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Sample records for determination dry process

  1. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dry Process Electrode Fabrication Dry Process Electrode Fabrication 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es134_wixom_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Dry Process Electrode Fabrication Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

  2. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  3. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energys Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  6. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  7. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  8. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  9. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL); Grodzka, Philomena G. (Huntsville, AL); McCormick, Paul O. (Athens, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lambda Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced drying process...

  11. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M. (New Milford, CT); Brown, Duncan W. (Wilton, CT)

    1989-08-01

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  12. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  13. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  14. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr; Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr

    2013-12-09

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  15. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Drying '84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baunack, F.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: mechanism of water sorption-desorption in polymers; progress in freeze drying; on drying of materials in through circulation system; safety aspects of spray drying; dewatering process enhanced by electroosmosis; pressure drop and particle circulation studies in modified slot spouted beds; and experience in drying coal slurries.

  17. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Kang, T.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.; AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO )

    1989-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a thermal process for drying fine coal that (1) reduces explosion potential, (2) uses a fluidized bed with minimum elutriation, (3) produces a stable dry coal by preventing moisture reabsorption and autogeneous heating, (4) reduces fugitive dust emissions, and (5) is technically and economically feasible. The project scope of work requires completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of the two feed coals, (3) bench-scale IFB drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic process evaluation. The project technical achievements are primarily related to understanding of the behavior of the two coals in the IFB reactor. Solids residence time and solids entrainment can be correlated using the Reynolds number. Gas produced from the coal during drying and the product composition can be correlated to the average dryer temperature. A dry product with minimal proximate moisture and substantially increased heating value can be produced from either of these coals under a wide variety of fluidizing gas-to-solids ratios and IFB operating temperatures. Product characterization indicates that moisture reabsorption can be significantly reduced and that fugitive dust contents can be almost completely reduced. 4 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Mechanisms of dry SO/sub 2/ control processes. Final report Sep 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apple, C.; Kelly, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    The report discusses physical and chemical processes and reaction mechanisms for lime spray drying and dry injection of sodium compounds in dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. It includes: chemical reactions, physical changes, proposed reaction mechanisms and mathematical models, process parameters affecting reactions and their rates, and data needed to verify proposed reaction mechanisms and models. Published technical papers were the primary reference sources. The report focuses on coal-fired boiler dry FGD applications. Lime spray drying reactions are primarily gas/liquid-phase reactions, with SO/sub 2/ removal depending on moisture in the lime slurry droplet. Initially, the moisture content is high, and the reaction rate is controlled by diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the droplet surface; most SO/sub 2/ removal occurs during this phase. As evaporation reduces the moisture, the dissolution of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ into ions limits the SO/sub 2/ removal rate. Later, the precipitation of CaSO/sub 3/.1/2 H/sub 2/O onto the surface of the lime particles retards diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the unreacted sorbent. Injecting sodium compound powders into flue gas removes SO/sub 2/ via gas/solid reactions. First, NaHCO/sub 3/ is thermally decomposed to Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (small pores in the sorbent particles increase the particles' surface area and reactivity). Then the SO/sub 2/ reacts with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/, starting at the particle surface.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)

  20. Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houston, Michael R. (Berkeley, CA); Howe, Roger T. (Lafayette, CA); Maboudian, Roya (Orinda, CA); Srinivasan, Uthara (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

  1. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  2. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  3. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, B. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Passador, F. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Pessan, L. A. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Bchi, Switzerland) with 115C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  4. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1989-June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This research project is for the development of a technical and economical feasible process for drying and stability fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research conducted in this quarter focused upon thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both feed coals; continuation of the bench-scale IFB drying experiments; and initiation of the characterization of the products from the bench-scale drying experiments to determine their moisture reabsorption, dustiness, and spontaneous ignition properties. Thirty 4-hr and six 12-hr bench-scale IFB drying tests were conducted this quarter making a total of forty-one 4-hr (19 using Eagle Butte feed coal and 22 using Usibelli feed coal) and six 12-hr (3 using each feed coal) tests conducted thus far. IFB reactor slopes of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 degrees were investigated for each feed coal. During the tests using Eagle Butte coal, gas-to-solids ratios ranging from approximately 0.7 to 9.7 lb/lb (kg/kg) and average IFB reactor temperatures ranging from approximately 370 to 700/degree/F (188 to 371/degree/C) were tested. 5 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  6. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in the Waste

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Characterization Glovebox | Department of Energy Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in the Waste Characterization Glovebox Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in the Waste Characterization Glovebox This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's investigation into the radiological release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Additional documents referenced and listed

  7. Institutional Change Process Step 1: Determine Goals | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Determine Goals Institutional Change Process Step 1: Determine Goals Process for Continuous Change The first step in the institutional change process for continuous change is defining your sustainability goals. That is, decide what outcomes are desired (or required) over what period of time. Behavioral, organizational, and institutional changes typically are means to achieve desired energy, resource, or greenhouse gas emission outcomes. They are not ends in and of themselves. Agencies may

  8. TA-53 UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE SCREENING AND DETERMINATION PROCESS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AND DETERMINATION PROCESS TRAINING WORKSHEET CT-TA53-FRM-505-R00 102011 Page 1 of 3 LA-UR-12-10162 TRAINEE NAME: Z NUMBER: GROUP: PURPOSE AND SCOPE: This worksheet is used to...

  9. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-07-25

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples.

  10. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the second quarter, January 19--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    This research project is for the development of a technically and economically feasible process for drying and stabilizing of fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research activities were initiated with efforts concentrating on characterization of the two feed coals: Eagle Butte coal from AMAX Coal Company's mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming; and coal from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc.'s mine located in central Alaska. Both of the feed coals are high-moisture subbituminous coals with ''as received'' moisture contents of 29% and 22% for the Eagle Butte and Usibelli coals, respectively. However, physical analyses of the crushed coal samples (--28-mesh particle size range) indicate many differences. The minimum fluidization velocity (MFV) of the feed coals were experimentally determined. The MFV for --28-mesh Eagle Butte coal is approximately 1 ft/min, and the MFV for --28-mesh Usibelli coal is approximately 3 ft/min. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Singer, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  12. Expert system for testing industrial processes and determining sensor status

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method and system are disclosed for monitoring both an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include determining a minimum number of sensor pairs needed to test the industrial process as well as the sensor for evaluating the state of operation of both. The technique further includes generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the pair of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 24 figs.

  13. Process for determining the polarity of a crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Andrade Bruning, I.M.R.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a process for determining the relative polarity of a crude oil or fraction thereof. It comprises: contacting a known test substance with a stationary phase of the crude oil or fraction in a gas chromatography column, and measuring the interaction between the test substance and the oil; contacting the known test substance with a stationary phase of a non-polar second substance in a gas chromatography column and measuring the interaction between the test substance and the non-polar second substance; and determining the polarity of the crude oil relative to the non-polar second substance from the measurements obtained.

  14. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.; Humenik, K.E.

    1997-05-13

    A method and system are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 17 figs.

  16. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.; Humenik, K.E.

    1995-10-17

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor are disclosed. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test. 17 figs.

  17. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Hoyer, Kristin K.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  18. System for monitoring an industrial process and determining sensor status

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Hoyer, Kristin K.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring an industrial process and a sensor. The method and system include generating a first and second signal characteristic of an industrial process variable. One of the signals can be an artificial signal generated by an auto regressive moving average technique. After obtaining two signals associated with one physical variable, a difference function is obtained by determining the arithmetic difference between the two pairs of signals over time. A frequency domain transformation is made of the difference function to obtain Fourier modes describing a composite function. A residual function is obtained by subtracting the composite function from the difference function and the residual function (free of nonwhite noise) is analyzed by a statistical probability ratio test.

  19. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernacki, Bruce E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  20. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colwell, F.S.; Geesey, G.G.; Gillis, R.J.; Lehman, R.M.

    1997-11-11

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure differences in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses. 5 figs.

  2. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colwell, Frederick S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Geesey, Gill G. (Bozeman, MT); Gillis, Richard J. (Bozeman, MT); Lehman, R. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure difference in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses.

  3. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colwell, Frederick S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Geesey, Gill G. (Bozeman, MT); Gillis, Richard J. (Bozeman, MT); Lehman, R. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure differences in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses.

  4. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colwell, F.S.; Geesey, G.G.; Gillis, R.J.; Lehman, R.M.

    1999-07-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for microorganisms in the sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure difference in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses. 5 figs.

  5. Full containment spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, K.

    1999-11-01

    Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

  6. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  7. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  8. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  9. On-line method of determining utilization factor in Hg-196 photochemical separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Moskowitz, Philip E. (Peabody, MA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining the utilization factor [U] in a photochemical mercury enrichment process (.sup.196 Hg) by measuring relative .sup.196 Hg densities using absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  11. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  12. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  13. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  14. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  15. dry-regen | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No.: FC26-07NT43089 Schematic of RTI's Dry Carbonate Process (click image to enlarge) Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International completed two projects, NT43089 and...

  16. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  17. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  18. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  19. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  20. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon Universitys Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  1. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of a Minimum Soiling Level to Affect Photovoltaic Devices Patrick D. Burton and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA pdburto@sandia.gov Abstract-Soil accumulation on photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a challenge to long-term performance prediction and lifetime estimates due to the inherent difficulty in quantifying small changes over an extended period. Low mass loadings of soil are a common occurrence, but remain difficult to quantify. In order to

  2. Post-processing of seismic parameter data based on valid seismic event determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEvilly, Thomas V.

    1985-01-01

    An automated seismic processing system and method are disclosed, including an array of CMOS microprocessors for unattended battery-powered processing of a multi-station network. According to a characterizing feature of the invention, each channel of the network is independently operable to automatically detect, measure times and amplitudes, and compute and fit Fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) for both P- and S- waves on analog seismic data after it has been sampled at a given rate. The measured parameter data from each channel are then reviewed for event validity by a central controlling microprocessor and if determined by preset criteria to constitute a valid event, the parameter data are passed to an analysis computer for calculation of hypocenter location, running b-values, source parameters, event count, P- wave polarities, moment-tensor inversion, and Vp/Vs ratios. The in-field real-time analysis of data maximizes the efficiency of microearthquake surveys allowing flexibility in experimental procedures, with a minimum of traditional labor-intensive postprocessing. A unique consequence of the system is that none of the original data (i.e., the sensor analog output signals) are necessarily saved after computation, but rather, the numerical parameters generated by the automatic analysis are the sole output of the automated seismic processor.

  3. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  4. Combined Corex/DRI technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flickenschild, A.J.; Reufer, F.; Eberle, A.; Siuka, D.

    1996-08-01

    A feasible steelmaking alternative, the Corex/direct reduction/electric arc furnace combination, provides an economic route for the production of high quality steel products. This combination is a major step into a new generation of iron and steel mills. These mills are based on the production of liquid steel using noncoking coal and comply with the increasing demands of environmental protection. The favorable production costs are based on: Utilization of Corex and DRI/HBI plants; Production of hot metal equal to blast furnace quality; Use of low cost raw materials such as noncoking coal and lump ore; Use of process gas as reducing agent for DRI/HBI production; and Use of electric arc furnace with high hot metal input as the steelmaking process. The high flexibility of the process permits the adjustment of production in accordance with the strategy of the steel mills. New but proven technologies and applications of the latest state of art steelmaking process, e.g., Corex, in conjunction with DRI production as basic raw material for an electric arc furnace, will insure high quality, high availability, optimized energy generation at high efficiency rates, and high product quality for steelmaking.

  5. Determination of residual monomers resulting from the chemical polymerization process of dental materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boboia, S.; Moldovan, M.; Ardelean, I.

    2013-11-13

    The residual monomer present in post-polymerized dental materials encourages premature degradation of the reconstructed tooth. That is why the residual monomer should be quantified in a simple, fast, accurate and reproducible manner. In our work we propose such an approach for accurate determination of the residual monomer in dental materials which is based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The results of the NMR approach are compared with those of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The samples under study contain the main monomers (2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) constituting the liquid phase of most dental materials and an initiator. Two samples were analyzed with different ratios of chemical initiation systems: N,N-dimethyl-p-toluide: benzoyl peroxide (1:2 and 0.7:1.2). The results obtained by both techniques highlight that by reducing the initiator the polymerization process slows down and the amount of residual monomer reduces. This prevents the premature degradation of the dental fillings and consequently the reduction of the biomaterial resistance.

  6. Powder processing for the fabrication of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics. 1: Influence of spray-dried granule strength on pore size distribution in green compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Isomura, Kenji; Jimbo, Genji; Junichiro, Tsubaki

    1995-01-01

    The effect of spray-dried granule strength on the microstructure of green compacts obtained by isostatic pressing was quantitatively analyzed. The fracture strength of single granules of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder made with ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders was measured directly by diametral compression. It was found that fracture strength increased notably with the increasing relative density of the granule and the decreasing size of agglomerates in suspension before spray-drying. Even when green bodies were prepared at an isostatic pressure of 200 MPa, intergranular pores, which negatively affected densification of the sintered bodies, occurred between unfractured granules. The volume and size of these pores in the green compacts increased with the increasing fracture strength of the granules. In the case of closely packed granules, an isostatic pressure of 800 MPa was required to completely collapse the intergranular pores. A simple equation was derived to calculate the isostatic pressure necessary for complete collapse of intergranular pores in the green compacts, and it was determined that granule strength must be kept as low as possible to obtain uniform green compacts.

  7. Freeze drying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-12-07

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  8. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  9. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  11. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Hafnium Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Jack Lee; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Simmerman, S. G.

    2009-02-01

    A simple test-tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide microspheres by the internal gelation process. Broth formulations of hafnyl chloride [HfOCl{sub 2}], hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous hafnium oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 70-90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations in order to equate the test-tube gelation times with actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broths.

  12. Drying '86. Volume 1-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujumdar, A.S. )

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 123 papers grouped under the headings of: Drying theory and modelling; Drying of granular materials; Spray drying; Drying of paper and wood products; Drying of foodstuff and biomaterials; Drying of agricultural products and grains; Superheated steam drying; Industrial drying systems and novel dryers; Use of solar energy in drying; Measurement and control of humidity and moisture; and Dewatering.

  13. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  14. Gelcasting compositions having improved drying characteristics and machinability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Walls, Claudia A. H.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting composition has improved drying behavior, machinability and shelf life in the dried and unfired state. The composition includes an inorganic powder, solvent, monomer system soluble in the solvent, an initiator system for polymerizing the monomer system, and a plasticizer soluble in the solvent. Dispersants and other processing aides to control slurry properties can be added. The plasticizer imparts an ability to dry thick section parts, to store samples in the dried state without cracking under conditions of varying relative humidity, and to machine dry gelcast parts without cracking or chipping. A method of making gelcast parts is also disclosed.

  15. Spray-drying FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, K.

    1984-05-01

    Limited data are available on spray drying for SO/SUB/2 and particulate control to enable utilities to evaluate the claims of vendors. EPRI is sponsoring pilot- and full-scale testing of this technology and some results are presented.

  16. Biomass drying technologies. Final report, September 1997--May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomaa, E.

