stations. Overall, the corrections of the satellite estimates in the studied region strongly reduced the mean bias of the estimates for clear and cloudy days from roughly 2.3% to 0.4%. (author)

  17. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  18. Retrieval Using Texture Features in High Resolution Multi-spectral Satellite Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsam, S D; Kamath, C

    2004-01-22

    Texture features have long been used in remote sensing applications to represent and retrieve image regions similar to a query region. Various representations of texture have been proposed based on the Fourier power spectrum, spatial co-occurrence, wavelets, Gabor filters, etc. These representations vary in their computational complexity and their suitability for representing different region types. Much of the work done thus far has focused on panchromatic imagery at low to moderate spatial resolutions, such as images from Landsat 1-7 which have a resolution of 15-30 m/pixel, and from SPOT 1-5 which have a resolution of 2.5-20 m/pixel. However, it is not clear which texture representation works best for the new classes of high resolution panchromatic (60-100 cm/pixel) and multi-spectral (4 bands for red, green, blue, and near infra-red at 2.4-4 m/pixel) imagery. It is also not clear how the different spectral bands should be combined. In this paper, we investigate the retrieval performance of several different texture representations using multi-spectral satellite images from IKONOS. A query-by-example framework, along with a manually chosen ground truth dataset, allows different combinations of texture representations and spectral bands to be compared. We focus on the specific problem of retrieving inhabited regions from images of urban and rural scenes. Preliminary results show that (1) the use of all spectral bands improves the retrieval performance, and (2) co-occurrence, wavelet and Gabor texture features perform comparably.

  19. High-resolution x-ray diffraction study of the heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueland, B. G.; Saunders, S. M.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.

    2015-11-30

    In this study, YbBiPt is a heavy-fermion compound possessing significant short-range antiferromagnetic correlations below a temperature of T*=0.7K, fragile antiferromagnetic order below TN = 0.4K, a Kondo temperature of TK ? 1K, and crystalline-electric-field splitting on the order of E/kB = 1 10K. Whereas the compound has a face-centered-cubic lattice at ambient temperature, certain experimental data, particularly those from studies aimed at determining its crystalline-electric-field scheme, suggest that the lattice distorts at lower temperature. Here, we present results from high-resolution, high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments which show that, within our experimental resolution of ? 6 10 105 , no structural phase transition occurs between T = 1.5 and 50 K. In combination with results from dilatometry measurements, we further show that the compound's thermal expansion has a minimum at ? 18 K and a region of negative thermal expansion for 9 ? T ? 18 K. Despite diffraction patterns taken at 1.6 K which indicate that the lattice is face-centered cubic and that the Yb resides on a crystallographic site with cubic point symmetry, we demonstrate that the linear thermal expansion may be modeled using crystalline-electric-field level schemes appropriate for Yb3+ residing on a site with either cubic or less than cubic point symmetry.

  20. A novel apparatus for in situ compression of submicron structures and particles in a high resolution SEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romeis, S.; Paul, J.; Ziener, M.; Peukert, W.

    2012-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of a novel in situ manipulation device to perform stressing experiments on the submicron scale inside a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. The instrument comprises two main assembly groups: an upper part for positioning and moving a mounted probe and a force sensor as well as a specimen support as lower part. The upper part consists of a closed loop tripod piezoelectric scanner mounted on a self-locking coarse positioning stage. Two interlocked steel springs and a linear variable differential transformer measuring the springs' deflections compose the lower part of the instrument. This arrangement acts as force-sensor and sample support. In comparison to already well-established concepts a wide measuring range is covered by adjusting the spring constant between 30 N/m and 50000 N/m. Moreover, the new device offers striking advantages with respect to force calibration and sample deformation measurements. Force calibration is performed using the eigenfrequency of the force detection system directly inside the SEM. Deformation data are obtained with high accuracy by simultaneously recording displacements above and below the specimen. The detrimental apparatus compliance is determined, and the influence on measured data subsequently minimized: an easy to validate two-springs-in-series model is used for data correction. A force resolution in normal direction of 100 nN accompanied by a sample deformation resolution of 5 nm can be achieved with the instrument using an appropriate load cell stiffness. The capabilities and versatility of this instrument are exemplified by compression experiments performed on submicron amorphous silica particles.

  1. Machine Learning Approaches for High-resolution Urban Land Cover Classification: A Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju; Chandola, Varun; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Graesser, Jordan B

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of several machine learning approaches makes it difficult to identify a suitable classification technique for analyzing high-resolution remote sensing images. In this study, ten classification techniques were compared from five broad machine learning categories. Surprisingly, the performance of simple statistical classification schemes like maximum likelihood and Logistic regression over complex and recent techniques is very close. Given that these two classifiers require little input from the user, they should still be considered for most classification tasks. Multiple classifier systems is a good choice if the resources permit.

  2. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  3. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  4. High Resolution Snapshots for the Complete Reaction Cycle of a Cocaine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalytic Antibody High Resolution Snapshots for the Complete Reaction Cycle of a Cocaine Catalytic Antibody Xueyong Zhu1, Tobin J. Dickerson2,3, Claude J. Rogers2,3, Gunnar F. Kaufmann2,3, Jenny M. Mee2,3, Kathleen M. McKenzie2,3, Kim D. Janda2,3,4,* and Ian A. Wilson1,4,* Departments of Molecular Biology1 and Chemistry2 and Immunology3, and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology4, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Cocaine is a

  5. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahn, L.A.

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  6. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  7. PPPL to design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignition Facility | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab to design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility By Johm Greenwald November 16, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP

  8. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V.

    1996-01-01

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  9. design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility By John Greenwald November 16, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas.

  10. High-resolution PET [Positron Emission Tomography] for Medical Science Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Budinger, T. F.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; Jagust, W. J.; Valk, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging.