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1

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full- Scale Testing of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD The goal of this project is to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The two specific objectives of this project are 1) ninety percent (90%) total mercury removal and 2) costs below 1/4 to 1/2 of today's commercially available activated carbon mercury removal technologies. Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc's (B&W/MTI's) will demonstrate their wet scrubbing mercury removal technology (which uses very small amounts of a liquid reagent to achieve increased mercury removal) at two locations burning high-sulfur Ohio bituminous coal: 1) Michigan South Central Power Agency's (MSCPA) 55 MWe Endicott Station located in Litchfield, Michigan and 2) Cinergy's 1300 MWe Zimmer Station located near Cincinnati, Ohio.

2

DOE/NETL's Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Mercury Removal Technology Field-Testing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Mercury Removal Technology Field-Testing Air Quality III September 12, 2002 Arlington, Va Scott Renninger, Project Manager for Mercury Control Technology Enviromental Projects Division Presentation Outline * Hg Program goals & objectives * Focus on Future Hg control R&D * Q&As President Bush's Clear Skies Initiative Current Mid-Term 2008-2010 2018 SO 2 11 million tons 4.5 million tons 3 million tons NOx 5 million tons 2.1 million tons 1.7 million tons Mercury 48 tons 26 tons 15 tons Annual U.S. Power Plant Emissions Mercury Control * Developing technologies ready for commercial demonstration: - By 2005, reduce emissions 50-70% - By 2010, reduce emissions by 90% - Cost 25-50% less than current estimates 2000 Year 48 Tons $2 - 5 Billion @ 90% Removal w/Activated

3

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-Scale Field Trial of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process CONSOL R&D, PPL, Lechler, and Martin Marietta propose to conduct a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process at Unit 1 of the PPL Martins Creek Station. LTMC has the ability to reduce mercury emissions by over 90% as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41181. The next step is to demonstrate the performance, operability, and economics on a full-scale utility boiler. In addition this project will demonstrate that magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 ) slurry injection into the flue gas reduces SO3 concentration sufficiently to avoid corrosion at the low-temperature conditions, and will demonstrate that water spray humidification can maintain ESP performance under low-SO3 conditions.

4

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

5

Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230 °F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy??s R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230 °F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

James Locke; Richard Winschel

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2008 2008 contacts thomas J. Feeley III Technology Manager Environmental & Water Resources National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-6134 thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov charles E. Miller Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5745 charles.miller@netl.doe.gov Gary Blythe Principal Investigator URS Corp. 9400 Amberglen Blvd. P.O. Box 201088 Austin, Texas 78720 512-419-5321 gary_blythe@urscorp.com Environmental and Water Resources Full-Scale TeSTing oF a Mercury oxidaTion caTalyST upSTreaM oF a WeT Fgd SySTeM Background To provide alternatives for power plant owners to comply with the Clean Air Mercury Rule promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NETL is

7

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP combined with sorbent enhancement, (2) Hg oxidation and control using wet and dry scrubbers, (3) enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel (TDF) and oxidizing catalysts, and (4) testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter insert.

Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Determination of mercury and organic mercury contents in Malaysian seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contents of mercury and organic mercury in various types of seafood from various location in Malaysia were determined...Rastrelliger kanagurta), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomurus commersoni), shrimp (Peneaus sp...

S. A. Rahman; A. K. Wood; S. Sarmani

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Discussion on 'characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption' by Lu et al.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury capture by coal-combustion fly ash is a function of the amount of Hg in the feed coal, the amount of carbon in the fly ash, the type of carbon in the fly ash (including variables introduced by the rank of the feed coal), and the flue gas temperature at the point of ash collection. In their discussion of fly ash and Hg adsorption, Lu et al. (Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 2112-2120) had some fundamental flaws in their techniques, which, in turn, impact the validity of analyzed parameters. First, they used mechanical sieving to segregate fly ash size fractions. Mechanical sieving does not produce representative size fractions, particularly for the finest sizes. If the study samples were not obtained correctly, the subsequent analyses of fly ash carbon and Hg cannot accurately represent the size fractions. In the analysis of carbon forms, it is not possible to accurately determine the forms with scanning electron microscopy. The complexity of the whole particles is overlooked when just examining the outer particle surface. Examination of elements such as Hg, present in very trace quantities in most fly ashes, requires careful attention to the analytical techniques. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

James C. Hower; Bruno Valentim; Irena J. Kostova; Kevin R. Henke [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Determination of Mercury in Soils by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chemical analysis exploration flameless geochemical methods mercury...Determination of Mercury in Soils by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry...Determinationof Mercury in Soilsby Flameless Atomic AbsorptionSpectrometry...the mercuryre- RF Induction Heater work coils 1. Carriergas...

B. G. Weissberg

14

Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Full-Scale Production |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Full-Scale Production Full-Scale Production Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Full-Scale Production Clean Energy Manufacturing Resources - Technology Full-Scale Production Find resources to help you design a production and manufacturing process for a new clean energy technology or product. For full-scale production, other areas to consider include workforce development; R&D funding; and regional, state, and local resources. For more resources, see the Clean Energy Manufacturing Federal Resource Guide. Design Production and Manufacturing Process Advanced Research Projects Agency: Tech-to-Market Resources - general tech-to-market (T2M) resources. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office: Manufacturing Demonstration Facility - a collaborative manufacturing community that works to provide real data to

15

Property:Full-Scale Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Full-Scale Test Full-Scale Test Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Full-Scale Test Property Type Text Pages using the property "Full-Scale Test" Showing 13 pages using this property. M MHK Technologies/Atlantis AN 150 + The AN150 system was connected to the SPAusNet Victorian electricity grid exporting renewable power for from 2008 to 2012 Atlantis received power sales revenue and RECs Renewable Energy Certificates during this period of operation MHK Technologies/Atlantis AR 1000 + Atlantis connect its 1MW AR1000 tidal turbine to the grid at the European Marine Energy Centre EMEC in Orkney Scotland on Thursday the 11th August 2011 Atlantis Resources Corporation will continue its AR1000 tidal turbine testing programme at the National Renewable Energy Centre Narec in Blyth Northumberland The company s AR1000 nacelle was retrieved from its test berth at the European Marine Energy Centre EMEC in Orkney in late November following successful open ocean testing It will be transported to Blyth for preparation ahead of the spring opening of Narec s 3MW capacity turbine drive train testing facility The independent onshore facility has been developed to de risk in field activities conducting reliability and performance appraisals of new devices and system components through accelerated lifetime testing

16

Method development for the simultaneous determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper reports the method development for the simultaneous determination of methylmercury (MeHg+) and inorganic mercury (iHg) species in seafood samples. The study focused on the extraction and quantification of MeHg+ (the most toxic species) by liquid chromatography coupled to on-line UV irradiation and cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (LC-UV-CV-AFS), using \\{HCl\\} 4molL?1 as the extractant agent. Accuracy of the method has been verified by analysing three certified reference materials and different spiked samples. The values found for total Hg and MeHg+ for the \\{CRMs\\} did not differ significantly from certified values at a 95% confidence level, and recoveries between 85% and 97% for MeHg+, based on spikes, were achieved. The detection limits (LODs) obtained were 0.001mgHgkg?1 for total mercury, 0.0003mgHgkg?1 for MeHg+ and 0.0004mgHgkg?1 for iHg. The quantification limits (LOQs) established were 0.003mgHgkg?1 for total mercury, 0.0010mgHgkg?1 for MeHg+ and 0.0012mgHgkg?1 for iHg. Precision for each mercury species was established, being?12% in terms of RSD in all cases. Finally, the developed method was applied to 24 seafood samples from different origins and total mercury contents. The concentrations for Total Hg, MeHg+ and iHg ranged from 0.07 to 2.33, 0.0032.23 and 0.0060.085mgHgkg?1, respectively. The established analytical method allows to obtain results for mercury speciation in less than 1 one hour including both, sample pretreatment and measuring step.

Ariane V. Zmozinski; Sergio Carneado; Carmen Ibez-Palomino; ngels Sahuquillo; Jos Fermn Lpez-Snchez; Mrcia M. da Silva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

A tentative programme towards a full scale energy amplifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier (EA), following the conceptual design of Ref. [1]. Unlike the presently on going CERN experiments, reaction rates will be sufficiently massive to permit demonstrating the practical feasibility of energy generation on an industrial scale and to tackle the complete family chains of [1] the breeding process in Thorium fuel, [2] the burning of the self-generated Actinides, [3] the Plutonium (higher Actinides) burning of spent fuel from ordinary Reactors and [4] Fuel reprocessing/regeneration. The accelerator must provide a beam power which is commensurate to the rate of transformations which are sought. No existing accelerator can meet such a performance and a dedicated facility must be built. We describe an alternative based on the superconducting cavities (SC) now in standard use at the LEP \\[e^+-e^-\\] collider which is scheduled to terminate its operation by year 200 After this time, with reasonable modifications, the fully opera...

Rubbia, Carlo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Full-scale shear tests of embedded floor modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A floor module used to support a centrifuge machine is a steel framework embedded in a 2-ft (610-mm) thick concrete slab. This steel framework is made up of four cylindrical hollow sockets tied together with four S-beams to form a square pattern. In the event of a centrifuge machine wreck, large forces are transmitted from the machine to the corner sockets (through connecting steel lugs) and to the concrete slab. The floor modules are loaded with a combination of torsion and shear forces in the plane of the floor slab. Precisely how these wreck loads are transmitted to, and reacted by, the floor modules and the surrounding concrete was the scope of a series of full-scale tests performed at the DOE Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) located near Piketon, Ohio. This report describes the tests and the results of the data reduction to date.

Fricke, K.E.; Jones, W.D.; Burdette, E.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Involvement of Rhodocyclus-Related Organisms in Phosphorus Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Julie L. Zilles Jordan...organisms in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants were estimated to represent...successfully in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), identification...

Julie L. Zilles; Jordan Peccia; Myeong-Woon Kim; Chun-Hsiung Hung; Daniel R. Noguera

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Los Alamos National Laboratory marks 20 years without full-scale...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

20 years without full-scale nuclear testing Los Alamos National Laboratory marks 20 years without full-scale nuclear testing The test, code named "Divider," was detonated on Sept....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Energy Department Announces $10 Million for Full-Scale Wave Energy...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

10 Million for Full-Scale Wave Energy Device Testing Energy Department Announces 10 Million for Full-Scale Wave Energy Device Testing October 29, 2014 - 2:55pm Addthis The Energy...

22

Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that the parent aluminum skin must experience significant yield strains before any damage to the doubler will occur.

Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Carbon Injection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit with a Spray Drier and Fabric Filter The intent of DOE's Phase I and II field tests was to work with industry to evaluate the most promising mercury control technologies at full-scale in a variety of configurations. Although longer-term tests were conducted, the test period was not sufficient to answer many fundamental questions about long-term consistency of mercury removal and reliability of the system when integrated with plant processes. As the technologies move towards commercial implementation, it is critical to accurately define the mercury removal performance and costs so that power companies and policy makers can make informed decisions. Therefore, the overall objective of this Phase III project is to determine the mercury removal performance, long-term emissions variability, and associated O&M costs of activated carbon injection for >90% mercury control over a 10 to 12 month period on a unit that represents the combination of coal and emission control equipment that will be used for many new and existing power plants.

24

INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Validation of the SASSI2010 Subtraction Method Using Full Scale Independent Verification  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Validation of the SASSI2010 Subtraction Method Using Full Scale Independent Verification Lisa Anderson Farhang Ostadan Bechtel National, Inc. USDOE NPH Workshop October 2014

26

B61-12 Life Extension Program Undergoes First Full-Scale Wind...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Undergoes First Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Test | National Nuclear Security Administration People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

27

Determination of total mercury in seafood and other protein-rich products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previously developed wet-digestion method for the determination of total mercury in plants by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) was extended to the analysis of seafood and other products rich in proteins. Oxidation of matrixes is accomplished by K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the presence of diluted H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; a simple air condenser is used to reflux vapors released from the boiling mixture. The original procedure (A) and 2 modifications (B and C), which differ with respect to the mode of acidification and/or digestion time and the types of condensers used, were compared for precision and accuracy by means of National Institute of Standards and Technology Research Material 50 Albacore Tuna and proved to be reliable (Hg present, 0.95{plus_minus}0.1 {mu}g/g; Hg found, 0.97 {plus_minus} 0.029 {mu}g/g [A], 0.98 {plus_minus} 0.018 {mu}g/g [B], and 0.94 {plus_minus} 0.025 {mu}g/g [C]). The modified procedures were tested further in Hg recovery experiments on a variety of biological matrixes with different spiking substances and again showed good analytical characteristics (overall average recoveries = 98 {plus_minus} 5.1% for seafood and 100 {plus_minus} 3.6 for protein-rich baby foods). 22 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Landi, S.; Fagioli, F.; Locatelli, C. [Universita di Ferrara (Italy)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Testing of Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX, will demonstrate at the pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project's pilot tests, conducted at electric generating plants using wet flue gas desulfurization systems and particulate collection systems, will be conducted for periods up to 14 months to provide data for future, full-scale designs. Mercury-oxidation potential will be measured periodically to provide long-term catalyst life data. The project is applicable to about 90,000 megawatts of generation capacity. Project partners are the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, which will co-manage and co-fund the pilot tests, and five utilities.

30

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a microstructured prismatic window film in deep open plandaylight- redirecting window film in a full-scale officedaylight- redirecting window film in a full-scale office

Thanachareonkit, Anothai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent field and pilot-scale results indicate that divalent mercury emitted from power plants may rapidly transform to elemental mercury within the power plant plumes. Simulations of mercury chemistry in plumes based on measured rates to date have improved regional model fits to Mercury Deposition Network wet deposition data for particular years, while not degrading model verification fits for remaining years of the ensemble. The years with improved fit are those with simulated deposition in grid cells in the State of Pennsylvania that have matching MDN station data significantly less than the model values. This project seeks to establish a full-scale data basis for whether or not significant reduction or oxidation reactions occur to mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants, and what numerical redox rate should apply for extension to other sources and for modeling of power plant mercury plumes locally, regionally, and nationally. Although in-stack mercury (Hg) speciation measurements are essential to the development of control technologies and to provide data for input into atmospheric fate and transport models, the determination of speciation in a cooling coal combustion plume is more relevant for use in estimating Hg fate and effects through the atmosphere. It is mercury transformations that may occur in the plume that determine the eventual rate and patterns of mercury deposited to the earth's surface. A necessary first step in developing a supportable approach to modeling any such transformations is to directly measure the forms and concentrations of mercury from the stack exit downwind to full dispersion in the atmosphere. As a result, a study was sponsored by EPRI and jointly funded by EPRI, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), and the Wisconsin Department of Administration. The study was designed to further our understanding of plume chemistry. The study was carried out at the We Energies Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just west of Kenosha. Aircraft and ground measurements support the occurrence of a reduction in the fraction of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) (with a corresponding increase in elemental mercury) as part of the Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) emitted from the Pleasant Prairie stack. This occurrence is based on comparison of the RGM concentrations in the plume (at standard conditions) compared to the RGM in the stack. There was found to be a 44% drop in the fraction of RGM between the stack exit and the first sampling arc and a 66% reduction from the stack to the 5-mile sampling arc, with no additional drop between the 5- and 10-mile arcs. Smaller-scale experiments in both test chambers and pilot-scale coal combustor exhaust streams have indicated the presence of rapid and relatively complete reduction reactions converting divalent into elemental mercury within power plant plumes prior to full dispersion in the atmosphere. These measurements, however, have been unable to identify whether the reactions occur during plume rise from physical to virtual stack height (during positive thermal buoyancy). The presence, rate, completeness, ubiquity, and dependence on source characteristics of these reactions, however, must be demonstrated in plume environments associated with fully operational power plants. That requirement, to capture either the reactions or the reaction products of chemistry that may be occurring very close to stack exits in highly turbulent environments, constrains the precision and reproducibility with which such full-scale experiments can be carried out. The work described here is one of several initial steps required to test whether, and in what direction, such rapid mercury redox reactions might be occurring in such plumes.

Leonard Levin

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Involvement of Rhodocyclus-Related Organisms in Phosphorus Removal in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...removal of phosphorus from the wastewater. Although this process...successfully in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs...process plant without nitrate recycling, represented a traditional...the plants treated municipal wastewater with phosphorus concentrations...

Julie L. Zilles; Jordan Peccia; Myeong-Woon Kim; Chun-Hsiung Hung; Daniel R. Noguera

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Behavior of 10 full-scale ground anchors installed in stiff clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results from load tests conducted on ten, full-scale instrumented ground anchors installed in stiff clay, illustrated that anchor performance is load-history dependent. Anchors having shorter bonded lengths performed significantly better than...

Powers, William Francis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Development of a full-scale training simulator for an 800-MW power unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stages of work involving preparation of requirements specification, development, and subsequent implementation of a project for constructing a full-scale training simulator of an 800-MW power unit are consider...

S. K. Zhuravlev; A. M. Andreev

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. May 2004, Monterey, California. Gorm Heron, Steven Carroll, Hank Sowers, Bruce McGee, Randall Juhlin, Joe Daniel, David S. Ingle Steam and ET-DSP Combined for DNAPL Remediation: Full-Scale Site Restoration at Young - Rainey STAR Center More Documents & Publications Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Young - Rainey STAR Center Project Overview: Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Characterization and Post-Remediation Verification

37

Mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation in three fish species (sea food) from Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) were determined in three fish species including benthic, benthopelagic and pelagic fish from Arvand river, northwest of Persian Gulf. Mercury and methyl mercu...

Sajad Abdolvand; Sahar Kayedinejad Esfahani

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Evaluation of defense-waste glass produced by full-scale vitrification equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three full-scale vitrification processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory produced over 67,000 kg of simulated nuclear-waste glass from March 1979 to August 1980. Samples were analyzed to monitor process operation and evaluate the resulting glass product. These processes are: Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter (SC/ICM); Spray Calciner/Calcine-Fed Ceramic Melter (SC/CFCM); and Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM). Waste components in the process feed varied less than +- 10%. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM which use separate waste and frit feed systems showed larger glass compositional variation than the LFCM, which processed only premixed feed during this period. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM product contained significant amounts of acmite crystals, while the LFCM product was largely amorphous. In addition, the lower portion of all SC/ICM-filled canisters contained a zone rich in waste components. A product chemical durability as determined by pH4 and soxhlet leach tests varied considerably. Aside from increased durability under pH4 conditions with decreasing waste content, glass composition, microstructure and melting process did not correlate with glass durability. For all samples analyzed, the weight loss under pH4 conditions ranged from 17.7 to 85.2 wt %. Soxhlet conditions produced weight losses from 1.78 to 3.56 wt %.

Lukacs, J.M.; Petkus, L.L.; Mellinger, G.B.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Development of Comprehensive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection DOE has identified technologies (based on past DOE and other R&D organizations' mercury measurement and control achievements) that are expected to be important in developing possible strategies on mercury control for the coal-fired electric utility industry. To address critical questions related to cost and efficiency of these mercury control technologies, DOE has funded the first of a kind large-scale initiative aimed at testing and evaluating large-scale mercury control technologies for coal-based power systems. These tests will collect cost and performance data with parametric and long term field experiments at power plants with existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) utilized to control other pollutants as well as mercury in hopes of providing the cheapest control options for the utility industry in mid-term application (5 to 10 years).

40

Mercury Detection with Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

samples by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry, J.S. Gucer, Direct atomic absorption determination of mercuryL. A. Vasilieva, Direct atomic absorption determination of

Crosby, Jeffrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Carlsbad Area Office unveils full-scale model of new WIPP waste transportation cask  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carlsbad Area Office Unveils Full-Scale Model Carlsbad Area Office Unveils Full-Scale Model Of New WIPP Waste Transportation Cask CARLSBAD, N.M., February 23, 2000 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office today unveiled a full-scale model of its newest waste transportation cask, the RH-72B, during a ceremony at the local DOE offices. "This is another milestone for the Department of Energy," said Dr. Inés Triay, Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office, describing the importance of the new container for those attending the ceremony. "After we receive approval from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), we plan to add the RH-72B to our fleet, which will help the Department meet its continuing mission to remove transuranic waste from the accessible environment and

42

Energy Department Announces $10 Million for Full-Scale Wave Energy Device Testing  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

The Energy Department, in coordination with the Navy, today announced funding for two companies to test their innovative wave energy conversion devices in new deep water test berths off the waters of the Navys Marine Corps Base Hawaii. Ocean Energy USA will leverage lessons learned from previous quarter-scale test deployments that have led to design improvements for a full-scale deployment of their Ocean Energy Buoy. Northwest Energy Innovations will build and test a full-scale model of its Azura device.

43

Bacterial community structures are unique and resilient in full-scale bioenergy systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bacterial community structures are unique and resilient in full-scale bioenergy systems Jeffrey J digestion is the most successful bioenergy technology worldwide with, at its core, undefined microbialFrac | community function | digester | sludge The production of bioenergy from wastes is an essential com- ponent

Hammerton, James

44

Full scale Reynolds number effects for the viscous flow around the ship stern  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We calculate the stern flow for the case of HSVA ship model at two different Reynolds number; one...Re=109 for full scale and the other is Re=5106...for model scale. And we investigate the trend of scale effect ...

Keon-Je Oh; Shin-Hyoung Kang

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A full-scale approximation of covariance functions for large spatial data sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A full-scale approximation of covariance functions for large spatial data sets Huiyan Sang in spatial statistics but face tremendous computational challenges for very large data sets. The model fitting and spatial prediction of such models typically require O(n3 ) operations for a data set of size n

Huang, Jianhua

46

Seismic testing of full?scale structures through applied ground motion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Nevada Testing Institute (NeTI) and SRI International (SRI) in partnership with prominent research universities and state and federal government and industry have been evolving since 1995 a unique concept of generating earthquake?like ground motion to test large? and full?scale structures and structural systems at the Nevada Test Site. The RESCUE technique is used to produce strong ground motion by simultaneously expanding a planar array of buried vertical sources. The ground motion sources consist of a rubber bladder wrapped around a steel rectangular mandrel. Propellant is burnt in the source to produce low pressures that expand the bladder to move the soil bed. Because pressures are low the soil is not damaged allowing for sequential pulses and multiple tests on test structures. Eighty cycles of ground motion over durations of up to 120 s will be available in full scale. Proof?of?concept testing was successfully completed in 1998 in California and Nevada. The tests show that ground motions with accelerations of 1g to potentially 3g velocities of 100 to 140 cm/s and displacements of 60 cm to greater than 100 cm can be produced at the full scale test center. Construction of the full?scale testing center beginning in 2000 is planned.