    1998-07-01

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the drying medium are discussed more closely, with comparison to the methods of drying using air or flue gas as the drying medium. Available types of steam dryers are described with reference to operating conditions, energy requirements, and types of biomass dried. Energy aspects are considered, as well as possibilities of steam utilization to recover the latent heat of vaporization. Thermal energy required for drying of biomass is calculated using tabulated values of steam properties. The amount of steam to provide the thermal energy needed for biomass drying, at different pressures and temperatures applicable in steam dryers, is calculated for both indirectly and directly heated steam dryers. The calculated heat requirement values of steam dryers have been compared with those reported in the literature. Further, anticipated emissions from flue gas and steam drying processes have been summarized.

  17. Method and system for determining precursors of health abnormalities from processing medical records

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2013-06-25

    Medical reports are converted to document vectors in computing apparatus and sampled by applying a maximum variation sampling function including a fitness function to the document vectors to reduce a number of medical records being processed and to increase the diversity of the medical records being processed. Linguistic phrases are extracted from the medical records and converted to s-grams. A Haar wavelet function is applied to the s-grams over the preselected time interval; and the coefficient results of the Haar wavelet function are examined for patterns representing the likelihood of health abnormalities. This confirms certain s-grams as precursors of the health abnormality and a parameter can be calculated in relation to the occurrence of such a health abnormality.

  18. Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry Year Guide (PDF, 5 pages, 44 kb) and Figure 1 - Dry Year Strategy (PDF,...

  19. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkington, W. Brice (Grand Junction, CO)

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  20. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed tank--1.6 gallons; (c) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--1.6 gallons; (d) Contactor drain tank--0.40 gallons; (e) Strip effluent hold tank--0.33 gallons; (f) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--0.37 gallons; (g) Strip effluent decanter--0.14 gallons; (h) Solvent hold tank--0.30 gallon; and (i) Corrugated piping between contactors--16-21 mL. (5) After the initial vessel draining, flushing the vessels with 100 gallons of water using a spray nozzle that produces complete vessel coverage and draining the flush water reduces the source term by the following amounts: (i) Salt solution receipt tank--63X; (ii) Salt solution feed tank--63X; (iii) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--63X; (iv) Contactor drain tank--250X; (v) Strip effluent hold tank--300X; (vi) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--270X; (vii) Strip effluent decanter--710X; (viii) Solvent hold tank--330X. Understand that these estimates of film thickness are based on laboratory testing and fluid mechanics theory. The calculations assume drainage occurs by film flow. Much of the data used to develop the models came from tests with very ''clean'' fluids. Impurities in the fluids and contaminants on the vessels walls could increase liquid holdup. The application of film thickness models and source term reduction calculations should be considered along with operational conditions and H-Tank Farm/Liquid Waste operating experience. These calculations exclude the PVV/HVAC duct work and piping, as well as other areas that area outside the scope of this report.

  1. Dry Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total natural gas proved reserves, 2014 million barrels and billion cubic feet 2014 Dry Natural Gas billion cubic feet billion cubic feet Alaska 6,805 241 6,745 Lower 48 States 382,036 14,788 361,959 Alabama 2,121 59 2,036 Arkansas 12,795 5 12,789 California 2,260 112 2,107 Coastal Region Onshore 277 12 261 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 84 4 80 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 1,823 96 1,690 State Offshore 76 0 76 Colorado 21,992 813 20,851

  2. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: a methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, W.C.; Brown, K.C.

    1981-08-11

    To permit an economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, a methodology was developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. Then an expression is presented that gives the annual required revenue and the price of solar energy. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossil fuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calculation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  3. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  4. Combined Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Processes Determining Cathode Performance in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukla, Maija M.; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Merkle, R.; Mastrikov, Yuri; Maier, J.

    2013-02-11

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980s as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnots cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

  5. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  6. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  7. Spray-dried fluid-bed sorbents tests - CMP-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of manufacturing highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents by spray drying, suitable for bubbling (conventional) as well as transport-type fluidized-bed reactor systems.

  8. Mathematical models of cocurrent spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negiz, A.; Lagergren, E.S.; Cinar, A.

    1995-10-01

    A steady state mathematical model for a cocurrent spray dryer is developed. The model includes the mass, momentum, and energy balances for a single drying droplet as well as the total energy and mass balances of the drying medium. A log normal droplet size distribution is assumed to hold at the exit of the twin-fluid atomizer located at the top of the drying chamber. The discretization of this log normal distribution with a certain number of bins yields a system of nonlinear coupled first-order differential equations as a function of the axial distance of the drying chamber. This system of equations is used to compute the axial changes in droplet diameter, density, velocity, moisture, and temperature for the droplets at each representative bin. Furthermore, the distributions of important process parameters such as droplet moisture content, diameter, density, and temperature are also obtainable along the length of the chamber. On the basis of the developed model, a constrained nonlinear optimization problem is solved, where the exit particle moisture content is minimized with respect to the process inputs subjected to a fixed mean particle diameter at the chamber exit. Response surface studies based on empirical models are also performed to illustrate the effectiveness of these techniques in achieving the optimal solution when an a priori model is not available. The structure of empirical models obtained from the model is shown to be in agreement with the structure of the empirical models obtained from the experimental studies.

  9. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Objective Advance research from prototype dryer ... First commercial market is dry flavors designed to ... change from existing practice Requires novel dryer ...

  10. DRI Companies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Irvine, California Zip: 92614 Sector: Solar Product: US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates:...

  11. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  12. Some considerations in simulation of superheated steam drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Rotorua (New Zealand). Wood Processing Div.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model for high-temperature drying of softwood lumber with moist air has been modified and extended to simulate wood drying with superheated steam. In the simulation, differences between the two types of drying are considered, these include: external heat and mass transfer processes and calculation of equilibrium moisture content. The external mass transfer coefficient in the superheated steam drying was found to be much higher than that in the moist air drying, however, the heat transfer coefficients for these two cases were of the same order. The predicted drying curves and wood temperatures from the superheated steam drying model were compared with experimental data and there was close agreement. Further studies will apply the model to development of commercial drying schedules for wood drying with superheated steam.

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  14. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  15. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  16. Campaign 2 Level 2 Milestone Review 2009: Milestone # 3132 Determine Sustainable TATB Source and Processing Options, and Potential Binder Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J

    2009-09-28

    A presentation was made to the Milestone review committee on September 18, 2009 that outlined the efforts making up the achievement of the Campaign 2, Level 2 Milestone No.3132. After the presentation and review of the collective work, the committee determined that the milestone was successfully completed. Highlights from this review are discussed here. A brief summary of the discussion points includes: (1) It was clear that this work represents a comprehensive collection of experimental, modeling, literature review, and analysis activities with a thorough attention to the details. The deliverables include 2 technical presentations and 5 written reports describing this work. (2) This is a joint LLNL/LANL milestone led by Campaign 2 with leveraging effort from other campaigns and activities at LLNL: (a) The contributing programs included Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC) and Readiness Campaign. Key technical elements of this work were built on scientific advances from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. (b) Part of this work covers activities associated with the Enhanced Collaboration (EC) with the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). (3) This Milestone work has supported a high-level Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Joint DoD/DOE TATB Production Initiative. This is an example of the strong relevance of this Milestone research to current stockpile issues. A summary of the future direction in this research area includes: (1) The Ionic Liquid (IL) re-crystallization process has been demonstrated to improve the performance of recrystallized TATB molecule. However, lower thermal stability of the IL crystallized material (compared to conventional TATB) warrants further study to understand the source of this effect. (2) The compatibility issue needs to be addressed in upcoming work. One concern is how the new solvent and ionic liquid used in the formulation process might behave in the nuclear explosive assembly. Similarly, compatibility studies for the candidate binder must be performed. The future focus on R&D and additional scientific tools to address these areas is technically sound. (3) Currently there is no defined process for advancing this milestone's research and development successes into a production scale effort. The committee recognizes that other campaigns (Readiness Campaign, Enhanced Surveillance Campaign) will need to consider additional leverage resources for that scale-up effort. (4) We recommend that this effort continues to use modeling and experiment as complimentary paths to strengthen the scientific approach.

  17. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  18. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  19. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Determination of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in SRC-II process development Unit P-99 gas streams. [Impure hydrogen in recycle gas and low pressure gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.; Galli, R.D.; McCracken, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A knowledge of the identity and concentration of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in the various gas streams of the SRC-II Coal Liquefaction Process is needed in order to design the recycle gas purification and low pressure gas processing systems in large-scale plants. This report discusses the results of an experimental study to identify and quantify trace compounds in the various high and low pressure gas streams of SRC-II Process Development Unit P-99. A capillary column trace hydrocarbon analysis has been developed which can quantify 41 hydrocarbons from methane to xylenes in SRC-II gas streams. With more work a number of other hydrocarbons could be quantified. A fixed gas analysis was also developed which can be integrated with the hydrocarbon analysis to yield a complete stream analysis. A gas chromatographic procedure using a flame photometric detector was developed for trace sulfur compounds, and six sulfur compounds were identified and quantified. A chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ down to 10 ppB in concentration. A gas chromatographic procedure using an electron capture detector was developed for HCN analysis down to 5 ppM. Drager tube analyses gave semiquantitative data on HCl and NH/sub 3/ content of the gas streams.

  20. Methodology for Determining the Radiological Status of a Process: Application to Decommissioning of a Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girones, Ph.; Ducros, C.; Legoaller, C.; Lamadie, F.; Fulconis, J.M.; Thiebaut, V.; Mahe, C.

    2006-07-01

    Decommissioning a nuclear facility is subject to various constraints including regulatory safety requirements, but also the obligation to limit the waste volume and toxicity. To meet these requirements the activity level in each component must be known at each stage of decommissioning, from the preliminary studies to the final release of the premises. This document describes a set of methods used to determine the radiological state of a spent fuel reprocessing plant. This approach begins with a bibliographical survey covering the nature of the chemical processes, the operational phases, and the radiological assessments during the plant operating period. In this phase it is also very important to analyze incidents and waste management practices. All available media should be examined, including photos and videos which can provide valuable data and must not be disregarded. At the end of this phase, any items requiring verification or additional data are reviewed to define further investigations. Although it is not unusual at this point to carry out an additional bibliographical survey, the essential task is to carry out in situ measurements. The second phase thus consists in performing in situ measurement campaigns involving essentially components containing significant activity levels. The most routinely used methods combine the results of elementary measurements such as the dose rate or more sophisticated measurements such as gamma spectrometry using CdZnTe detectors and gamma imaging to estimate and localize the radioactivity. Each instrument provides part of the answer (location of a contamination hot spot, standard spectrum, activity). The results are combined and verified through the use of calculation codes: Mercure, Visiplan and Microshield. (authors)

  1. Preparation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Mo nanocomposite powder via chemical route and spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, M.; Cheng, F.; Wei, W.J.

    1996-08-01

    A route to prepare nanometer-sized Mo particulates in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was attempted by a combination of solution reactions in molecular scale and forcing precipitation by a spray-drying technique. MoO{sub 3} was first dissolved in ammonia water and then added in the slurry with high purity, submicrometer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. Mixed suspension was spray-dried, and then the dried granules were reduced by hydrogen gas and further hot-pressing to a bulky composite at various temperatures. Dissolution of Mo oxide, adsorption reactions on alumina surface, and surface potential of alumina particles in homogeneous ammonia suspension were studied. Characterization of the granules, including compactability, flowing properties, surface morphology, grain growth of Mo and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and mixing homogeneity, were examined. Homogeneity of the spray-dried granules was determined by the calculation of mixing index and the observation of the microstructure of sintered body. The existence of intergranular, intragranular, and nanosized Mo particulates within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the evidences revealed that homogeneous composites with nanometer-sized Mo had been successfully prepared by this attempt with the proposed chemical route and following spray-drying process. {copyright}{ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  2. Drying/self-assembly of nanoparticle suspensions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Plimpton, Steven James; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.

  3. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  4. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  5. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  6. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Ltd., Rotorua (New Zealand). Mfg. Technologies Portfolio

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  7. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charles Beetz, Chief Scientist, ZoomEssence, Inc. U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Advance research from prototype dryer to integrated pilot system for our ambient temperature spray drying technology  Several objectives:  Improve emulsion formulation  Develop an industrialized atomizer  Develop a

  8. Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Map of the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Zone of the United States. The zone contains the eastern side of California and follows the US border to cover the western half of Texas. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. Best Practice Guides 40%

  9. Trends in powder processing equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

  10. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 3/31/2008 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, D. Hyman, C. Payne, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, D. Templeton, and J. Wolfe Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42621 Revised March 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

  11. CX-012693: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experimental Determination and Mechanistic Modeling of Used Fuel Drying by Vacuum and Gas Circulation for Dry Cask Storage University of South Carolina CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 41869 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Nuclear Energy

  12. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  13. Dry scrubbing of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, N.D.

    1982-06-01

    The advantages of dry scrubbing over wet scrubbing or spray drying are considered. One of the problem areas is that of waste disposal. The most cost-effective solutions are land disposal or landfill in clay cells. The factors influencing the selection of an SO/sub 2/ scrubbing system are discussed. Nahcolite appears to be the most promising agent for dry scrubbing.

  14. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling R1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for handling and opening full-sized dry storage casks in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's plan for confirmatory dry storage project for high burnup fuel.

  15. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  16. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  17. Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys The purpose of this research effort is to determine the effects of canister/cask vacuum drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding alloys during cooling for a range of peak drying-storage temperatures, internal gas pressures, and hoop stresses. The HBU PWR cladding alloys have a wide range of

  18. Well Placement Decision Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well Placement Decision Process Well Placement Decision Process Determining where to place a well is a multi-step process. August 1, 2013 Investigation process for determining where to place a sentinel well Investigation process for determining where

  19. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  20. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  1. Second survey of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems. Final report Mar-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.E.; Shareef, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    The report is an updated assessment of dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Current and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities in the U.S. since October 1979, are reviewed including: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas combined with particulate collection in an ESP or fabric filter, and (3) combustion of coal/alkali fuel mixtures. Spray drying remains the only commercially applied dry FGD process. Since the last survey, completed late in 1979, eight utility and two industrial spray drying systems have been sold. Nine of them use lime as the sorbent, and nine use a fabric filter for particulate collection. Removal guarantees for so/sub 2/ range from 62 to 85%, depending on coal sulfur content. Two full-scale industrial spray drying systems are currently operating. The first large utility system is scheduled for startup early in 1981. Several publicly and privately funded pilot-scale programs have been completed in the past year. EPA is currently funding three such programs (two spray drying and one dry injection), as well as development of two combustion modification processes for SO2 control (combustion of coal/limestone pellets and of a pulverized coal/alkali mixture in a low-NOx burner). The DoE and others are studying dry injection on a pilot scale.

  2. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  3. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  4. CX-006743: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dry Process Electrode FabricationCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/06/2011Location(s): San Diego, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-006744: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dry Process Electrode FabricationCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/06/2011Location(s): San Diego, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  7. DRI Research Parks Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Parks Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: DRI Research Parks Ltd Place: United States Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research...

  8. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301977" ,"Release Date:","11...

