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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Thermoelectric figure of merit for bulk nanostructured composites with distributed parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effective properties of composites whose structure includes nanocontacts between bulk-phase macrocrystallites are considered. A model for such a nanostructured composite is constructed. Effective values of the thermoelectric power, thermal and electrical conductivities, and thermoelectric figure of merit are calculated in the mean-field approximation.

Snarskii, A. A. [National Technical University 'Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' (Ukraine); Sarychev, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics (Russian Federation); Bezsudnov, I. V., E-mail: biv@akuan.ru ['Nauka-Service' Scientific and Production Company (Russian Federation); Lagarkov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials can generate electricity or provide cooling by converting thermal gradients to electricity or electricity to thermal gradients. More efficient thermoelectric materials would make feasible the widespread use of thermoelectric converters in mundane applications. This report summarizes the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials including currently available materials and applications, new developments, and future prospects.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

3

Thermoelectric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates in general to thermoelectric units and more particularly to a tubular thermoelectric unit which includes an array of tandemly arranged radially tapered annular thermoelectric pellets having insulation material of a lower density than the thermoelectric pellets positioned between each pellet. (Official Gazette)

Kim, C.K.

1974-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

4

Thermoelectric I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Many unconventional electronic structures that increase effective mass are being studied or proposed for high efficiency thermoelectric ...

5

Thermoelectric I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Breaking the Thermal Conductivity Glass Limit: Qiang Li1; 1Brookhaven National Laboratory In the development of thermoelectric materials, ...

6

Thermoelectric III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Thermoelectric materials in energy conversion are more and more ... The main scheme is to enhance the ZT in these materials systems by ...

7

Ab-Initio Determination of Novel Crystal Structures of the Thermoelectric Material MgAgSb  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials with the half-Heusler structure possess interesting electrical and magnetic properties, including potential for thermoelectric applications. MgAgSb is compositionally and structurally related to many half-Heusler materials, but has not been extensively studied. This work presents the high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis of MgAgSb between 27 and 420 C, complemented with thermoelectric property measurements. MgAgSb is found to exist in three different structures in this temperature region, taking the half-Heusler structure at high temperatures, a Cu2Sb-related structure at intermediate temperatures, and a previously unreported tetragonal structure at room temperature. All three structures are related by a distorted Mg-Sb rocksalt-type sublattice, differing primarily in the Ag location among the available tetrahedral sites. Transition temperatures between the three phases correlate well with discontinuities in the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity; the best performance occurs with the novel room temperature phase. For application of MgAgSb as a thermoelectric material, it may be desirable to develop methods to stabilize the room temperature phase at higher temperatures.

Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Sharp, Jeff W. [Marlow Industries, Inc; Thompson, Alan [Marlow Industries, Inc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Thermoelectric system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In one particular embodiment, an internal combustion engine is provided. The engine comprises a block, a head, a piston, a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head, and at least one thermoelectric device positioned between the combustion chamber and the head. In this particular embodiment, the thermoelectric device is in direct contact with the combustion chamber. In another particular embodiment, a cylinder head configured to sit atop a cylinder bank of an internal combustion engine is provided. The cylinder head comprises a cooling channel configured to receive cooling fluid, valve seats configured for receiving intake and exhaust valves, and thermoelectric devices positioned around the valve seats.

Reiners, Eric A. (Washington, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL); Fei, Dong (Peoria, IL); McGilvray, Andrew N. (East Peoria, IL)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

9

Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Thermoelectrics Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 Overview of Worldwide Activities in Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Materials I Thermoelectric Manufacturing Thursday, October 1, 2009...

10

Thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

Pryslak, N.E.

1974-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

11

thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been proven that the maximum cooling temperature of a thermoelectric material can be increased by using either pulsed operation or graded Seebeck profiles. In this paper, we show that the maximum cooling temperature can be further increased by the pulsed operation of optimal inhomogeneous thermoelectric materials. A random sampling method is used to obtain the optimal electrical conductivity profile of inhomogeneous materials, which can achieve a much higher cooling temperature than the best uniform materials under the steady-state condition. Numerical simulations of pulsed operation are then carried out in the time domain. In the limit of low thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT, the finite-difference time-domain simulations are verified by an analytical solution for homogeneous material. This numerical method is applied to high ZT BiTe materials and simulations show that the effective figure-of-merit can be improved by 153 % when both optimal graded electrical conductivity profiles and pulsed operation are used. 1.

Q Zhou; Z Bian; A Shakouri

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Studies of Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and Devices for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... into thermoelectric devices to show excellent power generation and cooling ... Property in Grain Boundary Character Distribution-Optimized Ni-based Alloy.

13

Optimal Bandwidth for High Efficiency Thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in narrow conduction bands of different material dimensionalities is investigated for different carrier scattering models. When the bandwidth is zero, the transport distribution ...

Zhou, Jun

14

Vehicle Technologies Office: 2nd Thermoelectrics Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2011 Overview of Worldwide Activities in Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Materials I NSFDOE Thermoelectrics Partnership Wednesday, January 5, 2012...

15

Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Long-respected international experts on thermoelectrics (Dixon, Ertl and Goldsmid supported by Ure) determine the probable maximum figure of merit (ZT) for fully matured thermoelectric generators as about unity from ordiary temperatures to 2000 K. Thus the maximum efficiency for fully matured thermoelectrics would be approximately 0.414 (l - r/sub T/)/(1.414 + r/sub T/) where r/sub T/ is the ratio of cold and hot junction temperatures. This limitation contrasts with the recent burst of enthusiasm for high-temperature thermoelectrics - based on calculated figures of merit and efficiencies that increase more and more rapidly with rising temperatures. Unfortunately these calculations neglect internal radiation effects which diminish thermoelectric figures of merit significantly at 1000 K and substantially at 2000 K: The effective thermal-conductivity contribution of intrathermoelectric radiative dissipation increases with the third power of temperature. Therefore the quotation from Thermoelectricy: Science and Engineering by Heikes and Ure apparently still prevails: ...thermoelectric devices appear difficult to extend in the direction of high temperature, while thermionic devices become inefficient at low temperature. Accordingly consideration of thermoelectric power generation with high-temperature heat sources should include utilization of TEC topping thermoelectrics. However TEC alone or TEC topping more-efficient conversion systems like steam or gas turbines, combined cycles or Stirling engines would be more desirable generally.

Morris, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Nanocomposites as thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials have attractive applications in electric power generation and solid-state cooling. The performance of a thermoelectric device depends on the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the material, ...

Hao, Qing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Component for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Procedure for determining the distribution ranking index  

SciTech Connect

The Distribution Ranking Index (DRI) has been developed as a simple but effective means to indicate the inherent, acute hazards of a material that might be released in a transportation accident. Utilizing existing Dow resources and procedures, it is one of the methods used for prioritization of chemicals in Dow`s distribution related process risk management effort. Seven individual hazard indexes are considered for a material. The values range from 1 to 4 with 4 representing the most severe hazard. The highest value from any hazard index determines the overall DRI. 3 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Latino, M.A. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

Mike S. H. Chu

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

20

Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectric Materials Rama Venkatasubramanian RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC Thermoelectric Applications III Tom Avedisian, Cornell University, Chair High...

22

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II: Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications: Thermoelectric ...

23

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

25

Planning Methodology to Determine Practical Circuit Limits for Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utility distribution planners are increasingly faced with accommodating large sizes of distributed generation (DG) on their power distribution circuits. In many states, the renewable portfolio standards and incentives from various sources have resulted in larger solar PV installations than experienced previously. These are often located in parts of the distribution circuits where voltage is more difficult to regulate. This project investigated planning methodologies for determining practical limits for D...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mechanical Properties of Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Edgar Lara-Curzio, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scope, Thermoelectric materials can directly convert waste heat into electricity without moving parts or fluids.

27

Mechanical Properties of Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Natural Mineral Based Thermoelectrics: Xiaofeng Fan1; Eldon Case1; Xu Lu1; Donald Morelli1; 1 Michigan State ...

28

Rare earth thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The author reviews the thermoelectric properties of metallic compounds which contain rare-earth atoms. They are the group of metals with the largest value ever reported of the Seebeck coefficient. An increase by 50% of the Seebeck would make these compounds useful for thermoelectric devices. The largest Seebeck coefficient is found for compounds of cerium (e.g., CePd{sub 3}) and ytterbium (e.g., YbAl{sub 3}). Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the maximum observed Seebeck. The author discusses the theoretical model which has been used to calculate the Seebeck coefficient. He is solving this model for other configurations (4f){sup n} of rare-earth ground states.

Mahan, G.D.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

Metzger, John D. (Eaton' s Neck, NY); El-Genk, Mohamed S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

31

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a higher thermal conductivity than that of the superconducting material. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials, establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

Donaldson, Erle C. (Bartlesville, OK); Sutterfield, F. Dexter (Bartlesville, OK)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration in Future Grids Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: March 18, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint...