Peter A. Mote; Paul R. Gefken

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

A FULL SCALE ROOM FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INTERIOR BUILDING CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air flow measurement. A water source heat pump provided chilled water to a fan-coil unit which in turn on volumetric air flow measurement and an overall room heat balance. Analysis was directed at results fromA FULL SCALE ROOM FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INTERIOR BUILDING CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER: DESIGN

48

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Mercury Control For Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD URS Group, Inc., in collaboration with EPRI, Apogee Scientific, AEP, Texas Genco, and TXU Power, ADA-ES, will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control in an 85/15 blend Texas lignite/PRB derived flue gas, upstream of a cold-side ESP – wet FGD combination. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted with various sorbents and combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices (APCD) have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. For example, sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite, which represent approximately 10% of the annual U.S. power plant mercury emissions. The low and variable chloride content of Texas lignite may pose a challenge to achieving high levels of mercury removal with sorbent injection. Furthermore, activated carbon injection may render the fly ash unsuitable for sale, posing an economic liability to Texas lignite utilities. Alternatives to standard activated carbon, such as non-carbon sorbents and alternate injection locations (Toxecon II), have not been fully explored. Toxecon II involves sorbent injection in the middle field(s) of an ESP, thus preserving the integrity of the fly ash in the first fields.

49

Assessment of Low Cost Novel Mercury Sorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control Technologies Testing of Mercury Control Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants by Thomas J. Feeley, III 1. , Lynn A. Brickett 1. , B. Andrew O'Palko 1. , and James T. Murphy 2. 1. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory 2. Science Applications International Corporation The U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal- fired power plants. The program also includes evaluating the fate of mercury in coal by-products and studying the transport and transformation of mercury in power plant plumes. This paper presents results from ongoing full-scale and slip-stream field testing of several mercury control

50

Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing, April 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing

52

Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on Americas Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Full-scale tests of sulfur polymer cement and non-radioactive waste in heated and unheated prototypical containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement has been demonstrated to be superior to portland cement in the stabilization of numerous troublesome low- level radioactive wastes, notably mixed waste fly ash, which contains heavy metals. EG G Idaho, Inc. conducted full-scale, waste-stabilization tests with a mixture of sulfur polymer cement and nonradioactive incinerator ash poured over simulated steel and ash wastes. The container used to contain the simulated waste for the pour was a thin-walled, rectangular, steel container with no appendages. The variable in the tests was that one container and its contents were at 65{degree}F (18{degree}C) at the beginning of the pour, while the other was preheated to 275{degree}F (135{degree}C) and was insulated before the pour. The primary goal was to determine the procedures and equipment deemed operationally acceptable and capable of providing the best probability of passing the only remaining governmental test for sulfur polymer cement, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's full-scale test. The secondary goal was to analyze the ability of the molten cement and ash mixture to fill different size pipes and thus eliminate voids in the resultant 24 ft{sup 3} monolith.

Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.; Logan, J.A.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Full-scale tests of sulfur polymer cement and non-radioactive waste in heated and unheated prototypical containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement has been demonstrated to be superior to portland cement in the stabilization of numerous troublesome low- level radioactive wastes, notably mixed waste fly ash, which contains heavy metals. EG&G Idaho, Inc. conducted full-scale, waste-stabilization tests with a mixture of sulfur polymer cement and nonradioactive incinerator ash poured over simulated steel and ash wastes. The container used to contain the simulated waste for the pour was a thin-walled, rectangular, steel container with no appendages. The variable in the tests was that one container and its contents were at 65{degree}F (18{degree}C) at the beginning of the pour, while the other was preheated to 275{degree}F (135{degree}C) and was insulated before the pour. The primary goal was to determine the procedures and equipment deemed operationally acceptable and capable of providing the best probability of passing the only remaining governmental test for sulfur polymer cement, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s full-scale test. The secondary goal was to analyze the ability of the molten cement and ash mixture to fill different size pipes and thus eliminate voids in the resultant 24 ft{sup 3} monolith.

Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.; Logan, J.A.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Preliminary Study of a Vented Attic Radiant Barrier System in Hot, Humid Climates Using Side-by-Side, Full-Scale Test Houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A series of side-by-side tests was performed using two full scale test houses to determine the effectiveness of a Vented Radiant Barrier System (VRBS) in reducing the ceiling heat flux during the summer cooling season in North Florida. Another...

Lear, W. E.; Barrup, T. E.; Davis, K. E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

NETL: News Release - Energy Department Approves Full-Scale Demonstration of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 , 2006 7 , 2006 Energy Department Approves Full-Scale Demonstration of Coal Dryer Innovative Technology Promises More Power, Lower Costs, Reduced Emissions WASHINGTON, DC - Building on the continuous operation of a prototype coal dryer that uses waste heat to remove moisture from coal, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has given the go-ahead to Great River Energy to conduct the first-ever full-scale demonstration of the utility company's innovative technology. Great River Energy will soon begin the demonstration at its Coal Creek Station near Underwood, N.D., during the second phase of a cost-shared project with DOE. The $31.5 million project, which received $13.5 million in funding from DOE, was one of eight projects selected in the first phase of DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, a 10-year $2-billion commitment to advance of clean coal technologies and an integral part of the Administration's National Energy Policy. The projects are managed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory.

60

Mercury speciation in the Persian Gulf sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concentrations of total mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) were determined in 78 marine sediments in the Iranian coastal waters of the Persian Gulf along nine transects perpendicular to the coastline....?...

Homira Agah; Marc Elskens

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NETL: News Release - Full Scale Direct FuelCell? Completes One Year of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

March 31, 2000 March 31, 2000 Full Scale Direct FuelCellTM Completes One Year of Operation Confirms Performance and Durability of New Energy Generating Technology A commercial design of an advanced fuel cell - the building block of a family of environmentally super-clean, fuel-flexible power plants - has passed several milestones in a joint public-private development effort. FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell The Direct FuelCell is a versatile, combustion-less power source being developed in the Department of Energy's fuel cell research program. It can use natural gas, methanol, ethanol, bio-gas or other hydrogen-rich fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has completed one year of commercial design validation and endurance testing of a 250 kilowatt-class Direct FuelCellTM

62

TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Unmanned deepwater-line repair system passes full-scale trials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first ever full-scale tests of an unmanned, deepwater-pipeline repair system were successfully conducted last year off the coast of Italy. The Italian gas-transmission company SNAM tested a submersible automatic system (SAS) sealine repair system at a depth of 600 m. The modular SAS allows sealines to be repaired by installation of the Nuovo Pignone mechanical connector. The system's trials simulated complete repair intervention on the 20-in. Trans mediterranean pipeline and provided unprecedented experience to SNAM and to the other involved in this project. The paper discusses the origin of the idea for the SAS, the design of the system, construction and testing, the first sea trials, final deep sea trials, and future developments.

Venzi, S.; Vienna, A. (SNAM SpA, Milan (Italy))

1993-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

64

CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Utilization of Partially Gasified Coal for Mercury Removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) developed a novel mercury (Hg) control technology in which the sorbent for gas-phase Hg removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at a coal burning plant. The main objective of this project was to obtain technical information necessary for moving the technology from pilot-scale testing to a full-scale demonstration. A pilot-scale gasifier was used to generate sorbents from both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Once the conditions for optimizing sorbent surface area were identified, sorbents with the highest surface area were tested in a pilot-scale combustion tunnel for their effectiveness in removing Hg from coal-based flue gas. It was determined that the highest surface area sorbents generated from the gasifier process ({approx}600 m{sup 2}/g) had about 70%-85% of the reactivity of activated carbon at the same injection rate (lb/ACF), but were effective in removing 70% mercury at injection rates about 50% higher than that of commercially available activated carbon. In addition, mercury removal rates of up to 95% were demonstrated at higher sorbent injection rates. Overall, the results of the pilot-scale tests achieved the program goals, which were to achieve at least 70% Hg removal from baseline emissions levels at 25% or less of the cost of activated carbon injection.

Chris Samuelson; Peter Maly; David Moyeda

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

66

Notes from DOE/EPRI Meeting on Phase II Mercury Field Test Needs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Notes Notes DOE/EPRI meeting on Phase II Mercury Field Test Needs Washington DC June 5, 2002 Attendees (phone/e-mail at end of notes) AEP - Gary Spitznogle EPRI - Stu Dalton DOE - Scott Renninger EPRI - George Offen DOE - Tom Feeley GRE - Mark Strohfus Duke - Tim Shawver Southern - Larry Monroe EPA - Jim Kilgroe TVA - Tom Burnett TXU - David Lamb DOE and EPRI jointly convened this meeting to obtain feedback from deeply involved industry members on the needs, scope, schedule, etc. for a second phase of full-scale, longer-term field tests of mercury controls on power plants. The program objectives would be to determine performance and costs of the major near-term control approaches with the hope of using this information both to inform the regulatory (MACT) and legislative (Clear Skies Initiative, CSI) processes as well as industry selections of

67

Full scale experimental analysis of extreme coherent gust with wind direction changes (EOD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A coherent wind speed and wind direction change (ECD) load case is defined in the wind turbine standard. This load case is an essential extreme load case that e.g. may be design driving for flap defection of active stall controlled wind turbines. The present analysis identifies statistically the magnitudes of a joint gust event defined by a simultaneously wind speed- and direction change in order to obtain an indication of the validity of the magnitudes specified in the IEC code. The analysis relates to pre-specified recurrence periods and is based on full-scale wind field measurements. The wind speed gust amplitude, occurring simultaneously with a wind direction change, corresponds well to the recommended ECD value of 15 m/s, except for the complex terrain case, where estimated extreme wind speed gust amplitudes are seen to exceed the IEC value with approximately 50%. The estimated extreme wind direction gust amplitudes associated with the investigated European sites are low compared to the recommended IEC- values. However, these values, as function of the mean wind speed, are difficult to validate thoroughly due to the limited number of fully correlated measurements.

K S Hansen; G C Larsen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

Solar Compartment Design Methods, Performance Analysis and Thermal Data for Solar Composting Latrines: A Full Scale Experimental Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Pathogen resistance to disinfection or inactivation in latrines is multifaceted. The full-scale solar composting compartment studies at the University of Kansas have advanced the knowledge about feces composting in solar compartments based on climate...

Rendall, Joseph D.

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

Non Invasive Measurements of Moisture in Full-Scale Stone and Brick Masonry Models After Simulated Flooding: Effectiveness of GPR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the framework of a European Commission project entitled Cultural HEritage against Flood (CHEF), a research was carried out in Milan on full-scale stone and brick masonry models by means of a simulated f...

G. Cardani; L. Cantini; S. Munda; L. Zanzi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Modeling basin- and plume-scale processes of CO2 storage for full-scale deployment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated modeling of basin- and plume-scale processes induced by full-scale deployment of CO{sub 2} storage was applied to the Mt. Simon Aquifer in the Illinois Basin. A three-dimensional mesh was generated with local refinement around 20 injection sites, with approximately 30 km spacing. A total annual injection rate of 100 Mt CO{sub 2} over 50 years was used. The CO{sub 2}-brine flow at the plume scale and the single-phase flow at the basin scale were simulated. Simulation results show the overall shape of a CO{sub 2} plume consisting of a typical gravity-override subplume in the bottom injection zone of high injectivity and a pyramid-shaped subplume in the overlying multilayered Mt. Simon, indicating the important role of a secondary seal with relatively low-permeability and high-entry capillary pressure. The secondary-seal effect is manifested by retarded upward CO{sub 2} migration as a result of multiple secondary seals, coupled with lateral preferential CO{sub 2} viscous fingering through high-permeability layers. The plume width varies from 9.0 to 13.5 km at 200 years, indicating the slow CO{sub 2} migration and no plume interference between storage sites. On the basin scale, pressure perturbations propagate quickly away from injection centers, interfere after less than 1 year, and eventually reach basin margins. The simulated pressure buildup of 35 bar in the injection area is not expected to affect caprock geomechanical integrity. Moderate pressure buildup is observed in Mt. Simon in northern Illinois. However, its impact on groundwater resources is less than the hydraulic drawdown induced by long-term extensive pumping from overlying freshwater aquifers.

Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Mehnert, E.; Lin, Y.-F.; Zhang, K.

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Measurement and prediction of train-induced vibrations in a full-scale building  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Buildings located close to transportation corridors experience structure-borne sound and vibration due to passing traffic which can be disruptive to operation of sensitive equipment in manufacturing, and medical facilities. Structure-borne sound and vibrations, when high may also be annoying to human occupants in residential, office, and commercial buildings. Hence, there is a growing need for cost effective sound and vibration predictions to evaluate the need for mitigation. The research focuses on in-situ testing of a full-scale building for verification of a previously developed impedance-based methodology and to create a prediction model to study ground-borne vibrations in the test building. A mitigation methodology was also examined using the verified prediction model. Impedance modeling involves the propagation of axial waves through columns combined with the impedance of the intermediate floor slabs. The vibration transmission in the building was characterized and predicted using a single column model with attached floors. Train-induced floor vibrations in an existing four-story building in Boston were measured and compared with predictions of the impedance model. The impedance model predictions closely matched with the measured floor responses. A previously suggested mitigation method was investigated analytically using the impedance model. A thickened floor referred as the blocking floor was used on the lower elevation of the building and the reduction in vibration at the upper floors of the building was compared for various thicknesses of the blocking floor, to study its efficiency. The blocking floor has high impedance and reflects a major portion of the vibration transmitting in the columns preventing it from reaching the upper floors. The blocking floor was found to mitigate the transmission of ground-borne vibrations to upper floors.

Masoud Sanayei; Anish Kayiparambil P.; James A. Moore; Cory R. Brett

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Determination of Mercury and Selenium in Maternal and Neonatal Scalp Hair by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......10 rain at 40% power. After the vials...use of a closed system microwave-assisted...relatively low microwave power selected (40...Berlin. Mercury. In Handbook on the Toxicology...insertion of amalgam restorations.J. Prosthet...consequences. In Handbook of MetaI-Ligand......

Ibrahim B.-A. Razagui; Stephen J. Haswell

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Methods Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methods Development Methods Development EPRI and NETL collaboratively funded a $3-million program under the DOE/ University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) to evaluate, develop, and validate a mercury speciation method for coal-fired produced flue gas. There was a 60/40 percent split of the funding, as required under the JSRP for this two-year effort. The work conducted by the EERC identified the Ontario Hydro Method as the best mercury speciation method. The EERC has validated the Ontario Hydro Method at both pilot- and full-scale levels. Radian International aided in the full-scale validation, with a written protocol of the method being finalized through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

75

Mercury Thermometer Replacement Alternatives Thermometer Description Non-Mercury Non-Mercury Non-Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Thermometer Replacement Alternatives Length Thermometer Description Non-Mercury Non-Mercury Non-Mercury Range / Division VWR-Enviro-Safe® Fisherbrand® Brooklyn Thermometer Company Inc. Total/A #12;Mercury Thermometer Replacement Alternatives Length Thermometer Description Non-Mercury Non

76

Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrochromic window products will appear on the market.market and technology assessments apply conventional life-cycle cost analysis methods to determine the viability of electrochromicmarket assessments have been conducted by industry, but this information remains proprietary. Electrochromic

Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

79

CX-007120: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: Information Collection Request Sampling with Mercury ControlCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1Date: 10/04/2011Location(s): Aurora, Saint Louis County, MissouriOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

80

CX-007121: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: Information Collection Request Sampling with Mercury Control ElementsCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 10/04/2011Location(s): Grand Forks, North DakotaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Communities in the Different Compartments of a Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant Published ahead of print...reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular...full-scale membrane-based water purification processes was examined using...

L. A. Bereschenko; G. H. J. Heilig; M. M. Nederlof; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht; A. J. M. Stams; G. J. W. Euverink

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

84

Full scale experimental analysis of stress states in sleeve repairs of gas pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study discusses the experimental determination of stress states in sleeve repairs of underground gas pipelines. Work was done to define the effects of the reduction of pressure during welding, the load and place of positioning clamps, the length of the repair sleeve, and the use of O'ring-based devices to prevent gas leakage. Tests were carried out in reinforcements, welded with internal pressure equal to 60, 80 and 100% of the service pressure. High stresses were generated in tests carried out with short sleeves and O'rings, and occurred once the sleeve was fully welded and the pipeline pressure re-established. Maximum stresses, up to 270MPa, were generated after about 1min following closing of venting valves, on tests with artificial gas leaks. From the results of these experimental studies, it is concluded that several operative aspects could be optimised, to minimise the stresses in the reinforcements and to reduce the risk of failures.

M.D Chapetti; J.L Otegui; C Manfredi; C.F Martins

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Full-scale rocket motor acoustic tests and comparisons with empirical source models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of the next-generation space flight vehicles has prompted a renewed focus on rocket sound source characterization and near-field propagation modeling. Improved measurements of the noise near the rocket plume are critical for direct determination of the noise environment. They are also crucial in providing inputs to empirical models and in validating computational aeroacoustics models. NASA's SP-8072 acoustic load prediction model (1971) is a widely used method for predicting liftoff acoustics. The method implements two Distributed Source Methods (DSM-1 and DSM-2) which predict the loading as the sum of the radiated field from each source distributed along the plume. In this paper measurements of a static horizontal firing of an Alliant Techsystem (ATK) Orion 50S XLG are analyzed with respect to the historical data that drive the SP-8072 prediction models. Comparisons include total sound power and sound power spectrum and the distribution of the sound power and sound power spectrum along the length of the plume. Scalar pressure measurements yield reasonable agreement between the Orion-50S XLG data and both methods for undeflected plumes in the original SP-8072. However development of these comparisons has prompted significant questions regarding the underlying physics of the two methods.

Michael M. James; Kent L. Gee; Tracianne B. Neilsen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research Highlights: > The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. > The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. > Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the anaerobic) and the use of biofertiliser (digestate) from anaerobic treatment as substitution of chemical fertilisers used in an incineration alternative. Net impact related to GWP from the management chain varies from a contribution of 2.6 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/household and year if incineration is utilised, to an avoidance of 5.6 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/household and year if choosing anaerobic digestion and using produced biogas as car fuel. Impacts are often dependent on processes allocated far from the control of local decision-makers, indicating the importance of a holistic approach and extended collaboration between agents in the waste management chain.

Bernstad, A., E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 124, Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, J. la [Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 124, Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

MERCURY EXCESS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Congress and EPA probe possibility of long-term STORAGE of liquid metal CHERYL HOGUE, C&EN WASHINGTON ... Hazardous waste handlers keep mercury from polluting the environment by reclaiming the liquid metal from scrap electrical switches, thermometers, and fluorescent light bulbs. ...

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

88

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration of Mer-Cure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control ALSTOM Power, Inc. – U.S. Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM-PPL) proposes herein a consortium-based program to demonstrate ALSTOM-PPL's Mer-Cure™ technology – a novel, sorbent-based (Mer-Clean™ ) mercury control technology in coal-fired boilers. The program objective is (i) to demonstrate at a full scale greater than 90% mercury capture based on baseline mercury level (ii) at a cost significantly less than 50% of the $60,000/lb of mercury removed. The proposed full-scale demonstration program is to perform two- to six-month test campaigns in three independent host sites with various boiler configurations over a two-year period. The demonstration program will include a two- to four-week short-term field test followed by two- to six-month long-term demonstration for each of the three selected sites.

89

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an additional coal type. In the project, process stacks in the wallboard plant were sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. In every task, the stack locations sampled included a gypsum dryer and a gypsum calciner. In Tasks 1 and 4 through 7, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. These results and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. The results from the project showed a wide range of percentage mercury losses from the synthetic gypsum feedstocks as measured by the Ontario Hydro method at the process stacks, ranging from 2% to 55% of the mercury in the gypsum feedstock. For the tasks exceeding 10% mercury loss across the wallboard plant, most of the loss occurred across the gypsum calciner. When total wallboard emissions remained below 10%, the primary emission location varied with a much less pronounced difference in emission between the gypsum dryer, calciner and board dryer. For all seven tasks, the majority of the mercury emissions were measured to be in the elemental form (Hg{sup 0}). Overall, the measured mercury loss mass rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 grams of mercury per dry ton of synthetic gypsum processed, or 0.01 to 0.4 pounds of mercury released per million square feet of wallboard produced from synthetic gypsum. The Coal Combustion Product Production and Use Survey from the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) indicate that 7,579,187 short tons of synthetic gypsum were used for wallboard production in 2006. Extrapolating the results of this study to the ACAA industry usage rate, we estimate that mercury releases from wallboard production plants in 2006 ranged between 150 to 3000 pounds for the entire U.S. wallboard industry. With only seven sets of wallboard plant measurements, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about what variables impact the mercury loss percentages across the wallboard plants. One significant o

Jessica Sanderson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Probing Mercury's Partnering Preferences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Preferences Probing Mercury's Partnering Preferences Merc.gif Why it Matters: Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources....