  9. The dynamic shape factor of sodium chloride nanoparticles as regulated by drying rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Lewis, E.; King, S. M.; Freney, E.; Rosenoern, T.; Smith, M.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Poschl, U.; Wang, W.; Buseck, P. R.; Martin, S. T.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of drying rate on the dynamic shape factor {chi} of NaCl particles was investigated. The drying rate at the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 45% was controlled in a laminar flow tube and varied from 5.5 {+-} 0.9 to 101 {+-} 3 RH s{sup -1} at ERH, where RH represents one percent unit of relative humidity. Dry particles having mobility diameters of 23-84 nm were studied, corresponding to aqueous particles of 37-129 nm at the RH (57%) prior to drying. At each mobility diameter and drying rate, the critical supersaturation of cloud-condensation activation was also measured. The mobility diameter and the critical supersaturation were combined in an analysis to determine the value of {chi}. The measured values varied from 1.02 to 1.26. For fixed particle diameter the {chi} value decreased with increasing drying rate. For fixed drying rate, a maximum occurred in {chi} between 35- and 40-nm dry mobility diameter, with a lower {chi} for both smaller and larger particles. The results of this study, in conjunction with the introduced apparatus for obtaining quantified drying rates, can allow the continued development of a more detailed understanding of the morphology of submicron salt particles, with the potential for the follow-on development of quantitative modeling of evaporation and crystal growth at these dimensions.

  10. Energy analysis on use of air and superheated steam as drying media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarnawski, W.Z.; Mitera, J.; Borowski, P.; Klepaczka, A. [Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Papermaking and Paper Machines

    1996-10-01

    The physical properties of air and superheated steam were analyzed in a range of temperatures applied in paper and paperboard drying processes. On the basis of tests carried out on a pilot stand the values of energy indices for air and steam drying processes are compared. With the drying media temperature as T{sub M} = 300 C, nozzle velocity {nu} = 60 m/s and using the Huang and Mujumdar model as well as relationships given by Chance a comparative analysis of the results has been carried out. Variation of several indices in the range of temperatures 100--600 C and various nozzle velocities was studied.

  11. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  12. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Staley, David J. (Los Lunas, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  13. Evaluation of spray-drying methods for cellulase preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Oh, K.; Tucker, M.; Rivard, C.; Grohmann, K.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Spray drying processes are widely used for the large-scale preservation of biology goods. The application of this technology to the enhancement of the storability of cellulase and related enzymes would improve fermentation processes requiring input of specific quantities of enzyme catalyst of known activity. Very high percentages (90% of original) of filter paper and carboxymethyicellulose hydrolyzing activities can be recovered from conventional spray dryers when operated at inlet air temperatures ranging from 90 to 180 degrees. The beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity recoveries were somewhat lower and were optimal at temperatures ranging from 120 to 150 degrees. However, the individual performance of the 12 enzyme preparations examined was quite preparation specific. An ultrasonic nozzle adaptation to the Yamato dryer demonstrated the overall feasibility of high energy atomization inasmuch as the filter paper activity was retained after drying. The more labile beta-xylosidase activity was, however, entirely lost.

  14. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  15. Recent progress of spray drying in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jinxin, T.; Zonglian, W.; Lixin, H.

    1999-10-01

    The development of spray drying technique during past 10 years of China is reviewed. Main achievements in research, development and utilization of three types of atomization are described and summarized. General trend of spray drying research and development in 21st century is forecasted.

  16. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  17. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  18. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore » of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  19. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore »of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  20. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the materials effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

  1. Assessment of Current Process Modeling Approaches to Determine Their Limitations, Applicability and Developments Needed for Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Injection Molded Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Holbery, Jim; Smith, Mark T.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Norris, Robert E.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2006-11-30

    This report describes the status of the current process modeling approaches to predict the behavior and flow of fiber-filled thermoplastics under injection molding conditions. Previously, models have been developed to simulate the injection molding of short-fiber thermoplastics, and an as-formed composite part or component can then be predicted that contains a microstructure resulting from the constituents material properties and characteristics as well as the processing parameters. Our objective is to assess these models in order to determine their capabilities and limitations, and the developments needed for long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). First, the concentration regimes are summarized to facilitate the understanding of different types of fiber-fiber interaction that can occur for a given fiber volume fraction. After the formulation of the fiber suspension flow problem and the simplification leading to the Hele-Shaw approach, the interaction mechanisms are discussed. Next, the establishment of the rheological constitutive equation is presented that reflects the coupled flow/orientation nature. The decoupled flow/orientation approach is also discussed which constitutes a good simplification for many applications involving flows in thin cavities. Finally, before outlining the necessary developments for LFTs, some applications of the current orientation model and the so-called modified Folgar-Tucker model are illustrated through the fiber orientation predictions for selected LFT samples.

  2. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  3. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  4. Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cladding | Department of Energy Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR Cladding Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR Cladding The purpose of the research effort is to determine the effects of canister and/or cask drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in, and potential embrittlement of, high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor cladding alloys during cooling for a range of storage temperatures and hoop

  5. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  6. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  7. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors is an Agricultural Drying low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Brady Hot Springs E of Fernley, Nevada. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  8. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

  9. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, J.A.

    1997-08-26

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

  10. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts' Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts' A portion of the research indicates that an ancient period of warming may be analogous to natural present-day climate conditions. February 28, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  12. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  13. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  14. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  15. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to ...

  16. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  17. Advanced dry scrubbing on Ohio coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.; Kudlac, G.A.; Smith, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} emissions while burning high-sulfur Ohio coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. Dry scrubbing involves injecting an atomized mist of sorbent-containing slurry droplets into hot flue gas. The reaction products exit the scrubber as a dry powder that can be filtered from the gas and recycled or disposed. The project consists of testing an advanced dry scrubber system on two high sulfur Ohio coals. All testing will be conducted in the 5 MBtu pilot facility at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The facility consists of a test furnace, a dry scrubber using a B and W DuraJet{trademark} two fluid atomizer, a pulse-jet baghouse, and an ash slaking system. Tests were conducted with and without recycling the solids collected from the baghouse. During recycle operation the solids were slurried with water and injected into the dry scrubber with the fresh lime slurry. Test results will be presented, including SO{sub 2} removal (70--99%), calcium to sulfur ratios (1.1--1.9), dry scrubber outlet temperatures (10--30 F), and system performance. An advanced feature of the project was the use of the B and W patented Droplet Impingement Device which removes large slurry droplets from the gas stream prior to the baghouse to prevent baghouse deposition. This allows operation at low approach temperatures.

  18. Organic additive systems for spray-drying and dry pressing silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, W.J. Jr.; Reed, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    Silicon nitride granules for dry pressing were prepared by spray-drying slurries containing polyethylene glycol as the primary binder combined with other organic additives. Differences in slurry viscosity, granule character, pressing behavior and green strength were found to depend on the choice of deflocculant.

  19. LPG marketers thank the rain gods for hefty crop-drying market in '89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    One of the pleasant bits of news that sprouted in many places across the country last fall concerned the increased LP-gas gallonage for crop drying. It is difficult to predict the farmers or dryers' consumption of propane in any given season. The demand for this fuel in drying operations is determined almost entirely by weather conditions, and since climate remains a perennial question mark, no one knows until the season is well under way how much moisture content the plants will exhibit. In another area, predictions can be complicated by the variations of individual farm practices as well as the evolving technology of drying equipment, including burners. This article, reports on the crop drying market as seen by various LP-gas dealers and others outside the industry.

  20. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I.; Kloth, Gerald R.; Rudemiller, Gary R.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  1. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  2. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  3. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  4. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  5. Feed Processing, Handling, and Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Both current and future sugar biorefineries will generate a wide variety of residue streams that can be used as feedstocks for thermochemical processes, including corn stover, corn fiber, lignin-rich materials, and distillers dried grain and solubles.

  6. Test Plan for the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel; Lindgren, Eric R.

    2015-11-01

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis . These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same vertical, canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern vertical, canistered dry cask systems. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above-ground and below-ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 deg C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the canister. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. Various configurations of outer concentric ducting will be used to mimic conditions for above and below-ground storage configurations of vertical, dry cask systems with canisters. Radial and axial temperature profiles will be measured for a wide range of decay power and helium cask pressures. Of particular interest is the evaluation of the effect of increased helium pressure on allowable heat load and the effect of simulated wind on a simplified below ground vent configuration. While incorporating the best available information, this test plan is subject to changes due to improved understanding from modeling or from as-built deviations to designs. As-built conditions and actual procedures will be documented in the final test report.

  7. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murto, Marika; Bjrnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Hkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ? Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ? Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ? Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ? We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  8. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  9. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-09-29

    A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

  10. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  11. Controlled waste-oil biodegradation at existing drying beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hary, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    A feasibility study at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Facility to determine if sludge drying beds at a sewage treatment plant could be used as controlled waste oil biodegradation plots has been completed. A greenhouse-like enclosure would be constructed over three 9.1 meter by 21.3 meter beds to allow for year-round use, and any waste oil runoff would be collected by existing leachate piping. It has been determined that this proposed facility could dispose of existing radioactive waste oil generation (7200 liters/year) from the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP); however, it would be inadequate to handle radioactive waste oils from the new Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) as well. The study reviewed nuclear criticality constraints, biodegradation technology, and the capital cost for an enclosed biodegradation facility.

  12. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  14. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  15. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohachek, Randy; Wallace, Bruce; Winston, Phil; Marschman, Steve

    2013-04-30

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INLs Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  16. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy Bohachek; Charles Park; Bruce Wallace; Phil Winston; Steve Marschman

    2013-04-01

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INLs Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  17. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  18. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  19. Biomass Engineering: Size reduction, drying and densification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Biomass Engineering: Size reduction, drying and densification March 25th, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Technology Review Area: Feedstock Supply and Logistics Jaya Shankar Tumuluru (PI) Research Team: Neal Yancey, Craig C Conner, Tyler Westover, Richard McCulloch, Kara Cafferty, and Mitch Plummer Organization: Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology, Idaho National Laboratory DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO)

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  1. Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blmel, C. Schmidt, J. Dielesen, A. Sachs, M. Winzer, B. Peukert, W. Wirth, K.-E.

    2014-05-15

    Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

  2. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Behavior of Phosphorus in DRI/HBI During Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard J. Frueham; Christopher P. Manning cmanning@bu.edu

    2001-10-05

    Many common scrap substitutes such as direct reduced iron pellets (DRI), hot briquetted iron (HBI), iron carbide, etc., contain significantly higher levels of phosphorus steelmaking for the production of higher quality steels, control of phosphorus levels in the metal will become a concern. This study has developed a more complete understanding of the behavior of phosphorus in DRI during EAF steelmaking, through a thorough investigation of the kinetics and thermodynamics of phosphorus transfer in the EAF based upon laboratory and plant experiments and trials. Laboratory experiments have shown that phosphorus mass transfer between oxide and metallic phases within commercial direct reduced iron pellets occurs rapidly upon melting according to the local equilibrium for these phases. Laboratory kinetic experiments indicate that under certain conditions, phosphorus mass transfer between slag and metal is influenced by dynamic phenomena, which affect the mass transfer coefficient for the reaction and/or the slag metal interfacial area. Plant trials were conducted to directly evaluate the conditions of mass transfer in the electric furnace and to determine the effects of different scrap substitute materials upon the slag chemistry, the behavior of phosphorus in the steel, and upon furnace yield. The data from these trials were also used to develop empirical models for the slag chemistry and furnace temperature as functions of time during a single heat. The laboratory and plant data were used to develop a numerical process model to describe phosphorus transfer in the EAF

  3. Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  4. Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  5. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates High performance walls represent a high priority...

  6. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton Hill Abstract The concept of Hot Dry Rock...

  7. Dry Lake II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    II Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Dry Lake II Wind Farm Facility Dry Lake II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner...

  8. Texas--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  9. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    dry cask storage system designs; and 4) AMPs and TLAAs for the SSCs that are important to safety in the DCSS designs. PDF icon Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems...

  10. Alabama--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  11. http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/summary/nvut.html

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in such cases. Western Regional Climate Center, wrcc@dri.edu Big Ben Ranger Stn (COOP) Page 1 of 1 WRCC cgi generated image map 5162011 http:www.wrcc.dri.edusummarynvut.html...

  12. Dry compliant seal for phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1990-01-01

    A dry compliant overlapping seal for a phosphoric acid fuel cell preformed f non-compliant Teflon to make an anode seal frame that encircles an anode assembly, a cathode seal frame that encircles a cathode assembly and a compliant seal frame made of expanded Teflon, generally encircling a matrix assembly. Each frame has a thickness selected to accommodate various tolerances of the fuel cell elements and are either bonded to one of the other frames or to a bipolar or end plate. One of the non-compliant frames is wider than the other frames forming an overlap of the matrix over the wider seal frame, which cooperates with electrolyte permeating the matrix to form a wet seal within the fuel cell that prevents process gases from intermixing at the periphery of the fuel cell and a dry seal surrounding the cell to keep electrolyte from the periphery thereof. The frames may be made in one piece, in L-shaped portions or in strips and have an outer perimeter which registers with the outer perimeter of bipolar or end plates to form surfaces upon which flanges of pan shaped, gas manifolds can be sealed.

  13. Long Wavelength Catalytic Infrared Drying System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long Wavelength Catalytic Infrared Drying System Long Wavelength Catalytic Infrared Drying System New Infrared Drying System Removes Moisture More Efficiently Without Heating Surrounding Air Conventional drying systems for wood particulates, typically in the form of sawdust or chips, currently employ a rotary drum dryer that shoots a raw flame through a 20' to 30' rotating drum while tumbling the wood product. Product scorching and air emission problems, particularly with carbon, NOx, and

  14. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, J. [Univ. College Cork (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. [Stork Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  15. DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

  16. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. Bioenergy Impacts … Billion Dry Tons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Oak Ridge National Laboratory published research that shows that U.S. resources could sustainably produce by 2030 at least one billion dry tons of non-food biomass resources, yielding up to 60 billion gallons of biofuels, as well as bio- based chemicals, products, and electricity. This could potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 500 million tons per year, create 1.5 million new jobs, and keep about $200 billion extra in the U.S. economy each year. Research is showing that U.S.

  18. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  19. Determination of a cost-effective air pollution control technology for the control of VOC and HAP emissions from a steroids processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    A steroids processing plant located in northeastern Puerto Rico emits a combined average of 342 lb/hr of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various process operations. The approach that this facility used to implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) may assist others who must contend with MACT for pharmaceutical or related manufacturing facilities. Federal air regulations define MACT standards for stationary sources emitting any of 189 HAPs. The MACT standards detailed in the NESHAPs are characterized by industry and type of emission control system or technology. It is anticipated that the standard will require HAP reductions of approximately 95%. The steroid plant`s emissions include the following pollutant loadings: VOC/HAP Emission Rate (lb/hr): Methanol 92.0; Acetone 35.0; Methylene chloride 126.0; Chloroform 25.0; Ethyl acetate 56.0; Tetrahydrofuran 5.00; and 1,4-Dioxane 3.00. The facility`s existing carbon adsorption control system was nearing the end of its useful life, and the operators sought to install an air pollution control system capable of meeting MACT requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. Several stand-alone and hybrid control technologies were considered for replacement of the carbon adsorption system at the facility. This paper examines the following technologies: carbon adsorption, membrane separation, thermal oxidation, membrane separation-carbon adsorption, and condensation-carbon adsorption. Each control technology is described; the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each technology for the steroid processing plant are examined; and capital and operating costs associated with the implementation of each technology are presented. The rationale for the technology ultimately chosen to control VOC and HAP emissions is presented.