35

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2012 8, 2012 CX-008323: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Nevada Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory April 18, 2012 CX-008322: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory April 18, 2012 CX-008321: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

36

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2012 8, 2012 CX-008322: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory April 18, 2012 CX-008321: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory April 18, 2012 CX-008320: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): New York Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

37

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II: Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications: Thermoelectric I

38

High performance thermoelectric nanocomposite device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric device includes a nanocomposite material with nanowires of at least one thermoelectric material having a predetermined figure of merit, the nanowires being formed in a porous substrate having a low thermal conductivity and having an average pore diameter ranging from about 4 nm to about 300 nm.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Snyder, Dexter D. (Birmingham, MI)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

39

Thermoelectric Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A novel thermoelectric OTEC concept is proposed and compared with the ammonia closed-cycle designs. The thermoelectric OTEC is a much simpler system which uses no working fluid and therefore requires no pressure vessel, working fluid pumps, or turbogenerator. These components are replaced by power modules which are heat exchangers integrated with thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric OTEC offers several potential advantages including: simpler and more easily mass-produced components; higher reliability system performance through the use of a high level of redundancy and long-lived, solid-state thermoelectric generators; greater safety for crew and environment by elimination of the pressurized working fluid; and the possibility of lower system costs. These comparisons are discussed and plans for future work are presented.

Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.; Bohn, M.S.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Superlattices in thermoelectric applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electrical conductivity, thermopower and the electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of a superlattice, are calculated with the electric field and the thermal gradient applied parallel to the interfaces. Tunneling between quantum wells is included. The broadening of the lowest subband when the period of the superlattice is decreased produces a reduction of the thermoelectric figure of merit. However, we found that a moderate increase of the figure of merit may be expected for intermediate values of the period, due to the enhancement of the density of states produced by the superlattice structure.

Sofo, J.O.; Mahan, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Prior research has demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and via inhalation of infectious aerosols. Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. To detect airborne HRV, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine the assay detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 10,000-fold. This assay was used to quantify the size distribution of an artificially-produced HRV aerosol captured with an Andersen six-stage cascade impactor. In future studies, we hope to use the methods developed here to characterize the size distribution of naturally occurring viral-aerosols

42

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

43

Modeling the thermoelectric properties of bulk and nanocomposite thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are materials which are capable of converting heat directly into electricity. They have long been used in specialized fields where high reliability is needed, such as space power generation. Recently, ...

Minnich, Austin (Austin Jerome)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Thermoelectric device characterization and solar thermoelectric system modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent years have witnessed a trend of rising electricity costs and an emphasis on energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) devices can be used either as heat pumps for localized environmental control or heat engines to ...

Muto, Andrew (Andrew Jerome)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration in Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration in Future Grids Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: March 18, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare In this talk, Johan will discuss the technical barriers met while deploying distributed generation (DG) technology in the grid. These are related to voltage quality, reliability, stability of the grid, but also safety, environmental and economic issues are important. Eventually, the question 'how far can you go ?' is addressed. The range from small-scale local DG such as photovoltaics to large-scale (off-shore) wind farms are dealt with, each with their specific issues. The talk is illustrated with examples from research projects at the KULeuven financied by national and European

46

Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Jihui Yang, Xun Shi, General Motors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Microstructure of Doped Clathrate and the Microstructure of Doped Clathrate and Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Jihui Yang, Xun Shi, General Motors Hsin Wang and Miaofang Chi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scientific challenge/problem: Clathrate and Skutterudite are known to be promising thermoelectric materials. The R&D groups at GM and ORNL have found that doping Clathrate (Ba 0.25 Co 4 Sb 12 ) with Yb and La and doping Skutterudite (Ba 8 Ga 16 Ge 30 ) with Ni improve the thermoelectrical properties significantly. The goal of the microscopy characterization is to fundamentally understand how the dopants control the materials properties. Two questions need to be answered at the current stage of our experimental work: how the microstructures are tailored by the dopants and how the dopants distribute

47

Thermoelectric properties of nanoporous Ge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We computed thermoelectric properties of nanoporous Ge (np-Ge) with aligned pores along the [001] direction through a combined classical molecular dynamics and first-principles electronic structure approach. A significant ...

Lee, Joo-Hyoung

48

Electrical utilities model for determining electrical distribution capacity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its simplest form, this model was to obtain meaningful data on the current state of the Site`s electrical transmission and distribution assets, and turn this vast collection of data into useful information. The resulting product is an Electrical Utilities Model for Determining Electrical Distribution Capacity which provides: current state of the electrical transmission and distribution systems; critical Hanford Site needs based on outyear planning documents; decision factor model. This model will enable Electrical Utilities management to improve forecasting requirements for service levels, budget, schedule, scope, and staffing, and recommend the best path forward to satisfy customer demands at the minimum risk and least cost to the government. A dynamic document, the model will be updated annually to reflect changes in Hanford Site activities.

Fritz, R.L., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

49

Thermoelectric energy conversion using nanostructured materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High performance thermoelectric materials in a wide range of temperatures are essential to broaden the application spectrum of thermoelectric devices. This paper presents experiments on the power and efficiency characteristics ...

Chen, Gang

50

Thermoelectric Applications to Truck Essential Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The subjects covered in this report are: thermoelectrics, 1-kW generator for diesel engine; self-powered heater; power for wireless data transmission; and quantum-well thermoelectrics.

John C. Bass; Norbert B. Elsner

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

51

Analysis of a heat exchanger-thermoelectric generator system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) application is presented. An analytic model is developed for describing the heat exchanger-TEG interactions. This model is used to illustrate limitations of applying conventional fixed junction temperature assumptions to systems experiencing significant temperature drops across the heat exchanger surfaces. Design methods are developed for determining the thermoelectric element geometry that produces maximum output power. Results show that a heat exchanger-TEG system may deliver about 100 W/m/sup 2/ of heat exchanger surface. This compares favorably with conventional OTEC schemes.

Henderson, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Thermoelectrics and Thermal Transport - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Energy Nanomaterials: Thermoelectrics and Thermal Transport Sponsored by: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, TMS Materials ...

53

Some Examples in Hydrogen Storage, Thermoelectrics and  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Computational Phase-stability Research and Education in Energy Materials: Some Examples in Hydrogen Storage, Thermoelectrics and ...

54

Measurements and Standards for Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of data, thereby accelerating the selection and optimization of thermoelectric ... products industries, the military, NASA, and the energy sector. ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

55

METHOD OF CONTROLLING TEMPERATURE OF A THERMOELECTRIC ...  

A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator ... Advanced Materials; Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission;

56

Thin Film Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thin Film Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Applications ... Abstract Scope, Thin film nanocomposites comprised of refractory metals and ...

57

Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

None

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

59

First JAM results on the determination of polarized parton distributions  

SciTech Connect

The Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum (JAM) Collaboration is a new initiative to study the angular momentum dependent structure of the nucleon. First results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions at intermediate and large x from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented. Different aspects of global QCD analysis are discussed, including the effects of nuclear structure of deuterium and 3He targets, target mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the g1 and g2 structure functions.

Accardi, Alberto [Hampton U., JLAB; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [JLAB; Melnitchouk, Wally [JLAB

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Tomographic determination of the power distribution in electron beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tomographic technique for determining the power distribution of an electron beam using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. A refractory metal disk with a number of radially extending slits is placed above a Faraday cup. The beam is swept in a circular pattern so that its path crosses each slit in a perpendicular manner, thus acquiring all the data needed for a reconstruction in one circular sweep. Also, a single computer is used to generate the signals actuating the sweep, to acquire that data, and to do the reconstruction, thus reducing the time and equipment necessary to complete the process.

Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA); Elmer, John W. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fabrication and testing of thermoelectric thin film devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two thin-film thermoelectric devices are experimentally demonstrated. The relevant thermal loads on the cold junction of these devices are determined. The analytical form of the equation that describes the thermal loading of the device enables one to model the performance based on the independently measured electronic properties of the films forming the devices. This model elucidates which parameters determine device performance, and how they can be used to maximize performance.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3rd Thermoelectrics 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on AddThis.com... Publications Key Publications Plans & Roadmaps Partnership Documents Annual Progress Reports Success Stories

64

Modeling study of thermoelectric SiGe nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanocomposite thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention recently due to experimental demonstrations of improved thermoelectric properties over those of the corresponding bulk material. In order to better ...

Minnich, Austin Jerome

65

High Temperature Modules and Materials for Thermoelectric Power ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We fabricated oxide-based thermoelectric modules for high temperature electrical-power generation. Potentials for a development of a thermoelectric generation ...

66

Study of the Use of Saline Formations for Combined Thermoelectric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of the Use of Saline Formations for Combined Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon Sequestration at a Regional-Scale Background Thermoelectric power plants are...