91

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: North Dakota | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

December 6, 2011 December 6, 2011 CX-007498: Categorical Exclusion Determination Subtask 6.1 - Strategic Studies CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 12/06/2011 Location(s): North Dakota Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory October 12, 2011 CX-007108: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy-Saving Opportunities in Water Treatment and Distribution CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10/12/2011 Location(s): Grand Forks, Grand Forks County, North Dakota Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory October 4, 2011 CX-007121: Categorical Exclusion Determination Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: Information Collection Request Sampling with Mercury Control Elements CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 10/04/2011 Location(s): Grand Forks, North Dakota Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

92

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: North Dakota | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

March 22, 2010 March 22, 2010 CX-001298: Categorical Exclusion Determination Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: Information Collection Request Sampling with Mercury Control Elements CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 03/22/2010 Location(s): Grand Forks, North Dakota Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory February 23, 2010 CX-000923: Categorical Exclusion Determination Center for Nanoscale Energy CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 02/23/2010 Location(s): North Dakota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office February 22, 2010 CX-000931: Categorical Exclusion Determination Center for Biomass Utilization CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 02/22/2010 Location(s): North Dakota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

93

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3, 2010 3, 2010 CX-001201: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oak Ridge City Center Technology Demonstration Project CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 03/23/2010 Location(s): Oak Ridge, Tennessee Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office March 23, 2010 CX-001207: Categorical Exclusion Determination Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration for Ancillary Services Using the UltraBattery Technology CX(s) Applied: A9, B1.15, B3.6, B4.6 Date: 03/23/2010 Location(s): Lyon Station, Pennsylvania Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 22, 2010 CX-001298: Categorical Exclusion Determination Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: Information Collection Request Sampling with Mercury Control Elements

94

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Fossil Energy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

24, 2010 24, 2010 CX-001210: Categorical Exclusion Determination Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 03/24/2010 Location(s): Durham, North Carolina Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 22, 2010 CX-001298: Categorical Exclusion Determination Full-Scale Mercury Control Demonstrations: Information Collection Request Sampling with Mercury Control Elements CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 03/22/2010 Location(s): Grand Forks, North Dakota Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 17, 2010 CX-001328: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fischer Tropsch Laboratory CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/17/2010 Location(s): Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

95

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

96

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

97

Magnetoacoustic Effect in Mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Geometric resonances in the ultrasonic attenuations have been observed in high-purity mercury single crystals with longitudinal sound waves propagated along five crystallographic directions at frequencies up to 165 MHz. Of the five, only data for the (110), (110), and (112) directions are reported. The dominant resonance branches have been assigned to calipers of the second-band electron-lens surface, with three major symmetry calipers being obtained. The remainder of the resonance branches have been assigned to orbits on the first-band hole surface. Various breakthrough dimensions of the hole surface were determined from these orbits. The pseudopotential coefficients corresponding to the planes bounding the first Brillouin zone in mercury have been estimated by comparing the geometric resonance data with the results of a fourpseudowave calculation neglecting spin-orbit coupling.

Tommy E. Bogle; Julian B. Coon; Claude G. Grenier

1969-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

DOE-NETLs Mercury R&D Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

U.S. Department of Energy's U.S. Department of Energy's Mercury Control Technology Phase II Field Testing Program Mercury Experts' Conference 2 May 24-25, 2005 Ottawa, Canada Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory SEC Meeting June 2005 Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program Performance/Cost Objectives * Have technologies ready for commercial demonstration by 2007 for all coals * Reduce "uncontrolled" Hg emissions by 50-70% * Reduce cost by 25-50% compared to baseline cost estimates Baseline Costs: $50,000 - $70,000 / lb Hg Removed 2000 Year Cost SEC Meeting June 2005 Stages of Mercury Control Technology Development DOE RD&D Model Lab/Bench/Pilot-Scale Testing Field Testing (Slip Stream/Full Scale) 1993 1999-2000 2007-2010 2012-2015

99

Temporal variation in methanogen communities of four different full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food waste-recycling wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methanogen communities were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing in four different full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food waste-recycling wastewater. Seasonal samples were collected for 2years, and 24 samples were available for microbial analysis from a plug flow thermophilic (PT) digester, a continuously-stirred tank thermophilic (CT) digester, an upflow anerobic sludge blanket mesophilic (UM) digester, and a continuously-stirred tank mesophilic (CM) digester. Methanoculleus, Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter, and Methanosaeta were revealed to be key methanogens in full-scale anaerobic digestion process treating food waste-recycling wastewater. In the PT digester, Methanoculleus was dominant (96.8%). In the CT digester, Methanoculleus was dominant (95.4%) during the first year of operation, but the dominant genus was shifted to Methanothermobacter (98.5%) due to pH increase. In the UM digester, Methanosaeta was dominant (87.2%). In the CM digester, Methanoculleus was constantly dominant (74.8%) except during CM5 when Methanosaeta was dominant (62.6%) due to the low residual acetate concentration (0.1g/L).

Joonyeob Lee; Byungchul Hwang; Taewoan Koo; Seung Gu Shin; Woong Kim; Seokhwan Hwang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest that were varied included SO{sub 3} conditioning on/off, injection concentrations, and distribution spray patterns. The original test plan called for parametric testing of NORIT FGD carbon at 1, 3, and 10 lbs/MMacf. These injection concentrations were estimated based on results from the Pleasant Prairie tests that showed no additional mercury removal when injection concentrations were increased above 10 lbs/MMacf. The Brayton Point parametric test data indicated that higher injection concentrations would achieve higher removal efficiencies and should be tested. The test plan was altered to include testing at 20 lbs/MMacf. The first test at this higher rate showed very high removal across the second ESP (>80%). Unlike the ''ceiling'' phenomenon witnessed at Pleasant Prairie, increasing sorbent injection concentration resulted in further capture of vapor-phase mercury. The final phase of field-testing was a 10-day period of continuous injection of NORIT FGD carbon. During the first five days, the injection concentration was held at 10 lbs/MMacf, followed by nominally five days of testing at an injection concentration of 20 lbs/MMacf. The mercury removal, as measured by the semi-continuous emission monitors (S-CEM), varied between 78% and 95% during the 10 lbs/MMacf period and increased to >97% when the injection concentration was increased to 20 lbs/MMacf. During the long-term testing period, mercury measurements following EPA's draft Ontario Hydro method were conducted by TRC Environmental Corporation at both 10 and 20 lbs/MMacf test conditions. The Ontario Hydro data showed that the particulate mercury removal was similar between the two conditions of 10 or 20 lbs/MMacf and removal efficiencies were greater than 99%. Elemental mercury was not detected in any samples, so no conclusions as to its removal can be drawn. Removal of oxidized mercury, on the other hand, increased from 68% to 93% with the higher injection concentration. These removal rates agreed well with the S-CEM results.

Michael D. Durham

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

Mercury contamination extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for presentation to the IESNA 2013 Annual Conference, Huntington Beach, CA, for presentation to the IESNA 2013 Annual Conference, Huntington Beach, CA, October 26-29, 2013 and for publication in Leukos, the journal of the IESNA. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed Anothai Thanachareonkit, Eleanor S. Lee, Andrew McNeil Building Technologies and Urban Systems Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mailstop 90-3111, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Abstract Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing

103

Euler-Euler simulation of wood chip combustion on a grate - effect of fuel moisture content and full scale application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, it is common practice to perform CFD calculations for optimisation purposes of technical biomass combustion applications. A numerical model for wood chip combustion on grate firing arrangements has been developed. The model is based on an Euler-Euler approach, enabling a detailed multiphase description of the combustion chamber in terms of flow, turbulence and heat transfer. The model explicitly accounts for interactions between bed and freeboard region and comprises a global description of the whole incineration process associated with wood combustion. For validation purposes, the effect of fuel moisture content in a 240 kWth test facility has been observed experimentally and the results are opposed to the model predictions. Additionally, measurements within a 58 MWth full scale grate firing system have been conducted and the scalability of the numerical model towards industrial applications is investigated.

D. Kurz; U. Schnell; G. Scheffknecht

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID/ICP/MS) performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury calibrators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one calibrator with another at specific concentrations and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define calibrator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. In 2007 WRI developed and conducted a series of simplified qualification experiments to determine actual calibrator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol.

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

106

Mercury and Fish  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury and Fish Mercury and Fish Name: donna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: how does mercury get into fish in rivers. what is the ecological process involved which could produce toxic levels of mercury in fish and eventually get into humans? Replies: Hi Donna! Nowadays mercury or its compounds are used at a high scale in many industries as the manufacture of chemicals, paints, household itens, pesticides and fungicides. These products can contaminate humans (and mamals) by direct contact, ingestion or inhalation. Besides the air can become contaminated also, and since mercury compounds produce harmful effects in body tissues and functions, that pollution is very dangerous. Now for your question: Efluent wastes containing mercury in various forms sometimes are dropped in sea water or in rivers or lakes. There the mercury may be converted by bacteria, that are in the muddy sediments, into organic mercurial compounds particularly the highly toxic alkyl mercurials ( methyl and di-methyl mercury), which may in turn be concentrated by the fishes and other aquatic forms of life that are used as food by men. The fishes dont seem to be affected but they are able to concentrate mercury in high poisoning levels, and if human beings, mamals or birds eat these containing mercury fishes, algae, crabs or oysters they will be contaminated and poisoned.

107

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

110

MERCURY SPECIATION SAMPLING AT NEW CENTURY ENERGY'S VALMONT STATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the ''Mercury Study Report to Congress'' and ''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units''. The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam electric generating units. Although these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that the EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. Therefore, it was concluded that mercury controls at some point may be necessary. EPA also indicated that additional research/information was necessary before any definitive statement could be made. In an effort to determine the amount and types of mercury being emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired power plants, EPA in late 1998 issued an information collection request (ICR) that required all coal-fired power plants to analyze their coal and submit the results to EPA on a quarterly basis. In addition, about 85 power stations were required to measure the speciated mercury concentration in the flue gas. These plants were selected on the basis of plant configuration and coal type. The Valmont Station owned and operated by New Century Energy in Boulder, Colorado, was selected for detailed mercury speciation of the flue gas as part of the ICR process. New Century Energy, in a tailored collaboration with EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy, contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to do a study evaluating the behavior of mercury at the Valmont Station. The activities conducted at the Valmont Station by the EERC not only included the sampling needed to meet the requirements of the ICR, but involved a much more extensive mercury research program. The following objectives for the sampling at New Century Energy's Valmont Station were accomplished: (1) Successfully complete all of the mercury sampling and reporting requirements of the ICR. (2) Determine the variability in mercury concentrations at the stack using mercury continuous emission monitors (CEMs). (3) Calculate mercury mass balances and emission rates. (4) Determine the mercury concentration in the fly ash as a function of particle size. (5) Determine the impact of a fabric filter on mercury emissions for a western bituminous coal.

Dennis L. Laudal

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer drilling tests, as well as single impact tests, have been designed and executed. Both Berea sandstone and Mancos shale samples are used. In single impact tests, three impacts are sequentially loaded at the same rock location to investigate rock response to repetitive loadings. The crater depth and width are measured as well as the displacement and force in the rod and the force in the rock. Various pressure differences across the rock-indentor interface (i.e. bore pressure minus pore pressure) are used to investigate the pressure effect on rock penetration. For hammer drilling tests, an industrial fluid hammer is used to drill under both underbalanced and overbalanced conditions. Besides calibrating the modeling tool, the data and cuttings collected from the tests indicate several other important applications. For example, different rock penetrations during single impact tests may reveal why a fluid hammer behaves differently with diverse rock types and under various pressure conditions at the hole bottom. On the other hand, the shape of the cuttings from fluid hammer tests, comparing to those from traditional rotary drilling methods, may help to identify the dominant failure mechanism that percussion drilling relies on. If so, encouraging such a failure mechanism may improve hammer performance. The project is summarized in this report. Instead of compiling the information contained in the previous quarterly or other technical reports, this report focuses on the descriptions of tasks, findings, and conclusions, as well as the efforts on promoting percussion drilling technologies to industries including site visits, presentations, and publications. As a part of the final deliveries, the 3D numerical model for rock mechanics is also attached.

Michael S. Bruno

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Numerical Modelling of Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Full-Scale Tangentially-Fired Pulverised Coal Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study to investigate Victorian brown coal combustion in a 550 MW utility boiler under the air-fired (standard) and three oxy-fuel-fired cases. The standard case was modelled based on the real operating conditions of Loy Yang A power plant located in the state of Victoria, Australia. A level of confidence of the present CFD model was achieved validating four parameters of the standard combustion case, as well as the previous preliminary CFD studies which were conducted on a lab-scale (100kW) unit firing lignite and propane under oxy-fuel-fired scenarios. The oxy-fuel combustion cases are known as OF25 (25vol. % O2 concentration), OF27 (27vol. % O2 concentration), and OF29 (29vol. % O2 concentration). The predictions of OF29 combustion case were considerably similar to the standard firing results in terms of gas temperature levels and radiative heat transfer compared with OF25 and OF27 combustion scenarios. This similarity was because of increasing the residence time of pulverised coal (PC) in the combustion zone and O2 concentration in feed oxidizer gases. Furthermore, a significant increase in the CO2 concentrations and a noticeable decrease in the nitric oxides (NOx) formation were noted under all oxy-fuel combustion conditions. This numerical study of oxy-fuel combustion in a full-scale tangentially-fired PC boiler is important prior to its execution in real-life power plants.

Audai Hussein Al-Abbas; Jamal Naser; David Dodds; Aaron Blicblau

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Full scale field test of the in situ air stripping process at the Savannah River integrated demonstration test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. This demonstration was performed as Phase I of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration of sites contaminated with organic contaminants. The demonstration utilized two directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting in situ air stripping process was designed to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The 139 day long test successfully removed volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using the two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 300 ft (90m) long and 165 ft (50m) deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 175 ft (53m) long and 75 ft (23m) deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. Pretest and posttest characterization data and monitoring data during the demonstration were collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restoration that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems. Contaminant concentration data and microbiological monitoring data are summarized in this report; the characterization data and geophysical monitoring data are documented in a series of related project reports.

Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Eddy, C.A.

1991-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

114

NETL: News Release - We Energies Begins Operational Phase of Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7, 2006 7, 2006 We Energies Begins Operational Phase of Mercury Control Test in Michigan Coal-Fired Power Plant TOXECON(tm) Process Could Achieve 90 Percent Mercury Removal Washington, DC - The nation's first full-scale test of the patented TOXECON(tm) pollution control process began operations at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant located in Marquette, MI. The $52.9 million TOXECON(tm) project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2003 as part of the President's Clean Coal Power Initiative. Under their agreement with DOE, We Energies is designing, installing, operating and evaluating the TOXECON(tm) process as an integrated system to control emissions of mercury, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides during the operations of its Presque Isle plant.

115

Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

Jessica Marshall Sanderson

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

CX-001459: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001459: Categorical Exclusion Determination Air Quality VIII: An International Conference on Carbon Management, Mercury, Trace Elements,...

118

Source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury deposition come from?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury of the Mercury Working Group, Office of Air Quality, Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) April 21, 2005 #12;2 For mercury, how important is atmospheric deposition relative to other loading

119

Mercury Calibration System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on actual capabilities of the current calibration technology. As part of the current effort, WRI worked with Thermo Fisher elemental mercury calibrator units to conduct qualification experiments to demonstrate their performance characteristics under a variety of conditions and to demonstrate that they qualify for use in the CEM calibration program. Monitoring of speciated mercury is another concern of this research. The mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are comprised of both elemental and oxidized mercury. Current CEM analyzers are designed to measure elemental mercury only. Oxidized mercury must first be converted to elemental mercury prior to entering the analyzer inlet in order to be measured. CEM systems must demonstrate the ability to measure both elemental and oxidized mercury. This requires the use of oxidized mercury generators with an efficient conversion of the oxidized mercury to elemental mercury. There are currently two basic types of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) generators used for this purpose. One is an evaporative HgCl{sub 2} generator, which produces gas standards of known concentration by vaporization of aqueous HgCl{sub 2} solutions and quantitative mixing with a diluent carrier gas. The other is a device that converts the output from an elemental Hg generator to HgCl{sub 2} by means of a chemical reaction with chlorine gas. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer system involves reaction of elemental mercury vapor with chlorine gas at an elevated temperature. The draft interim protocol for oxidized mercury units involving reaction with chlorine gas requires the vendors to demonstrate high efficiency of oxidation of an elemental mercury stream from an elemental mercury vapor generator. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer unit is designed to operate at the power plant stack at the probe outlet. Following oxidation of elemental mercury from reaction with chlorine gas, a high temperature module reduces the mercuric chloride back to elemental mercury. WRI conducted work with a custom laboratory configured stand-alone oxidized mercury generator unit prov

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

Mercury Detection with Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R. J. Warmack, Detection of mercury vapor using resonatingA surface acoustic wave mercury vapor sensor, Ieee Trans.N. E. Selin, Integrating mercury science and policy in the

Crosby, Jeffrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

123

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to <25%, even at the same sorbent injection concentration. Other tests examined the impacts of fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

Michael D. Durham

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mercury Chamber Considerations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Chamber Considerations V. Graves IDS-NF Target Studies July 2011 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Mercury Chamber Considerations, July 2011 Flow Loop Review · 1 cm dia nozzle, 20 m/s jet requires 1.57 liter/sec mercury flow (94.2 liter/min, 24.9 gpm). · MERIT experiment

McDonald, Kirk

125

NETL: Emissions Characterization - Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions in Coal Power Plant Plumes: Pleasant Prairie Plant Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions in Coal Power Plant Plumes: Pleasant Prairie Plant Under DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41724, EPRI, in collaboration with Frontier Geosciences and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), will perform precise in-stack and in-plume sampling of mercury emitted from the stack of WE Energies' Pleasant Prairie coal-fired power plant near Kenosha, Wisconsin. The overall objective of the project is to clarify the role, rates and end result of chemical transformations that may occur to mercury that has been emitted from elevated stacks of coal-fired electric power plants. This information is critical in determining the role of coal-fired plants in mercury deposition and in developing cost-effective, environmentally sound policies and strategies for reducing the adverse environmental effects of mercury.

126

Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs Mercury toxicity generates environmental concerns in diverse aquatic systems because methylmercury enters the water column in diverse ways then biomagnifies through food webs. At the apex of many freshwater food webs, piscivorous fish can then extend that trophic transfer and potential for neurotoxicity to wildlife and humans. Mining activities, particularly those associated with the San Francisco Bay region, can generate both point and non-point mercury sources. Replicate XANES analyses on largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass from Guadalupe Reservoir (GUA), California and Lahontan Reservoir (LAH), Nevada, were performed to determine predominant chemical species of mercury accumulated by high-trophic-level piscivores that are exposed to elevated mercury in both solution and particulate phases in the water column.

127

Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult-or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult, United States of America Abstract Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects

Swaddle, John

128

Mercury and Sulfur Dynamics in the SPRUCE Experiment Brandy Toner1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury and Sulfur Dynamics in the SPRUCE Experiment Brandy Toner1 , Randy Kolka2 , Steve Sebestyen will lead studies assessing the influence of SPRUCE treatments on the cycling of THg, MeHg and S. Mercury. Mercury levels are determined by complex interactions between deposition, chemical transformation

129

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alstom Power Inc. has conducted a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-04NT42306) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. Mer-Cure{trademark} utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. Mer-Cure{trademark} is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. This full-scale demonstration program was comprised of three seven-week long test campaigns at three host sites including PacifiCorp's 240-MW{sub e} Dave Johnston Unit No.3 burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Basin Electric's 220-MW{sub e} Leland Olds Unit No.1 burning a North Dakota lignite, and Reliant Energy's 170-MW{sub e} Portland Unit No.1 burning an Eastern bituminous coal. All three boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators. The goals for this Round 2 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results for all three host sites indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90%. The estimated mercury removal costs were 25-92% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The estimated costs for control, at sorbent cost of $1.25 to $2.00/lb respectively, are as follows: (1) Dave Johnston Unit No.3--$2,650 to $4,328/lb Hg removed (92.8% less than $60k/lb); (2) Leland Olds Unit No.1--$8,680 to $13,860/lb Hg removed (76.7% less than $60k/lb); and (3) Portland Unit No.1--$28,540 to $45,065/lb Hg removed (24.9% less than $60k/lb). In summary, the results from demonstration testing at all three host sites show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. Mercury removal performance4 of greater than 90% reduction was above the 50-70% reduction goal, and mercury removal cost of 25-92% lower than the benchmark was above the 25 to 50% cost reduction goal.

Shin Kang; Robert Schrecengost

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

Full-scale study of a building equipped with phase change material wallboards and a multi-layer rack latent heat thermal energy store system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Full-scale study of a building equipped with phase change material wallboards and a multi.borderon@entpe.fr SUMMARY An office building in Lyon, France has been studied. Phase Change Material (PCM) has been as sensible energy. As the temperature increases, the material changes phase from a solid to a liquid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Dynamic duo captures mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is strong evidence that the combination of wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can prove a viable and formidable combination for knocking out mercury. This article analyzes the capabilities and limitations of the SCR-FGD combination for mercury compliance, including applicability to different types of coal and issues with scrubber by-products. 3 figs.

Senior, C.; Adams, B. [Reaction Engineering International (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Mercury in the environment  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

135

DOE Mercury Control Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Research Mercury Control Research Air Quality III: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter September 9-12, 2002 Rita A. Bajura, Director National Energy Technology Laboratory www.netl.doe.gov 169330 RAB 09/09/02 2 Potential Mercury Regulations MACT Standards * Likely high levels of Hg reduction * Compliance: 2007 Clean Power Act of 2001 * 4-contaminant control * 90% Hg reduction by 2007 Clear Skies Act of 2002 * 3-contaminant control * 46% Hg reduction by 2010 * 70% Hg reduction by 2018 * Hg emission trading President Bush Announcing Clear Skies Initiative February 14, 2002 169330 RAB 09/09/02 3 Uncertainties Mercury Control Technologies * Balance-of-plant impacts * By-product use and disposal * Capture effectiveness with low-rank coals * Confidence of performance 169330 RAB 09/09/02 4

136

Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filter Testing in Support of the Salt Waste Processing Facility Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parsons and its team members General Atomics and Energy Solutions conducted a series of tests to assess the constructability and performance of the Cross-Flow Filter (CFF) system specified for the Department of Energy (DOE) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The testing determined the optimum flow rates, operating pressures, filtrate-flow control techniques, and cycle timing for filter back pulse and chemical cleaning. Results have verified the design assumptions made and have confirmed the suitability of cross-flow filtration for use in the SWPF. In conclusion: The CFF Test Program demonstrated that the SWPF CFF system could be successfully fabricated, that the SWPF CFF design assumptions were conservative with respect to filter performance and provided useful information on operational parameters and techniques. The filter system demonstrated performance in excess of expectations. (authors)

Stephens, A.B.; Gallego, R.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Singer, S.A.; Swanson, B.L. [Energy Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States); Bartling, K. [Parsons, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Biofiltration of asphalt emissions: Full-scale operation treating off-gases from polymer-modified asphalt production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to complaints from nearby residents, a biofilter was designed, installed, and tested for treating odors in one of three odorous emission streams from an asphalt plant producing polymer-modified asphalt. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) was determined to be the most prevalent gaseous reduced sulfur compound and was detected in the emission stream only when polymer material was being added to raw asphalt. Emission stream H{sub 2}S concentrations were quite variable, ranging from 16 to approximately 30,000 ppm (v/v) and considered the likely compound contributing most to the plant's odor complaints. The biofilter was effective in controlling odor from the production process and removed an overall average of 65% of the H{sub 2}S during polymer addition, and for H{sub 2}S concentrations less than 400 ppmv, removal averaged 98%. These removal efficiencies reflect data from the biofilter operating at 2.5-minute empty bed residence time in 1996 and a 6.1-minute empty bed residence time in 1997. The biofilter's bed became increasingly acidified during the plant's 1997 operating season producing a pH gradient through the bed ranging from a high of 6.6 to a low of 3.1. The bed medium moisture content remained constant at about 60% (wet weight basis), but changes were observed in the water potential: no correlation to performance was determined. Changes in the microbial community reflected the bed acidification trend, with acidophiles becoming generally more numerous in the bed's deeper portions and in the mid to late season when the bed was most acidified. Bed acidification did not impact the biofilter's H{sub 2}S removal efficiency.