  20. Determination of Sugars, Byproducts, and Degradation Products in Liquid Fraction Process Samples: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP); Issue Date: 12/08/2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sugars, Byproducts, and Degradation Products in Liquid Fraction Process Samples Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 12/08/2006 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42623 January 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department

  1. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  2. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  3. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  4. Analysis of transport phenomena during the convective drying in superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topin, F.; Tadrist, L. [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (France)

    1997-10-01

    This work focused on high-temperature convective drying (superheated steam drying). The process has been investigated both experimentally and numerically. The experimental analysis was carried out in an aerodynamic return-flow wind-tunnel, with very small cylinders of cellular concrete. For the local analysis, the samples were fitted with thermocouples and pressure sensors. The mean moisture content of the cylinders was measured by simple weighing while the temperature and pressure readings were being taken. Global and local analysis of heat and mass transfer in small cylinders in superheated steam were carried out. The systematical study for several sizes and aerothermal conditions show a similar behavior for moisture content, pressure and temperature values. A numerical model for high temperature drying, using the finite elements method, in a 2-D configuration, was implemented and validated.

  5. Factors affecting strength of agglomerates formed during spray drying of nanophase powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskara, A.; Smith, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Nanosized silica particles dispersed in various solvents were spray dried and the change in size distribution, agglomerate strength, and strength distribution was determined. The effect of solvent surface tension, pH, and particle surface chemistry on strength of agglomerates formed during spray drying was studied for particle sizes between 15 and 500 nm. Alcohol/water mixtures having different surface tension, and water at different pH levels, were employed to separate the effects of capillary pressure and surface hydroxyl condensation reactions. The agglomerate strength was determined using an ultrasonic measurement technique. The particle size was determined using sedimentation. The strength and strength distribution of agglomerates was found to depend on the solvent surface tension, solubility (pH), and primary particle size.

  6. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Kentucky | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kentucky Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Kentucky Location Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued for actions in Kentucky. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD December 1, 2014 CX-100119 Categorical Exclusion Determination No Heat Spray Drying Technology Award Number: DE-EE0005774 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 12/01/2014 Location(s): KY Office(s): Golden Field Office December 5, 2013 CX-011735: Categorical Exclusion Determination UHV Technologies, Inc. - Low Cost High Throughput In-Line

  7. Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.

    2006-07-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and. 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

  8. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  9. Use of a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz for aerosol and filament drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, D.E.; Unruh, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the development of a generic spray-drying process for aerosol preparation of homogeneous powders of complex metal oxide systems, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz power in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols of aqueous solutions. Partial success was attained with a concentrated solution of ferric nitrate. Although all particulates showed drying, only a few percent of the particles were fully dried prior to collection. The cavity operated at a power level just below that sufficient to cause electric field breakdown in the carrier gas (dry nitrogen). The large inherent dielectric shielding of the spherical droplets makes it difficult to couple enough power into an aerosol at 2.45 GHz to overcome the heat loss from individual droplets to the surrounding gas and achieve full particulate drying. The calculated and measured dielectric shielding of a thin cylinder of water aligned with the cavity electric field is very much smaller. We have produced heating rates in water {approximately}600 times more rapid than could be achieved with aerosols. This suggests using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying extruded filaments and then calcining those dried filaments to ceramic fiber. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Model for flue-gas desulfurization in a circulating dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple model was developed to describe the absorption of SO{sub 2} in a circulating dry scrubbing (CDS) process, which is a semi dry, lime-based, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) process that utilizes a circulating fluidized bed arrangement for contacting a sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. The reaction chemistry is thought to be similar to that of spray-drying absorption. The liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient was successfully modeled as a function of the sorbent particle spacing on the wetted surfaces. Gas-phase mass-transfer resistances were assumed to be insignificant. Due to the high surface area available in a CDS reactor, the evaporation rate of water from the slurry was modeled as constant-rate drying according to classic spray-dryer theory. However, the falling-rate and diffusion evaporation stages were negligible in CDS since sorbent particle bunching at the surface of the slurry is nonexistent.

  11. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  12. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in casks fulfills both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground, but due to regional constraints, one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. The decay heat is always removed by natural air flow; further technical equipment is not needed. The removal of decay heat and shielding had been modeled and calculated by state-of-the-art computer codes before such a facility has been built. TueV and BAM present their long experience in the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Different storage systems and facilities in Germany, Europe and world-wide are compared with respect to the safety aspects mentioned above. Initial points are the safety issues of wet storage of SF, and it is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. The German storage concept for dry storage of SF and HLW is presented and discussed. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  13. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  14. Dry Run, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dry Run, Ohio: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.1042277, -84.330494 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":...

  15. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301981" ,"Release...

  16. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301981"...

  17. Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"","text":"DryingLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility" title"Geothermal...

  18. Aging Management Program for Stainless Steel Dry Storage System Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Darrell S.; Lin, Bruce P.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2015-06-01

    This is a conference paper presenting an aging management program for stainless steel dry storage system canisters. NRC is lead author of paper. PNNL provided input.

  19. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  20. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  1. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  2. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  3. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  4. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  5. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  6. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  7. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  8. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  9. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 140 1 6 246 29 419 188 302 10 2 2010's 263 573 11 357 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Alabama Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  10. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4,531 0 13 0 0 96 0 10 0 5 2010's 131 36 2 91 165 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Alaska Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural

  11. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 336 8 66 63 24 31 4 298 19 54 2010's 393 6,760 1 4 248 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  12. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  13. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  14. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  15. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  16. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  17. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","09...

  18. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic...

  19. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  20. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  1. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  2. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 479 24 35 201 13 104 48 1,043 0 0 2010's 529 643 0 11 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Michigan Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  3. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 9 57 10 225 3 6 20 41 90 3 2010's 40 44 30 72 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Montana Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural

  4. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 124 87 19 7 0 54 11 0 31 196 2010's 374 0 0 12 20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Ohio Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas

  5. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 568 17 978 729 946 6 1,147 484 258 92 2010's 530 758 12 478 23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Utah Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  6. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 28 718 0 0 0 1 133 0 2 0 2010's 124 3 0 1 573 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural

  7. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved

  8. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 190 259 43 230 140 44 18 65 17 2 2010's 17 124 887 31 1,092 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Kansas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  9. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 432 50 2 0 5 1 432 4 10 0 2010's 0 100 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas

  10. ,"Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

  11. ,"California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

  12. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

  13. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  14. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Xiaoliang Wang Sheng; Yang Hua; Duan Xinglong; Dong Xuebin

    2008-09-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ({lambda}{sub ex}=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 deg. C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: hBN powder was fabricated prepared by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The results indicated that spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology assisted with high-energy ball-milling process following calcined process was a hopeful way to manufacture hBN powder with high crystallinity in industrial scale.

  16. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  17. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  18. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)...

  19. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixel, J.C.; Bellow, E.J.; Heaney, W.F.; Facinelli, S.H.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of producing a dried particulate coal fuel having a reduced tendency to ignite spontaneously comprising spraying and intimately mixing the dried coal with an aqueous emulsion of a material selected from the group consisting of foots oils, petrolatum filtrate, and hydrocracker recycle oil.

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed from the MCO back to the K Basins.

  1. FINAL REPORT DETERMINATION OF THE PROCESSING RATE OF RPP WTP HLW SIMULANTS USING A DURAMELTER J 1000 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-00R2590-2 REV 0 8/21/00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEREZ-CARDENAS F; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report provides data, analysis, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America (VSL) to determine the melter processing rates that are achievable with RPP-WTP HLW simulants. The principal findings were presented earlier in a summary report (VSL-00R2S90-l) but the present report provides additional details. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. As a consequence of the limited amount of relevant information, there exists, for good reasons, a significant disparity between design-base specific glass production rates for the RPP-WTP LAW and HLW conceptual designs (1.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d and 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d, respectively); furthermore, small-scale melter tests with HLW simulants that were conducted during Part A indicated typical processing rates with bubbling of around 2.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d. This range translates into more than a factor of five variation in the resultant surface area of the HLW melter, which is clearly not without significant consequence. It is clear that an undersized melter is undesirable in that it will not be able to support the required waste processing rates. It is less obvious that there are potential disadvantages associated with an oversized melter, over and above the increased capital costs. A melt surface that is consistently underutilized will have poor cold cap coverage, which will result in increased volatilization from the melt (which is generally undesirable) and increased plenum temperatures due to increased thermal radiation from the melt surface (which mayor may not be desirable but the flexibility to choose may be lost). Increased volatilization is an issue both in terms of the increased challenge to the off-gas system as well as for the ability to effectively close the recycle loops for volatile species that must be immobilized in the glass product, most notably technetium and cesium. For these reasons, improved information is needed on the specific glass production rates of RPP-WTP HLW streams in DuraMelterJ systems over a range of operating conditions. Unlike the RPP-WTP LAW program, for which a pilot melter system to provide large-scale throughout information is already in operation, there is no comparable HLW activity; the results of the present study are therefore especially important. This information will reduce project risk by reducing the uncertainty associated with the amount of conservatism that mayor may not be associated with the baseline RPP-WTP HLW melter sizing decision. After the submission of the first Test Plan for this work, the RPP-WTP requested revisions to include tests to determine the processing rates that are achievable without bubbling, which was driven by the potential advantages of omitting bubblers from the HLW melter design in terms of reduced maintenance. A further objective of this effort became the determination of whether the basis of design processing rate could be achieved without bubbling. Ideally, processing rate tests would be conducted on a full-scale RPP-WTP melter system with actual HLW materials, but that is clearly unrealistic during Part B1. As a practical compromise the processing rate determinations were made with HL W simulants on a DuraMelter J system at as close to full scale as possible and the DM 1000 system at VSL was selected for that purpose. That system has a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}, which corresponds to about one-third scale based on the specific glass processing rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d assumed in the RPP-WTP HLW conceptual design, but would correspon

  2. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  3. Energy-Efficient and Reduced-Effluent Process for Ultraclean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a moving-zone apparatus to combine surface processing (e.g., cleaning, developing or etching), rinsing and drying steps into one operation. A typical process and assembly for...

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to receive KOP material, enhances heat conduction, and functions as a heat source and sink during drying operations. This use of the copper insert represents a significant change to the thermal model compared to that used for the fuel calculations. A number of cases were run representing a spectrum of normal and upset conditions for the drying process. Dozens of cases have been run on cold vacuum drying of fuel MCOs. Analysis of these previous calculations identified four cases that provide a solid basis for judgments on the behavior of MCO in drying operations. These four cases are: (1) Normal Process; (2) Degraded vacuum pumping; (3) Open MCO with loss of annulus water; and (4) Cool down after vacuum drying. The four cases were run for two sets of input parameters for KOP MCOs: (1) a set of parameters drawn from safety basis values from the technical data book and (2) a sensitivity set using parameters selected to evaluate the impact of lower void volume and smaller particle size on MCO behavior. Results of the calculations for the drying phase cases are shown in Table ES-2. Cases using data book safety basis values showed dry out in 9.7 hours and heat rejection sufficient to hold temperature rise to less than 25 C. Sensitivity cases which included unrealistically small particle sizes and corresponding high reactive surface area showed higher temperature increases that were limited by water consumption. In this document and in the attachment (Apthorpe, R. and M.G. Plys, 2010) cases using Technical Databook safety basis values are referred to as nominal cases. In future calculations such cases will be called safety basis cases. Also in these documents cases using parameters that are less favorable to acceptable performance than databook safety values are referred to as safety cases. In future calculations such cases will be called sensitivity cases or sensitivity evaluations Calculations to be performed in support of the detailed design and formal safety basis documentation will expand the calculations presented in this document to include: additional features of the drying cycle, more realistic treatment of uranium metal consumption during oxidation, larger water inventory, longer time scales, and graphing of results of hydrogen gas concentration.

  5. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis refinements and/or relaxation of conservatisms. However, possible design improvements will be summarized for future application. All assumptions and related design features, while appropriate for conceptual designs, must be technically justified for the final design. The pertinent thermal design requirements and underlying assumptions are summarized in Section 1.3. The majority of the thermal analyses, as described in Sections 4.2 and 4.3, focus on an acceptable conceptual design arrived at by refinement of a preliminary but unacceptable design. The results of the subject thermal analyses, as presented in Section 4.0, satisfy items 3 and 4 above.

  6. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  7. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (1.4 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.4 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a stainless steel canister representative of actual fuel canisters, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel near-surface drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD, the spent fuel deep geologic storage test being conducted in Climax granite on the Nevada Test Site, and for five constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  8. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  9. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  10. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  11. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Carl; Steen, William; Triana, Eugenio; Machalek, Thomas; Davila, Jenny; Schmit, Claire; Wang, Andrew; Temple, Brian; Lu, Yongqi; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Luzheng; Ruhter, David; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Sayyah, Maryam; Ito, Brandon; Suslick, Kenneth

    2013-09-30

    This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, “Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture,” during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2013. This project involves the development of a novel technology that combines a dry sorbent-based carbon capture process with the water-gas-shift reaction for separating CO{sub 2} from syngas. The project objectives were to model, develop, synthesize and screen sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture from gasified coal streams. The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders. The objectives of this project were to identify and evaluate sorbent materials and concepts that were suitable for capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from warm/hot water-gas-shift (WGS) systems under conditions that minimize energy penalties and provide continuous gas flow to advanced synthesis gas combustion and processing systems. Objectives included identifying and evaluating sorbents that efficiently capture CO{sub 2} from a gas stream containing CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at temperatures as high as 650 °C and pressures of 400-600 psi. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, the sorbents would ideally be regenerated using steam, or other condensable purge vapors. Results from the adsorption and regeneration testing were used to determine an optimal design scheme for a sorbent enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the dry sorbent approach for CO{sub 2} capture. Project work included computational modeling, which was performed to identify key sorbent properties for the SEWGS process. Thermodynamic modeling was used to identify optimal physical properties for sorbents and helped down-select from the universe of possible sorbent materials to seven that were deemed thermodynamically viable for the process. Molecular modeling was used to guide sorbent synthesis through first principles simulations of adsorption and regeneration. Molecular dynamics simulations also modeled the impact of gas phase impurities common in gasified coal streams (e.g., H{sub 2}S) on the adsorption process. The role of inert dopants added for mechanical durability to active sorbent materials was also investigated through molecular simulations. Process simulations were conducted throughout the project to help determine the overall feasibility of the process and to help guide laboratory operating conditions. A large component of the program was the development of sorbent synthesis methods. Three different approaches were used: mechanical alloying (MA), flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), and ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP). Sorbents were characterized by a host of analytical techniques and screened for SEWGS performance using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). A feedback loop from screening efforts to sorbent synthesis was established and used throughout the project lifetime. High temperature, high pressure reactor (HTPR) systems were constructed to test the sorbents at conditions mimicking the SEWGS process as identified through process modeling. These experiments were conducted at the laboratory scale to examine sorbents for their CO{sub 2} capacity, conversion of CO to CO{sub 2}, and impacts of adsorption and regeneration conditions, and syngas composition (including impurities and H2O:CO ratio). Results from the HTPR testing showed sorbents with as high as 0.4 g{sub CO{sub 2}}/g{sub sorbent} capacity with the ability to initially shift the WGS completely towards CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}. A longer term experiment with a simple syngas matrix and N{sub 2}/steam regeneration stream showed a USP sorbent to be stable through 50 adsorption-regeneration cycles, though the sorbent tested had a somewhat diminished initial capacity. The program culminated in a technoeconomic assessment in which two different approaches were taken; one approach was intended to be technically conservative while the second required several key engineering challenges to be met in order to succeed. The project team is confident that, with the proper support, those challenges could be met. The second approach relies on a slipstream of H{sub 2} from the shifted syngas and O{sub 2} from an air separation unit (ASU) to be combusted in the presence of the sorbent for regeneration; termed a regenerating boiler. The approach also makes use of the heat of adsorption to generate >400 MW of turbine quality steam; total plant gross energy output as high as 1 GW was estimated for an IGCC with an initial gross energy output of 737 MW, without any additional coal usage. The regenerating boiler concept could benefit further from additional heat integration, but the results of this effort show a COE of $97.50 per MWh for a rational combination of operating parameters and sorbent lifetime as well as conservative estimates for steam turbines, gas turbine, and ASU. If the COE of CO{sub 2} transmission, storage and monitoring ($5.60 / MWh) is added to the base case for an IGCC ($81.30 / MWh for Case 5 from the DOE Bituminous Coal Report), the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for the regenerating boiler was only $10.60 / MWh; other regenerating boiler cases are as low $6.90 / MWh. The project met all agreed upon milestones and was completed within budget, more than 25% cost share provided by the project team. Results from the program showed that the SEWGS process has great promise, and with further study and evaluation could become a component of a comprehensive carbon capture program. SEWGS requires a paradigm shift in the traditional approach to carbon capture because the regenerating boiler concept is not a ‘back-end’ solution to CO{sub 2} mitigation. Rather, it is an integral part of the plant operations and is responsible for generating more electricity than the IGCC itself. Schemes could be envisioned where the H{sub 2} production is used exclusively to regenerate the sorbent, with any excess sold as a commodity, and the heat of adsorption serving as the primary driver for power generation. Further work with sorbent evaluation, process modeling and heat integration, and scale-up would be needed to more fully vet SEWGS, but the culmination of this program indicates that additional study is warranted.