67

Effect of Nanoparticles on Electron and Thermoelectric Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Electron and Thermoelectric Transport MONA ZEBARJADI, 1,5quantitatively predict transport properties of a bulk matrixscattering, thermoelectric, transport INTRODUCTION In recent

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Definition: Thermoelectric power generation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermoelectric power generation Thermoelectric power generation Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermoelectric power generation The conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Thermoelectric generation relies on a fuel source (e.g. fossil, nuclear, biomass, geothermal, or solar) to heat a fluid to drive a turbine[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice-versa. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold

69

THERMOELECTRIC NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENT QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, APRIL-JUNE 1961  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-bearing thermoelectric compounds are now being prepared by tantalum bomb melting and by the hydride process. Tests of devices made up from these compounds indicate that the main fabrication problems are densification and contact bonding. Data from a hot-swaged pellet and a swaged device of US/sub 2/ indicate some promise for that compound. Improvements in techniques of thermoelectric parameter measurements include programming of automatic test data recording at desired intervals around the clock; increased accuracy and versatility of measurements through use of a newly-constructed adjustable precision resistor; and a method for measuring which should lead to an experimental means for determining the thermoelectric figure of merit, Z. Potential profile studies on PbTe pelleta are yielding important information on contact resistance parameters. A fission-fired thermoelectric generator is being prepared for the next in-pile test. (auth)

1961-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

70

Energy Payback Optimization of Thermoelectric Power Generator Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytic model for optimizing thermoelectric power generation system is developed and utilized for parametric studies. This model takes into account the external thermal resistances with hot and cold reservoirs. In addition, the spreading thermal resistance in the module substrates is considered to find the impact of designing small fraction of thermo elements per unit area. Previous studies are expanded by a full optimization of the electrical and thermal circuits. The optimum condition satisfies both electrical load resistance match with the internal resistance and the thermal resistance match with the heat source and the heat sink. Thermoelectric element aspect ratio and fill factor are found to be key parameters to optimize. The optimum leg length and the maximum output power are determined by a simple formula. The output power density per mass of the thermoelectric material has a peak when thermo elements cover a fractional area of ~1%. The role of the substrate heat spreading for thermoelectric power generation is equally significant as thermoelement. For a given heat source, the co-optimization of the heat sink and the thermoelectric module should be performed. Active cooling and the design of the heat sink are customized to find the energy payback for the power generation system. The model includes both the air cooled heat sinks and the water cooled micro channels. We find that one can reduce the mass of thermoelement to around 3~10 % of that in commercial modules for the same output power, as long as the module and elements are designed properly. Also one notes that higher heat flux sources have significantly larger energy payback and reduced cost per output power.

Kazuaki Yazawa; Ali Shakouri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Enhancing Open Circuit Voltage by Combining Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhancing Open Circuit Voltage by Combining Thermoelectric Materials and Dye -Sensitized Solar Cell in Series · Estimation of Compressive Strength of High ...

72

QUANTUM WELLS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES FOR DIESEL ENGINES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are utilized for power generation in remote locations, on spacecraft used for interplanetary exploration, and in places where waste heat can be recovered.

Ghamaty, Saeid

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

73

CNT Based Thermoelectric Devices for Energy Harvesting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, CNT Based Thermoelectric Devices for Energy Harvesting. Author(s), David S. Lashmore, Tom VanVechten, Jennifer Mann, Cory Timoney, ...

74

Heat Transfer Enhancement in Thermoelectric Power Generation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat transfer plays an important role in thermoelectric (TE) power generation because the higher the heat-transfer rate from the hot to the cold side of… (more)

Hu, Shih-yung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Thermoelectric battery, protected against shocks and accelerations  

SciTech Connect

In a thermoelectric battery the heat source is suspended on the end of a thermoelectric unit, the other end of which is attached via a heat conducting mass to the casing. A resilient mounting permits resilient rocking of the thermoelectric unit to reduce stress on the unit in the event of shock or acceleration applied to the casing and spring fingers not normally in contact with the heat source or the thermoelectric unit are positioned to arrest the heat source if the assembly rocks more than a predetermined amount.

Brown, M.H.; Myatt, J.

1979-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester - Energy Innovation Portal  

A novel thermoelectric generator (TEG) design by PNNL allows the conversion of ambient thermal energy into electric power for a variety of low-power uses. These ...

77

Energy harvesting using a thermoelectric material - Energy ...  

A novel energy harvesting system and method utilizing a thermoelectric having a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain (TIS) due to a phase ...

78

Prescription to Improve Thermoelectric Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, patterns in the behavior of different classes and types of thermoelectric materials are observed, and an alchemy that could help engineer a highly efficient thermoelectric is proposed. A method based on cross-correlation of Seebeck waveforms is also presented in order to capture physics of magnetic transition. The method is used to compute Curie temperature of LaCoO3 with an accuracy of 10K. In total, over 26 systems are analyzed, and 19 presented: Chalcogenides (PbSe, PbTe, Sb2Te3, Ag2Se), Skutterudites and Clathrates (CoSb3, SrFe4Sb12, Cd (CN)2, CdC, Ba8Ga16Si30*), Perovskites (SrTiO3, BaTiO3, LaCoO3, CaSiO3, Ce3InN*, YCoO3*), Half-Heuslers (ZrNiSn, NbFeSb, LiAlSi, CoSbTi, ScPtSb*, CaMgSi*), and an assorted class of thermoelectric materials (FeSi, FeSi2, ZnO, Ag QDSL*). Relaxation time is estimated from experimental conductance curve fits. A maximum upper bound of zT is evaluated for systems that have no experimental backing. In general, thermoelectric parameters (power factor, Seebeck coefficient and zT) are estimated for the aforementioned crystal structures. Strongly correlated systems are treated using LDAU and GGAU approximations. LDA/GGA/L(S)DA+U/GGA+U approach specific errors have also been highlighted. Densities of experimental results are estimated.

Meka, Shiv Akarsh

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CX-004070: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Categorical Exclusion Determination 0: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004070: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 10/01/2010 Location(s): Dallas, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory The objective of this project is to develop distributed thermoelectric (TE) heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) components to supplement the central HVAC system and integrate and test them in a 5-passenger demonstration vehicle. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-004070.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-000324: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000312: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000320

80

Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution at Part ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of oil flow on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) distribution at the gear surface. ... Multiphase Flow in a Steelmaking Converter Using an Unconventional Lance.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

CX-008992: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-008992: Categorical Exclusion Determination "Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08222012 Location(s):...

82

Thermoelectric Development at Hi-Z Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An improved Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) for the Heavy Duty Class Eight Diesel Trucks is under development at Hi-Z Technology. The current TEG is equipped with the improved HZ-14 Thermoelectric module, which features better mechanical properties as well as higher electric power output. Also, the modules are held in place more securely.

Kushch, Aleksandr S.; Bass, John C.; Ghamaty, Saeid; Elsner, Norbert B.; Bergstrand, Richard A.; Furrow, David; Melvin, Mike

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

83

Thermoelectric generator apparatus and operation method  

SciTech Connect

A method of operating a thermoelectric generator includes: cyclically producing increasing then decreasing temperature differences in the thermoelectric material of the generator; and generating a cyclically increasing then decreasing electrical generator output signal, in response to such temperature differences, to transmit electrical power generated by the generator from the generator. Part of the thermoelectric material reaches temperatures substantially above the melting temperature of the material. The thermoelectric material of the generator forms a part of a closed electrical loop about a transformer core so that the inductor voltage for the loop serves as the output signal of the generator. A thermoelectric generator, which can be driven by the described method of operation, incorporates fins into a thermopile to conduct heat toward or away from the alternating spaces between adjacent layers of different types of thermoelectric material. The fins extend from between adjacent layers, so that they can also conduct electrical current between such layers, perpendicularly to the direction of stacking of the layers. The exhaust from an internal combustion engine can be employed to drive the thermoelectric generator, and, also, to act as a driver for a thermoelectric generator in accordance with the method of operation initially described.

Lowther, F.E.

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Heat reflecting tape for thermoelectric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Threads are interlaced with thermoelectric wires to provide a woven cloth in tape form, there being an intermediate layer of heat radiation reflecting material (e.g., aluminum foil) insulated electrically from said wires, which are of opposite thermoelectric polarity and connected as a plurality of thermocouples.

Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Thermoelectric materials development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A systematic search for advanced thermoelectric materials was initiated at JPL several years ago to evaluate candidate materials which includes consideration of the following property attributes: (1) semiconducting properties; (2) large Seebeck coefficient; (3) high carrier mobility and high electrical conductivity; (4) low lattice thermal conductivity; and (5) chemical stability and low vapor pressure. Through this candidate screening process, JPL identified several families of materials as promising candidates for improved thermoelectric materials including the skutterudite family. There are several programs supporting various phases of the effort on these materials. As part of an ongoing effort to develop skutterudite materials with lower thermal conductivity values, several solid solutions and filled skutterudite materials were investigated under the effort sponsored by DOE. The efforts have primarily focused on: (1) study of existence and properties of solid solutions between the binary compounds CoSb{sub 3} and IrSb{sub 3}, and RuSb{sub 2}Te, and (2) CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} filled compositions, the reduction would be caused by the rattling of Ce atoms located in the empty voids of the skutterudite structure and the substitution of Fe for Ru. The details of the sample preparation and characterization of their thermoelectric properties are reported in this report.

Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Stochastic Analysis to Determine Feeder Hosting Capacity for Distributed Solar PV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) generation has begun to impact distribution systems. The impact is unique to individual distribution feeders and is based on certain or all issues ranging from voltage, loading, power quality, protection, and control. The impact distributed PV will have on a specific distribution feeder can only be determined with knowledge of that feeder’s characteristics. These characteristics include but are not limited to load, voltage, regulation, and ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

87

Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric devices—which convert heat into energy—that can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Rare earth chalcogenides for use as high temperature thermoelectric materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the first part of the thesis, the electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall effect were measured in X{sub y}(Y{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-y} (X = Cu, B, or Al), for y = 0.05 (Cu, B) or 0.025-0.075 for Al, in order to determine their potential as high- temperature (HT)(300-1000 C) thermoelectrics. Results indicate that Cu, B, Al- doped Y{sub 2}S{sub 3} are not useful as HT thermoelectrics. In the second part, phase stability of {gamma}-cubic LaSe{sub 1.47-1.48} and NdSe{sub 1.47} was measured periodically during annealing at 800 or 1000 C for the same purpose. In the Nd selenide, {beta} phase increased with time, while the Nd selenide showed no sign of this second phase. It is concluded that the La selenide is not promising for use as HT thermoelectric due to the {gamma}-to-{beta} transformation, whereas the Nd selenide is promising.