Cook, L.L.; Gostomski, P.A.; Apel, W.A.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Mercury Jet Studies Tristan Davenne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Jet Studies Tristan Davenne Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Joint UKNF, INO, UKIERI meeting mercury target and reported a radial velocity at surface of mercury jet due to proton beam is 36m/s #12;Numerical simulation of Sievers & Pugnat Result Click on image above to watch video of 2cm mercury target

McDonald, Kirk

139

Mercury Effects, Sources and Control Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Effects, Sources and Control Measures Prepared by Alan B. Jones, Brooks Rand, Ltd., Seattle ................................................................................................................................1 MERCURY SOURCES....................................................................................................................................................................................8 Mercury dumping from naval vessels

140

Mercury Sensing with Optically Responsive Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We assume that the mass of mercury adsorbed at saturation istactics, nanoparticle based mercury sensing should advancemost sensitive method for mercury sensing. References "1!

James, Jay Zachary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Biofiltration of Asphalt Emissions: Full-scale Operation Treating Off-gases from Polymer-modified Asphalt Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to complaints from nearby residents, a biofilter was designed, installed, and tested for treating odors in one of three odorous emission streams from an asphalt plant producing polymer-modified asphalt. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was determined to be the most prevalent gaseous reduced sulfur compound and was detected in the emission stream only when polymer material was being added to raw asphalt. Emission stream H2S concentrations we requite variable, ranging from 16 to approximately 30,000 ppm (v/v) and considered the likely compound contributing most to the plant's odor complaints. The biofilter was effective in controlling odor from the production process and removed an overall average of 65% of the H2S during polymer addition, and for H2S concentrations less than 400 ppmv, re m oval averaged 98%. These removal efficiencies reflect data from the biofilter operating at 2.5-minute empty bed residence time in 1996 and a 6.1-minute empty bed residence time in 1997. The biofilter's bed became increasingly acidified during the plant's 1997 operating season producing a pH gradient through the bed ranging from a high of 6.6 to a low of 3.1. The bed medium moisture content remained constant at about 60% (wet weight basis), but changes were observed in the water potential: no correlation to performance was determined. Changes in the microbial community reflected the bed acidification trend, with acidophiles becoming gene rally more numerous in the bed's deeper portions and in the mid to late season when the bed was most acidified. Bed acidification did not impact the biofilter's H2S removal efficiency. Nearby residents we resurveyed and roughly half of the respondents indicated that the odor conditions had improved, one-third felt odor conditions were unchanged and the remaining 15% felt odor conditions were worse despite the fact that only one of three of the plant's odorous emission streams were treated by the biofilter. Plans are to implement biofiltration for odor control at all of the facility's emission points.

Cook, Lawrence Leslie; Apel, William Arnold; Gostomski, P. A.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results from the grant entitled, ???¢????????Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.???¢??????? The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

Mori, Warren, B.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL PROPERTIES OF STRIPA GRANITE FROM TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE FULL-SCALE HEATER EXPERIMENTS: METHOD AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed temperatures for the Lulea University pilot heaterPower room '--_I, I\\'~ \\,1 Lulea drift I I I I I I I I Ithe temperature data from the LUlea University pilot heater

Jeffry, J.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1991-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

146

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

149

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

150

Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pritchard, S. [Cormtech Inc. (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Mercury Risk Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITIONS *T.M. Sullivan 1 , F.D. Lipfert 2 , S.M. Morris 2 , and S. Renninger 3 1 Building 830, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 2 Private Consultants 3 Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has announced plans to regulate emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be placed on a nationwide or a plant-specific basis. Before a nationwide limit is selected, it must be demonstrated that local deposition of mercury from coal-fired power plants does not impose an excessive local health risk. The principal health

152

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Utility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation, will test an advanced halgenated activated carbon to determine the mercury removal performance and relative costs of sorbent injection for advanced sorbent materials in large-scale field trials of a variety of combinations of coal-type and utility plant-configuration. These include one site (Detroit Edison's St. Clair Station) with a cold-side ESP using subbituminous coal, or blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal, and one site (Duke Energy's Buck Plant) with a hot-side ESP which burns a bituminous coal. Related Papers and Publications: Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period April 1 - October 31, 2004 [PDF-2275KB] Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period of October 2003 - March 2004 [PDF-1108KB]

153

INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in upper trophic level fish and other biota; this is a key environmental endpoint since reducing mercury concen

Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

NETL: Mercury Emissions Inactive Mercury Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Completed Mercury Projects Completed Mercury Projects View specific project information by clicking the state of interest on the map. Clickable U.S. Map ALABAMA Characterizing Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants Southern Research Institute The objective of this contract is to perform sampling and analysis of air toxic emissions at commercial coal-fired power plants in order to collect data that the EPA will use in their Congressionally mandated report on Hazardous Air Pollutants from Electric Utilities. CALIFORNIA Assessment of Toxic Emissions from a Coal-Fired Power Plant Utilizing an ESP Energy & Environmental Research Corporation – CA The overall objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions of two coal-fired electric utility power plants. The power plant that was assessed for toxic emissions during Phase I was American Electric Power Service Corporation's Cardinal Station Unit 1.

155

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

156

A Comparison of Full-Scale Experimental Measurements and Computational Predictions of the Transom-Stern Wave of the R/V Athena I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Full-scale experimental measurements and numerical predictions of the wave-elevation topology behind a transom-sterned vessel, the R/V Athena I, are compared and assessed in this paper. The mean height, surface roughness (RMS), and spectra of the breaking stern-waves were measured in-situ by a LIDAR sensor over a range of ship speeds covering both wet- and dry-transom operating conditions. Numerical predictions for this data set from two Office of Naval Research (ONR) supported naval-design codes, NFA and CFDship-Iowa-V.4, have been performed. Initial comparisons of the LIDAR data to the numerical predictions at 5.4 m/s (10.5 kts), a wet-transom condition, are presented. This work represents an ongoing effort on behalf of the ONR Ship Wave Breaking and Bubble Wake program, to assess, validate, and improve the capability of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict full-scale ship-generated wave fields.

Wyatt, Donald C; Taylor, Genevieve L; Terrill, Eric J; Xing, Tao; Bhushan, Shanti; O'Shea, Thomas T; Dommermuth, Douglas G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40 mils for all of Solar's advanced backside-cooled combustor liners (Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Mars 100, Taurus 70,

Price, Jeffrey

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

158

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Mercury-Related Materials Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury-Related Materials Studies Van Graves IDS NF Ph M tiIDS-NF Phone Meeting Jan 26, 2010 #12 Evaluation of Cavitation Resistance of Type 316LN Stainless Steel in Mercury Using a Vibratory Horn," J. Nucl Pump Impeller Materials for Mercury Service at the Spallation Neutron Source," Oak Ridge National

McDonald, Kirk

160

Bioaccumulation of Mercury in Sharks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioaccumulation of Mercury in Sharks Part 2 a Using a subset of data collected on RJD shark research trips, you will analyze the mercury levels found in the Florida Sharks we catch. Based on your analysis, you will be able to conclude which species have the highest levels of mercury contamination

Miami, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Bioaccumulation of Mercury in Sharks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resources: EPA General Info on Mercury - http://www.epa.gov/mercury/about.htm FDA Mercury Levels in Seafood - http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ Seafood/ucm092041/en/index.html Monterey Bay Aquarium Sustainable Seafood Guide - http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/Seafood

Miami, University of

162

Gas Mileage of 1994 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Mercury Vehicles 4 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 20 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 22 City 24 Combined 28 Highway 1994 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Cougar 17 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1994 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Cougar 16 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1994 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Grand Marquis 16

163

Gas Mileage of 1985 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Mercury Vehicles 5 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 19 City 20 Combined 23 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Manual 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 27 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 17 City 18 Combined 20 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 15 City 17 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 15 City 17 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 18 City

164

Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Oxidation of Mercury Across  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels The objective of the proposed research is to assess the potential for the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalysts in a coal fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. Results from the project will contribute to a greater understanding of mercury behavior across SCR catalysts. Additional tasks include: review existing pilot and field data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts and propose a mechanism for mercury oxidation and create a simple computer model for mercury oxidation based on the hypothetical mechanism. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - December 31, 2004 [PDF-532KB]

166

Water displacement mercury pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

168

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

169

It's Elemental - The Element Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gold Gold Previous Element (Gold) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Thallium) Thallium The Element Mercury [Click for Isotope Data] 80 Hg Mercury 200.59 Atomic Number: 80 Atomic Weight: 200.59 Melting Point: 234.32 K (-38.83°C or -37.89°F) Boiling Point: 629.88 K (356.73°C or 674.11°F) Density: 13.5336 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Liquid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 12 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the planet Mercury. Mercury's chemical symbol comes from the Greek word hydrargyrum, which means "liquid silver." Say what? Mercury is pronounced as MER-kyoo-ree. History and Uses: Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Hindus and has been found in 3500 year old Egyptian tombs. Mercury is not usually found free in nature

170

The Origin of the Mercury Bands at 2480A  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The group of eight mercury bands near 2480A was photographed under varied excitation conditions with the purpose of determining their origin. The source was a discharge through mercury vapor produced in a quartz tube through external electrodes by a low-voltage Tesla coil. Five tubes containing distilled mercury and commercial mercury arc lamp showed this group of bands. These bands were weakened by heat along with known mercury bands. The origin is undoubtedly some form of mercury molecule. The most probable forms are Hg2+ and Hg2. Five observations favor Hg2+ over Hg2. (1) These bands have never been observed in fluorescence. (2) The 2476 band is more intense than the 2345 Hg2 band under strong field excitation but weaker than 2345 under low field excitation. (3) No other bands with properties like those of the 2480 group have been observed in the mercury spectrum and Rayleigh has shown that these bands do not occur in absorption. (4) The bands in this group may be classified as sequences v?-v??=0123, and a lower limit for D of 0.3 volts estimated. (5) In the v?-v??=0 sequence, emission is observed from state v?=41 indicating molecules with very high vibrational energy. This energy may be supplied by the electric field if the emitter is an ion but not if it is a neutral molecule.

J. Gibson Winans

1932-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Gas Mileage of 1986 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 Mercury Vehicles 6 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1986 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 18 City 20 Combined 23 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Manual 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 17 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri 15 City 18 Combined 24 Highway 1986 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1986 Mercury Capri View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1986 Mercury Cougar 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline

172

Gas Mileage of 1991 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 Mercury Vehicles 1 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1991 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Capri 21 City 22 Combined 24 Highway 1991 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Capri View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1991 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Capri 22 City 24 Combined 28 Highway 1991 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Cougar 17 City 20 Combined 24 Highway 1991 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1991 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 1991 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

173

Mercury control in 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C. [ADA Environmental Solutions, Littleton, CO (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

CX-003037: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-003037: Categorical Exclusion Determination Mercury Removal from Clean Coal Processing Air Stream CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07132010 Location(s): Butte,...

175

Evaluation of Selective Ion Exchange Resins for Removal of Mercury from the H-Area Water Treatment Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigated the ability of seven ion exchange (IX) resins, some of which were mercury specific, to remove mercury in H-Area WTU waters from three sources (Reverse Osmosis (RO) Feed, RO Permeate from Train A, and a mercury ''hot spot'' extraction well HEX 18). Seven ion exchange resins, including ResinTech CG8 and Dowex 21K (the cation and anion exchange resins currently used at the H-Area WTU) were screened against five alternative ion exchange materials plus an experimental blank. Mercury decontamination factors (DFs), mercury breakthrough, and post-test contaminant concentrations of IX resins were determined for each IX material tested.

Serkiz, S.M.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

176

Gas Mileage of 2002 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Mercury Vehicles 2 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2002 Mercury Cougar 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 24 Combined 31 Highway 2002 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Mercury Cougar 18 City 21 Combined 26 Highway 2002 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Mercury Cougar 18 City 21 Combined 27 Highway 2002 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 2002 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 6 cyl, 4.0 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2002 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 14 City

177

Gas Mileage of 1989 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 Mercury Vehicles 9 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1989 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1989 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 20 Combined 25 Highway 1989 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1989 Mercury Cougar 15 City 17 Combined 21 Highway 1989 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Manual 5-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1989 Mercury Cougar 15 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 1989 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1989 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 1989 Mercury Grand Marquis Wagon 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1989 Mercury Grand Marquis Wagon 15

178

Gas Mileage of 1993 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Mercury Vehicles 3 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1993 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1993 Mercury Capri 20 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 1993 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1993 Mercury Capri View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1993 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1993 Mercury Capri View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 22 City 24 Combined 28 Highway 1993 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1993 Mercury Cougar 17 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1993 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1993 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15

179

Gas Mileage of 2008 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 Mercury Vehicles 8 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2008 Mercury Grand Marquis FFV 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gas or E85 Compare 2008 Mercury Grand Marquis FFV Gas 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway E85 11 City 13 Combined 16 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD 19 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD 6 cyl, 3.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner 4WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 19 Combined 22 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD 20 City 22 Combined 26 Highway 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD 6 cyl, 3.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2008 Mercury Mariner FWD

180

Gas Mileage of 1987 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Mercury Vehicles 7 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1987 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Cougar 17 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1987 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1987 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1987 Mercury Grand Marquis Wagon 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Grand Marquis Wagon 16 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1987 Mercury Lynx 4 cyl, 1.9 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1987 Mercury Lynx 23

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Gas Mileage of 1990 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

90 Mercury Vehicles 90 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1990 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1990 Mercury Cougar 15 City 18 Combined 21 Highway 1990 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1990 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 20 Combined 24 Highway 1990 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Manual 5-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 1990 Mercury Cougar 15 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 1990 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1990 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 1990 Mercury Grand Marquis Wagon 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1990 Mercury Grand Marquis Wagon 15

182

Biosequence Similarity Search on the Mercury System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biosequence Similarity Search on the Mercury System Praveen Krishnamurthy, Jeremy Buhler, Roger Chamberlain, Mark Franklin, Kwame Gyang, and Joseph Lancaster, "Biosequence Similarity Search on the Mercury on the Mercury System Praveen Krishnamurthy, Jeremy Buhler, Roger Chamberlain, Mark Franklin, Kwame Gyang

Chamberlain, Roger

183

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

Greenhalgh, W.O.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

185

Mercury Strategic Plan Outfall 200 Mercury Treatment Facility  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Partial LMR * Alpha-5 LMR & Bldg Characterization * S&M mercury removal * Hg waterfishsediment studies * Technology Development Plan * Debris treatability study * Fate and...

186

The free precession and libration of Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An analysis based on the direct torque equations including tidal dissipation and a viscous core-mantle coupling is used to determine the damping time scales of O(10^5) years for free precession of the spin about the Cassini state and free libration in longitude for Mercury. The core-mantle coupling dominates the damping over the tides by one to two orders of magnitude for the plausible parameters chosen. The short damping times compared with the age of the solar system means we must find recent or on-going excitation mechanisms if such free motions are found by the current radar experiments or the future measurement by the MESSENGER and BepiColombo spacecraft that will orbit Mercury. We also show that the average precession rate is increased by about 30% over that obtained from the traditional precession constant because of a spin-orbit resonance induced contribution by the C_{22} term in the expansion of the gravitational field. The C_{22} contribution also causes the path of the spin during the precession to be slightly elliptical with a variation in the precession rate that is a maximum when the obliquity is a minimum. An observable free precession will compromise the determination of obliquity of the Cassini state and hence of C/MR^2 for Mercury, but a detected free libration will not compromise the determination of the forced libration amplitude and thus the verification of a liquid core

S. J. Peale

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

187

Neutrino Factory Mercury Flow Loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrino Factory Mercury Flow Loop V. GravesV. Graves C. Caldwell IDS-NF Videoconference March 9, 2010 #12;Flow Loop Review · 1 cm dia nozzle, 20 m/s jet requires 1.57 liter/sec mercury flow (94 2 liter/min 24 9 gpm)mercury flow (94.2 liter/min, 24.9 gpm). · MERIT experiment showed that a pump

McDonald, Kirk

188

Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as exploration techniques,...

189

Permitted Mercury Storage Facility Notifications | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services Waste Management Waste Disposition Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury is in the Planning Stages Permitted Mercury Storage Facility...

190

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a review of the available data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts from small, laboratory-scale experiments, pilot-scale slipstream reactors and full-scale power plants was carried out. Data from small-scale reactors obtained with both simulated flue gas and actual coal combustion flue gas demonstrated the importance of temperature, ammonia, space velocity and chlorine on mercury oxidation across SCR catalyst. SCR catalysts are, under certain circumstances, capable of driving mercury speciation toward the gas-phase equilibrium values at SCR temperatures. Evidence suggests that mercury does not always reach equilibrium at the outlet. There may be other factors that become apparent as more data become available.

Constance Senior

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Apparatus for mercury refinement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method for mercury refinement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

193

Mercury Analysis of Acid- and Alkaline-Reduced Biological Samples: Identification of meta-Cinnabar as the Major Biotransformed Compound in Algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and that collecting larger samples minimizes...retention factor [Rf ] 1.0) derivatized...Chromosorb P, followed by thermal desorption. The...of mercury by the plasma membrane of Thiobacillus...Increasing rates of atmospheric mercury deposition...determination of mercury by non-flame atomic absorption...

David Kelly; Kenneth Budd; Daniel D. Lefebvre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Gas Mileage of 2000 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2000 Mercury Vehicles 2000 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2000 Mercury Cougar 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Mercury Cougar 21 City 25 Combined 31 Highway 2000 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 18 City 21 Combined 26 Highway 2000 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 18 City 21 Combined 26 Highway 2000 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2000 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 2000 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 6 cyl, 4.0 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline

197

Gas Mileage of 2004 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Mercury Vehicles 4 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2004 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2004 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 2004 Mercury Marauder 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Premium Gasoline Compare 2004 Mercury Marauder View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 17 Combined 21 Highway 2004 Mercury Monterey Wagon FWD 6 cyl, 4.2 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2004 Mercury Monterey Wagon FWD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 17 Combined 21 Highway 2004 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2004 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 13 City 15 Combined 18 Highway 2004 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 6 cyl, 4.0 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline

198

Gas Mileage of 1997 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Mercury Vehicles 7 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1997 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1997 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1997 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1997 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1997 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 12 City 14 Combined 17 Highway 1997 Mercury Mountaineer 4WD 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

199

Gas Mileage of 1995 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Mercury Vehicles 5 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1995 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Mercury Cougar 17 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1995 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1995 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1995 Mercury Mystique 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1995 Mercury Mystique View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 24 Combined 29 Highway 1995 Mercury Mystique 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

200

Gas Mileage of 2001 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 Mercury Vehicles 1 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2001 Mercury Cougar 4 cyl, 2.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2001 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 21 City 24 Combined 31 Highway 2001 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2001 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 18 City 21 Combined 26 Highway 2001 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 2.5 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2001 Mercury Cougar View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 18 City 21 Combined 27 Highway 2001 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2001 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 2001 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 6 cyl, 4.0 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Gas Mileage of 1998 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 Mercury Vehicles 8 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1998 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1998 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 15 City 18 Combined 22 Highway 1998 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 6 cyl, 4.0 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1998 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 14 City 16 Combined 18 Highway 1998 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1998 Mercury Mountaineer 2WD 12 City 14 Combined 17 Highway 1998 Mercury Mountaineer 4WD 6 cyl, 4.0 L, Automatic 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1998 Mercury Mountaineer 4WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 14 City 15 Combined 18 Highway 1998 Mercury Mountaineer 4WD 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

202

Gas Mileage of 2005 Vehicles by Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Mercury Vehicles 5 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 2005 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2005 Mercury Grand Marquis View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 16 City 19 Combined 23 Highway 2005 Mercury Mariner 2WD 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2005 Mercury Mariner 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 19 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 2005 Mercury Mariner 2WD 6 cyl, 3.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2005 Mercury Mariner 2WD View MPG Estimates Shared By Vehicle Owners 17 City 19 Combined 23 Highway 2005 Mercury Mariner 4WD 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 2005 Mercury Mariner 4WD 17 City 19 Combined 21 Highway 2005 Mercury Mariner 4WD 6 cyl, 3.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline

203

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. Three different SCR catalysts are being studied. These are honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts are manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Test methods and experimental procedures were developed for current and future testing. The methods and procedures equalize factors influencing mercury adsorption and oxidation (surface area, catalyst activity, and pore structure) that normally differ for each catalyst type. Initial testing was performed to determine the time necessary for each catalyst to reach surface-adsorption equilibrium. In addition, the fraction of Hg oxidized by each of the SCR catalyst types is being investigated, for a given amount of catalyst and flow rate of mercury and flue gas. The next major effort will be to examine the kinetics of mercury oxidation across the SCR catalysts with respect to changes in mercury concentration and with respect to HCl concentration. Hg-sorption equilibrium times will also be investigated with respect to ammonia concentration in the simulated flue gas.

Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Health risk assessment of mercury and arsenic associated with consumption of fish from the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentrations of mercury and arsenic in fish from the Persian Gulf were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption...?1 for mercury and 0.1680.479?gg?1 for arsenic, with means of 0.133 and 0.312?gg?1,...