  12. Louisiana--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 2,849,980 1,884,566 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and

  13. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 53 30 21 16 13 11 9 9 8 2000's 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 2010's 4 3 4 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production Nevada Natural Gas Gross

  14. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 237 3 0 264 0 431 253 379 21 0 2010's 148 383 21 183 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Alabama Dry Natural Gas

  15. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4,348 0 13 0 0 98 0 6 0 0 2010's 0 221 0 272 193 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Alaska Dry Natural Gas Proved

  16. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 343 5 80 82 52 30 5 280 5 36 2010's 807 6,880 6 9 80 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Arkansas Dry Natural Gas

  17. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 35 29 33 29 9 54 30 78 4 2 2010's 13 10 109 90 82 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Mississippi Dry Natural Gas

  18. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 96 34 29 42 18 17 44 24 2 17 2010's 31 11 159 39 115 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves

  19. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 12 59 6 326 3 9 17 39 95 3 2010's 30 44 4 4 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Montana Dry Natural Gas Proved

  20. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 53 30 21 16 13 11 9 9 8 2000's 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 2010's 4 3 4 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production Nevada Natural Gas Gross

  1. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 649 312 1,029 652 682 963 6,248 570 402 287 2010's 145 1,016 311 705 15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales New Mexico Dry Natural Gas

  2. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 9 5 42 6 22 22 40 43 26 1 2010's 136 169 206 384 322 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions North Dakota Dry

  3. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 7 8 46 1 11 1 53 39 25 2 2010's 47 113 237 13 557 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves

  4. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 115 62 2 0 0 7 83 0 32 79 2010's 239 4 71 0 40 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Ohio Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves

  5. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,243 480 767 1,598 511 539 821 1,545 395 600 2010's 219 2,995 1,133 733 1,088 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Oklahoma Dry Natural

  6. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 124 11 5 30 28 78 6 4 275 52 2010's 678 799 4 103 504 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Proved

  7. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,464 37 720 690 953 0 1,189 541 251 133 2010's 7 833 22 640 31 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Utah Dry Natural Gas

  8. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 17 842 0 0 0 3 154 27 1 0 2010's 166 3 0 0 722 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved

  9. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 875 29 1 1 71 6 745 2 160 54 2010's 895 265 275 47 1,723 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved

  10. Alabama--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 125,180 106,903 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production Alabama Onshore

  11. Alaska--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 294,212 286,627 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production Alaska Onshore

  12. Calif--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Calif--Onshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 201,754 205,320 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production California Onshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and

  13. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 131 20 48 47 147 244 252 231 30 78 2010's 0 52 92 60 1,144 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions California Dry

  14. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 51 7 49 60 128 201 274 164 8 4 2010's 3 47 284 70 1,155 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves

  15. Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,049 2,468 1,059 429 2,528 1,238 1,539 750 747 374 2010's 242 1,244 1,667 584 693 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Colorado Dry

  16. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Acquisitions

  17. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 170 331 22 239 174 60 13 63 30 1 2010's 23 122 644 31 1,409 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Kansas Dry Natural Gas

  18. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 508 49 66 0 0 0 534 6 13 0 2010's 39 84 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Proved

  19. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 597 496 594 622 935 224 500 2,303 1,069 127 2010's 738 5,583 352 1,049 2,478 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Louisiana Dry Natural

  20. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,780 1,845 772 333 865 139 3,239 337 286 174 2010's 1,278 1,145 536 695 3,098 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Wyoming Dry Natural Gas

  1. Method of low pressure and/or evaporative drying of aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    A process whereby Resorcinol/Formaldehyde (RF) aerogel having a density of about 0.4-1.2 g/cc can be manufactured using a simple air drying procedure. This process is inherently simpler, quicker, and less expensive than the more conventional supercritical or subcritical CO.sub.2 extraction procedures. RF aerogels can be used as produced, such as in insulation applications, or pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogels with a density of about 0.9 g/cc for use in applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, etc.

  2. Method of low pressure and/or evaporative drying of aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-05-30

    A process is described whereby Resorcinol/Formaldehyde (RF) aerogel having a density of about 0.4--1.2 g/cc can be manufactured using a simple air drying procedure. This process is inherently simpler, quicker, and less expensive than the more conventional supercritical or subcritical CO{sub 2} extraction procedures. RF aerogels can be used as produced, such as in insulation applications, or pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogels with a density of about 0.9 g/cc for use in applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, etc.

  3. Sodium-based dry regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from power plant flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Ryu, C.K.; Baek, J.I.; Lee, J.H.; Eom, T.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    Dry regenerable sorbent technology is one of the emerging technologies as a cost-effective and energy-efficient technology for CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. Six sodium-based dry regenerable sorbents were prepared by spray-drying techniques. Their physical properties and reactivities were tested to evaluate their applicability to a fluidized-bed or fast transport-bed CO{sub 2} capture process. Each sorbents contained 20-50 wt% of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3}. All sorbents except for Sorb NX30 were insufficient with either attrition resistance or reactivity, or both properties. Sorb NX30 sorbent satisfied most of the physical requirements for a commercial fluidized-bed reactor process along with good chemical reactivity. Sorb NX30 sorbent had a spherical shape, an average size of 89 {mu}m, a size distribution of 38-250 {mu}m, and a bulk density of approximately 0.87 g/mL. The attrition index (AI) of Sorb NX30 reached below 5% compared to about 20% for commercial fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. CO{sub 2} sorption capacity of Sorb NX30 was approximately 10 wt% (>80% sorbent utilization) in the simulated flue gas condition compared with 6 of 30 wt% MEA solution (33% sorbent utilization). All sorbents showed almost-complete regeneration at temperatures less than 120{sup o}C.

  4. Probing the elastic response of microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus in dry and aqueous environments through atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, K. M.; Mpagazehe, J. N.; Higgs, C. F. E-mail: higgs@andrew.cmu.edu; LeDuc, P. R. E-mail: higgs@andrew.cmu.edu

    2014-10-20

    With the re-emergence of microalgae as a replacement feedstock for petroleum-derived oils, researchers are working to understand its chemical and mechanical behavior. In this work, the mechanical properties of microalgae, Scenedesmus dimorphus, were investigated at the subcellular level to determine the elastic response of cells that were in an aqueous and dried state using nano-scale indentation through atomic force microscopy. The elastic modulus of single-celled S. dimorphus cells increased over tenfold from an aqueous state to a dried state, which allows us to better understand the biophysical response of microalgae to stress.

  5. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes a drying process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing alkoxides to form alcogels, and subsequently removing the alcohol therefrom to form aerogels, the improvement comprising the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol for the alcohol in the alcogels, and drying the resulting gels at a supercritical temperature for the solvent, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced drying time period.

  6. Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility.

  7. http://www.cemp.dri.edu/cemp/climate/

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Climatological and Gamma Radiation Summary Select a station from the list Alamo Nevada Go Page 1 of 1 Community Environmental Monitoring Program | CEMP - DOE 5/15/2011 http://www.cemp.dri.edu/cemp/climate/

  8. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System, Fenton Hill, New Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  9. Disneyland’s Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As the provider of laundry and dry cleaning services for Disneyland Resort’s costumes and hospitality supply items, L&N Costume and Linen Service knows a little something about both quantity and quality.

  10. Dry scrubbing oxides and particulate contaminants from hot gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quee, J. A.; Haak, M. P.

    1985-03-12

    Sulfur dioxides are dry scrubbed from a flue gas by introducing minute droplets containing a liquid, such as water, and an alkali or alkaline reactant, such as lime, into the spray zone in the primary spray drying chamber of a spray dryer and concurrently contacting these droplets with the hot flue gas. The droplets are partially dried to a tacky condition before reaching a foraminous collecting member extending through the primary spray drying chamber and collect on the collecting member as a moist, porous mat. As the flue gas continues to flow through the mat, the mat serves as a filter for removing fly ash and other particulate matter and remaining sulfur oxides react with unreacted particles of the reactant and reactive ingredients of the fly ash particles in the mat.

  11. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's...

  12. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  13. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  14. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  15. Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  16. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's...

  17. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  18. Clog-free Atomizing and Spray Drying Nozzle - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clog-free Atomizing and Spray Drying Nozzle Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact ... In addition, the design has been shown to reduce energy use by 80 percent for some ...

  19. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 1 23...

  20. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  1. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  2. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  3. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  4. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  5. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  6. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  7. Attrition resistant microporous particles by spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergna, H.E. )

    1988-09-01

    Industrial powders made of grains in the micron size range are often used in processes that require high attrition resistance. Good examples of such powders are catalysts for fluid bed processes which are generally made of ca. 45 to ca. 150 or 200 {mu}m porous grains, hereby referred to as porous micrograins or, if they are spheroidal, porous microspheres (PMS). A conventional approach to impart attrition resistance to a catalyst grain is to embed small particles of the active catalyst in a continuous framework or skeleton made of a hard and relatively inert material. In this case, the percentage of hard materials required to impart sufficient attrition resistance to the catalyst composite particle is so high ({approximately} 50%) that it may affect the activity and/or the selectivity of the catalyst.

  8. Characterization of Dried and Torrefied Arundo Donax Biomass for Inorganic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Species Prior to Combustion (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Dried and Torrefied Arundo Donax Biomass for Inorganic Species Prior to Combustion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of Dried and Torrefied Arundo Donax Biomass for Inorganic Species Prior to Combustion Portland General Electric (PGE) potentially plans to replace the coal with torrefied Arundo donax for their Boardman coal-fired power plant by 2020. Since there is only a limited amount of experience

  9. Novel Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants Novel Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_martin.pdf More Documents & Publications Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant

  10. What would you do if your water faucets ran dry?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What would you do if your water faucets ran dry? Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit What would you do if your water faucets ran dry? New Mexico's recurring drought pattern is an environmental and economic challenge June 1, 2014 Arid northern New Mexico landscape waiting for rain. Arid northern New Mexico landscape waiting for rain. Contact Community Programs Office Director Kurt

  11. Design and operating experience of the Holcomb Station dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Holcomb Station dry flue gas desulfurization system has been operational since May, 1983. The lime based system, consisting of three spray drying absorbers and two baghouses, has met all regulatory compliance requirements and contractual guarantee values. Some serious operational problems were encountered during the startup of this system. This paper discusses these problems and subsequent solutions along with testing experience to-date. The availability of this system for the first quarter of 1985 was 99.51 percent.

  12. Microsoft Word - DRI CEMP REPORT_UTAH FIRES.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Friday, July 20 Report of Analysis: Milford and Delta, UT Air Filter Samples _______________ Performed for the Desert Research Institute Community Environmental Monitoring Program [DRI-CEMP] By the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Health Physics Department Radiation Services Laboratory [UNLV-RSL] I. Narrative Following contact with Mr. Jeff Tappen and Mr. Ted Hartwell of the Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Las Vegas, Nevada, it was arranged to send several air filter samples recently collected

  13. Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

    2009-12-31

    The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

  14. Rapid formation of the Bi{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} high {Tc}-phase, using spray-dried nitrate precursor powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Driessche, I.; Mouton, R.; Hoste, S.

    1996-08-01

    This study describes the use of spray-dried nitrate precursor powders in the synthesis of Bi-2223 high {Tc}-superconductors. The decomposition of the precursor powder is studied using TGA/DTA, XRD, IR, and nitrogen analyses. The particle size is determined using SEM. The low decomposition temperature of the nitrates ({approximately}600 C) and the small particle size of the spray dried powder ({approximately}3{center_dot}10{sup {minus}6} m), resulting in a lowering of the calcination temperature and a shortening of the sinter time, enabled the authors to synthesize a > 96% pure Bi-2223 phase (from XRD peak intensities) after a thermal process of 5h at 650 C and 60 h at 855 C.

  15. Feasibility Study For Use Of Commercial Cask Vendor Dry Transfer Systems To Unload Used Fuel Assemblies In L-Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krementz, Dan; Rose, David; Dunsmuir, Mike

    2014-02-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a commercial dry transfer system (DTS) could be used for loading or unloading used nuclear fuel (UNF) in L-Basin and to determine if a DTS pool adapter could be made for L-Basin Transfer Pit #2 that could accommodate a variety of DTS casks and fuel baskets or canisters up to 24 diameter.[1, 2] This study outlines the technical feasibility of accommodating different vendor dry transfer systems in the L-Basin Transfer Bay with a general work scope. It identifies equipment needing development, facility modifications, and describes the needed analyses and calculations. After reviewing the L-Basin Transfer Bay area layout and information on the only DTS system currently in use for the Nuclear Assurance Corporation Legal Weight Truck cask (NAC LWT), the authors conclude that use of a dry transfer cask is feasible. AREVA was contacted and acknowledged that they currently do not have a design for a dry transfer cask for their new Transnuclear Long Cask (TN-LC) cask. Nonetheless, this study accounted for a potential future DTS from AREVA to handle fuel baskets up to 18 in diameter. Due to the layout of the Transfer Bay, it was determined that a DTS cask pool adapter designed specifically for spanning Pit #2 and placed just north of the 70 Ton Cask lid lifting superstructure would be needed. The proposed pool adapter could be used to transition a fuel basket up to 24 in diameter and ~11 feet long from a dry transfer cask to the basin. The 18 and 24 applications of the pool adapter are pending vendor development of dry transfer casks that accommodate these diameters. Once a fuel basket has been lowered into Pit #2 through a pool adapter, a basket cart could be used to move the basket out from under the pool adapter for access by the 5 Ton Crane. The cost to install a dry transfer cask handling system in L-Area capable of handling multiple vendor provided transport and dry transfer casks and baskets with different diameters and lengths would likely be on the same order of magnitude as the Basin Modifications project. The cost of a DTS capability is affected by the number of design variations of different vendor transport and dry transfer casks to be considered for design input. Some costs would be incurred for each vendor DTS to be handled. For example, separate analyses would be needed for each dry transfer cask type such as criticality, shielding, dropping a dry transfer cask and basket, handling and auxiliary equipment, procedures, operator training, readiness assessments, and operational readiness reviews. A DTS handling capability in L-Area could serve as a backup to the Shielded Transfer System (STS) for unloading long casks and could support potential future missions such as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Exchange or transferring UNF from wet to dry storage.