Michiels, J.

1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

In-Line Thermoelectric Module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

In-line thermoelectric module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

Pento, Robert (Algonquin, IL); Marks, James E. (Glenville, NY); Staffanson, Clifford D. (S. Glens Falls, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

92

Thermoelectrics : material advancements and market applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric properties have been known since the initial discovery in 1821 by Thomas Seebeck, who found that a current flowed at the junction of two dissimilar metals when placed under a temperature differential. This ...

Monreal, Jorge

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Thermoelectric Nanocomposites: Effect of Nanostructures on Lattice ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, This talk will give a brief introduction to thermoelectric phenomena and challenges that these materials ... Colloidal Ag-Pt/TiO2 Nanocomposites for Photocatalysis ... Positron Lifetime Analysis of Polyurea- Nanoclay Composites.

94

Generalized drift-diffusion for microscopic thermoelectricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although thermoelectric elements increasingly incorporate nano-scale features in similar material systems as other micro-electronic devices, the former are described in the language of irreversible thermodynamics while ...

Santhanam, Parthiban

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Modeling water use at thermoelectric power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The withdrawal and consumption of water at thermoelectric power plants affects regional ecology and supply security of both water and electricity. The existing field data on US power plant water use, however, is of limited ...

Rutberg, Michael J. (Michael Jacob)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Solar thermoelectrics for small scale power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past two decades, there has been a surge in the research of new thermoelectric (TE) materials, driven party by the need for clean and sustainable power generation technology. Utilizing the Seebeck effect, the ...

Amatya, Reja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

SP-100 thermoelectric-electromagnetic pump review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains vugraphs of a presentation on thermoelectric-electromagnetic pumps. It contains: engineering drawings; summary of rectangular TEMP results and comparison with GE predictions; and results of optimization study.

NONE

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Semiclassical model for thermoelectric transport in nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanocomposites (NCs) has recently been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to be potentially high-efficiency thermoelectric materials by reducing the thermal conductivity through phonon-interface scattering and possibly ...

Zhou, Jun

99

Device testing and characterization of thermoelectric nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has become evident in recent years that developing clean, sustainable energy technologies will be one of the world's greatest challenges in the 21st century. Thermoelectric materials can potentially make a contribution ...

Muto, Andrew (Andrew Jerome)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric energy generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). A model is established including thermal concentration in addition to optical concentration. Based on the model, the maximum ...

Chen, Gang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

CX-008479: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-008479: Categorical Exclusion Determination Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat in Useful Electric Power CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05112012...

102

CX-009861: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-009861: Categorical Exclusion Determination Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat in Useful Electric Power CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01162013...

103

CX-001145: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Ford Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03082010 Location(s): Asuza,...

104

CX-001144: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Ford Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03082010 Location(s): Northville,...

105

CX-007703: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination Sheetak Inc. - Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11102011 Location(s): New York, Pennsylvania,...

106

CX-009905: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-009905: Categorical Exclusion Determination 25A1001 - Advanced Semiconductor Materials for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Devices CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12012009...

107

POTENTIAL THERMOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS IN DIESEL VEHICLES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Novel thermodynamic cycles developed by BSST provide improvements by factors of approximately 2 in cooling, heating and power generation efficiency of solid-state thermoelectric systems. The currently available BSST technology is being evaluated in automotive development programs for important new applications. Thermoelectric materials are likely to become available that further increase performance by a comparable factor. These major advancements should allow the use of thermoelectric systems in new applications that have the prospect of contributing to emissions reduction, fuel economy, and improved user comfort. Potential applications of thermoelectrics in diesel vehicles are identified and discussed. As a case in point, the history and status of the Climate Controlled Seat (CCS) system from Amerigon, the parent of BSST, is presented. CCS is the most successful and highest production volume thermoelectric system in vehicles today. As a second example, the results of recent analyses on electric power generation from vehicle waste heat are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to the practicality of waste power generation systems that incorporate BSST's thermodynamic cycle and advanced thermoelectric materials.

Crane, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

108

Thermoelectric material development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A search was made for improved TE materials that could have higher efficiency than state-of-the-art SiGe alloys used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. A new family of materials having the skutterudite structure was identified (cubic space group Im3, formula (Fe, Co, Ni)As{sub 3}). Properties of n-type IrSb{sub 3}, CoSb{sub 3}, and their solid solutions were investigated. Pt, Te, Tl, and In were used as dopants. The thermal conductivity was reduced by about 70% for the solid solutions vs the binary compounds. A maximum ZT of about 0.36 was measured on Co-rich solid solutions which is 160% improved over that of the binary compounds.

Vandersande, J.W.; Allevato, C.; Caillat, T.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment

110

Modeling of solar thermal selective surfaces and thermoelectric generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that converts a heat flux into electrical power via the Seebeck effect. When a thermoelectric generator is inserted between a solar-absorbing surface and a heat sink, a ...

McEnaney, Kenneth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Effect of Stoichiometry on the Thermoelectric Properties of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

113

Conversion system overview assessment. Volume 1: solar thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An assessment of thermoelectrics for solar energy conversion is given. There is significant potential for solar thermoelectrics in solar technologies where collector costs are low; e.g., Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and solar ponds. Reports of two studies by manufacturers assessing the cost of thermoelectric generators in large scale production are included in the appendix and several new concepts thermoelectric systems are presented. (WHK)

Jayadev, T. S.; Henderson, J.; Finegold, J.; Benson, D.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor with Highly Mismatched Isoelectronic Doping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of O impurities on the thermoelectric properties of ZnSe from a combination

Grossman, Jeffrey C.

115

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II.

116

Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter - Energy ...  

A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, ... Advanced Materials; Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency;

117

Recovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. When waste heat, geothermal heat and solar is the heat source, the cost of thermal input canRecovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity Spring 2010 Department available thermoelectric modules and to build a thermoelectric power generator demonstration unit

Kjelstrup, Signe

118

High three dimensional thermoelectric performance from low dimensional bands  

SciTech Connect

Reduced dimensionality has long been regarded as an important strategy for increasing thermoelectric performance, for example in superlattices and other engineered structures. Here we point out and illustrate by examples that three dimensional bulk materials can be made to behave as if they were two dimensional from the point of view of thermoelectric performance. Implications for the discovery of new practical thermoelectrics are discussed.

Singh, David J [ORNL; Chen, Xin [ORNL; Parker, David S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Optimal Determination of Parameters for Gamma-Type Drop Size Distributions Based on Moments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured raindrop size distributions are often approximated by analytical functions. The parameters determining such functions are usually derived from measured data. This procedure can suffer from various uncertainties. The most important of ...

Jan Handwerker; Winfried Straub

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal paths can be orthogonal due to off-diagonal thermoelectricity (ODTE). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for device applications and describe a search for suitable thermoelectric properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find, at 300K for diagonal (ordinary) thermoelectricity (DTE), the general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity varies linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping, but with a proportionality in excess of a prediction from theory. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable in its consequences for applications in DTE and ODTE. A standard model suggests that conduction by carriers of both signs occurs in these polymers, which thus leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also discuss polyacetylene (which is not air-stable), where this ambipolar conduction does not occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.

Mateeva, N.; Testardi, L. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Niculescu, H. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida A and M Univ./Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States) Coll. of Engineering; Schlenoff, J. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Chemistry Dept.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Anneng Thermoelectricity Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anneng Thermoelectricity Group Anneng Thermoelectricity Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Anneng Thermoelectricity Group Place Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Zip 430071 Sector Biomass Product China-based biomass project developer. Coordinates 30.572399°, 114.279121° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.572399,"lon":114.279121,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

122

CX-008319: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

123

CX-008323: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Nevada Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

124

CX-008318: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

125

CX-008321: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

126

CX-008322: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

127

CX-008320: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): New York Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

128

Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd. Place Mishan, Heilongjiang Province, China Zip 158308 Sector Biomass Product Heilongjiang-based developer of a CDM biomass plant. References Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd. is a company located in Mishan, Heilongjiang Province, China . References ↑ "[ Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd.]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Heilongjiang_Mudanjiang_Nongken_Xinneng_Thermoelectric_Co_Ltd&oldid=346439"

129

Segregated Network Polymer-Carbon Nanotubes Composites For Thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polymers are intrinsically poor thermal conductors, which are ideal for thermoelectrics, but low electrical conductivity and thermopower have excluded them as feasible candidates as thermoelectric materials in the past. However, recent progress in polymer technology, particularly nanomaterial-polymer composites, can bring them into degenerate semiconductor or metallic regimes by incorporating a small amount of conductive filler. I demonstrate that such polymer nanocomposites can be viable for light-weight and economical thermoelectrics by using a segregated network approach for the nanocomposite synthesis. The thermoelectric properties were further improved by a change of stabilizer and drying conditions. The thermoelectric properties of the segregated network nanocomposites were measured for carbon nanotubes and the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, was calculated at room temperature. The influence on thermoelectric properties from filler concentration, stabilizer materials and drying condition are also discussed.