Mehdi Raissy; Mahsa Ansari

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems CONSOL is evaluating the mercury removal co-benefits achieved by SCR-FGD combi nations. Specific issues that will be addressed include the effects of SCR, catalyst degradation, and load changes on mercury oxidation and capture. This objective will be achieved by measuring mercury removal achieved by SCR-FGD combinations at ten plants with such equipment configurations. These plants include five with wet limestone, three wet lime, and two with dry scrubbing. Material balance will be conducted. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - April 2006 [PDF-377KB] Topical Report # 11 - January 2006 [PDF-19MB] Topical Report # 9 - January 2006 [PDF-6MB]

206

BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than the actual concentrations measured. Mercury metal present in the MWWT from previous batch

Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

207

FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch. Methylmercury ranged from 0.002 ng/l in Upper Three Runs to 2.60 ng/l in Tims Branch. Total mercury in the Savannah River ranged from 0.62 ng/l to 43.9 ng/l, and methylmercury ranged from 0.036 ng/l to 7.54 ng/l. Both total and methylmercury concentrations were consistently high in the river near the mouth of Steel Creek. Total mercury was positively correlated with methylmercury (r = 0.88). Total mercury bound to particulates ranged from 41% to 57% in the river and from 28% to 90% in the streams. Particulate methylmercury varied from 9% to 37% in the river and from 6% to 79% in the streams. Small temporary pools in the Savannah River swamp area near and around Fourmile Branch had the highest concentrations observed in the Savannah River watershed, reaching 1,890 ng/l for total mercury and 34.0 ng/l for methylmercury. The second study developed a mercury bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for the Savannah River near SRS. A BAF is the ratio of the concentration of mercury in fish flesh to the concentration of mercury in the water. BAFs are important in the TMDL process because target concentrations for mercury in water are computed from BAFs. Mercury BAFs are known to differ substantially among fish species, water bodies, and possibly seasons. Knowledge of such variation is needed to determine a BAF that accurately represents average and extreme conditions in the water body under study. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methylmercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 110 km (68 mile) reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that BAFs for each species under study varied by factors of three to eight. Influences on BAF variability were location, habitat and season-related differences in fish mercury levels and seasonal differences in methylmercury levels in the water. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10{sup 6} for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10{sup 6} for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 10{sup 6} for white catfish. This study showed that determination of representative BAFs for large rivers requires the collect

Halverson, N

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 53%. The average Hg concentration in the stack flue gas was 4.09 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The average stack mercury emission was 3.47 Ib/TBtu. The mercury material balance closures ranged from 87% to 108%, with an average of 97%. A sampling program similar to this one was performed on a similar unit (at the same plant) that was equipped with an SCR for NOx control. Comparison of the results from the two units show that the SCR increases the percentage of mercury that is in the oxidized form, which, in turn, lends to more of the total mercury being removed in the wet scrubber. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal.

J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Mercury-Related Materials Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Pawel, "Assessment of Cavitation-Erosion Resistance of Potential Pump Impeller Materials for MercuryMercury-Related Materials Studies Van Graves IDS NF Ph M tiIDS-NF Phone Meeting Jan 26, 2010 ­ updated Feb 3, 2010 #12;ORNL Material Reports Reviewed · IDS-NF requested ORNL research any past SNS

McDonald, Kirk

210

Stanford University Mercury Thermometer Replacement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stanford University Mercury Thermometer Replacement Program Instructions for Reuniting Separated Fluid Column of Non-Mercury Thermometer Heating Method Heat the thermometers bulb in an upright position of the thermometer. Note that over filling the expansion chamber will break the thermometer. Tap the thermometer

211

RMP Mercury Strategy 06-03-09.doc Page 1 of 5 RMP MERCURY STRATEGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RMP Mercury Strategy 06-03-09.doc Page 1 of 5 RMP MERCURY STRATEGY Mercury is a pollutant of high the information most urgently needed by managers to find remedies to the Bay's mercury problem. The focus of total mercury in the Bay are expected to slowly decline over coming decades. The premise

212

Mercury Speciation in the Presence of Polysulfides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Speciation in the Presence of Polysulfides J E N N Y A Y L A J A Y , * , F R A N C¸ O I Environmental mercury methylation appears modulated by sulfide concentrations, possibly via changes in mercury, there has been much recent interest in quantifying the chemical speciation and lipid solubility of mercury

Morel, François M. M.

213

Methods for dispensing mercury into devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

214

Mercury and the Gold Country Angler Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;Mercury and the Gold Rush #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Gold Country Angler Survey A Pilot Study to Assess Mercury Exposure from Sport Fish Consumption in the Sierra Nevada Carrie Monohan, Ph.D. #12;Mercury and the Gold Rush Deer Creek 1908 Greenhorn Creek 2011 Mercury was used during

215

Methods for dispensing mercury into devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury. 2 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

Mercury Spill Information and Response Guidance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Spill Information and Response Guidance Background Information Mercury can be found, plumbing traps and vacuum pumps. When mercury is spilled, it forms beads or droplets that can accumulate mercury vapors can be very dangerous, depending on the amount inhaled and the length of exposure

Holland, Jeffrey

217

Collection of atomic mercury by electrostatic precipitators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the difference in the mercury concentration of gas ...

O. M. G. NEWMAN; D. J. PALMER

1978-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

218

Atmospheric Chemistry, Modeling, and Biogeochemistry of Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

activities that release mercury to the atmosphere include coal burning, industrial processes, waste incine

219

Mercury Isotope Fractionation by Environmental Transport and Transformation Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements of atomic mercury. Applied Physics B, 87(2),M. & Covelli, S. , 2000. Mercury speciation in sedimentsarea of the Idrija mercury mine, Slovenia. Environmental

Koster van Groos, Paul Gijsbert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury were conducted in 16 areas in 1979-1981 by ARCO Oil and Gas Company as part of its geothermal evaluation program. Three techniques used together have proved satisfactory in evaluating surface mercury data. These are contouring, histograms and cumulative frequency plots of the data. Contouring geochemical data and constructing histograms are standard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fluorescent sensor for mercury  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

Wang, Zidong (Urbana, IL); Lee, Jung Heon (Evanston, IL); Lu, Yi (Champaign, IL)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

222

The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Complexation of mercury by dissolved organic matter in surface waters of Galveston Bay, Texas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chemical speciation of dissolved mercury in surface waters of Galveston Bay was determined using the concentrations of mercury-complexing ligands and conditional stability constants of mercury-ligand complexes. Two classes of natural ligands associated with dissolved organic matter were determined by a competitive ligand exchange-solvent solvent extraction (CLE-SSE) method: a strong class (Ls), ranging from 19 to 93 pM with an average conditional stability constant (KHgLs) of 1028, and a weak class (Lw) ranging from 1.4 to 9.8 nM with an average \\{KHgLs\\} of 1023. The range of conditional stability constants between mercury and natural ligands suggested that sulfides and thiolates are important binding sites for dissolved mercury in estuarine waters. A positive correlation between the estuarine distribution of dissolved glutathione and that of mercury-complexing ligands supported this suggestion. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling using stability constants for HgL, HgClx, Hg(OH)x, and HgCl(OH) and concentrations of each ligand demonstrated that almost all of the dissolved mercury (>99%) in Galveston Bay was complexed by natural ligands associated with dissolved organic matter. The importance of low concentrations of high-affinity ligands that may originate in the biological system (i.e., glutathione and phytochelatin) suggests that the greater portion of bulk dissolved organic matter may not be important for mercury complexation in estuarine surface waters.

Seunghee Han; Gary A. Gill; Ronald D. Lehman; Key-Young Choe

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Mercurys Magnetosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Prague 14131, Czech Republic. Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres...MP reconnection transfers solar wind energy into the magnetosphere, where...Mercury's magnetosphere. | Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres...

James A. Slavin; Mario H. Acua; Brian J. Anderson; Daniel N. Baker; Mehdi Benna; Scott A. Boardsen; George Gloeckler; Robert E. Gold; George C. Ho; Haje Korth; Stamatios M. Krimigis; Ralph L. McNutt; Jr.; Jim M. Raines; Menelaos Sarantos; David Schriver; Sean C. Solomon; Pavel Trvn?ek; Thomas H. Zurbuchen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

Constance Senior

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Four sampling tests were performed in August 2004 during ozone season with the SCR operating; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, SCR outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Three sampling tests were also performed in November 2004 during non-ozone season with the SCR bypassed; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet). Process samples for material balances were collected during the flue gas measurements. The results show that, at the point where the flue gas enters the FGD, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized form when the SCR was operating compared to when the SCR was bypassed (97% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the FGD because the FGD removed 90-94% of the oxidized mercury in both cases. Total coal-to-stack mercury removal was 86% with the SCR operating, and 73% with the SCR bypassed. The average mercury mass balance closure was 81% during the ozone season tests and 87% during the non-ozone season tests.

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Mercury's moment of inertia from spin and gravity data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006), Evolution of Mercurys obliquity, Icarus, 181, 327longitude librations of Mercury, Icarus, 207, 11 of 11The free librations of Mercury and the size of its inner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed and Entrained-Flow Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150oC. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150?C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and intraparticle diffusion. The Freundlich isotherm more accurately described in-flight mercury capture. Using these parameters, very little intraparticle diffusion was evident. Consistent with other data, smaller particles resulted in higher mercury uptake due to available surface area. Therefore, it is important to capture the particle size distribution in the model. At typical full-scale sorbent feed rates, the calculations underpredicted adsorption, suggesting that wall effects can account for as much as 50 percent of the removal, making it an important factor in entrained-mercury adsorption models.

Buitrago, Paula A; Morrill, Mike; Lighty, JoAnn S; Silcox, Geoffrey D

2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Testing of Mercury Control  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama Subcontractor- ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller The overall goal of this project is to test the effectiveness of calcium-based sorbents and oxidizing agents for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plant boilers. ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, with EPA support, has developed calcium-based sorbents to remove SO2 and mercury simultaneously. The sorbents consist of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and an added oxidant and a silica-modified calcium (CaSiO3) with an added oxidant. The mercury capacity in ug Hg/g sorbent for the two sorbents is 20 and 110-150, respectively, verses a mercury capacity for the current standard sorbent, activated carbon, of 70-100. The advantages of a lime based sorbent verses carbon is lower cost, simultaneous removal of sulfur, and allowance of ash to be utilized for a cement additive.

231

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

Sharon Sjostrom

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

NETL: IEP - Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization The goal of the proposed effort is to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements on the management of CCBs. Supporting objectives are to 1) determine the release potential of selected air toxic elements, including mercury and arsenic, from CCBs under specific environmental conditions; 2) increase the database of information on mercury and other air toxic element releases for CCBs; 3) develop comparative laboratory and field data; and 4) develop appropriate laboratory and field protocols. The specific mechanisms of air toxic element releases to be evaluated will be leaching releases, vapor releases to the atmosphere, and biologically induced leaching and vapor releases.

234

Bioaccumulation of mercury in pelagic fishes in NW Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined in the tissues of ten taxa of pelagic fishes, with a special emphasis on apex predators (large vertebrates). Highest Hg levels were observed in blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), carcharhinid sharks (Genus...

Cai, Yan

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

235

Mercury speciation in Galveston Bay, Texas: the importance of complexation by natural organic ligands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The major goal of this research is the development of a competitive ligand equilibration-solvent solvent extraction (CLE-SSE) method to determine organically complexed mercury species in (more)

Han, Seunghee

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

In situ mercury stabilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BNL Royalty Project Internal Status Report. The funds from the allotment of royalty income were used to experimentally explore feasibility of related, potential new techniques based on the Environmental Sciences Department successful technology licensed for the ex situ treatment of mercury. Specifically, this work is exploring the concept of using Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) in an in situ application to stabilize and/or remove mercury (Hg) from surficial soil. Patent disclosure forms have been filed for this process. Soil was artificially spiked with 500 ppm Hg and a series of experiments were set up in which SPC rods were placed in the center of a mass of this soil. Some experiments were conducted at 20 C and others at 50 C. After times ranging from 11 to 24 days, these experiments were opened, photographed and the soil was sampled from discrete locations in the containers. The soil and SPC samples were analyzed for Fe and Hg by x-ray fluorescence. The Hg profile in the soil was significantly altered, with concentrations along the outer edge of the soil reduced by as much as 80% from the starting concentration. Conversely, closer to the treatment rod containing SPC, concentrations of Hg were significantly increased over the original concentration. Preliminary results for elevated temperature sample are shown graphically in Figure 2. Apparently the Hg had migrated toward the SPC and reacted with sulfur to form Hg S. This appears to be a reaction between gaseous phases of both S and Hg, with Hg having a greater vapor pressure. The concentration of low solubility HgS (i.e., low leaching properties) developed within 11 days at 50 C and 21 days at 20 C, confirming the potential of this concept.

Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.; Adams, J.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Quantification of the Mercury Adsorption Mechanism on Brominated Activated  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of the Mercury Adsorption Mechanism on Brominated Activated Quantification of the Mercury Adsorption Mechanism on Brominated Activated Carbon Saturday, August 31, 2013 The primary anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions into the atmosphere is coal-fired power utilities. This work explores materials designed for Hg capture to be applied in the ductwork of a power plant to prevent Hg release into the atmosphere. Bench-scale combustion experiments have been carried out, in which sorbent materials were placed in a simulated flue gas stream doped with ppb levels of Hg. The sorbent surfaces were probed using x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the mechanism of Hg binding and to ultimately improve solvent design. The spectroscopy data was analyzed alongside results from density functional theory (DFT) for benchmarking so that DFT can be used as a screening tool for material

238

IntroductionIntroduction Mercury: Monitoring Patients with ParkinsonMercury: Monitoring Patients with Parkinson''s Diseases Disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IntroductionIntroduction Mercury: Monitoring Patients with ParkinsonMercury: Monitoring Patients's Disease EvaluationEvaluation Mercury ArchitectureMercury Architecture Mercury is a wireless sensor network and disconnections Node Behavior Hardware PlatformHardware Platform Usage Scenario InternetInternet http://fiji.eecs.harvard.edu/Mercury

Chen, Yiling

239

Mercury-Mercury Tunneling Junctions. 1. Electron Tunneling Across Symmetric and Asymmetric Alkanethiolate Bilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury-Mercury Tunneling Junctions. 1. Electron Tunneling Across Symmetric and Asymmetric by bringing in contact two small (3 ? 10-3 cm2) mercury drop electrodes in a 5-20% (v/v) hexadecane solution incorporating alkanethiolate-type monolayer films. The results reported below convince us that the mercury

Majda, Marcin

240

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1 is similar to Unit 2, except that Unit 1 has no SCR for NOx control. Four sampling tests were performed on both units in January 2005; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the economizer outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process samples for material balances were collected with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the SCR increased the oxidation of the mercury at the air heater outlet. At the exit of the air heater, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized and particulate forms on the unit equipped with an SCR compared to the unit without an SCR (97.4% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the scrubber. Total mercury removal averaged 97% on the unit with the SCR, and 87% on the unit without the SCR. The average mercury mass balance closure was 84% on Unit 1 and 103% on Unit 2.

J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Mercury switch with non-wettable electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury switch device comprising a pool of mercury and a plurality of electrical contacts made of or coated with a non-wettable material such as titanium diboride.

Karnowsky, Maurice M. (Albulquerque, NM); Yost, Frederick G. (Carlsbad, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Mercury Solar Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

commercial and residential clients in the New York metrotri-state area. References: Mercury Solar Systems1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mercury...

243

A Tragic Reminder about Organic Mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...politically contentious. Mercury is used in industry primarily in the manufacture of batteries, latex paint, urethane, and polyvinyl chloride. Pollution of the environment by mercury occurs mainly through incinerators, fossil-fuel plants, leaching from mining waste, and municipal sewage systems. Industrial discharge... Exposure to mercury and its potential toxic effects is a subject that involves everyone, because we are all frequently exposed. The toxicologic literature has clearly established the dangers of excessive exposure to mercury. What is less clear is the dose ...

Kulig K.

1998-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Data Reorganization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Data Reorganization Interface (DRI) Data Reorganization Interface (DRI) Kenneth Cain Jr. Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Status update for the DRI-1.0 standard since Sep. 2002 publication Outline

Kepner, Jeremy

245

3, 35253541, 2003 Modelling of Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 3, 3525­3541, 2003 Modelling of Mercury with the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model J. H and Physics Discussions Modelling of mercury with the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model J. H. Christensen, J Correspondence to: J. H. Christensen (jc@dmu.dk) 3525 #12;ACPD 3, 3525­3541, 2003 Modelling of Mercury

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition Noelle E. Selin and Christopher D. Holmes mercury oxidation [Selin & Jacob, Atmos. Env. 2008] 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 Influences on Mercury Wet Deposition · Hg wet dep = f(precipitation, [Hg(II)+Hg(P)]) Correlation (r2) between

Selin, Noelle Eckley

247

Mercury: Recovering Forgotten Passwords Using Personal Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury: Recovering Forgotten Passwords Using Personal Devices Mohammad Mannan1 , David Barrera2, and to allow forgotten passwords to be securely restored, we present a scheme called Mercury. Its primary mode and revealed to the user. A prototype implementation of Mercury is available as an Android application. 1

Van Oorschot, Paul

248

2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Delivered Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Delivered Performance Predictions and Trends for RISC Applications Luke Cico (lcico@mc.com) Mark Merritt (mmerritt@mc.com) Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Chelmsford, MA 01824 #12;© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Goals of PresentationGoals of Presentation

Kepner, Jeremy

249

Mercury Pollution in the Marine Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Collaborative December 2012 SourceSto Seafood SourceSto Seafood #12;About the report In 2010, the Toxic Metals.P. Mason, L.R. Rardin, C.V. Schmitt, N.S. Serrell, and E.M. Sunderland. 2012. Sources to Seafood: Mercury. 2 Sources to Seafood: Mercury Pollution in the Marine Environment #12;Executive Summary Mercury

Shepherd, Simon

250

REPLACE YOUR MERCURY THERMOMETERS BEFORE THEY BREAK!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPLACE YOUR MERCURY THERMOMETERS BEFORE THEY BREAK! Did you know, mercury from broken thermometers to the local environment, if broken thermometers in sinks eventually end at the sanitary sewer plant. Broken mercury thermometers create hazardous waste that is costly to clean up and costly to dispose of. Other

251

DFJ Mercury | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DFJ Mercury DFJ Mercury Jump to: navigation, search Name DFJ Mercury Place Houston, Texas Zip 77046 Product Houston-based seed and early-stage venture capital firm that targets the information technology, advanced materials, and bioscience sectors. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

252

Mercury capture in bench-scale absorbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper gives,a brief overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of mercury by both dry sorbents and wet scrubbers. The emphasis in the research is on development of a better understanding of the key factors that control the capture of mercury. Future work is expected to utilize that information for the development of new or modified process concepts featuring enhanced mercury capture capabilities. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne -research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are `not effective in removing mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; and chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or (CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon. Preliminary results from the wet scrubbing research include: no removal of elemental mercury is obtained under normal scrubber operating conditions; mercury removal is improved by the addition of packing or production of smaller gas bubbles to increase the gas-liquid contact area; polysulfide solutions do not appear promising for enhancing mercury removal in typical FGC systems; stainless steel packing appears to have beneficial properties for mercury removal and should be investigated further; and other chemical additives may offer greatly enhanced removals.

Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Mercury Sorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Apogee Scientific, Inc. (Apogee) will lead a Team comprised of Southern Company Services, TXU, Tennessee Valley Authority, EPRI, URS Group, University of Illinois-Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Southern Research Institute (SRI), Calgon Carbon, and TDA Research, Inc., to evaluate a number of advanced sorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas that have minimal impact on by-product utilization and/or on existing particulate collection devices (PCD). The main objective of this program is to evaluate several advanced sorbents for removing mercury from coal-fired flue gas while posing minimal impact on plant operations through three advanced sorbent concepts: 1) Sorbents which minimize impact on concrete production through selective chemical passivation of activated carbon and use of non-carbon material, 2) sorbents that minimize baghouse pressure drop and ESP emissions, and 3) sorbents that can be recovered and reused.

254

NETL: Environmental Research - Characterization of CCBs for Mercury  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterization of Coal Combustion By-Products for Mercury Characterization of Coal Combustion By-Products for Mercury The objective of this work is to provide the necessary information to assess the impact of controlling Hg from coal-fired utilities by examining the materials resulting from coal combustion, which are either disposed of or utilized. This will be accomplished by: Determining the Hg concentration in coal combustion waste streams, specifically bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas desulfurization sludge and solids (FGDS), and spray dryer solids (SDS) Estimating percentage of Hg collected in the coal combustion waste streams based on the Hg in the as-fired coal Determining if the Hg in the waste and by-product samples is leachable Determining if the Hg in the waste and by-product samples is volatile

255

Method and apparatus for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system. The equipment enables the entrainment of the mercury in a carrier gas e.g., an inert gas, which passes as mercury vapor between a pair of optically transparent windows. The attenuation of the emission is indicative of the quantity of mercury (and its isotopes) in the system. A 253.7 nm light is shone through one of the windows and the unabsorbed light is detected through the other window. The absorption of the 253.7 nm light is thereby measured whereby the quantity of mercury passing between the windows can be determined. The apparatus includes an in-line sensor for measuring the quantity of mercury. It includes a conduit together with a pair of apertures disposed in a face to face relationship and arranged on opposite sides of the conduit. A pair of optically transparent windows are disposed upon a pair of viewing tubes. A portion of each of the tubes is disposed inside of the conduit and within each of the apertures. The two windows are disposed in a face to face relationship on the ends of the viewing tubes and the entire assembly is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere whereby when 253.7 nm ultraviolet light is shone through one of the windows and detected through the other, the quantity of mercury which is passing by can be continuously monitored due to absorption which is indicated by attenuation of the amplitude of the observed emission.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Mercury pollution in Doha (Qatar) coastal environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface water and sediment samples were collected from the Doha coastal area and analyzed for content of physico-chemical forms of mercury. Dissolved reactive Hg represented 81.0% of the total dissolved Hg. Organic Hg contributed only 5.0% of total Hg. Mercury showed a strong tendency to be associated with suspended matter in Doha coastal waters, as it represented about 73.0% of the total. Total Hg in bulk Doha surface sediments fluctuated between 0.14 and 1.75 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] dry weight, with an average of 0.54 [+-] 0.46 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] dry weight. The sediment fraction past 63 [mu]m contained 0.73 [+-] 0.60 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] dry weight total Hg. Leachable and methyl Hg averaged 0.10 [+-] 0.11 and 0.02 [+-] 0.03 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1] dry weight, respectively, in the < 63-[mu]m sediment fraction. There is a general trend for all Hg species determined in water and sediments to decrease seaward. The significantly elevated Hg levels at certain locations indicated that the main Hg sources to Doha coastal environment are leachate from the solid waste disposal site, the two harbors, and surface-water discharge.