  16. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tintner, J.; Smidt, E.; Boehm, K.; Binner, E.

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  17. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane and process are disclosed for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5{times}10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{center_dot}cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment. 4 figs.

  18. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Casillas, Carlos (San Jose, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane and process for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5.times.10.sup.-6 cm.sup.3 (STP)/cm.sup.2 .multidot.s.multidot.cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment.

  19. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  1. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moos, Daniel (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  2. Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 102 109 153 1980's 176 191 69 78 75 76 133 65 83 83 1990's 70 75 92 94 65 69 67 43 38 66 2000's 42 82 99 134 110 131 138 239 270 349 2010's 350 379 222 179 176 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  3. Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,202 1,312 1,431 1,172 1,219 1990's 969 1,024 776 917 960 838 734 725 551 628 2000's 696 745 491 506 382 418 424 378 898 701 2010's 371 502 502 402 327 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  4. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 334 350 365 1980's 299 306 362 381 265 256 255 238 215 222 1990's 217 216 203 189 194 153 156 164 106 192 2000's 234 177 190 167 189 268 206 205 146 163 2010's 173 165 290 266 261 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  5. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 255 178 163 1980's 193 154 96 107 156 181 142 148 151 137 1990's 106 115 97 102 103 111 109 141 149 168 2000's 193 187 207 187 174 176 153 144 75 84 2010's 87 97 93 86 80 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  6. California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 114 213 231 1980's 164 254 252 241 231 1990's 192 59 63 64 61 59 49 56 44 76 2000's 91 85 92 83 86 90 90 82 57 57 2010's 66 82 66 75 76 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  7. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,087 307 1,052 852 1,323 1,238 6,278 376 192 292 2010's 419 1,078 115 594 62 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions

  8. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,325 671 845 1,864 763 728 1,202 1,567 599 387 2010's 1,519 2,459 975 738 1,210 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions

  9. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 160 32 6 1 29 139 234 41 168 600 2010's 930 1,884 12 351 1,295 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Pennsylvania

  10. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 798 32 0 36 25 132 886 25 118 2 2010's 984 590 105 0 2,287 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions West Virginia

  11. Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,111 1,065 732 627 561 605 1990's 458 475 348 335 230 313 292 289 348 418 2000's 398 467 437 456 321 265 305 261 219 164 2010's 131 118 94 59 42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  12. Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,598 2,794 891 604 2,397 1,767 1,540 450 1,346 437 2010's 229 1,218 445 953 567 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions

  13. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 758 888 686 513 592 378 738 1,651 1,287 103 2010's 847 5,552 285 1,425 4,523 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions

  14. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,720 2,026 850 406 811 470 3,372 647 170 54 2010's 1,308 1,205 619 679 4,157 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions

  15. Are Energy Vampires Sucking You Dry? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Are Energy Vampires Sucking You Dry? Are Energy Vampires Sucking You Dry? October 29, 2015 - 10:22am Addthis Max Schreck in Nosferatu, presumably climbing the stairs to plug in some unused appliances. | Photo from Wikipedia, Public Domain in the U.S. Max Schreck in Nosferatu, presumably climbing the stairs to plug in some unused appliances. | Photo from Wikipedia, Public Domain in the U.S. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for

  16. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  17. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  18. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA?¢????s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20???ºC to 120???ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA?¢????s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  19. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  20. Photocatalytic properties of titania pillared clays by different drying methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Z.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Photocatalysts based on titania pillared clays (TiO{sub 2} PILCs) have been prepared through a sol-gel method. Different drying methods, air drying (AD), air drying after ethanol extraction (EAD), and supercritical drying (SCD) have been employed and found to have significant effects on the photocatalytic efficiency of the resultant catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in water. Titania pillared clay (TiO{sub 2} PILC) obtained by SCD has the highest external and micropore surface area, largest amount and smallest crystallite size of anatase, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, silica titania pillared clay (SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC) after SCD, titania coated TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) and SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) were synthesized to study the key factors controlling the photocatalytic activity. It is concluded that the dispersion of nanometer-sized anatase on the surface of the PILC particles and the suspensibility of the particles are the most important factors for high photocatalytic efficiency.

  1. Study of in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.J.R.; Chang, S.M.; Adikesavalu, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Sulfur removal efficiency of in-duct spray drying is limited by sorbent content and surface properties of the sorbent-water aerosol. It was the purpose of this study to improve the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying by injecting condensation aerosol instead of conventional dispersion aerosol. The program was composed of three phases. In Phase I, a novel pulsed fluid bed feeder was developed and was used to feed hydrated lime for subsequent experiments. A small condensation aerosol generator was then built, which produces a lime-water condensation aerosol by condensing steam on lime particles. The results show that novel lime-water aerosols less than 10 microns were generated. The central task in Phase II was to simulate experimentally in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosols and compare the results with those using dispersion aerosols reported in the literature. A small entrained-flow reactor was constructed to simulate an in-duct spray dryer. The condensation aerosol was then introduced to the reactor at various approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur stoichiometry and sulfur dioxide concentration for desulfurization study. The results show that we have improved the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying to 90 percent or above. Thus we have met and exceeded the stated project goal of 70 percent sulfur removal. A comprehensive computer code was employed to calculate sulfur removal efficiency in Phase III.

  2. Dry FGD (flue-gas desulfurization) at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying are a relatively recent addition to the spectrum of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) control options available to utility and industrial boiler operators. Such systems appear to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. These advantages have promoted rapid acceptance of dry scrubbers for applications using western low-sulfur coal, but uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) we have had more than eight years of operating experience with an industrial-scale dry scrubber used with a boiler firing high-sulfur (3.5%) midwestern coal. This paper describes our operating experience with that system and summarizes several research programs that have utilized it. 7 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4,402 2,902...

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  5. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Frank J. (Sunol, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kiso, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A cleaning process for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  6. Method and apparatus for de-watering biomass materials in a compression drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haygreen, John G. (Roseville, MN)

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for more effectively squeezing moisture from wood chips and/or other "green" biomass materials. A press comprising a generally closed chamber having a laterally movable base at the lower end thereof, and a piston or ram conforming in shape to the cross-section of the chamber is adapted to periodically receive a charge of biomass material to be dehydrated. The ram is forced against the biomass material with suffcient force to compress the biomass and to crush the matrix in which moisture is contained within the material with the face of the ram being configured to cause a preferential flow of moisture from the center of the mass outwardly to the grooved walls of the chamber. Thus, the moisture is effectively squeezed from the biomass and flows through the grooves formed in the walls of the chamber to a collecting receptacle and is not drawn back into the mass by capillary action when the force is removed from the ram.

  7. Enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent for the dry-desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuo Yamamoto; Satoshi Komaki; Daichi Nakajima; Norihiko Matsushima; Dan Liu; Masateru Nishioka; Masayoshi Sadakata

    2006-10-15

    Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent has been studied as an effective method for SO{sub 2} removal. The effect of iron and other species for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent was investigated in this study. At first, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} was added in the preparation of the sorbent, and TG analysis was carried out. The Ca utilization rate over a period of 90 min was about 10% greater than that for Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent. However, it was found that iron is not effective for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent but that NO{sub 3}{sup -} was the most effective factor to enhance it. The mechanism of enhancing the Ca utilization rate was also investigated, and it was found that Ca(NO{sub 3})2 was produced in the sorbent and reacted with SO{sub 2}, so that the reaction Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + SO{sub 2} {yields} CaSO{sub 4} + 2NO + O{sub 2} proceeded. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  9. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  10. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  11. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Mott, Jack E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  12. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  13. Interim Action Determination

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interim Action Determination Processing of Plutonium Materials from the DOE Standard 3013 Surveillance Program in H-Canyon at the Savannah River Site The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SPD SEIS, DOE/EIS-0283-S2). DOE is evaluating alternatives for disposition of non-pit plutonium that is surplus to the national security needs of the United States. Although the Deputy Secretary of Energy approved Critical

  14. Louisiana - South Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 18,580 17,755 13,994 1980's 13,026 12,645 11,801 11,142 10,331 9,808 9,103 8,693 8,654 8,645 1990's 8,171 7,504 6,693 5,932 6,251 5,648 5,704 5,855 5,698 5,535 2000's 5,245 5,185 4,224 3,745 3,436 3,334 3,335 3,323 2,799 2,844 2010's

  15. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3,784 3,960 3,941 1980's 4,344 4,163 3,901 3,819 3,685 3,574 3,277 3,102 2,912 2,784 1990's 2,670 2,614 2,415 2,327 2,044 1,920 1,768 1,912 1,945 1,951 2000's 2,331 2,232 2,102 2,013 2,185 2,694 2,345 2,309 2,128

  16. California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 250 246 322 1980's 414 1,325 1,452 1,552 1,496 1990's 1,454 1,162 1,118 1,099 1,170 1,265 1,244 544 480 536 2000's 576 540 515 511 459 824 811 805 704 739 2010's 724 710 651 261 240 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  18. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas

  19. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6 1 1 1980's 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 3 1990's 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 3 0 1 0 32 0 183 0 2010's 0 9 4 2 52 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry

  20. A dry powder stump applicator for a feller-buncher.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.; Cram Michelle; Thistle, Harold

    1998-07-11

    Karsky, D., M. Cram, and H. Thistle. 1998. A dry powder borax stump applicator for a feller-buncher. Presented at the 1998 ASAE Annual International Meeting at Colorado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida, July 11-16, 1998. Paper No. 987023. ASAE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659. Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting the roots and eventually killing the trees. An applicator attachment has been developed that mounts to the back of a feller-buncher saw head, that can reduce mortality from Heterobasidion annosum. The attachment applies a borax powder to a stump immediately after the tree has been cut. This document provides information on the design, development and testing of an applicator for applying dry borax on tree stumps at the time of harvesting to reduce future losses due to root rot.

  1. Using Waste Heat for External Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat for External Processes Using Waste Heat for External Processes This tip sheet describes the potential savings resulting from using waste heat from high-temperature process heating for lower temperature processes, like oven-drying. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #10 PDF icon Using Waste Heat for External Processes (January 2006) More Documents & Publications Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Hazards Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-07

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Hazard Analysis to support the CVDF Final Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports,'' and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.''

  3. 7-forming, superconducting filaments through bicomponent dry spinning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Ogden, UT); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Burlone, Dominick A. (Asheville, NC); Blankenship, Keith V. (Asheville, NC)

    2001-01-01

    Fibers which contain potentially superconducting material are dry spun by the steps of preparing a suspension of potentially superconducting powder in a thickened solvent; preparing a solution of fiber-forming polymer; supplying the suspension and the solution to a spinning apparatus; in the spinning apparatus, arranging the solution and the suspension in a bicomponent arrangement; extruding the arranged solution and suspension from a spinneret as a bicomponent filament; and removing the solvent from the filament.

  4. Natural Gas Dry Production (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Dry Production Supplemental Gaseous Fuels Interstate Receipts Receipts Across U.S. Borders Withdrawals from Underground Storage Consumption Interstate Deliveries Deliveries Across U.S. Borders Injections into Storage Balancing Item Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 21,315,507 22,901,879 24,033,266

  5. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  6. Independent Panel Evaluation of Dry Sludge PISA Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    1999-10-20

    Dr. Kirk Yeager and Mr. Marvin Banks from Energetic Material Research and Technology Center (EMRTC) evaluated the Savannah River Site (SRS) efforts in the Dry Sludge program. They evaluated four program areas: energetic material formation, stability, initiation, and propagation. The panel evaluation included a site visit (July 13, 1999 and July 14, 1999) as well as a review of various reports and presentations by researchers involved in the program.

  7. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  8. Pore-scale dynamics of salt transport and distribution in drying porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, Nima

    2014-01-15

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, water quality, and mineral-fluid interactions. We applied synchrotron x-ray micro-tomography to investigate the pore-scale dynamics of dissolved salt distribution in a three dimensional drying saline porous media using a cylindrical plastic column (15 mm in height and 8 mm in diameter) packed with sand particles saturated with CaI{sub 2} solution (5% concentration by mass) with a spatial and temporal resolution of 12 ?m and 30 min, respectively. Every time the drying sand column was set to be imaged, two different images were recorded using distinct synchrotron x-rays energies immediately above and below the K-edge value of Iodine. Taking the difference between pixel gray values enabled us to delineate the spatial and temporal distribution of CaI{sub 2} concentration at pore scale. Results indicate that during early stages of evaporation, air preferentially invades large pores at the surface while finer pores remain saturated and connected to the wet zone at bottom via capillary-induced liquid flow acting as evaporating spots. Consequently, the salt concentration increases preferentially in finer pores where evaporation occurs. Higher salt concentration was observed close to the evaporating surface indicating a convection-driven process. The obtained salt profiles were used to evaluate the numerical solution of the convection-diffusion equation (CDE). Results show that the macro-scale CDE could capture the overall trend of the measured salt profiles but fail to produce the exact slope of the profiles. Our results shed new insight on the physics of salt transport and its complex dynamics in drying porous media and establish synchrotron x-ray tomography as an effective tool to investigate the dynamics of salt transport in porous media at high spatial and temporal resolution.

  9. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  10. Hot-dry-rock energy: review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.

    1981-10-13

    The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds; continued monitoring at HDR development sites is necessary. The direct socioeconomic impacts of HDR development should be relatively minor, owing to its capital-intensive nature. Of greater potential importance are the indirect jobs resulting from such development, which could cause significant demographic (and thus fiscal and social) impacts in sparsely populated regions. However, such indirect growth is not expected to begin until a large, stable HDR industry is established in a region, and thus its impacts are expected to be permanent rather than transient.

  11. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Qiao, Hong; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  12. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  13. Economics of a Conceptual 75 MW Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Electric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economics of a Conceptual 75 MW Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Electric Power-Station Abstract Man-made, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy reservoirs have been investigated for over...

  14. Subtask 5.10 - Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Center (EERC) is developing a market-focused dry cooling technology that is ... The resulting analysis shows that DDC can be a lower-cost dry cooling alternative to an ...

  15. Thoria-based cermet nuclear fuel : sintered microsphere fabrication by spray drying.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.A.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Chandrmouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Kuchibhotla, S.; Downar, T.J.