Kim, Dasaroyong

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature-stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, C.M.

1981-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

131

Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

Singh, David Joseph

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

132

Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material  

SciTech Connect

This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thin silicon membranes that have been decorated with high density of nanoscopic holes. These ?holey silicon? (HS) structures were fabricated by either nanosphere or block-copolymer lithography, both of which are scalable for practical device application. By reducing the pitch of the hexagonal holey pattern down to 55 nm with 35percent porosity, the thermal conductivity of HS is consistently reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and approaches the amorphous limit. With a ZT value of 0.4 at room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is comparable with the best value recorded in silicon nanowire system.

Tang, Jinyao; Wang, Hung-Ta; Hyun Lee, Dong; Fardy, Melissa; Huo, Ziyang; Russell, Thomas P.; Yang, Peidong

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

133

Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy) [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)] [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy) [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)] [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Anisotropy analysis of thermoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} prepared by SPS method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} materials were synthesized by the direct fusion technique. The polycrystalline samples were fabricated by the uniaxial pressing of powders in spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus. The materials were subjected to the heat treatment in H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere at 470 K for 24 h. The influence of preparation conditions on the anisotropy of electrical and thermal properties was thoroughly studied for the direction perpendicular and parallel to the pressing force. The microstructure and the chemical composition of both types of samples were examined using a scanning microscope (SEM) equipped with an X-ray energy dispersion detector (EDX). The XRD method was applied for the phase analysis of materials, as well as, for determination of preferred orientation of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} grains. The Seebeck coefficient distribution was studied by the scanning thermoelectric microprobe (STM). Temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties (thermal and electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficient) were measured in the temperature from 300 K to 550 K. The statistical analysis of results has shown strong influence of pressing force direction both on structural and transport properties. The applied heat treatment of materials significantly improves their thermoelectric figure of merit. Particularly, it was found that annealing in H2-Ar atmosphere leads to enhancement of the ZT three times up to {approx}0.7 at 370 K in perpendicular direction to the pressing force.

Zybala, Rafal; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T. [Thermoelectric Research Laboratory, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Cracow (Poland)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

135

Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI); Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

136

Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same  

SciTech Connect

High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

DeSteese, John G [Kennewick, WA; Olsen, Larry C [Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermoelectric properties of epitaxial TbAs:InGaAs nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

InGaAs lattice-matched to InP was grown by molecular beam epitaxy with randomly distributed TbAs nanoparticles for thermoelectric power generation applications. TbAs:InGaAs is expected to have a large thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, particularly at high temperatures, owing to energy band alignment between the nanoparticles and their surrounding matrix. Here, the room temperature thermoelectric properties were measured as a function of TbAs concentration, revealing a maximum thermoelectric power factor of 2.38 W/mK{sup 2} and ZT of 0.19 with 0.2% TbAs. Trends in the thermoelectric properties closely resemble those found in comparable ErAs:InGaAs nanocomposite materials. However, nanoparticles were not observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy in the highest ZT TbAs:InGaAs sample, unlike the highest ZT ErAs:InGaAs sample (0.2% ErAs) and two higher concentration TbAs:InGaAs samples examined. Consistent with expectations concerning the positioning of the Fermi level in these materials, ZT was enhanced by TbAs incorporation largely due to a high Seebeck coefficient, whereas ErAs provided InGaAs with higher conductivity but a lower Seebeck coefficient than that of TbAs:InGaAs. Thermal conductivity was reduced significantly from that of intrinsic thin-film InGaAs only with TbAs concentrations greater than {approx}1.7%.

Clinger, Laura E.; Zide, Joshua M. O. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Pernot, Gilles; Shakouri, Ali [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Buehl, Trevor E.; Burke, Peter G.; Gossard, Arthur C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Palmstroem, Christopher J. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Automated Weld Characterization Using The Thermoelectric Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this paper, we examine a seldom used approach based on the thermoelectric (TE) effect for characterizing welds and their associated heat affected zone (HAZ). The thermoelectric method monitors the thermoelectric power which is sensitive to small changes in the kinetics of the conduction electrons near the Fermi surface that can be caused by changes in the local microstructure. The technique has been applied to metal sorting, quality testing, flaw detection, thickness gauging of layers, and microscopic structural analysis[1-6]. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique for characterizing welds, a series of tungsten-inert-gas welded Inconel-718 samples were scanned with a computer controlled TE probe. The samples were then analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and Rockwell hardness tests to characterize the weld and the associated HAZ. We then correlated the results with the TE measurements to provide quantitative information on the size of the HAZ and the degree of hardness of the material in the weld region. This provides potentially valuable information on the strength and fatigue life of the weld. We begin the paper by providing a brief review of the TE technique and then highlight some of the factors that can effect the measurements. Next, we provide an overview of the experimental procedure and discuss the results. Finally, we summarize our findings and consider areas for future research. INTRODUCTION TO THERMOELECTRICITY The thermoelectric technique is based on an effect first discovered by Seebeck in 1822. Seebeck found that when two dissimilar conductors A and B make a circuit a current will flow when the junctions of the two conductors are at different temperatures (Fig. 1). The Seebeck effect occurs because at the hot end, electrons are excited ...

J. P. Fulton; B. Wincheski; M. Namkung

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development of Heusler-type Fe 2 VAl alloys for thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A Heusler alloy, Fe2VAl, is a promising candidate for thermoelectric power generation because of its high thermoelectric power ...

140

CONDITIONS RELATED TO UPWELLING WHICH DETERMINE DISTRIBUTION OF TROPICAL TUNAS OFF WESTERN BAJA CALIFORNIAl,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONDITIONS RELATED TO UPWELLING WHICH DETERMINE DISTRIBUTION OF TROPICAL TUNAS OFF WESTERN BAJA of the results were ·com- pared with contemporaneous fishery data on· the dis~ribution of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacores. and ·~kipjack tuna, Euthynnus pelamis. The object was to test the hypothesis that the tunas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Determination of Cloud Liquid Water Distribution by Inversion of Radiometric Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described whereby the distribution of liquid water through a cross section of a cloud may be determined from radiometric data. It involves the scanning of the cloud by a pair of ground-based centimeter wave radiometers and measuring ...

J. Warner; J. F. Drake; P. R. Krehbiel

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Recent Metrology Research of Thermoelectric Materials at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Winnie Wong-Ng. Abstract Scope, The increased interest in research and development on thermoelectric materials in recent years is ...

143

Solution)BasedHybridThermoelectric!Materials! ! ! April!4 !2013!  

thermoelectric! technologies! and! offer! a potentially! clean! source! of! energy! to! reduce! fuel! ... how!future!public!policy!will!mandate!LED!us ...

144

The Feasibility of Thermoelectric Power Generation: Linking Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact Us Department Contacts Media Contacts The Feasibility of Thermoelectric Power Generation: Linking Materials, Systems, and Cost Speaker(s): Saniya LeBlanc Date:...

145

Thermoelectricity in Molecular Junctions Science 315, 1568 (2007);  

DOI: 10.1126/science.1137149 Science 315, 1568 (2007); Pramod Reddy, et al. Thermoelectricity in Molecular Junctions www.sciencemag.org (this ...

146

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

structure as the host material breaks thermoelectric efficiency records by blocking thermal, but not electrical, conductivity. Significance and Impact A new strategy to design...

147

The Role of Spark Plasma Sintering in Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Role of Spark Plasma Sintering in Thermoelectric Nanocomposites: Effect of Nanostructures on Lattice Thermal Conductivity. Author(s) ...

148

Influence of Milling Time on Microstructure and Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Influence of Milling Time on Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Bi2Te3 Alloys. Author(s), Madavali Babu, Hyo Seob Kim, ...

149

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A solar tracker and concentrator was designed and assembled for the purpose of cogeneration of thermal power and electrical power using thermoelectric technology. A BiTe… (more)

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Liquidus Projection of Thermoelectric Ag-Sn-Te Ternary System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Liquidus Projection of Thermoelectric Ag-Sn-Te Ternary ... Ag Decorated Al Nanoparticles as Novel Ink Materials for Printed Electronics ...

151

FORMATION OF THERMOELECTRIC ELEMENTS BY NET SHAPE SINTERING ...  

The net shape powder processing is adapted for the ready incorporation of the net shape thermoelectric elements into a ... Advanced Materials; Biomass and Biofuels;

152

Mismatched Alloys are a Good Match for Thermoelectrics - NERSC...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

without much reduction of electric conductivity, which is not the case for conventional thermoelectric materials," he says. Collaborating with Wu on this work were Joo-Hyoung Lee...

153

Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thin films, the electrical resistivity ratio ? F /? B is BStudies of the electrical resistivity of metallic films [23,calculate the electrical resistivity and the thermoelectric

Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... TMS: Energy Conversion and Storage Committee ... of the alloys and compounds used in the thermoelectric and solar cell devices. Materials of ...

155

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ THERMOELECTRICS COMBINEDsystem in Burbank, California. Figure 2.6: Front panel andthermal system in Burbank, California. previously discussed.