Al-Madfa, H.; Dahab, O.A.; Holail, H. (Univ. of Qatar, Doha (Qatar). Dept. of Geology)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

All mercury lamps contain small amounts of mercury. An electric current passes through the lamp and vaporizes the mercury to generate light. Recycling mercury containing lamps protects human health and our environment from heavy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All mercury lamps contain small amounts of mercury. An electric current passes through the lamp and vaporizes the mercury to generate light. Recycling mercury containing lamps protects human health and our the environment by recycling universal wastes, contact EH&S at (949) 824-6200 or visit: www.ehs.uci.edu Mercury

George, Steven C.

259

Research and Development with Full Scale Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

located on the site of ECN (Petten, Netherlands). Measured data from these facilities together with weather data and computer models of the buildings are used to evaluate performance of innovative energy concepts and components in these systems...

Sijpheer, N.; Bakker, E.J.; Opstelten, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

An assessment of methyl mercury and volatile mercury in land-applied sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations covering the land-application of municipal sewage sludge. These regulations established maximum pollutant concentrations and were based upon a risk assessment of human exposure. Mercury, assumed to be inorganic and non-volatile, was one pollutant evaluated. From April, 1995 through February, 1996, the authors studied the species of mercury contaminating municipal sludge applied to land, and the potential for volatilization of mercury from land-applied sludge. Methyl mercury was found at 0.1% of total mercury concentrations and was emitted from land-applied sludge to the atmosphere. Elemental mercury (Hg) was formed in land-applied sludge via the reduction of oxidized mercury and was also emitted to the atmosphere. Hg emission from land-applied sludge was significantly elevated over background soil emission. Methyl mercury is more toxic and more highly bioaccumulated than inorganic mercury, and warrants assessment considering these special criteria. Additionally, mercury emission from sludge-amended soil may lead to the contamination of other environmental media with significant concentrations of the metal. Although these pathways were not evaluated in the regulatory risk assessment, they are an important consideration for evaluating the risks from mercury in land-applied sludge. This presentation will summarize the results of a re-assessment of US EPA regulations regarding the land-application of municipal sewage sludge using data on methyl mercury toxicity and mercury transport in the atmosphere.

Carpi, A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lindberg, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of mercury down to the low hundreds of pptr has been accomplished in the presence of SO{sub 2} at concentration levels much higher than that found in typical flue gas emissions. SRD scientists extended the interferent testing to each individual component found in flue gas. It was found that only SO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the ring-down decay curve. Upon completion of testing the components of flue gas individually a simulated flue gas stream was used to test to the CRD instrument. The result showed accurate detection of mercury down to levels below 100 pptr in a simulated flue gas stream with the concentrations of the various components above that found in a typical untreated flue gas. A sampling system was designed and integrated into the CRD instrument to carry the sample from the flue gas stack to the CRD cavity. The sampling system was constructed so that it could be placed very close to the sampling port. SRD scientists were able to couple the UV laser light into an optical fiber, which is then sent to the sampling system. This allows the laser system to be isolated from the sampling system. Initial long-term testing revealed a couple of problems related to the stability of the output frequency of the laser system. These problems have been successfully dealt with by incorporating specific software solutions into the overall data acquisition program. The project culminated in a field test conducted at the DOE/NETL pilot plant facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The object of the test was the evaluation of a cavity ringdown spectrometer constructed for the detection of TOTAL vapor phase mercury as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). Although there is the potential for the instrument to determine the amount of speciation between neutral elemental mercury (Hg{sup (o)}) and oxidized mercury (Hg{sup (+2)}), the initial test plan was to concentrate on the measurement of the total mercury. Another added benefit is that the measurements will report the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) concentration throughout the test. This report concludes the technical work asso

Christopher C. Carter

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Mercury orientation model including non-zero obliquity and librations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-period forcing of Mercurys libration in longitude.M. : Resonant forcing of Mercurys libration in longitude.A revised control network for Mercury. J. Geophys. Res. 104,

Margot, Jean-Luc

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

An Approach to Problems of a Geothermal Mercury Survey, Puna, Hawaii | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Approach to Problems of a Geothermal Mercury Survey, Puna, Hawaii Approach to Problems of a Geothermal Mercury Survey, Puna, Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Approach to Problems of a Geothermal Mercury Survey, Puna, Hawaii Abstract Concentrations of soil mercury of 15 to 1250ppb were determined in the Puna geothermal areaon the lower east rift zone of Kilauea volcano. As the area is young and volcanically active a wide range of soils exist. Hg concentrations are partly controlled by such factors as soil development and organic content, which tend to complicate interpretation of the absolute concentrations measured. The pH of both ground gas and soil may also influence transport and fixation of the Hg, and some low pH soils may be due to SO2 and C02 in ground gas. By relating the Hg concentration of

265

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: In-House R&D  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In-House R&D In-House R&D The scrutiny of mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired utilities that began with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) resulted in a determination by the U.S. EPA that such emissions should be regulated. A number of techniques for control of mercury emissions from power plants have been evaluated at various scales. One technique that received a great deal of attention by the EPA, utilities, and technology developers was dry sorbent injection upstream of an existing particulate control device. The in-house, air toxics research effort at NETL consisted of two distinct efforts: the first was aimed at characterizing an existing pilot unit for distribution and fate of hazardous air pollutants, including mercury ; the second was examining sorbents and photochemical oxidation as means for mercury removal from flue gas at laboratory-scale.

266

Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A Glacial Ice Core Record of Natural, and U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin District Mercury Research Laboratory, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic ecosystems and subsequent methylmercury bioaccumulation

268

Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S, and Flegal AR 2008. Mercury in the San Francisco Estuary.may 2010 Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in Sancontaminants such as ele- mental mercury and cyanide used in

Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MESSENGER Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging Mission Frequently Asked Mercury's characteristics and environment during two complementary mission phases. The mission's primary goal is to increase our understanding of Mercury's density, geologic history, magnetic field, core

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

270

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Mercury and organochlorines in eggs from a Norwegian gannet colony  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The materials for this study consisted of addled eggs that were collected shortly after the laying season and stored frozen until analysis took place. The collection site is located near Nordmjele at 69/sup 0/ 08' N in northern Norway. Eggs were analyzed for DDE, PCBs and HCB by a gas chromatographic method described by BJERK and SUNDBY (1970). The PCBs were determined via pattern recognition using the commercial PCB standard Aroclor 1254, and the sum of peaks numbers 7, 8, and 10 was used (JENSEN 1972). Analysis for total mercury by flameless atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry followed the procedure of HATCH and OTT (1968). Results show a significant decrease in DDE as well as PCBs levels had taken place between the years 1972 and 1978. The 1979 data support the hypothesis that this indicates a trend as the average DDE and PCBs concentrations dropped further by 33 and 43 per cent, respectively. Only the eggs collected in 1979 were analyzed for HCB. The concentrations were very low (0.033 +/- 0.0018 ppm). The average mercury levels increased from 0.58 ppm in 1972 to 0.80 ppm in 1978 and then dropped to 0.36 ppm the following year. The present levels of DDE, PCBs, and HCB are well below those that by experience have caused problems as, for example, eggshell thinning. The mercury concentrations come closer to such levels as 0.5 ppm of mercury in eggs have been associated with reproductive impairment in pheasants. However, since fish and seafood in general, which constitute the diet of gannets, are rich in selenium, a strong antagonist to mercury such concentrations are probably well within safe limits too.

Fimreite, N. (Telemark College, BO, Norway); Brevik, E.M.; Torp, R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

COST OF MERCURY REMOVAL IN IGCC PLANTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cost of Mercury Removal Cost of Mercury Removal in an IGCC Plant Final Report September 2002 Prepared for: The United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory By: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group Inc. Reading, Pennsylvania Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania DOE Product Manager: Gary J. Stiegel DOE Task Manager: James R. Longanbach Principal Investigators: Michael G. Klett Russell C. Maxwell Michael D. Rutkowski PARSONS The Cost of Mercury Removal in an IGCC Plant Final Report i September 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Title Page 1 Summary 1 2 Introduction 3 3 Background 4 3.1 Regulatory Initiatives 4 3.2 Mercury Removal for Conventional Coal-Fired Plants 4 3.3 Mercury Removal Experience in Gasification 5 3.4 Variability of Mercury Content in Coal 6 4 Design Considerations 7 4.1 Carbon Bed Location

273

Mercury Replacement Program It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to remove mercury containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Replacement Program I. Policy It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to remove mercury containing devices throughout campus, insofar as is reasonably possible, and provide, the University has an obligation to safeguard employees from the potential health effects of mercury vapor while

de Lijser, Peter

274

Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

Borguet, Eric

275

Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Makarewicz, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Meredith, Paul F. (Knoxville, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

1985-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

277

CX-001451: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Determination CX-001451: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fate and Control of Mercury and Trace Elements CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03312010 Location(s): Grand Forks,...

278

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI) Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research...

279

Mercury/Waterfilling: Optimum Power Allocation with Arbitrary Input Constellations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury/Waterfilling: Optimum Power Allocation with Arbitrary Input Constellations Angel Lozano gives the power allocation policy, referred to as mercury/waterfilling, that maximizes the sum mutual

Verdú, Sergio

280

DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services Waste Management Waste Disposition Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury is in the Planning Stages DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Mercury: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with the development of the National Ignition Facility and its goal of achieving thermonuclear burn was another ambitious Livermore laser project named Mercury. The Mercury...

282

Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mercury Sensing with Optically Responsive Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1.5 Mercury detection Atomic absorption 19 and atomicsacrifices in simplicity. Atomic absorption or fluorescencedown to low nanogram masses. Atomic absorption/fluorescence

James, Jay Zachary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in the flue gas; this was true for all SCR catalyst types and sources. Although chlorine has been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas, coal chlorine was not a statistically significant factor affecting mercury speciation at the economizer exit or at the air heater exit. The only statistically significant factors were the coal ash CaO content and the fly ash carbon content; the fraction of mercury in the elemental form at the economizer exit was positively correlated with both factors. In a direct comparison at four SCR-equipped units vs. similar units at the same sites without SCR (or with the SCR bypassed), the elemental mercury fractions (measured at the ESP outlet) were lower, and the coal-to-stack mercury removals were higher, when the SCR was present and operating. The average coal-to-stack mercury removal at the four units without an operating SCR was 72%, whereas the average removal at the same sites with operating SCRs was 88%. The unit mercury mass balance (a gauge of the overall quality of the tests) at all of the units ranged from 81% to 113%, which were within our QA/QC criterion of 80-120%.

J.A. Withum

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Oak Ridge's EM program is making significant progress to reduce environmental mercury releases from the Y-12 National Security Complex. Mercury is one of the greatest environmental concerns facing the Oak Ridge

288

Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Oak Ridge's EM program is making significant progress to reduce environmental mercury releases from the Y-12 National Security Complex. Mercury is one of the greatest environmental concerns facing the Oak Ridge

289

Online YPA4 Resin Microcolumn Separation/Preconcentration Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the Speciation Analysis of Mercury in Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Online YPA4 Resin Microcolumn Separation/Preconcentration Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the Speciation Analysis of Mercury in Seafood ... The developed method was applied to the determination of mercury species in real seafoods with satisfactory results. ...

Chaomei Xiong; Bin Hu

2007-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

290

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

Michael D. Durham

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

2006 Mercury Control Technology Conference Proceedings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Technology Conference Mercury Control Technology Conference December 11-13, 2006 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Introduction Sorbent Injection By-Product Characterization/Management Mercury Oxidation and Co-Removal with FGD Systems Other Mercury Control Technology Panel Discussions Posters New 2006 Phase III Mercury Field Testing Projects Sorbent Injection Pretreatment of Coal Oxidation of Mercury Environmental Studies on Mercury Mercury in CUBs Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

292

Isotope Effect of Mercury Diffusion in Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Isotope fractionation describes the separation of a reservoir with one isotope composition into fractions with different isotope compositions due to small isotopic differences in equilibrium partitioning, rates of mass transfer, or rates of transformation. ... (29) ?202Hg is the value most frequently used to examine mass dependent fractionation of mercury isotopes as 202Hg is the heaviest mercury isotope without significant isobaric interferences. ...

Paul G. Koster van Groos; Bradley K. Esser; Ross W. Williams; James R. Hunt

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

293

The influence of floodplains on mercury availability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The floodplains of the German river Elbe affect the mercury distribution in the river system in two different ways: they act both as a medium-term sink and as a long-term source. The large amounts of mercury deposited onto the floodplains during annual floodings are first effectively fixed in the soils, rendering them basically unavailable. Sequential extraction experiments reveal that only a small fraction of the mercury (< 3%) is present in available forms, whereas the vast majority is associated with humic substances or present in sulfidic binding forms. After deposition, a small fraction of the total mercury is gradually remobilized into the aqueous phase bound passively to water-soluble humic acids. The availability of mercury in these complexes is still low, since environmental influences such as changes in pH or redox potential and competition with other cations do not cause any mercury liberation. In the next step, reactions in the aqueous phase lead to the formation of the highly available volatile species Hg{sup 0} and dimethylmercury (DMM). Their evaporation gives rise to a strong mercury flux from the floodplains into the atmosphere. Preliminary mass balances indicate that the majority of the deposited mercury stays bound in the floodplain soils, while small amounts are emitted back into the river`s ecosystem. Atmospheric emission is more important as a remobilization pathway than aquatic export.

Wallschlaeger, D.; Wilken, R.D. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Physical and Chemical Analytics

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Mercury Chamber NF-IDS Meeting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Mercury Chamber Update Oct 2011 Starting Point: Coil and Shielding Concept IDS120H #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Mercury Chamber Update Oct 2011 · Penetrations (ports) into chamber ­ Nozzle ­ Hg drains (overflow and maintenance) ­ Vents (in and out) ­ Beam

McDonald, Kirk

295

Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 87%. The mercury material balance closures for the four tests conducted at the plant ranged from 89% to 114%, with an average of 100%. These results appear to show that the SCR had a positive effect on mercury removal. In earlier programs, CONSOL sampled mercury at six plants with wet FGDs for SO{sub 2} control without SCR catalysts. At those plants, an average of 61 {+-} 15% of the mercury was in the oxidized form at the air heater outlet. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential Hg removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of Hg chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize Hg removal.

J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power plant. Under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), WE Energies demonstrated the TOXECON(TM) process in a $52.9million project at the Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Mich. TOXECON is a relatively cost-effective option for achieving significant reductions in mercury emissions and increasing the

298

Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Qualification of the Nippon Instrumentation for use in Measuring Mercury at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system with the currently used Bacharach Mercury Analyzer. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications, spiked samples and unspiked samples. The standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The side-by-side work included the analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. With the qualification of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system in M-14, the DWPF lab will be able to perform a head to head comparison of a second Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system once the system is installed. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analyzes receipt and product samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) to determine the mercury (Hg) concentration in the sludge slurry. The SRAT receipt is typically sampled and analyzed for the first ten SRAT batches of a new sludge batch to obtain an average Hg concentration. This average Hg concentration is then used to determine the amount of steam stripping required during the concentration/reflux step of the SRAT cycle to achieve a less than 0.6 wt% Hg in the SRAT product solids. After processing is complete, the SRAT product is sampled and analyzed for mercury to ensure that the mercury concentration does not exceed the 0.45 wt% limit in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The DWPF Laboratory utilizes Bacharach Analyzers to support these Hg analyses at this facility. These analyzers are more than 10 years old, and they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Due to these difficulties, the Bacharach Analyzers are to be replaced by new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems. DWPF issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist in the qualification of the new systems. SRNL prepared a task technical and quality assurance (TT&QA) plan that outlined the activities that are necessary and sufficient to meet the objectives of the TTR. In addition, TT&QA plan also included a test plan that provided guidance to the DWPF Lab in collecting the data needed to qualify the new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems.

Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

300

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

MERCURY HANDLING FOR THE TARGET SYSTEM FOR A MUON COLLIDER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY HANDLING FOR THE TARGET SYSTEM FOR A MUON COLLIDER Van Graves , ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 Factory is a free-stream mercury jet within a 20-T magnetic field being impacted by an 8-GeV proton beam. A pool of mercury serves as a receiving reservoir for the mercury and a dump for the unexpended proton

McDonald, Kirk

302

Thursday, March 15, 2007 POSTER SESSION II: MERCURY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thursday, March 15, 2007 POSTER SESSION II: MERCURY 6:30 p.m. Fitness Center Dombard A. J. Hauck S. A. II Despinning Plus Global Contraction and the Orientation of Lobate Scarps on Mercury [#2026] We thermal models of Mercury. King S. D. A Possible Connection Between Convection in Mercury's Mantle

Rathbun, Julie A.

303

2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Optimizing System Compute  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Optimizing System Compute Density for Deployed HPEC Electronics Engineering Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. rbanton@mc.com Richard Jaenicke, Director, Product Marketing Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. rjaenicke@mc.com #12;2 © 2002 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc.© 2003

Kepner, Jeremy

304

Laser Altimeter Observations from MESSENGER's First Mercury Flyby  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT Laser Altimeter Observations from MESSENGER's First Mercury Flyby Maria T. Zuber,1 * David E Barnouin-Jha,8 John K. Harmon10 A 3200-kilometers-long profile of Mercury by the Mercury Laser Altimeter compensated. Sampled craters on Mercury are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part

Hauck II, Steven A.

305

Sources to Seafood: Mercury Pollution in the Marine Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sources to Seafood: Mercury Pollution in the Marine Environment The Coastal and Marine Mercury a series of scientific papers on mercury pollution in the marine environment from sources to seafood and in June 2012 in Environmental Health Perspectives. The summary report, Sources to Seafood: Mercury

306

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

Unknown

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Mercury Geochemistry Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Details Activities (5) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Shallow, soil-mercury surveys can be used effectively in exploration for geothermal resources. Soil-mercury data from six areas in Nevada, California and New Mexico are analyzed using contour maps, histogram and probability graphs. Plotting on probability graphs allows background and anomalous populations to be resolved even when considerable overlap between populations is present. As is shown in several examples, separate soil-mercury populations can be plausibly interpreted. Mercury data can significantly enhance the structural understanding of a prospect

308

Figure 2: The mercury jet target geometry. The proton beam and mercury jet cross at z=-37.5 cm.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 2: The mercury jet target geometry. The proton beam and mercury jet cross at z=-37.5 cm. Figure 3: The layout of multiple proton beam entry directions relative to mercury jet at z=-75 cm. A PION of a free liquid mercury jet with an intense proton beam. We study the variation of meson production

McDonald, Kirk

309

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and HID (high-intensity discharge) lamps and all other mercury containing labeled for shipment to a recycling plant for mercury, glass and aluminum recovery. The beneficial re

Baker, Chris I.

310

Remediation of Mercury-Contaminated Storm Sewer Sediments from the West End Mercury Area at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 12061  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN has faced an ongoing challenge from mercury entrapped in soils beneath and adjacent to buildings, storm sewers, and process pipelines. Previous actions to reduce the quantity and/or mobilization of mercury-contaminated media have included plugging of building floor drains, cleaning of sediment and sludge from sumps, manholes, drain lines, and storm sewers, lining/relining of storm sewers and replacement of a portion of the storm sewer trunk line, re-routing and removal of process piping, and installation of the Central Mercury Treatment System to capture and treat contaminated sump water. Despite the success of these actions, mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls that discharge to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) continues to pose a threat to long-term water quality. A video camera survey of the storm sewer network revealed several sections of storm sewer that had large cracks, separations, swells, and accumulations of sediment/sludge and debris. The selected remedy was to clean and line the sections of storm sewer pipe that were determined to be primary contributors to the mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls. The project, referred to as the West End Mercury Area (WEMA) Storm Sewer Remediation Project, included cleaning sediment and debris from over 2,460 meters of storm sewer pipe followed by the installation of nearly 366 meters of cure-in-place pipe (CIPP) liner. One of the greatest challenges to the success of this project was the high cost of disposal associated with the mercury-contaminated sludge and wastewater generated from the storm sewer cleaning process. A contractor designed and operated an on-site wastewater pre-treatment system that successfully reduced mercury levels in 191 cubic meters of sludge to levels that allowed it to be disposed at Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) disposal cell as a non-hazardous, low-level waste. The system was also effective at pre-treating over 1,514,000 liters of wastewater to levels that met the waste acceptance criteria for the on-site West End [wastewater] Treatment Facility (WETF). This paper describes the storm sewer cleaning and lining process and the methods used to process the mercury-contaminated sludge and wastewater, as well as several 'lessons learned' that would be relevant to any future projects involving storm sewer cleaning and debris remediation. (authors)

Tremaine, Diana [Science and Ecology Corporation, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37931 (United States); Douglas, Steven G. [B and W Y-12, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Trends in mercury concentrations in the hair of women of Nome, Alaska - Evidence of seafood consumption or abiotic absorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eighty samples of hair from women of child-bearing age from Nome, Alaska, and seven control samples from women living in Sequim, Washington, were analyzed for mercury concentration by segmental analysis in an effort to determine whether seasonal fluctuations in mercury concentration in the hair samples can be correlated to seasonal seafood consumption. Full-length hair strands were analyzed in 1.1-cm segments representing 1 month's growth using a strong acid digestion and cold vapor atomic fluorescence analysis. It was assumed that the concentration of mercury in each segment is an indicator of the mercury body burden during the month in which the segment emerged from the scalp. Eighteen of the samples show seasonal variability, with five of the controls and one Nome resident showing winter highs while all Nome residents show summer highs. Twenty-six of the samples show an increase in mercury concentration toward the distal end of the strand regardless of month of growth. The trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward the distal end of the hair strand regardless of month of emergence, and the documented presence of elevated levels of elemental mercury in the Nome area suggest that these elevated levels may actually be due to external contamination of the hair strands by adsorption and not due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs such as seafood.