    2002-01-09

    Cermet nuclear fuels have been demonstrated to have significant potential to enhance fuel performance because of low internal fuel temperatures and low stored energy. The combination of these benefits with the inherent proliferation resistance, high burnup capability, and favorable neutronic properties of the thorium fuel cycle produces intriguing options for advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This paper describes aspects of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project with two primary goals: (1) Evaluate the feasibility of implementing the thorium fuel cycle in existing or advanced reactors using a zirconium-matrix cermet fuel, and (2) Develop enabling technologies required for the economic application of this new fuel form. Spray drying is a physical process of granulating fine powders that is used widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, ceramic, and food industries. It is generally used to produce flowable fine powders. Occasionally it is used to fabricate sintered bodies like cemented carbides, but it has not, heretofore, been used to produce sintered microspheres. As a physical process, it can be adapted to many powder types and mixtures and thus, has appeal for nuclear fuels and waste forms of various compositions. It also permits easy recycling of process ''wastes'' and minimal chemical waste streams that can arise in chemical sol/gel processing. On the other hand, for radioactive powders, it presents safety challenges for processing these materials in powder form and in achieving microspheres of high density and perfection.

  16. Corrosion experiments on stainless steels used in dry storage canisters of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Adams, J.P.; Faw, E.M.; Anderson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    Nonradioactive (cold) experiments have been set up in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)-1634, and radioactive (hot) experiments have been set up in the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at ICPP. The objective of these experiments is to provide information on the interactions (corrosion) between the spent nuclear fuel currently stored at the ICPP and the dry storage canisters and containment materials in which this spent fuel will be stored for the next several decades. This information will be used to help select canister materials that will retain structural integrity over this period within economic, criticality, and other constraints. The two purposes for Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs) are for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and for shipment to a final geological repository. Information on how corrosion products, sediments, and degraded spent nuclear fuel may corrode DPCs will be required before the DPCs will be allowed to be shipped out of the State of Idaho. The information will also be required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support the licensing of DPCs. Stainless steels 304L and 316L are the most likely materials for dry interim storage canisters. Welded stainless steel coupons are used to represent the canisters in both hot and cold experiments.

  17. Application of the MELCOR code to design basis PWR large dry containment analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jesse; Notafrancesco, Allen (USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Rockville, MD); Tills, Jack Lee (Jack Tills & Associates, Inc., Sandia Park, NM)

    2009-05-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing the reactor coolant system and the containment building) that models the progression of postulated accidents in light water reactor power plants. To assess the adequacy of containment thermal-hydraulic modeling incorporated in the MELCOR code for application to PWR large dry containments, several selected demonstration designs were analyzed. This report documents MELCOR code demonstration calculations performed for postulated design basis accident (DBA) analysis (LOCA and MSLB) inside containment, which are compared to other code results. The key processes when analyzing the containment loads inside PWR large dry containments are (1) expansion and transport of high mass/energy releases, (2) heat and mass transfer to structural passive heat sinks, and (3) containment pressure reduction due to engineered safety features. A code-to-code benchmarking for DBA events showed that MELCOR predictions of maximum containment loads were equivalent to similar predictions using a qualified containment code known as CONTAIN. This equivalency was found to apply for both single- and multi-cell containment models.

  18. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility- August 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Found Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Operations

  19. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle describing how water

  20. Effect of spray drying on the sintering of Y2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, M.D.; Akinc, M.; Milius, D.; Mctaggart, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    The effect of spray drying of precipitates on the sintering of yttrium oxide was studied. Spray drying of the oxide precursors improves the sinterability of powders significantly compared to powders obtained by pan drying. The improvement in sintered density was explained by the morphology of the powders produced. For spray-dried powders, statistical analysis shows that higher atomizer air flow rates favor higher sintered densities. 21 references.

  1. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project January 23, 2008 - 4:37pm Addthis The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth. Hot dry rock technology was invented to draw energy from deep underground areas where geothermal heat is abundant, but no water exists to carry the

  2. Subtask 5.10 - Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plants (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Subtask 5.10 - Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Subtask 5.10 - Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants The University of North Dakota's Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is developing a market-focused dry cooling technology that is intended to address the key shortcomings of conventional dry cooling technologies: high

  3. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plan | Department of Energy High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to store Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) for many decades will have a near-term and potentially significant impact on nuclear plant licensing and operations. While dry storage of lower burnup SNF [less than 45 gigawatt days per metric ton uranium (GWD / MTU)] has occurred since 1986, dry storage

  4. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  5. Membranes and MEAs for Dry Hot Operating Conditions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dry Hot Operating Conditions Membranes and MEAs for Dry Hot Operating Conditions Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 1_3m.pdf More Documents & Publications Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2008-019 High Temperature Membrane Working Group

  6. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland). Dept. of Process Equipment

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  7. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  8. Automated catalyst processing for cloud electrode fabrication for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goller, Glen J. (West Springfield, MA); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT)

    1980-01-01

    A process for making dry carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene floc material, particularly useful in the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes, comprises of the steps of floccing a co-suspension of carbon particles and polytetrafluoroethylene particles, filtering excess liquids from the co-suspension, molding pellet shapes from the remaining wet floc solids without using significant pressure during the molding, drying the wet floc pellet shapes within the mold at temperatures no greater than about 150.degree. F., and removing the dry pellets from the mold.

  9. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald F.; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.

    2006-04-01

    AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper, slurry injection rate, via prewetting, slurry injection angle, filter paper prewetting, and slurry mixing time. Many of these factors did not have an influence on defect formation. In order of decreasing importance, critical factors for defect formation by slurry filling are vacuum time (20 sec. optimal), slurry solids loading (20.0 g of cermet with 13.00 g of DGBEA solvent (21.2 vol%)), filling with the pipette in a vertical position, and faster injection rates (~765 l/s) as preferable to slower. No further recommendations for improvement to this process can be suggested. All findings of the slurry filling process have been transferred to CeramTec, the supplier. Paste filling methods appear to show more promise of increasing production yields. The types of flaws commonly found in slurry-filled vias were identified and followed throughout the entire source feedthru process. In general, all sizes of cracks healed during isopressing and firing steps. Additionally, small to medium sized voids (less than 1/3 the via diameter) can be healed. Porosity will usually lead to via necking, which may cause the part to be out of specification. Large voids (greater 4 than 1/3 of the diameter) and partial fills are not healed or produce significant necking. 2.Viability of High-Solids-Loading-Cermet Paste for Filling Source Feedthru ViaThe paste-filling process is easy to implement and easier to use. The high solids loading (>40 vol %) reduces the incidence of drying defects, which are seen in slurry filled (~23 vol %) vias. Additionally, the way in which the vias are filled (the paste is pushed from entrance to exit, displacing air as the paste front progresses), reduces the chance of entrapped voids, which are common in the slurry filling process. From the fair number of samples already filled, the likelihood of this process being a viable and reliable process is very good. Issues of concern for the paste process, as with any new process, are any problems that may arise in subsequent manufacturing stages of the neutron tube that may be affected by subtle changes in

  10. INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

    1998-10-01

    This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

  11. Dry, portable calorimeter for nondestructive measurement of the activity of nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beyer, Norman S.; Lewis, Robert N.; Perry, Ronald B.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of a quantity of heat-producing nuclear fuel is measured rapidly, accurately and nondestructively by a portable dry calorimeter comprising a preheater, an array of temperature-controlled structures comprising a thermally guarded temperature-controlled oven, and a calculation and control unit. The difference between the amounts of electric power required to maintain the oven temperature with and without nuclear fuel in the oven is measured to determine the power produced by radioactive disintegration and hence the activity of the fuel. A portion of the electronic control system is designed to terminate a continuing sequence of measurements when the standard deviation of the variations of the amount of electric power required to maintain oven temperature is within a predetermined value.

  12. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullum, Rod; Brookmire, Tom; Kessler, John; Leblang, Suzanne; Levin, Adam; Martin, Zita; Nesbit, Steve; Nichol, Marc; Pickens, Terry

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  13. Montana Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 887 926 825 1980's 1,287 1,321 847 896 802 857 803 780 819 867 1990's 899 831 859 673 717 782 796 762 782 841 2000's 885 898 906 1,059 995 986 1,057 1,052 1,000 976 2010's 944 778 602 575 667 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  14. Florida Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 151 119 77 1980's 84 69 64 49 65 55 49 49 51 46 1990's 45 38 47 50 98 92 96 96 88 84 2000's 82 84 91 79 78 77 45 108 1 7 2010's 56 6 16 15 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  15. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7 -12 -27 1980's 30 42 1990's 197 605 159 -644 27 -45 -44 -31 5 -17 2000's -56 36 72 -36 34 -27 -11 12 -71 46 2010's 32 -49 112 -274 502 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  16. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 24 42 46 1980's 64 85 1990's 104 146 256 281 391 360 373 376 394 376 2000's 359 345 365 350 327 300 287 274 257 254 2010's 223 218 214 175 176 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  17. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 50 42 44 1980's 64 12 1990's 1,014 229 35 378 80 118 177 34 19 1 2000's 175 169 289 315 131 85 146 123 59 20 2010's 28 3 0 0 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring

  18. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 45 41 1980's 116 89 1990's 938 207 191 159 2,128 286 97 54 313 140 2000's 69 218 155 122 155 60 208 35 732 328 2010's 173 157 254 75 41 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  19. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 18 35 129 1980's 69 119 1990's 759 773 545 44 2,101 481 502 348 309 215 2000's 74 78 130 588 162 135 234 163 283 99 2010's 206 455 99 67 140 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  20. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 -17 -62 1980's 38 -213 11 1 4 -359 -298 202 176 16 1990's -320 -7 289 57 49 -393 145 19 -172 133 2000's 23 -11 35 1 -1 -2 -46 1 -3 3 2010's 1 -1 -2 -5 -21 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  1. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 206 216 228 1980's 213 235 261 273 324 312 324 349 400 401 1990's 339 353 414 393 423 396 446 475 513 459 2000's 506 461 460 478 478 469 408 388 354 358 2010's 317 327 299 285 304 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  2. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 67 1,324 231 1980's 104 61 22 742 395 552 757 67 24,751 136 1990's 99 239 21 109 49 51 171 99 125 3,525 2000's 2,093 335 118 235 207 154 376 112 4,068 108 2010's 452 206 339 2,400 685 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  3. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -1 22 -2 1980's -7 39 93 -15 90 -127 55 26 124 -46 1990's 94 110 183 -62 95 64 33 -21 -1 -48 2000's -3 28 27 21 13 8 -26 -27 -64 5 2010's -34 728 -743 -78 -3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  4. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 109 120 100 1980's 117 121 158 206 188 175 123 129 159 166 1990's 164 173 204 188 186 182 200 189 170 163 2000's 154 160 157 166 170 174 188 269 456 698 2010's 951 1,079 1,151 1,140 1,142 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  5. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 175 32 58 1980's 89 76 116 157 167 178 262 229 232 288 1990's 118 195 175 123 95 92 108 101 653 376 2000's 48 88 107 134 91 142 113 146 189 621 2010's 301 324 6,610 284 1,094 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  6. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 50 76 48 1980's 116 61 87 181 146 105 180 215 118 202 1990's 100 163 182 98 147 107 96 205 596 761 2000's 207 128 114 148 200 122 101 321 1,249 1,912 2010's 1,072 631 1,754 560 171 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  7. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -1 153 -182 1980's 297 -191 23 205 -106 -26 -32 35 -124 55 1990's 3 240 95 94 155 327 581 177 105 12 2000's 217 653 82 65 -97 1 112 -45 -48 -279 2010's 243 8 -104 -62 -47 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  8. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 135 149 134 1980's 160 139 133 125 138 132 128 130 126 129 1990's 120 155 145 141 150 163 208 221 240 234 2000's 333 239 242 220 207 211 197 184 157 153 2010's 154 139 138 133 124 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  9. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 35 84 38 1980's 39 35 53 24 28 20 80 257 47 48 1990's 40 20 29 22 15 33 17 50 12 2 2000's 143 63 287 74 90 55 86 29 21 16 2010's 1 0 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  10. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 115 47 48 1980's 33 18 16 15 30 42 65 90 96 30 1990's 39 16 7 0 0 10 76 0 6 0 2000's 15 50 8 0 0 11 1 0 4 19 2010's 2 14 7 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  11. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 99 209 106 1980's 71 98 144 100 105 132 78 157 261 283 1990's 170 311 248 202 48 315 152 124 288 478 2000's 176 524 276 235 360 163 291 210 430 406 2010's 378 267 1,062 139 90 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  12. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 94 83 118 1980's 64 87 146 115 184 98 105 160 239 228 1990's 87 281 148 164 191 79 453 252 538 624 2000's 422 263 383 303 205 141 460 780 143 367 2010's 260 210 541 388 290 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  13. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 65 9 1980's 50 31 24 8 20 11 5 3 9 28 1990's 19 8 9 3 8 2 1 2 0 8 2000's 1 19 27 28 7 3 6 1 3 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  14. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9 104 -18 1980's 29 399 24 11 7 8 51 5 -1 17 1990's 82 106 -102 68 -1 31 13 -16 -19 34 2000's -20 53 81 -26 20 5 -26 37 12 26 2010's 1 109 65 29 -15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  15. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 88 121 154 1980's 170 196 198 159 181 151 165 178 181 155 1990's 141 143 109 111 82 91 88 93 79 79 2000's 78 94 98 94 93 86 83 100 110 100 2010's 87 75 64 61 54 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  16. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 341 108 68 1980's 103 73 42 31 49 79 71 32 31 57 1990's 20 11 9 2 2 30 43 48 109 11 2000's 53 43 54 81 27 75 119 146 155 132 2010's 33 24 4 5 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  17. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 148 118 124 1980's 151 161 372 279 193 176 214 96 85 192 1990's 142 151 121 108 133 46 88 56 112 120 2000's 39 43 75 41 55 27 40 50 96 250 2010's 70 156 300 75 29 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  18. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 55 107 71 1980's 45 75 226 179 176 88 192 153 130 181 1990's 163 88 121 64 55 73 87 66 177 165 2000's 84 70 89 67 48 57 96 53 108 92 2010's 77 105 91 39 82 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  19. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 -91 -74 1980's 573 30 -448 75 -74 56 -61 -25 83 -106 1990's 29 -27 58 -154 142 -4 16 33 -12 42 2000's 13 51 58 -28 -56 3 13 9 -3 135 2010's -19 -59 38 3 39 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  20. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 49 44 47 1980's 61 86 45 49 46 49 42 42 60 43 1990's 48 48 52 50 49 51 52 55 51 41 2000's 67 73 77 86 95 100 117 112 114 113 2010's 93 75 65 62 58 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  1. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 31 71 47 1980's 45 60 33 31 38 3 7 2 1 126 1990's 40 17 16 0 1 0 2 22 6 15 2000's 57 36 96 146 131 130 144 81 75 32 2010's 86 14 37 36 77 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  2. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 25 21 86 1980's 189 83 95 79 77 40 31 16 33 25 1990's 32 33 21 11 76 14 12 133 43 55 2000's 133 90 109 26 124 122 78 74 56 210 2010's 100 97 191 49 54 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  3. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 112 120 45 1980's 72 102 72 58 54 65 60 57 48 91 1990's 34 20 22 29 26 133 59 99 119 98 2000's 130 82 40 46 73 63 65 92 41 132 2010's 103 43 31 113 89 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  4. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 13 -20 -37 1980's -282 866 -779 -135 -78 131 -176 -76 249 255 1990's 342 683 313 -124 -641 284 -106 -664 -48 394 2000's 18 9 199 -104 126 44 91 136 -6 525 2010's -89 73 153 -202 555 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  5. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 16 -23 1980's -7 31 -1 -9 21 -31 6 -3 6 29 1990's 56 -93 44 49 -47 -2 22 -2 -31 -13 2000's 21 17 18 25 -29 -10 18 12 -7 47 2010's -2 -3 -56 -208 -31 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  6. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 25 28 30 1980's 37 44 51 58 58 59 55 57 73 55 1990's 58 49 43 52 47 43 45 46 46 39 2000's 42 41 53 50 51 53 52 53 65 82 2010's 94 133 230 302 406 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  7. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 5 37 1980's 31 69 60 23 28 17 10 5 51 8 1990's 16 11 17 21 7 2 5 25 25 1 2000's 3 3 8 5 7 49 30 59 102 401 2010's 442 572 834 1,523 1,161 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  8. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10 18 14 1980's 18 85 56 113 96 46 51 64 78 52 1990's 50 33 57 27 24 29 22 17 27 31 2000's 15 32 20 44 57 27 31 62 75 81 2010's 722 375 292 640 777 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  9. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5 21 29 1980's 50 36 47 119 61 118 57 83 125 77 1990's 59 50 61 37 74 24 36 57 47 50 2000's 43 48 79 36 86 49 70 69 63 243 2010's 848 570 924 1,096 861 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  10. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -3 121 615 1980's -56 -676 268 1,075 -363 -77 264 -260 302 142 1990's 42 88 89 36 87 40 101 -71 -179 -75 2000's 1 31 148 97 -138 -78 129 138 210 70 2010's 127 -99 -41 -328 -426 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  11. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 60 65 105 1980's 137 85 99 179 169 140 149 117 132 130 1990's 127 132 117 121 119 115 121 105 94 94 2000's 79 84 87 82 82 76 78 71 79 79 2010's 73 76 85 166 477 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  12. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 11 40 108 1980's 87 44 55 63 56 62 94 35 37 20 1990's 16 22 27 19 16 13 42 75 118 113 2000's 156 287 139 127 64 111 112 198 333 43 2010's 59 38 162 158 1,490 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  13. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 48 30 114 1980's 33 12 32 10 26 29 51 45 20 45 1990's 34 26 21 36 27 39 91 101 276 401 2000's 243 129 186 121 103 166 49 144 135 70 2010's 68 17 180 530 1,548 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  14. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 36 615 -138 1980's -1,099 1,017 891 -323 -337 -500 835 559 203 202 1990's 838 -451 -121 -94 374 -67 122 82 106 -1,233 2000's 424 196 904 226 -113 297 -149 13 99 984 2010's -394 -368 -686 -622 816 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  15. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 155 197 1980's 168 412 376 53 53 94 14 11 26 91 1990's 50 10 0 25 0 23 30 2 4 0 2000's 20 13 14 6 8 1 0 6 21 0 2010's 51 47 44 2 135 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  16. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 3 1980's 0 4 14 8 0 17 2 0 0 12 1990's 2 3 5 4 29 2 29 5 4 1 2000's 0 1 18 3 3 0 0 3 32 0 2010's 904 322 0 79 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  17. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 67 689 1980's -589 226 60 517 -551 -111 -36 164 488 -367 1990's 191 41 28 190 -19 -240 139 60 -9 -9 2000's -194 3 206 314 -188 186 -117 181 -201 65 2010's -373 -224 -240 664 1,266 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  18. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 52 69 117 1980's 68 94 102 121 134 123 116 128 162 136 1990's 160 140 139 138 141 113 132 129 131 130 2000's 117 114 133 165 155 181 176 183 211 273 2010's 591 1,248 2,241 3,283 4,197 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  19. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 71 149 103 1980's 86 154 111 104 176 218 127 137 66 79 1990's 78 19 24 29 16 3 38 82 19 23 2000's 11 108 170 149 123 275 359 358 489 2,774 2010's 5,779 10,264 12,805 15,544 11,146 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  20. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 33 37 156 1980's 24 95 56 195 75 147 242 195 88 144 1990's 206 102 155 73 117 65 103 381 114 595 2000's 184 219 151 263 567 154 224 418 502 502 2010's 1,938 4,872 6,393 7,128 7,453 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  1. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 17 15 34 1980's 23 70 125 137 277 188 202 109 121 126 1990's 167 88 136 177 315 95 243 519 218 642 2000's 417 201 330 241 657 234 185 326 655 668 2010's 2,892 7,077 5,466 7,166 8,633 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  2. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 44 -35 1980's -22 44 307 4 -44 -65 -68 -45 -424 260 1990's 8 126 136 43 -82 -63 44 -40 97 -56 2000's 4 135 13 40 113 65 -11 17 -4 1 2010's -80 134 289 -582 -20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  3. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 58 54 1980's 61 79 87 68 76 73 60 60 40 64 1990's 71 81 111 165 184 165 180 177 216 220 2000's 226 288 286 278 282 308 349 365 417 447 2010's 432 449 478 456 433 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  4. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 93 62 97 1980's 156 413 60 93 41 27 51 12 3 9 1990's 55 21 37 11 43 19 126 164 133 618 2000's 266 269 368 230 299 596 1,408 744 801 164 2010's 106 643 447 117 164 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  5. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 79 202 89 1980's 123 84 99 42 257 83 78 144 277 84 1990's 101 83 99 24 201 74 79 34 110 322 2000's 110 606 490 767 278 112 502 325 564 491 2010's 219 341 1,926 444 617 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  6. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 37 117 62 1980's 293 414 55 176 80 111 51 281 86 87 1990's 112 204 161 337 172 69 125 293 645 801 2000's 177 805 207 188 475 186 218 1,113 379 1,342 2010's 872 813 1,349 484 752 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  7. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2 1 -5 19 -17 2 10 0 1990's -77 99 196 348 -7 -3 109 344 -495 -12 2000's -10 19 1 1 -19 18 25 -25 -6 339 2010's 59 -413 66 -9 89 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  8. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6 4 8 15 15 19 18 18 1990's 7 12 25 36 51 52 55 68 61 66 2000's 71 78 75 82 72 70 102 109 126 178 2010's 172 156 153 142 145 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  9. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 11 13 38 20 61 15 16 6 1990's 7 0 136 1 1 0 0 113 45 2 2000's 0 31 34 117 146 166 114 262 202 383 2010's 97 63 134 80 215 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  10. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7 3 15 15 16 8 32 17 1990's 6 2 1 21 0 9 6 15 79 81 2000's 295 145 166 37 69 3 14 36 246 87 2010's 560 255 332 271 167 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring