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

DESIGN STUDY OF PORTABLE THERMOELECTRIC NUCLEAR SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Design studies were performed and costs were estimated for an air transportable, 10 Mw(t), pressurized light water thermal circulation reactor, combined with a direct conversion thermoelectric generator and static electrical inversion equipment. This TCR-TE'' concept appears to have potential for ultimate use as a remote unmanned power station. Based on an extrapolation of present reactor technology and on assumed thermoelectric materials properties forecasted to January 1, 1963, a net a-c electrical output of 315 Kw is estimated, assuming the use of 80 deg F local water for cooling purposes. An alternate concept using 80 deg F air for cooling produces 271 Kw, net. These electrical output figures can be improved significantly through a recommended research and development effort. The design and construction of a prototype plant is also recommended. (auth)

Chajson, L.; DelCampo, A.R.; Kellogg, H.B. et al

1961-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Synthesis and evaluation of thermoelectric multilayer films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deposition of compositionally modulated (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}(Te{sub 1-y}Se{sub y}){sub 3} thermoelectric multilayer films by magnetron sputtering has been demonstrated. Structures with a period of 140{Angstrom} are shown to be stable to interdiffusion at the high deposition temperatures necessary for growth of single layer crystalline films with ZT {gt} 0.5. These multilayers are of the correct dimension to exhibit the electronic properties of quantum well structures. Furthermore it is shown that the Seebeck coefficient of the films is not degraded by the presence of this multilayer structure. It may be possible to synthesize a multilayer thermoelectric material with enhanced ZT by maximizing the barrier height through optimization of the composition of the barrier.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C.

1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

158

Improvement of thermoelectric properties for half-Heusler TiNiSn by interstitial Ni defects  

SciTech Connect

We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ti-Ni-Sn half-Heusler thermoelectrics in order to investigate the relation between randomly distributed defects and thermoelectric properties. A small change in the composition of Ti-Ni-Sn causes a remarkable change in the thermal conductivity. An excess content of Ni realizes a low thermal conductivity of 2.93 W/mK at room temperature while keeping a high power factor. The low thermal conductivity originates in the defects generated by an excess content of Ni. To investigate the detailed defect structure, we have performed first-principles calculations and compared with x ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement. Based on these analyses, we conclude that the excess Ni atoms randomly occupy the vacant sites in the half-Heusler structure, which play as phonon scattering centers, resulting in significant improvement of the figure of merit without any substitutions of expensive heavy elements, such as Zr and Hf.

Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato; Asahi, Ryoji [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Takeuchi, Tsunehiro [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Towards the determination of the photon parton distribution function constrained by LHC data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a discussion of the impact of a subset of Drell-Yan data from LHC on the determination of the photon parton distribution function (PDF), using the NNPDF methodology. In previous work we have shown that the photon PDF determined from deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) data only has large uncertainties, suggesting the need for more data from other processes such as Drell-Yan, which unlike DIS, includes photon-induced contributions at leading order in QED. We describe the inclusion of ATLAS Drell-Yan W, Z data, which is a subset of the LHC data used in a final photon PDF determination, by means of a reweighting procedure. We show the impact of such data by comparing the reweighted photon PDF with the photon PDF from DIS, highlighting the reduction of uncertainties at medium/small-x. We conclude that the Drell-Yan data from LHC allows a reasonably accurate determination of the photon PDF.

Stefano Carrazza

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermoelectric figure of merit of LSCoO-Mn perovskites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxide ceramics with nominal composition of La"0"."8Sr"0"."2Co"1"-"xMn"xO"3(0= Keywords: 72.20.Pa, 84.60.Bk, 84.60.Rb, 85.80.Fi, LSCoO compounds, Thermoelectric figure of merit, Thermoelectric materials

J. E. Rodríguez; D. Cadavid; L. C. Moreno

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators January 29, 2008 - 7:06pm Addthis Mars Science Laboratory, aka Curiosity, is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term program of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. It's powered by the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Photo courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech. Mars Science Laboratory, aka Curiosity, is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term program of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. It's powered by the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Photo courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech. What are the key facts? Over the last four decades, the United States has launched 26

162

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials |  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement A newly synthesized bulk thermoelectric material that contains nanocrystals with the same orientation and structure as the host material breaks thermoelectric efficiency records by blocking thermal, but not electrical, conductivity. Significance and Impact A new strategy to design inexpensive materials that more efficiently convert heat to electricity. Research Details Thermoelectric materials directly generate electrical power from heat, but

163

THERMOELECTRICAL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM THE EXHAUST OF A LIGHT TRUCK  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A team formed by Clarkson University is engaged in a project to design, build, model, test, and develop a plan to commercialize a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system for recovering energy from the exhaust of light trucks and passenger cars. Clarkson University is responsible for project management, vehicle interface design, system modeling, and commercialization plan. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (sub-contractor to Clarkson) is responsible for TEG design and construction. Delphi Corporation is responsible for testing services and engineering consultation and General Motors Corporation is responsible for providing the test vehicle and information about its systems. Funds were supplied by a grant from the Transportation Research Program of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), through Joseph R. Wagner. Members of the team and John Fairbanks (Project Manager, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology). Currently, the design of TEG has been completed and initial construction of the TEG has been initiated by Hi-Z. The TEG system consists of heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules and a power conditioning unit. The heat source for the TEG is the exhaust gas from the engine and the heat sink is the engine coolant. A model has been developed to simulate the performance of the TEG under varying operating conditions. Preliminary results from the model predict that up to 330 watts can be generated by the TEG which would increase fuel economy by 5 percent. This number could possibly increase to 20 percent with quantum-well technology. To assess the performance of the TEG and improve the accuracy of the modeling, experimental testing will be performed at Delphi Corporation. A preliminary experimental test plan is given. To determine the economic and commercial viability, a business study has been conducted and results from the study showing potential areas for TEG commercialization are discussed.

Karri, M; Thacher, E; Helenbrook, B; Compeau, M; Kushch, A; Elsner, N; Bhatti, M; O' Brien, J; Stabler, F

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

164

Energy harvesting using a thermoelectric material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel energy harvesting system and method utilizing a thermoelectric having a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain (TIS) due to a phase transformation and a material exhibiting a stress induced electric field is introduced. A material that exhibits such a phase transformation exhibits a large increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion over an incremental temperature range (typically several degrees Kelvin). When such a material is arranged in a geometric configuration, such as, for a example, a laminate with a material that exhibits a stress induced electric field (e.g. a piezoelectric material) the thermally induced strain is converted to an electric field.

Nersessian, Nersesse (Van Nuys, CA); Carman, Gregory P. (Los Angeles, CA); Radousky, Harry B. (San Leandro, CA)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

165

Thermoelectric materials evaluation program. Technical summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress on the thermoelectric materials evaluation program is reported covering the period January 1, 1976 to September 30, 1978. Topical reports are presented on (1) hot and cold end ..delta..T's, (2) hardware mobility, (3) p-leg sublimation suppression, (4) thermodynamic stability of p-legs, (5) n-leg material process improvements to reduce extraneous resistance, (6) n-leg cracking, (7) dynamic evaluation of converter, and (8) data base and degradation modes. Twenty attachments are included which present supporting drawings, specifications, procedures, and data. (WHK)

Hinderman, J.D.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Dynamical Energy Analysis - determining wave energy distributions in complex vibro-acoustical structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new approach towards determining the distribution of mechanical and acoustic wave energy in complex built-up structures. The technique interpolates between standard Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and full ray tracing containing both these methods as limiting case. By writing the flow of ray trajectories in terms of linear phase space operators, it is suggested here to reformulate ray-tracing algorithms in terms of boundary operators containing only short ray segments. SEA can now be identified as a low resolution ray tracing algorithm and typical SEA assumptions can be quantified in terms of the properties of the ray dynamics. The new technique presented here enhances the range of applicability of standard SEA considerably by systematically incorporating dynamical correlations wherever necessary. Some of the inefficiencies inherent in typical ray tracing methods can be avoided using only a limited amount of the geometrical ray information. The new dynamical theory - Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) - thus provides a universal approach towards determining wave energy distributions in complex structures.

Gregor Tanner

2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

167

Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

Hart, Mark M. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Materials by computational design -- High performance thermoelectric materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to utilize advanced computing techniques to guide the development of new material systems that significantly improve the performance of thermoelectric devices for solid state refrigeration. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) was to develop computational approaches to refine the theory of the thermoelectric effect, establish physical limits, and motivate new materials development. Prior to the project, no major activity in thermoelectric research was visible as an observed limit in experimental data was commonly accepted as a practical limit by the majority of informed opinion in the physics and thermoelectric community. Due to the efforts of the project, new compounds have been isolated which indicates that there is a physical reason to search through the remaining uncharacterized compounds from a top down theoretical approach.

Sales, B. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lyon, H. [Marlow Industries, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

High-density thermoelectric power generation and nanoscale thermal metrology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric power generation has been around for over 50 years but has seen very little large scale implementation due to the inherently low efficiencies and powers available from known materials. Recent material advances ...

Mayer, Peter (Peter Matthew), 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

Hart, M.M.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

Hart, M.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Oxide based thermoelectric materials for large scale power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermoelectric (TE) devices are based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects, which describe the conversion between temperature gradient and electricity. The effectiveness of the material performance can be described by ...