Lasorsa, B. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Trends in mercury concentrations in the hair of women of Nome, Alaska - Evidence of seafood consumption or abiotic absorption?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eighty samples of hair from women of child-bearing age from Nome, Alaska, and seven control samples from women living in Sequim, Washington, were analyzed for mercury concentration by segmental analysis in an effort to determine whether seasonal fluctuations in mercury concentration in the hair samples can be correlated to seasonal seafood consumption. Full-length hair strands were analyzed in 1.1-cm segments representing 1 month`s growth using a strong acid digestion and cold vapor atomic fluorescence analysis. It was assumed that the concentration of mercury in each segment is an indicator of the mercury body burden during the month in which the segment emerged from the scalp. Eighteen of the samples show seasonal variability, with five of the controls and one Nome resident showing winter highs while all Nome residents show summer highs. Twenty-six of the samples show an increase in mercury concentration toward the distal end of the strand regardless of month of growth. The trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward the distal end of the hair strand regardless of month of emergence, and the documented presence of elevated levels of elemental mercury in the Nome area suggest that these elevated levels may actually be due to external contamination of the hair strands by adsorption and not due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs such as seafood.

Lasorsa, B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Development of an electromagnetically actuated mercury microvalve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of microscale fluid handling components has been recognized as a crucial element in the design of microscale chemical detection systems. Recently, work has been undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories to construct a valve that uses a small mercury droplet to control the flow of gas through capillary passages. Electromagnetic forces that are provided by small permanent magnets and a current supply are used to drive the mercury into position. Driving the mercury droplet into a tapered passage halts gas flow through a capillary, while surface tension forces prevent the mercury from passing through the passage. Models have been developed to describe the movement of the mercury droplet and the sealing of the gas passage, and millimeter-scale units have been tested to explore design options. Predictions from the model show that a valve with 10 micron sized features can seal against pressures up to 1.5 atmospheres. Experiments have highlighted the promise of mercury valves and demonstrated problems that can arise from contamination of the mercury.

Adkins, D.R.; Wong, C.C.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H.sub.2 O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H[sub 2]O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg. 1 fig.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

316

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

An example of remediation of mercury impacted soil using high vacuum low temperature thermal desorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a high vacuum, low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD) technology which has been used to remediate soil impacted with elemental mercury and to present the results of pre-treatment and post-treatment soil sampling. The general operating principles of this high vacuum LTTD technology, the IRHV-200, are: (a) depression of the boiling points of the target compounds by lowering the ambient pressure within the treatment chamber using a vacuum pump; (b) use of infrared radiation to generate a thermal gradient in the top several inches of non-liquid material contained within the treatment chamber and use of a carrier gas to transport the desorbed contaminants from the treatment chamber to a pollution control system. The overall effect of these parameters is a batch treatment system capable of desorbing target contaminants from soil under anaerobic conditions and low temperature such that the desorbed contaminants do not degrade and generate thermal or oxidative by-products. Essentially, the desorbed contaminants undergo a reversible phase change from liquid to vapor in the treatment chamber and are condensed back to liquid in the pollution control system. Results of bench top testing are compared to full scale remediations of significant volumes of soil to demonstrate remediation of mercury impacted soil. This technology is also applicable for soils impacted with other higher boiling point organics, such as, PCP, PCBs, PAHs, PNAs, pesticides and herbicides.

Dagdigian, J.V. [McLaren/Hart, Irvine, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91{mu}g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32{mu}g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66{mu}g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84{mu}g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28{mu}g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury ({mu}g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury ({mu}g/g)].

Ohno, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mineshi [Department of Epidemiology, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata 867-0008 (Japan); Kurosawa, Tomoko [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Dakeishi, Miwako [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Iwata, Toyoto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Murata, Katsuyuki [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)]. E-mail: winestem@med.akita-u.ac.jp

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Mercury cleanup efforts intensify | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury cleanup efforts ... Mercury cleanup efforts ... Mercury cleanup efforts intensify Posted: February 11, 2013 - 3:31pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 2 | 2013 Millions of pounds of mercury were required to support Y-12's post-World War II mission of separating lithium isotopes. Cleaning up the toxic heavy metal poses many challenges, but what Y-12 is learning could help conquer mercury pollution worldwide. There's a reason you won't find mercury in many thermometers these days. Mercury is a heavy metal that occurs in several chemical forms, all of which can produce toxic effects in high enough doses. Mercury was used in the column exchange process, which Y-12 employed to produce lithium-6 from 1953 to 1962. Through process spills, system leaks and surface runoff, some 700,000 pounds of mercury have been lost to the

320

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Enhanced High Temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and In-Situ Active Carbon Generation for Low Cost Mercury Capture Mercury oxidation phenomenon and the studies of this phenomenon have generally focused on lower temperatures, typically below 650°F. This has been based on the mercury vapor equilibrium speciation curve. The baseline extents of mercury oxidation as reported in the ICR dataset and observed during subsequent tests has shown a tremendous amount of scatter. The objective of this project is to examine, establish and demonstrate the effect of higher temperature kinetics on mercury oxidation rates. Further, it is the objective of this project to demonstrate how the inherent mercury oxidation kinetics can be influenced to dramatically increase the mercury oxidation.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NETL: News Release - Meeting Mercury Standards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

June 18, 2001 June 18, 2001 Meeting Mercury Standards DOE Selects 6 Projects to Develop Cost-Saving Technologies for Curbing Mercury Emissions from Coal Power Plants Power Plant with Fish - MORGANTOWN, WV - With President Bush's National Energy Plan calling for mandatory reductions in the release of mercury from electric power plants - part of the Plan's multi-pollutant reduction strategy - the U.S. Department of Energy today named six new projects to develop innovative technologies that can curb mercury emissions from coal plants more effectively and at a fraction of today's costs. The winning projects were submitted by the University of North Dakota's Energy & Environmental Research Center in Grand Forks; URS Group. Inc., of Austin, TX; CONSOL, Inc., of Library, PA; Southern Research Institute in

322

ZZ Mercury Storage Book.indb  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2 2 Comment Response Document Environmental Impact Statement Final Final Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0423 January 2011 Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury For additional information on this Final Mercury Storage EIS, contact: AVAILABILITY OF THIS FINAL LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT AND STORAGE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT David Levenstein, Document Manager Office of Environmental Compliance (EM-41) U.S. Department of Energy Post Office Box 2612 Germantown, MD 20874 Website: http://www.mercurystorageeis.com Fax: 877-274-5462 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Cover Sheet Lead Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperating Agencies: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

323

Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

324

Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications for prevention strategies interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

325

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

326

Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucestor, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A filter is described for enriching the [sup 196]Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The [sup 196]Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is, less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter. 9 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

328

Mercury's Magnetosphere After MESSENGER's First Flyby  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...IMF is unfavorable to dayside magnetic reconnection with Mercury's magnetic field and greatly limits the rate of solar wind energy transfer across the MP (2). The earlier southward IMF intervals before MESSENGER's entry into the magnetosphere...

James A. Slavin; Mario H. Acua; Brian J. Anderson; Daniel N. Baker; Mehdi Benna; George Gloeckler; Robert E. Gold; George C. Ho; Rosemary M. Killen; Haje Korth; Stamatios M. Krimigis; Ralph L. McNutt; Jr.; Larry R. Nittler; Jim M. Raines; David Schriver; Sean C. Solomon; Richard D. Starr; Pavel Trvn?ek; Thomas H. Zurbuchen

2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

Symplectic Integrator Mercury: Bug Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a problem found in MERCURY, a hybrid symplectic integrator used for dynamical problems in Astronomy. The variable that keeps track of bodies' statuses is uninitialised, which can result in bodies disappearing from simulations in a non-physical manner. Some FORTRAN compilers implicitly initialise variables, preventing simulations from having this problem. With other compilers, simulations with a suitably large maximum number of bodies parameter value are also unaffected. Otherwise, the problem manifests at the first event after the integrator is started, whether from scratch or continuing a previously stopped simulation. Although the problem does not manifest in some conditions, explicitly initialising the variable solves the problem in a permanent and unconditional manner.

K. de Souza Torres; D. R. Anderson

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

330

Mercury bioaccumulation in Lavaca Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN LAVACA BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by SALLY JO PALMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major... Subject: Oceanography MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN LAVACA BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by SALLY JO PALMER Approved as to style and content by: obby J. Pr y (Chair of Committee) Robe J. Tayl (Member) owell (Member) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gi bert T. Rowe...

Palmer, Sally Jo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

331

Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a Large-Scale Canadian Boreal Forest FireQuebec.Thesemeasurementsindicated significant and highly correlated increases in Hg and CO during the plume event. The Hg:CO emissions ratio emissions and biomass burned to determine a mean area-based Hg emission flux density for boreal forest fires

Lee, Xuhui

332

Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Mercury Transformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we used quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. The results show that, whereas in the gas phase the binding affinity of two identical anionic ligands (forming HgL2) increases with ligand (L) hardness, in contrast, in the aqueous phase the affinity increases with ligand softness. This switch in affinity upon hydration is shown to result mostly from interactions with only a small number (e.g. one or two) of water molecules. The results yield a clear, robust periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and are in agreement with the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands. By comparing the Hg2+ binding of one with two anions, the gas phase preferences are found to arise from the enhancement of reactivity of the cationic complex (HgL+) with the hardness of L. The approach establishes a theoretical basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

smith, jeremy

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

In-House Research on Mercury Measurement and Control at NETL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

identifier identifier In-House Research on Mercury Measurement and Control at NETL identifier BACKGROUND T Over 32% of man-made emissions of Hg in U.S. are from coal-fired utilities. T Future regulation of utility emissions has been proposed by EPA. T Control of Hg emissions is complicated by low concentrations (~1 ppbv) and speciation variability. T EPA report suggests sorbent injection as a low- cost technique for mercury removal. T NETL's in-house research effort is conducted at both pilot and lab scales. identifier PILOT RESEARCH OBJECTIVES T Evaluate methods for measurement of mercury concentration and speciation. T Assess the technical performance of sorbent-based control technology by developing engineering databases. identifier identifier identifier PILOT WORK TESTING GOALS T Determine mass balances around pilot

334

Detection of concealed mercury with thermal neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States today, governments at all levels and the citizenry are paying increasing attention to the effects, both real and hypothetical, of industrial activity on the environment. Responsible modem industries, reflecting this heightened public and regulatory awareness, are either substituting benign materials for hazardous ones, or using hazardous materials only under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, present-day environmental consciousness dictates that we deal responsibly with legacy wastes. The decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities at which mercury was used or processed presents a variety of challenges. Elemental mercury is a liquid at room temperature and readily evaporates in air. In large mercury-laden buildings, droplets may evaporate from one area only to recondense in other cooler areas. The rate of evaporation is a function of humidity and temperature; consequently, different parts of a building may be sources or sinks of mercury at different times of the day or even the year. Additionally, although mercury oxidizes in air, the oxides decompose upon heating. Hence, oxides contained within pipes or equipment, may be decomposed when those pipes and equipment are cut with saws or torches. Furthermore, mercury seeps through the pores and cracks in concrete blocks and pads, and collects as puddles and blobs in void spaces within and under them.

Bell, Z.W.

1994-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

335

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage January 19, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations. Based on these factors, DOE identified the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas, as the preferred alternative for long-term management and storage of mercury. DOE will consider the environmental impact information presented in this

337

Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While...

Landin, Charles Melchor

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and...

339

Mercury in the sediments of the Pallanza Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Pallanza Basin of Lago Maggiore, Italy, in 1970 have been analysed for mercury, using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentration of mercury in the Maggiore sediments proved to be ...

V. DAMIANI; R. L. THOMAS

1974-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

340

Emission factor of mercury from coal-fired power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mercury emission from coal-fired power stations, situated in Poland in the Silesian region ... mercury in the consumed coal and in combustion gas, used in this research, are described. ... the air from coal combu...

Wojciech Mniszek

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Seismic effects of the Caloris basin impact, Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Striking geological features on Mercury's surface have been linked to tectonic disruption associated with the Caloris impact and have the potential to provide information on the interior structure of Mercury. The unusual ...

L, Jiangning

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN); Hamilton, Choo Y. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

343

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil geochemistry yielded quite complex patterns of mercury concentrations and radonemanation rates within the survey area (Cox and Cuff, 1981c). Mercury concentrations (Fig. 38) showed a general minimum along the Kawaihae-Waimea roads and a broad trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward both the north and south. There is no correlation apparent between the mercury patterns and either the resistivity sounding data or the surface geology in the area. The radon emanometry data (Fig.

344

Carbon Nanotube-Silver Composite for Mercury Capture and Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanisms of capturing mercury on a sorbent vary from amalgamation, chemical adsorption to simple physical adsorption. ... Untreated carbon-based sorbents and mineral-based sorbents capture mercury mainly via physical adsorption that allows release of captured mercury at slightly higher temperatures. ... This paper outlines the results of a systematic study on the capture of trace mercury vapor from simulated flue gases, using activated carbons. ...

Guangqian Luo; Hong Yao; Minghou Xu; Xinwei Cui; Weixing Chen; Rajender Gupta; Zhenghe Xu

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

345

Groundwater Discharge of Mercury to California Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leading to levels in some seafood that can be dangerous ifis all the mercury in seafood coming from? says Russell

Flegal, Russell; Paytan, Adina; Black, Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Impact of Closing Canadas Largest Point-Source of Mercury Emissions on Local Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(29) Solar radiation measurements at the airport were initiated in August 2010. ... Steffen, A.; Schroeder, W. Standard Operating Procedures for Total Gaseous Mercury MeasurementsCanadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network (CAMNet); Environment Canada: Toronto, Canada, 1999. ...

Chris S. Eckley; Matthew T. Parsons; Rachel Mintz; Monique Lapalme; Maxwell Mazur; Robert Tordon; Robert Elleman; Jennifer A. Graydon; Pierrette Blanchard; Vincent St Louis

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

347

Mercury: Supporting Scalable Multi-Attribute Range Queries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury: Supporting Scalable Multi-Attribute Range Queries Ashwin R. Bharambe Mukesh Agrawal 15213 Abstract This paper presents the design of Mercury, a scalable protocol for supporting multi-attribute range- based searches. Mercury differs from previous range-based query systems in that it supports mul

Keinan, Alon

348

Mercury/Waterfilling for Fixed Wireless OFDM Angel Lozano  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury/Waterfilling for Fixed Wireless OFDM Systems Angel Lozano Bell Labs (Lucent Technologies- mation is then given by the more general mercury/waterfilling policy. This paper illustrates the usance of mercury/waterfilling on frequency-selective OFDM channels with QAM constellations and it quantifies

Verdú, Sergio

349

MERCURY HANDLING FOR THE TARGET SYSTEM FOR A MUON COLLIDER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY HANDLING FOR THE TARGET SYSTEM FOR A MUON COLLIDER (IPAC12, WEPPD038) The target station a 15-20 T superconducting magnet. The target itself is a free mercury jet, moving at 20 m/s at an small angle to the magnetic axis, so as later to be collected in a mercury pool/beam dump. The replaceable

McDonald, Kirk

350

Powering Mercury's dynamo J.-P. Williams,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Powering Mercury's dynamo J.-P. Williams,1 O. Aharonson,1 and F. Nimmo2 Received 6 July 2007 magnetic field of Mercury has implications for the interior structure of the planet and its thermal (2007), Powering Mercury's dynamo, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21201, doi:10.1029/ 2007GL031164. 1

Nimmo, Francis

351

2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Session 5: Current &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Session 5: Current & Emerging Standards Session 5: Current & Emerging Standards Craig Lund, Chief Technology Officer Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) Conference September 2003 #12;© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Agenda

Kepner, Jeremy

352

Wednesday, March 25, 2009 SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER AT MERCURY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wednesday, March 25, 2009 SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER AT MERCURY: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. T. MESSENGER's Newly Global Perspective on Mercury: Some Implications for Interior Evolution [#1750] MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury have revealed a planet with a richer history of magmatism

Rathbun, Julie A.

353

Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from the MESSENGER Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from the MESSENGER Mission Larry R. Nittler Carnegie-Cahill · MESSENGER Science Team, Engineers, Mission Operations (APL) #12;Mars Mercury · Naked-eye planet, but very difficult to observe due to proximity to Sun May 12, 2011, from NZ (M. White, Flickr) Mercury Venus Jupiter

Rhoads, James

354

2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Beamforming for Radar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Beamforming for Radar Systems on COTS Heterogeneous ComputingHeterogeneous Computing PlatformsPlatforms Jeffrey A. Rudin Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) Conference September 23, 2003 #12;2© 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Outline

Kepner, Jeremy

355

MERCURY IN THE ATMOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE, AND POLICY SPHERE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY IN THE ATMOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE, AND POLICY SPHERE: Insights from a global 3D land.S. National Science Foundation Atmospheric Chemistry Program #12;FROM ATMOSPHERE TO FISH: MERCURY RISING Ice core from Wyoming [Schuster et al., ES&T 2002] Mercury deposition has increased by 300% since

Selin, Noelle Eckley

356

Mercury Beam Dump Simulations Tristan Davenne Ottone Caretta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Beam Dump Simulations Tristan Davenne Ottone Caretta STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK 2nd Princeton-Oxford High Power Target Meeting 6-7 November-2008 #12;Mercury beam dump design from NUFACT Feasibility Study #12;Peter Loveridge, November-2008 Mercury beam dump design from NUFACT

McDonald, Kirk

357

Mercury Concentrations in Fish from the San Francisco Bay Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Concentrations in Fish from the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Bay Regional Water on composite samples · Some mercury analysis on individual largemouth bass · Size targets #12;Tomales Bay Study chemical analyses (Hg and organics) conducted on composite samples · Some mercury analysis on individual

358

Mercury's thermo-chemical evolution from numerical models constrained  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury's thermo-chemical evolution from numerical models constrained by MESSENGER observations Globe de Paris, France #12;Basics facts about Mercury · Semi-major axis: 0.39 AU · 3:2 spin Earth!) · Black body temperature: 440 K #12;Exploration of Mercury Mariner10 ·First spacecraft to use

Cerveny, Vlastislav

359

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury exosphere I. Global circulation model of its sodium component Francois Leblanc a,*, R 2010 Accepted 27 April 2010 Available online 5 May 2010 Keywords: Mercury, Atmosphere Aeronomy a b s t r a c t Our understanding of Mercury's sodium exosphere has improved considerably in the last 5

Johnson, Robert E.

360

Mercury warning given to north state anglers By Ryan Sabalow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury warning given to north state anglers By Ryan Sabalow Monday, June 7, 2010 A new study the highest levels of mercury contamination in the state. Although anglers arent being warned to wean,905 fish in 272 of Californias popular lakes and reservoirs for mercury, PCBs, DDT and other contaminants

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Mercury reuses several external software tools developed by ORNL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury reuses several external software tools developed by ORNL DAAC and other organizations-on,canopychemistryaccpclimatecollectionseoslandvalidationFIFEFIFEfollow-on fluxnethydroclimatologycollectionsmodelarchivenetprimaryproductivityNPPNBIIMAST- DCUSANPNIABINDataONEWENDI Mercury's architecture includes 1) a harvesting engine was packaged in such a way that all the Mercury projects will use the same harvester scripts, but each project

362

Mercury and Freon: Temperature Emulation and Management for Server Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury and Freon: Temperature Emulation and Management for Server Systems Taliver Heath Dept by simulators and real measurements. In this paper, we introduce Mercury, a soft- ware suite that avoids data. Most importantly, Mercury runs the entire software stack natively, enables repeatable experiments

Bianchini, Ricardo

363

Thursday, March 26, 2009 POSTER SESSION II: MERCURY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thursday, March 26, 2009 POSTER SESSION II: MERCURY 6:30 p.m. Town Center Exhibit Area Gómez-Perez N. Wicht J. Magnetic Field at Mercury: Effects of External Sources on Planetary Dynamos [#1634] In Mercury, magnetospheric currents induce a magnetic field at the top of the core. We study dynamo

Rathbun, Julie A.

364

Mercury: Supporting Scalable Multi-Attribute Range Ashwin R. Bharambe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury: Supporting Scalable Multi-Attribute Range Queries Ashwin R. Bharambe ashu Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 ABSTRACT This paper presents the design of Mercury, a scalable pro- tocol for supporting multi-attribute range-based searches. Mercury differs from previous

Krishnamurthy, Arvind

365

Mercury Beam Dump Simulations Tristan Davenne Ottone Caretta Chris Densham  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Beam Dump Simulations Tristan Davenne Ottone Caretta Chris Densham STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK 1st joint meeting of EUROnu WP2 (Superbeam) and NF-IDS target 15-17 December-2008 #12;Mercury beam dump design from NUFACT Feasibility Study #12;Peter Loveridge, November-2008 Mercury beam dump

McDonald, Kirk

366

MERCURY IN THE ATMOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE, AND POLICY SPHERE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY IN THE ATMOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE, AND POLICY SPHERE: Insights from global modeling Noelle Atmospheric Chemistry Program #12;FROM ATMOSPHERE TO FISH: MERCURY RISING Ice core from Wyoming [Schuster et al., ES&T 2002] Mercury deposition has increased by 300% since industrialization Major anthropogenic

Selin, Noelle Eckley

367

Tuesday, March 14, 2006 POSTER SESSION I: MERCURY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tuesday, March 14, 2006 POSTER SESSION I: MERCURY 7:00 p.m. Fitness Center Helbert J. Moroz L. V for the MERTIS Instrument on the ESA BepiColombo Mission to Mercury [#1662] The MERTIS instrument on BepiColombo will study the surface of Mercury in the TIR. We will present a list of analog material compiled to support

Rathbun, Julie A.

368

MERCURY IN THE ATMOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE, AND POLICY SPHERE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY IN THE ATMOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE, AND POLICY SPHERE: Insights from Global Modeling Noelle #12;MERCURY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: OUTLINE 1. Deposition to the United States results from a mix of local and global sources, depending on the location 2. Historical and present releases of mercury will continue

Selin, Noelle Eckley

369

MESSENGER observations of magnetopause structure and dynamics at Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MESSENGER observations of magnetopause structure and dynamics at Mercury Gina A. DiBraccio,1 James December 2012; accepted 10 January 2013; published 1 March 2013. [1] On 18 March 2011, MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) became the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury

Salzman, Daniel

370

Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In addition to banning the export of elemental mercury from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (MEBA) required DOE to establish a facility for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury.