  11. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4 46 31 10 4 5 6 16 1990's 4 2 373 125 568 67 46 142 111 198 2000's 65 90 127 45 39 163 234 108 26 256 2010's 658 378 32 137 286 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  12. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 48 -124 1980's 765 -617 313 17 -84 -55 -10 154 49 -66 1990's -11 451 -153 62 192 -23 87 182 -11 28 2000's -99 -225 423 54 -287 214 -251 14 315 258 2010's -359 -1 251 -565 -559 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  13. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 124 126 116 1980's 151 137 136 126 165 164 153 168 172 160 1990's 169 176 170 169 172 166 177 167 170 173 2000's 176 158 194 189 170 230 187 192 250 278 2010's 293 395 588 728 985 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  14. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 63 72 68 1980's 100 108 184 104 198 471 177 134 95 140 1990's 91 174 75 60 137 115 89 80 180 260 2000's 390 279 250 306 256 76 188 359 444 865 2010's 1,075 759 2,162 2,547 4,249 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  15. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 76 95 129 1980's 205 131 183 172 284 497 340 137 243 147 1990's 227 188 163 212 140 220 301 156 297 360 2000's 668 315 445 182 664 646 298 310 390 383 2010's 1,034 1,218 1,701 2,120 2,213 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  16. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 361 374 439 1980's 537 581 629 600 566 569 541 508 541 561 1990's 586 472 496 525 507 463 462 479 447 416 2000's 433 443 471 448 417 453 479 511 541 1,079 2010's 1,667 2,381 3,569 5,420 6,034 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  17. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 74 -150 1980's 11 63 -69 5 -24 1990's -40 139 -24 95 -80 6 -114 19 -88 111 2000's -72 36 29 -52 19 78 -74 33 -6 11 2010's 10 923 -563 -72 34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  18. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 301 313 347 1980's 294 372 345 335 306 1990's 293 308 285 252 244 216 217 212 246 266 2000's 282 336 291 265 247 268 255 253 237 239 2010's 243 311 200 188 176 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  19. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 89 162 60 1980's 74 80 44 39 51 1990's 68 9 27 58 63 30 16 68 47 58 2000's 112 210 93 55 100 129 176 16 101 450 2010's 12 73 8 3 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  20. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 183 149 239 1980's 301 381 136 167 145 1990's 144 241 164 136 162 106 70 52 328 316 2000's 121 255 127 172 152 129 419 273 491 189 2010's 451 1,889 539 103 241 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  1. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 209 413 660 1980's 793 211 315 221 255 1990's 186 208 185 110 136 113 207 358 574 553 2000's 733 162 202 301 440 739 156 355 263 259 2010's 548 1,486 538 256 612 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  2. Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -1 -60 -426 1980's 175 65 393 372 -168 -109 130 -77 -104 212 1990's 3 618 -159 -156 -169 558 479 -563 -93 82 2000's -88 155 202 -3 -55 57 52 136 -250 306 2010's 449 801 -363 -272 627 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  3. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -3 14 -292 1980's -269 389 82 69 -192 288 -239 239 -125 250 1990's -83 -123 184 102 175 -287 339 69 -265 -152 2000's 84 60 210 149 24 88 89 79 -6 224 2010's 140 125 -236 -20 94 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  4. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 767 855 738 1980's 636 593 440 370 447 503 461 437 546 549 1990's 523 580 590 657 671 673 702 629 548 486 2000's 491 438 471 426 376 380 350 361 357 334 2010's 305 285 281 283 272 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  5. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 219 209 147 1980's 97 107 77 51 115 71 151 76 60 37 1990's 68 198 35 98 102 78 59 54 23 24 2000's 58 46 71 78 47 108 93 149 78 24 2010's 27 62 310 375 271 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  6. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 171 140 171 1980's 158 194 259 178 215 194 274 147 123 446 1990's 313 191 385 225 342 386 953 510 300 479 2000's 350 220 350 180 647 381 1,020 221 498 403 2010's 166 240 475 521 218 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  7. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 122 266 268 1980's 206 539 389 249 560 274 1,956 245 329 687 1990's 372 430 1,054 335 524 679 377 307 501 437 2000's 262 279 436 206 750 207 807 407 334 212 2010's 687 152 742 733 575 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  8. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 64 -66 1980's 67 -20 -4 6 55 -126 7 68 16 14 1990's -31 97 -107 -34 40 43 -55 321 -93 34 2000's -4 158 -24 49 -40 65 -22 37 81 97 2010's -58 -34 -282 103 -9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  9. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 48 52 49 1980's 60 52 44 38 54 53 56 58 60 65 1990's 62 78 61 66 64 67 58 79 63 59 2000's 67 73 79 78 83 85 66 80 93 108 2010's 96 101 83 81 70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  10. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10 26 16 1980's 3 11 33 13 22 12 6 10 51 60 1990's 42 27 35 8 35 10 10 18 20 30 2000's 2 42 92 49 96 101 23 373 200 713 2010's 383 4 0 132 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  11. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 17 23 17 1980's 11 8 19 14 29 26 9 17 18 13 1990's 19 6 12 31 101 12 12 3 41 41 2000's 77 397 383 167 153 77 21 152 133 760 2010's 540 639 276 58 46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  12. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 35 79 37 1980's 39 91 54 32 65 343 126 65 25 67 1990's 93 99 73 34 49 100 43 107 14 230 2000's 363 348 377 128 176 251 56 62 187 126 2010's 103 178 43 159 72 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  13. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 205 127 156 517 328 1990's -15 -47 -273 579 557 -285 626 203 -261 509 2000's -107 322 72 281 -11 130 86 192 -71 319 2010's -612 178 605 -42 487 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  14. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 772 7 16 23 17 1990's 3 68 75 5 25 63 13 11 57 44 2000's 45 27 68 12 18 6 27 0 191 257 2010's 48 47 5 17 57 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  15. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -3 53 -284 1980's 918 -1,083 10 -206 -37 -331 -93 38 -285 160 1990's -629 445 568 -113 -31 -38 -122 207 -76 171 2000's -20 306 164 132 50 115 36 -6 27 1,158 2010's 521 -209 692 2,058 -1,877 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  16. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  17. Report on UQ and PCMM Analysis of Vacuum Drying for UFD S&T Gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Fluss

    2015-08-31

    This report discusses two phenomena that could affect the safety, licensing, transportation, storage, and disposition of the spent fuel storage casks and their contents (radial hydriding during drying and water retention after drying) associated with the drying of canisters for dry spent fuel storage. The report discusses modeling frameworks and evaluations that are, or have been, developed as a means to better understand these phenomena. Where applicable, the report also discusses data needs and procedures for monitoring or evaluating the condition of storage containers during and after drying. A recommendation for the manufacturing of a fully passivated fuel rod, resistant to oxidation and hydriding is outlined.

  18. Modeling and Adhesive Tool Wear in Dry Drilling of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girot, F.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.

    2011-01-17

    One of the challenges in aeronautic drilling operations is the elimination of cutting fluids while maintaining the quality of drilled parts. This paper therefore aims to increase the tool life and process quality by working on relationships existing between drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), coatings and tool geometry. In dry drilling, the phenomenon of Built-Up Layer is the predominant damage mechanism. A model fitting the axial force with the cutting parameters and the damage has been developed. The burr thickness and its dispersion decrease with the feed rate. The current diamond coatings which exhibit a strong adhesion to the carbide substrate can limit this adhesive layer phenomenon. A relatively smooth nano-structured coating strongly limits the development of this layer.

  19. Simulation of spray drying absorber for removal of HC1 in flue gas from incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, S.; Tsuchiga, K.

    1984-04-01

    A theoretical study on the spray drying absorber in an HC1 removal process by lime slurries has been performed with a mathematical model which describes heat and mass transfer and fluid flows in the absorber. From heat and mass balances and a force balance for a moving droplet in the absorber, a set of first-order, nonlinear differential equations relating the amount of water, the gas and droplet temperatures, the drop velocity, the HC1 partial pressure, etc., along the axial direction of the tower was formulated. These relationships were numerically solved to give characteristic profiles in the tower. The results of the simulation based on this model were compared with experimental data and showed satisfactory agreement.

  20. Influence of slurry flocculation on the character and compaction of spray-dried silicon nitride granules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shinohara, Nobuhiro; Okumiya, Masataro; Uematsu, Keizo; JunIchiro, Tsubaki; Iwamoto, Yuji; Kamiya, Hidehiro

    1995-04-01

    The effect of slurry flocculation on the characteristics of silicon nitride granules prepared by the spray drying process is investigated. The flocculation state of an aqueous silicon nitride slurry is controlled by adding nitric acid and evaluated as a function of pH. Dense and hard silicon nitride granules result from a well-dispersed slurry having a high pH (e.g., 10.8). These hard granules retain their shape in green compacts and form detrimental defects. Lowering the pH of the slurry to a certain value (e.g., pH 7.9) results in slurry flocculation. Granules prepared from this flocculated slurry have low density and low diametral compression strength and contribute to the elimination large pores in green compacts.