Song, Yang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use as thermoelectric generators.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric devices  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to improve automobile fuel economy, an experimental study is undertaken to explore practical aspects of implementing thermoelectric devices for exhaust gas energy recovery. A highly instrumented apparatus consisting of a hot (exhaust gas) and a cold (coolant liquid) side rectangular ducts enclosing the thermoelectric elements has been built. Measurements of thermoelectric voltage output and flow and surface temperatures were acquired and analyzed to investigate the power generation and heat transfer properties of the apparatus. Effects of inserting aluminum wool packing material inside the hot side duct on augmentation of heat transfer from the gas stream to duct walls were studied. Data were collected for both the unpacked and packed cases to allow for detection of packing influence on flow and surface temperatures. Effects of gas and coolant inlet temperatures as well as gas flow rate on the thermoelectric power output were examined. The results indicate that thermoelectric power production is increased at higher gas inlet temperature or flow rate. However, thermoelectric power generation decreases with a higher coolant temperature as a consequence of the reduced hot-cold side temperature differential. For the hot-side duct, a large temperature gradient exists between the gas and solid surface temperature due to poor heat transfer through the gaseous medium. Adding the packing material inside the exhaust duct enhanced heat transfer and hence raised hot-side duct surface temperatures and thermoelectric power compared to the unpacked duct, particularly where the gas-to-surface temperature differential is highest. Therefore it is recommended that packing of exhaust duct becomes common practice in thermoelectric waste energy harvesting applications.

Ibrahim, Essam [Alabama A& M University, Normal; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.

Rey-Raap, Natalia [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I de Castellon, Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon de la Plana, Espana (Spain); Gallardo, Antonio, E-mail: gallardo@emc.uji.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I de Castellon, Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon de la Plana, Espana (Spain)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Combustion Synthesis of Doped Thermoelectric Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) was used to prepare silver doped calcium cobaltates (Ca1.24- xAgxCo1.62O3.86, x = 0.03 - 0.12) powders. SHS is a simple and economic process to synthesize ceramic materials with minimum energy requirements. The heat generated by the SHS reaction can sustain the propagation of the reaction front and convert reactants to desired products. The effect of doping level on thermoelectric properties was investigated in this study. Results show the substitution of calcium by silver decreases the thermal conductivity significantly. XRD and surface area measurements show synthesized powders are phase pure and have large specific surface areas.

Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Bio-inspired methods for fast and robust arrangement of thermoelectric modulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aims to evaluate the ability of some well-known bio-inspired metaheuristics for optimal arrangement of thermoelectric cells mounted in a thermal component. In real life applications, proper arrangement of thermoelectric modules plays a pivotal ...

Ahmad Mozaffari; Ali M. Goudarzi; Alireza Fathi; Pendar Samadian

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Texas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

October 5, 2010 October 5, 2010 CX-004152: Categorical Exclusion Determination Texas-City-Midland CX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1 Date: 10/05/2010 Location(s): Midland, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy October 1, 2010 CX-004070: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 10/01/2010 Location(s): Dallas, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory October 1, 2010 CX-004068: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ultra Deep Water Seabed Discharge of Produced Water and/or Solids CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 10/01/2010 Location(s): Sugar Land, Texas Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Synthesis of Ca3Co4O9 Thermoelectric Oxide by Self-Propagating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

182

The Effect of Mg/Co Ratio on the Thermoelectric Properties of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

183

BSA 09-27: Synthesis of High-Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials  

Thermoelectric materials must exhibit both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity in order to usefully convert heat to electricity ...

184

Progress report No. 23 for a program of thermoelectric generator testing and RTG degradation mechanisms evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is reported on selenide technology evaluation, silicon germanium technology, and thermoelectric generator testing and evaluation. Results of thermal conductivity tests, in-gradient tests, thermophysical properties and compatibility tests, and accelerated resistance module tests for selenium are presented and discussed. Thermoelectric property characteristics of silicon germanium alloys are presented, and performance characteristics of silicon germanium thermoelectric generators are discussed. Thermoelectric generators assembled with lead telluride, TAG-85, and silicon-germanium materials being tested at JPL are described. (WHK)

Stapfer, G.; Rouklove, P.; Garvey, L.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Selected elemental distributions as determined by reference retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In an effort to determine potential hindrances to the commercial development of the oil shale industry mass balance Fischer assay was used as a reference retorting method to examine the distribution of selected elements generally considered as contaminants in the final retort products. The elements examined were nitrogen, sulfur, silver, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc. The shales used in this study were an eastern (New Albany) interim reference shale, a western (Green River Formation) interim reference shale, and a series of stratigraphically differentiated shales from Colorado corehole No. 1 in the Piceance Creek Basin. Analysis of the raw shale and retort products was accomplished using instrumental elemental methods including inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy and graphite furnace atomic absorption. Carbon balances indicated a high potential for achieving good mass closures existed. However, instrumental limitations combined with a high potential for contamination and/or representative sampling problems resulted in poor closures for many of the trace elements. Consistent closures were obtained for arsenic, barium, copper, and zinc. Given the operating conditions of the retort all elements under consideration remained primarily in the spent shale. Elements verified in the oil product included nitrogen and sulfur compounds and arsenic and selenium. The water product was also contaminated by nitrogen and sulfur compounds and arsenic and selenium. Evidence suggests the sulfur occurs primarily as organic sulfur. Quantitative results for the gas product were poor. However, sulfur and mercury were determined to be present at significant levels in the gas stream. The data presented here concurs with previously reported data that suggests the existence of several potential problem areas in the development of an oil shale industry. 42 refs., 1 fig., 42 tabs.

Johnson, L.S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Numerical study of the thermoelectric power factor in ultra-thin Si nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low dimensional structures have demonstrated improved thermoelectric (TE) performance because of a drastic reduction in their thermal conductivity, ¿ l . This has been observed for a variety of materials, even for traditionally ... Keywords: Atomistic, Boltzmann transport, Nanowire, Seebeck coefficient, Silicon, Thermoelectric power factor, Thermoelectrics, Tight-binding, ZT, sp3d5s*

Neophytos Neophytou; Hans Kosina

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

189

Distribution:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

JAN26 19% JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear mat&ial for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to per&s authorized to receive it in accordance with the regula,tions in said Part.

190

DETERMINATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION AND INVENTORY OF RADIONUCLIDES WITHIN A SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WATERWAY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to evaluate the radionuclide inventory within the Lower Three Runs (LTR) Integrator Operable Unit (IOU) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this effort included the analysis of previously existing sampling and analysis data as well as additional streambed and floodplain sampling and analysis data acquired to delineate horizontal and vertical distributions of the radionuclide as part of the ongoing SRS environmental restoration program, and specifically for the LTR IOU program. While cesium-137 (Cs-137) is the most significant and abundant radionuclide associated with the LTR IOU it is not the only radionuclide, hence the scope included evaluating all radionuclides present and includes an evaluation of inventory uncertainty for use in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The scope involved evaluation of the radionuclide inventory in the P-Reactor and RReactor cooling water effluent canal systems, PAR Pond (including Pond C) and the floodplain and stream sediment sections of LTR between the PAR Pond Dam and the Savannah River. The approach taken was to examine all of the available Sediment and Sediment/Soil analysis data available along the P- and R-Reactor cooling water re-circulation canal system, the ponds situated along those canal reaches and along the length of LTR below Par Pond dam. By breaking the IOU into a series of sub-components and sub-sections, the mass of contaminated material was estimated and a representative central concentration of each radionuclide was computed for each compartment. The radionuclide inventory associated with each sub-compartment was then aggregated to determine the total radionuclide inventory that represented the full LTR IOU. Of special interest was the inventory of Cs-137 due to its role in contributing to the potential dose to an offsite member of the public. The overall LTR IOU inventory of Cs-137 was determined to be 75.5 Ci, which is similar to two earlier estimates. This investigation provides an independent, ground-up estimate of Cs-137 inventory in LTR IOU utilizing the most recent field data.

Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

191

Interpretation of Self-Potential Anomalies Using Constitutive Relationships for Electrochemical and Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficients  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Constitutive relationships for electrochemical and thermoelectric cross-coupling coefficients are derived using ionic mobilities, applying a general derivative of chemical potential and employing the zero net current condition. The general derivative of chemical potential permits thermal variations which give rise to the thermoelectric effect. It also accounts for nonideal solution behavior. An equation describing electric field strength is similarly derived with the additional assumption of electrical neutrality in the fluid Planck approximation. The Planck approximation implies that self-potential (SP) is caused only by local sources and also that the electric field strength has only first order spatial variations. The derived relationships are applied to the NaCl-KCl concentration cell with predicted and measured voltages agreeing within 0.4 mV. The relationships are also applied to the Long Valley and Yellowstone geothermal systems. There is a high degree of correlation between predicted and measured SP response for both systems, giving supporting evidence for the validity of the approach. Predicted SP amplitude exceeds measured in both cases; this is a possible consequence of the Planck approximation. Electrochemical sources account for more than 90% of the predicted response in both cases while thermoelectric mechanisms account for the remaining 10%; electrokinetic effects are not considered. Predicted electrochemical and thermoelectric voltage coupling coefficients are comparable to values measured in the laboratory. The derived relationships are also applied to arbitrary distributions of temperature and fluid composition to investigate the geometric diversity of observed SP anomalies. Amplitudes predicted for hypothetical saline spring and hot spring environments are less than 40 mV. In contrast, hypothetical near surface steam zones generate very large amplitudes, over 2 V in one case. These results should be viewed with some caution due to the uncertain validity of the Planck approximation for these conditions. All amplitudes are controlled by electrochemical mechanisms. Polarities are controlled by the curvature of the concentration or thermal profile. Concave upward thermal profiles produce positive anomalies, for constant fluid concentrations, whereas concave upward concentration profiles produce negative anomalies. Concave downward concentration profiles are characterized by small negative closures bounding a larger, positive SP anomaly.