371

Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, A-16 . Keywords: aluminum, atomic clocks, frequency standards, ion traps, mercury 1. INTRODUCTION Optical frequency standards based on the mercury ion and, more recently, the aluminum ion are under devel- opment

372

Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

Clear, R.; Berman, S.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Mercury Absorption in Aqueous Oxidants Catalyzed by Mercury(II) Lynn L. Zhao and Gary T. Rochelle*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Absorption in Aqueous Oxidants Catalyzed by Mercury(II) Lynn L. Zhao and Gary T. Rochelle no immediate effect on mercury removal. In 0.8 M HNO3 with the addition of K2Cr2O7, the reaction is first at 25 °C. For mercury absorption in Hg(II) obtained by HgCl2 injection, the presence of HNO3 greatly

Rochelle, Gary T.

374

ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

Unknown

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

PCB and mercury contamination in great blue heron chicks associated with the Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been selected as an environmental indicator by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a component of remedial investigation. Chicks were collected from four colonies from 1992 through 1994. Tissues from these chicks were analyzed to determine if PCB and mercury concentrations differed between colonies located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and colonies located off the ORR. Chicks on the ORR contained significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in liver (P = 0.015), muscle (P = 0.060), and fat (P = 0.011) tissue compared to those collected off the ORR. Mercury concentrations also were significantly greater in liver (P = 0.025) and feather (P = 0.001) tissue collected from on-ORR chicks compared to concentrations in chicks collected off the ORR. The K-25 colony, located adjacent to the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs in fat and mercury in feathers (P < 0.05) compared to the Melton Hill colony also located on the ORR. These results suggest that herons nesting adjacent to K-25 are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs and mercury, however, preliminary analysis of reproductive data suggests that these contaminant concentrations do not effect fecundity. The authors feel that further monitoring of these colonies is warranted in order to determine the effectiveness of remedial action.

Brewer, R.; Buehler, D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Halbrook, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

Wall, Judy D.

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

THEORY OF SECULAR CHAOS AND MERCURY'S ORBIT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the chaotic orbital evolution of planetary systems, focusing on secular (i.e., orbit-averaged) interactions, which dominate on long timescales. We first focus on the evolution of a test particle that is forced by multiple planets. To linear order in eccentricity and inclination, its orbit precesses with constant frequencies. But nonlinearities modify the frequencies, and can shift them into and out of resonance with either the planets' eigenfrequencies (forming eccentricity or inclination secular resonances), or with linear combinations of those frequencies (forming mixed high-order secular resonances). The overlap of these nonlinear secular resonances drives secular chaos. We calculate the locations and widths of nonlinear secular resonances, display them together on a newly developed map (the 'map of the mean momenta'), and find good agreement between analytical and numerical results. This map also graphically demonstrates how chaos emerges from overlapping secular resonances. We then apply this newfound understanding to Mercury to elucidate the origin of its orbital chaos. We find that since Mercury's two free precession frequencies (in eccentricity and inclination) lie within {approx}25% of two other eigenfrequencies in the solar system (those of the Jupiter-dominated eccentricity mode and the Venus-dominated inclination mode), secular resonances involving these four modes overlap and cause Mercury's chaos. We confirm this with N-body integrations by showing that a slew of these resonant angles alternately librate and circulate. Our new analytical understanding allows us to calculate the criterion for Mercury to become chaotic: Jupiter and Venus must have eccentricity and inclination of a few percent. The timescale for Mercury's chaotic diffusion depends sensitively on the forcing. As it is, Mercury appears to be perched on the threshold for chaos, with an instability timescale comparable to the lifetime of the solar system.

Lithwick, Yoram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Wu Yanqin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

378

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The field survey program on the northwest rift zone consisted of soil mercury and radon emanometry surveys, groundwater temperature and chemistry studies, Schlumberger resistivity soundings and self-potential profiles. Geophysical and geochemical surveys along this rift (southwest) were limited by difficult field conditions and access limitations. The geophysical program consisted of one Schlumberger sounding, one

379

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

380

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

382

A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction of the sampling system was completed during the past quarter. The sampling system has been built on a 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. The laser system, all the associated optics, and the mounts and hardware needed to couple the UV light into the fiber optic have also been condensed and placed on an identical 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. This reduces the footprint of each system for ease of operation at a field test facility. The two systems are only connected with a fiber optic, to bring the UV light to the CRD cavity, and a single coaxial cable used to apply a voltage to the diode seed laser to scan the frequency over the desired mercury transition. SRD software engineers applied a couple of software fixes to correct the problems of the diode seed laser drifting or mode hopping. Upon successful completion of the software fixes another long-term test was conducted. A nearly 3 day long, 24 hours/day, test was run to test out the new subroutines. Everything appeared to work as it should and the mercury concentrations were accurately reported for the entire test, with the exception of a small interval of time when the intensity of the UV light dropped low enough that the program was no longer triggering properly. After adjusting the power of the laser the program returned to proper operation. With the successful completion of a relatively long test SRD software engineer incorporated the new subroutine into an entirely new program. This program operates the CRD instrument automatically as a continuous emissions monitor for mercury. In addition the program also reports the concentration of SO{sub 2} determined in the sample flue gas stream. Various functions, operation of, and a description of the new program have been included with this report. This report concludes the technical work associated with Phase II of the Cavity Ring-Down project for the continuous detection of trace levels of mercury. The project is presently gearing up for additional testing in preparation for a field test to be conducted at the DOE/NETL pilot plant facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Christopher C. Carter

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

FY09 assessment of mercury reduction at SNL/NM.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This assessment takes the result of the FY08 performance target baseline of mercury at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico, and records the steps taken in FY09 to collect additional data, encourage the voluntary reduction of mercury, and measure success. Elemental (metallic) mercury and all of its compounds are toxic, and exposure to excessive levels can permanently damage or fatally injure the brain and kidneys. Elemental mercury can also be absorbed through the skin and cause allergic reactions. Ingestion of inorganic mercury compounds can cause severe renal and gastrointestinal damage. Organic compounds of mercury such as methyl mercury, created when elemental mercury enters the environment, are considered the most toxic forms of the element. Exposures to very small amounts of these compounds can result in devastating neurological damage and death.1 SNL/NM is required to report annually on the site wide inventory of mercury for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program, as the site's inventory is excess of the ten pound reportable threshold quantity. In the fiscal year 2008 (FY08) Pollution Prevention Program Plan, Section 5.3 Reduction of Environmental Releases, a performance target stated was to establish a baseline of mercury, its principle uses, and annual quantity or inventory. This was accomplished on July 29, 2008 by recording the current status of mercury in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

McCord, Samuel Adam

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

NETL: News Release - Innovative Mercury Removal Technique Shows Early  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

August 5, 2003 August 5, 2003 Innovative Mercury Removal Technique Shows Early Promise Photochemical Process Developed in Federal Lab Removes Mercury from Flue Gas - NETL scientist Evan Granite prepares a lab test of the UV mercury removal process. - NETL scientist Evan Granite prepares for a lab test of the UV mercury removal process. MORGANTOWN, WV - A promising technology to remove mercury from coal-fired power plants -- dubbed the "GP-254 Process" -- has been developed and is currently being tested at the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Newly patented, the GP-254 Process enhances mercury removal using ultraviolet light to induce various components of power plant stack gas to react with the mercury, and changes the

385

Global change and mercury cycling: Challenges for implementing a global mercury treaty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Minamata Convention aims to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury. In the present study, the provisions of the Minamata Convention are examined to assess their ...

Selin, Noelle Eckley

386

MERCURY IN TUNAS: A REVIEW C. L. PETERSON, W. L. KLAWE, AND G. D. SHARp!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MERCURY IN TUNAS: A REVIEW C. L. PETERSON, W. L. KLAWE, AND G. D. SHARp! ABSTRACT Mercury not significantly altered the mercury content of the high seas where most tunas are captured. Mercury compounds importance of these pathways in tunas is unknown. Mercury occurs in tuna principally in the form

387

Mercury Exchange Program Summary: The Office of Research Safety (ORS) proudly presents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Exchange Program Summary: The Office of Research Safety (ORS) proudly presents the Mercury Exchange Program. This is a great program that enables laboratories to exchange their intact mercury thermometers, manometers, and other mercury-containing devices for non-mercury devices at no cost. The key

Duchowski, Andrew T.

388

Mercury Monitoring in California Sport Fish: A Historical Review and Recommendations for the Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Monitoring in California Sport Fish: A Historical Review and Recommendations for the Future with unusually severe and widespread mercury contamination due to extensive mercury and gold mining in the 1800s. Mercury monitoring in California sport sh began in 1969. Since that time, a substantial amount of mercury

389

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200701895 A Highly Selective Colorimetric Aqueous Sensor for Mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to methyl mercury, adding this potent neuro- toxin to the food chain.[4­6] Mercury poisoning causes serious Mercury poisoning remains a significant threat to human health, yet global mercury emissions continue of mercury poisoning requires new methods of detection that are sen- sitive and selective. Here we report

Tew, Gregory N.

390

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) brought about new awareness regarding the overall health-effects of stationary source fossil combustion emissions. Title III of the CAAA identified 189 pollutants, including mercury, as hazardous or toxic and required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate their emissions by source, health effects and environmental implications, including the need to control these emissions. These pollutants are collectively referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The provisions in Title III specific to electric generating units (EGU) were comprehensively addressed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaborative air toxic characterization programs conducted between 1990 and 1997. This work provided most of the data supporting the conclusions found in EPA's congressionally mandated reports regarding air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility boilers; the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1997)1 and the "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units -- Final Report to Congress" (1998).2 The first report identified coal-fired power plants as the largest source of human-generated mercury emissions in the U.S. and the second concluded that mercury from coal-fired utilities was the HAP of "greatest potential concern" to the environment and human health that merited additional research and monitoring.

391

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

Global Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury: A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's biogeo- chemical system, but centuries of human activi- ties, such as mining and fossil fuel burning by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1543-5938/09/1121-0043$20.00 Key Words ecosystem dynamics, health, land-atmosphere interactions, pollution Abstract Mercury pollution poses global human health

393

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Mariner 10 mission to Venus and Mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mariner 10, the first dual-planet, gravity-assist mission, was launched by an Atlas/Centaur Mariner launch vehicle from the National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationKennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida on 3 November 1973. Shortly after liftoff, a series of earth and Moon observations were made. These were followed by the initial trajectory correction maneuver and a period of interplanetary cruise operations. An additional trajectory correction maneuver was made several weeks prior to the encounter with Venus to refine the flyby on 5 February 1974 to 5000 km (3000 miles) above the surface of the planet. Extensive scientific observations of Venus took place over a period of about one week. Several thousand TV images were transmitted to Earth, many of which showed spectacular ultraviolet cloud formations and motions. The post-Venus trajectory required only a modest correction to place the spacecraft on a flight path that passed within the planned 1000 km (620 miles) of the surface of Mercury on 19 March 1974. Extensive TV imaging, together with other scientific observations, provided the first in-depth information concerning Mercury. The Mariner 10 mission is described, including engineering highlights of the flight and the key scientific results. The post-Mercury operation plan is discussed, the initial results of the second encounter with Mercury are given, and the possibilities of a third encounter are presented.

W.Eugene Giberson; N.William Cunningham

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

Total Mercury, Methylmercury, Methylmercury Production Potential, and Ancillary Streambed-Sediment and Pore-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Mercury, Methylmercury, Methylmercury Production Potential, and Ancillary Streambed Oak Creek, Wisconsin (center). (All photographs by the authors.) #12;Total Mercury, Methylmercury.E., 2008, Total mercury, methylmercury, methylmercury production potential, and ancillary streambed

397

ROTATION OF MERCURY: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF A RIGID ELLIPSOIDAL PLANET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory ROTATION OF MERCURY: THEDRETICAL ANALYSIS OF THEW -7405-eng-48 ROTATION OF MERCURY: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OFfor the rotation of Mercury is sho'ln to imply locked-in

Laslett, L. Jackson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Mercury and Methylmercury in the San Francisco Bay area: land-use impact and indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.P. , and Flegal A. R. 2003, Mercury speciation in the SanAbdrashitova S. A. , 2001, Mercury in Aquatic Environment: A222 Hydrology for Planner Mercury and Methylmercury in the

Kim, Hyojin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M. and Chang, B. , 1974; Mercury Monitor for Ambient Air,E. Poulson INTRODUCTION Mercury emissions from fossil-fuelHarley, R. A. , 1973; Mercury Balance on a Large Pulverized

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Mercury Distribution in Contaminated Surface Sediments from Four Estuaries, Khuzestan Shore, North Part of Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The distribution of mercury in surface sediment from four estuaries along the Khuzestan shore, north part of Persian Gulf, was measured. The concentration of mercury...p<0.05). The concentrations of mercury ...

Abdolah Raeisi Sarasiab; Mehdi Hosseini

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Mercury(II) Sorption to Two Florida Everglades Peats: Evidence for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury(II) Sorption to Two Florida Everglades Peats: Evidence for Strong and Weak Binding of mercury methylation was measured at pH 6.0 and 0.01 M ionic strength. The mercury(II) sorption isotherms

Illinois at Chicago, University of

402

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heng Ban Heng Ban Principal Investigator University of Alabama at Birmingham 1150 10th Avenue South Birmingham, AL 35294-4461 205-934-0011 hban@uab.edu Environmental and Water Resources OxidatiOn Of Mercury in PrOducts Of cOal cOMbustiOn Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. A variety of mercury reduction technologies are under commercial development, but an improved understanding of the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the transformations and capture of mercury in boilers and pollution control devices is required to achieve necessary performance and cost reduction levels. Oxidized mercury is more easily captured by pollution control devices, such as Selective

403

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

404

Mercury Energy formerly Aquus Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy formerly Aquus Energy Energy formerly Aquus Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Mercury Energy (formerly Aquus Energy) Place New Rochelle, New York Zip 10801 Sector Solar Product Integrator of solar energy systems for commercial and residential clients located in the mid-Atlantic and Northeast regions of the US through its wholly-owned subsidary Mercury Solar Energy. References Mercury Energy (formerly Aquus Energy)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mercury Energy (formerly Aquus Energy) is a company located in New Rochelle, New York . References ↑ "Mercury Energy (formerly Aquus Energy)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mercury_Energy_formerly_Aquus_Energy&oldid=348731

405

Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques Abstract In order to evaluate the suitability of the soil mercury geochemical survey as a geothermal exploration technique, soil concentrates of mercy are compared to the distribution of measured geothermal gradients at Dixie Valley, Nevada; Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah; and Nova, Japan. Zones containing high mercury values are found to closely correspond to high geothermal gradient zones in all three areas. Moreover, the highest mercury values within the anomalies are found near the wells with the highest geothermal gradient. Such close correspondence between soil concentrations

406

Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation in Mine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation in Mine Wastes Christopher S. Kim,1 James J. Rytuba,2 Gordon E. Brown, Jr.3 1Department of Physical Sciences, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 2U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 3Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Introduction Figure 1. Dr. Christopher Kim collects a mine waste sample from the Oat Hill mercury mine in Northern California. The majority of mercury mine wastes at these sites are present as loose, unconsolidated piles, facilitating the transport of mercury-bearing material downstream into local watersheds. Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that poses considerable health risks to humans, primarily through the consumption of fish which

407

Thief Process Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,521,021 entitled "Thief Process for the Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent is a novel process in which partially combusted coal is removed from the combustion chamber of a power plant using a lance (called a "thief"). This partially combusted coal acts as a thermally activated adsorbent for mercury. When it is in- jected into the duct work of the power plant downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber, mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury

408

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

409

Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Lualualei Valley Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Soil mercury and radon emanation surveys were performed over much of the accessible surface of Lualualei Valley (Cox and Thomas, 1979). The results of these surveys (Figs 7 and 8) delineated several areas in which soil mercury concentrations or radon emanation rates were substantially above normal background values. Some of these areas were apparently coincident with the mapped fracture systems associated with the caldera boundaries.

411

Thief Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov January 2012 Significance * Oxidizes heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury, in gas streams * Uses partially combusted coal ("Thief" carbon) * Yields an inexpensive catalyst * Cheap enough to be a disposable catalyst * Cuts long-term costs * Simultaneously addresses oxidation and adsorption issues Applications * Any process requiring removal of heavy

412

Water and Mercury Pipe Flow Simulation in FLUENTSimulation in FLUENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water and Mercury Pipe Flow Simulation in FLUENTSimulation in FLUENT Yan Zhan, Foluso Ladeinde;Straight Pipe flow Ph i l bl-- Physical problem Isothermal mercury/ water flow through a 60D straight pipe* Mercury 1500 41.844 m 4.04 m/s 18.5 bar 15.67 bar Water 1500 331.404 m 4.04 m/s 18.5 bar 18.291bar *uave

McDonald, Kirk

413

Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

414

Argonne/EPA system captures mercury from air in gold shops |...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Writing Internship Typical gold shop hood used to purify gold by superheating the goldmercury amalgam until the mercury vaporizes. The vaporized mercury is directed outside the...

415

E-Print Network 3.0 - aquatic mercury assessment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sea Grant Institute in consultation with the panel chairs. Summary: the assessment of fish-mercury responses to changes in mercury loadings. High net methylation rates in...

416

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III T; Murphy J T. DOE/NETLs Phase II Mercury ControlFired Power Plants, DOE/NETL Mercury R&D Program Review,

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced mercury control Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Francisco Estuary Institute Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 3 MERCURY POLLUTION PREVENTION IN MINNESOTA Emily Ray Moore Summary: applications Mercury in glass...

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution mercury Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mercury Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution mercury Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Environment, Health and Safety...

419

Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Cover Photos: * Top: Limestone Power Plant  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 FEBRUARY 2008 6 FEBRUARY 2008 Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Cover Photos: * Top: Limestone Power Plant * Bottom left: AES Greenidge Power Plant * Bottom right: Presque Isle Power Plant A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between the U.S. Department of Energy and: * Consol Energy * Pegasus Technologies * We Energies  Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Executive Summary ............................................................................ 4 Background ......................................................................................... 5 Mercury Removal Projects ................................................................ 7 TOXECON(tm) Retrofit For Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers ........................................7

420

Ch. VIII, Soil mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs Authors C. D. Ringrose and R. H. Pearl Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination full-scale mercury" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

422

Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

423

Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

424

ORNL scientists solve mercury mystery | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ORNL scientists solve mercury mystery February 07, 2013 Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientist Liyuan Liang, left, and a team of researchers have identified two genes required for...

425

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

426

ORNL research reveals new challenges for mercury cleanup | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jennifer Brouner Communications 865.241.0709 ORNL research reveals new challenges for mercury cleanup ORNL researchers are learning more about the microbial processes that convert...

427

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

428

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

429

anthropogenic mercury emissions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

marine boundary layer Palmer, Paul 25 MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Effluents for...

430

Dissolved Organic Carbon Thresholds Affect Mercury Bioaccumulation in Arctic Lakes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Barkay, T.; Gillman, M.; Turner, R. R.Effects of dissolved organic carbon and salinity on bioavailability of mercury Appl. ... Barkay, Tamar; Gillman, Mark; Turner, Ralph R. ...

Todd D. French; Adam J. Houben; Jean-Pierre W. Desforges; Linda E. Kimpe; Steven V. Kokelj; Alexandre J. Poulain; John P. Smol; Xiaowa Wang; Jules M. Blais

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

431

Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kooten, 1987) Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Medicine Lake Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown References Gerald K. Van Kooten (1987) Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mercury_Vapor_At_Medicine_Lake_Area_(Kooten,_1987)&oldid=386431" Category: Exploration Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation:

432

Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three Geothermal Prospects In Northern Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three Geothermal Prospects In Northern Nevada Details Activities (14) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Ground water sampling, desorbed mercury soil geochemical surveys and a radiometric geophysical survey was conducted in conjunction with geological mapping at three geothermal prospects in northern Nevada. Orientation sample lines from 610 m (2000 ft.) to 4575 m (15,000 ft.) in length were surveyed at right angles to known and suspected faults. Scintillometer readings (gamma radiation - total counts / second) were also

433

Langmuir Films of Polycyclic Molecules on Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Langmuir films (LFs) of biphenyl and anthracene derivatives on the surface of liquid mercury were studied by surface-specific X-ray and surface tension measurements. Phases of lying-down, side-lying and standing-up molecules were found, some of which exhibit long-range lateral order. The molecular symmetry and the position and nature of the side-, end-, and headgroups are shown to dominate the structural evolution of the LFs with surface coverage.

Tamam,L.; Kraack, H.; Sloutskin, E.; Ocko, B.; Pershan, P.; Deutsch, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

An evaluation of elemental mercury vapor exposure to children due to silver-mercury dental amalgam restorations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EVALUATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY VAPOR EXPOSURE TO CHILDREN DUE TO SILVER-MERCURY DENTAL AMALGAM RESTORATIONS A Thesis By RONALD DALE TAYLOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies College Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment.... . . . . 1X LIST OF FIGURES. I. INTRODUCTION. II ' LITERATURE REVIEW Dental Mercury Toxicology Body Burden. Inhalation Exposure. Childhood Exposure III. METHODOLOGY. . . . 3 5 . . . 8 . . . 10 . . . 14 . 16 Human Research Committee...

Taylor, Ronald Dale

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Gravitomagnetism and the Earth-Mercury range  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We numerically work out the impact of the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect on the Earth-Mercury range caused by the gravitomagnetic field of the rotating Sun. The peak-to peak nominal amplitude of the resulting time-varying signal amounts to 1.75 10^1 m over a temporal interval 2 yr. Future interplanetary laser ranging facilities should reach a cm-level in ranging to Mercury over comparable timescales; for example, the BepiColombo mission, to be launched in 2014, should reach a 4.5 - 10 cm level over 1 - 8 yr. We looked also at other Newtonian (solar quadrupole mass moment, ring of the minor asteroids, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta, Trans-Neptunian Objects) and post-Newtonian (gravitoelectric Schwarzschild solar field) dynamical effects on the Earth-Mercury range. They act as sources of systematic errors for the Lense-Thirring signal which, in turn, if not properly modeled, may bias the recovery of some key parameters of such other dynamical features of motion. Their nominal peak-to-peak amplitudes are as large as 4 10^5 m (Schwarzschild), 3 10^2 m (Sun's quadrupole), 8 10^1 m (Ceres, Pallas, Vesta), 4 m (ring of minor asteroids), 8 10^-1 m (Trans-Neptunian Objects). Their temporal patterns are different with respect to that of the gravitomagnetic signal.

Lorenzo Iorio

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

436

Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z