Knapp, R. B.; Kasameyer, P. W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A high-efficiency thermoelectric converter for space applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a concept for using high-temperature superconducting materials in thermoelectric generators (SCTE) to produce electricity at conversion efficiencies approaching 50% of the Carrot efficiency. The SCTE generator is applicable to systems operating in temperature ranges of high-temperature superconducting materials and thus would be a low-grade converter. Operating in cryogenic temperature ranges provides the advantage of inherently increasing the limits of the Carrot efficiency. Potential applications are for systems operating in space where the ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic temperature range. The advantage of using high-temperature superconducting material in a thermoelectric converter is that it would significantly reduce or eliminate the Joule heating losses in a thermoelectric element. This paper investigates the system aspects and the material requirements of the SCTE converter concept, and presents a conceptual design and an application for a space power system.

Metzger, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); El-Genk, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Microsoft PowerPoint - High Temperature Thermoelectric_Ohuchi  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered at Multiple Length Scales for Energy Harvesting Program Manager: Patricia Rawls Fumio S. Ohuchi (PI) and Rajendra K. Bordia(Co-PI) Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Washington Box 352120 Seattle, WA 98195 Grant No. DE-FE0007272 (June 1, 2012-May 31, 2013) Graduate Students: Christopher Dandeneau and YiHsun Yang June 10, 2013 The UCR Contractors Review Conference Introduction/Motivation for Research * Thermoelectric (TE) oxides for waste heat recovery  Good high-temperature stability  Stable in hostile environments  Low cost/toxicity * Oxides with complex structure:  Low thermal conductivity,   Tailor stoichiometry to maximize S

194

A high-efficiency thermoelectric converter for space applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a concept for using high-temperature superconducting materials in thermoelectric generators (SCTE) to produce electricity at conversion efficiencies approaching 50% of the Carrot efficiency. The SCTE generator is applicable to systems operating in temperature ranges of high-temperature superconducting materials and thus would be a low-grade converter. Operating in cryogenic temperature ranges provides the advantage of inherently increasing the limits of the Carrot efficiency. Potential applications are for systems operating in space where the ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic temperature range. The advantage of using high-temperature superconducting material in a thermoelectric converter is that it would significantly reduce or eliminate the Joule heating losses in a thermoelectric element. This paper investigates the system aspects and the material requirements of the SCTE converter concept, and presents a conceptual design and an application for a space power system.

Metzger, J.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); El-Genk, M.S. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Thermoelectric properties of n-type PbSe revisited  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was recently predicted \\cite{parker} and experimentally confirmed \\cite{sny_PbSe} that $p$-type PbSe would be a good thermoelectric material. Recent experimental work \\cite{pers2} now suggests that $n$-type PbSe can also be a good thermoelectric material. We now re-examine the thermoelectric performance of PbSe with a revised approximation which improves band gap accuracy. We now find that $n$-type PbSe {\\it can} be a high performance material, with thermopowers as high in magnitude as 250 $\\mu$V/K at 1000 K and 300 $\\mu$V/K at 800 K. Optimal 1000 K $n$-type doping ranges are between 2 $\\times 10^{19}$cm$^{-3}$ and 8 $\\times 10^{19}$cm$^{-3}$, while at 800 K the corresponding range is from 7 $\\times$10$^{18}$ to 4 $\\times $10$^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill; Zhang, Qinyong [Xihua University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ nanostructuring in bulk thermoelectric materials through thermo-dynamic phase segregation has established itself as an effective paradigm for optimizing the performance of thermoelectric materials. In bulk PbTe small compositional variations create coherent and semicoherent nanometer sized precipitates embedded in a PbTe matrix, where they can impede phonon propagation at little or no expense to the electronic properties. In this paper the nanostructuring paradigm is for the first time extended to a bulk PbS based system, which despite obvious advantages of price and abundancy, so far has been largely disregarded in thermoelectric research due to inferior room temperature thermoelectric properties relative to the pristine fellow chalcogenides, PbSe and PbTe. Herein we report on the synthesis, microstructural morphology and thermoelectric properties of two phase (PbS){sub 1-x}(PbTe){sub x}x = 0-0.16 samples. We have found that the addition of only a few percent PbTe to PbS results in a highly nanostructured material, where PbTe precipitates are coherently and semicoherently embedded in a PbS matrix. The present (PbS){sub 1-x}(PbTe){sub x} nanostructured samples show substantial decreases in lattice thermal conductivity relative to pristine PbS, while the electronic properties are left largely unaltered. This in turn leads to a marked increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit. This study underlines the efficiency of the nanostructuring approach and strongly supports its generality and applicability to other material systems. We demonstrate that these PbS-based materials, which are made primarily from abundant Pb and S, outperform optimally n-type doped pristine PbTe above 770 K.

Johnsen, S.; Androulakis, J.; He, J. Q.; Dravid, V. P.; Todorov, I.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G. (Materials Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.)

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

197

Interfacial structure in Telluride-based thermoelectric materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chalcogenide compounds based on the rocksalt and tetradymite structures possess good thermoelectric properties and are widely used in a variety of thermoelectric devices. Examples include PbTe and AgSbTe2, which have the rocksalt structure, and Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3, which fall within the broad tetradymite-class of structures. These materials are also of interest for thermoelectric nanocomposites, where the aim is to improve thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by harnessing interfacial scattering processes (e.g., reducing the thermal conductivity by phonon scattering or enhancing the Seebeck coefficient by energy filtering). Understanding the phase stability and microstructural evolution within such materials is key to designing processing approaches for optimal thermoelectric performance and to predicting the long-term nanostructural stability of the materials. In this presentation, we discuss our work investigating relationships between interfacial structure and formation mechanisms in several telluride-based thermoelectric materials. We begin with a discussion of interfacial coherency and its special aspects at interfaces in telluride compounds based on the rocksalt and tetradymite structures. We compare perfectly coherent interfaces, such as the Bi2Te3 (0001) twin, with semi-coherent, misfitting interfaces. We next discuss the formal crystallographic analysis of interfacial defects in these systems and then apply this methodology to high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations of interfaces in the AgSbTe2/Sb2Te3 and PbTe/Sb2Te3 systems, focusing on interfaces vicinal to {l_brace}111{r_brace}/{l_brace}0001{r_brace}. Through this analysis, we identify a defect that can accomplish the rocksalt-to-tetradymite phase transformation through diffusive-glide motion along the interface.

Medlin, Douglas L.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

FINAL SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT. SNAP III THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The SNAP-III thermoelectric generator procedures power from the decay heat of 2100 curies of Po/sup 210/. This generator is to be used as a source of auxiliary power in a terrestrial satellite. For purposes of analysis, the satellite system postulated is launched from the Pacific Missile Bange into a 275- statute mile polar orbit with an orbital lifetime of about 1 year. Po/sup 210/ is an alpha emitter having a half life of 138 days and alpha and gamma decay energies of 5.3 and 0.8 mev, respectively. It is a natural component of the earth's crust, as a member of the uranium disintegration series. Sampling of polonium in the biosphere was conducted specifically for this program to determine background radiation levels. Since the fuel is primarily an alpha emitter, there is no direct radiation problem. An analysis was performed to determine the ability of the fuel container to withstand the various thermal, mechanical, and chemical forces imposed upon the generator by vehicle failures. Where theoretical analysis was impossible and experimental evidence was desired, capsules and generators were tested under simulated missile-failure conditions, Thus, the safety limits of SNAP-III in a satellite application were defined. SNAP-III is designed to be aerothermodynamically consumed on reentry into the earth's atmosphere so that the polonium will be dispersed as aerosols in the upper stratosphere. Since heating rates will be lower for aborts occurring prior to orbiting, 65 abort cases have been considered to define the general consequences of vehicle failures. The spatial and temporal relations of vehicle aborts are summarized in cartographic and tabular form. (auth)

Hagis, W.; Dix, G.P.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Determining the refractivity earth's surface distribution using data from a satellite control station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper gives the analysis of one experimental scheme implemented in Venezuela using the first TTC Satellite Station to get indirectly the distribution of the refractivity in the earth's surface. Keywords: radiolink, refractivity, satellite

Francisco Varela; Su Don Ling

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B5.1 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 23, 2012 April 23, 2012 CX-008199: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma TRIBE-IOWA TRIBE OF OKLAHOMA CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 04/23/2012 Location(s): Oklahoma Offices(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 18, 2012 CX-008325: Categorical Exclusion Determination Carolina Blue Skies Initiative CX(s) Applied: A1, B5.1 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): North Carolina Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory April 18, 2012 CX-008321: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning for Vehicle Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1 Date: 04/18/2012 Location(s): Michigan Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory April 12, 2012 CX-008188: Categorical Exclusion Determination California City-Moreno Valley

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201

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4, 2010 4, 2010 CX-004025: Categorical Exclusion Determination Indiana-St. Joseph County CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 10/04/2010 Location(s): St. Joseph, Indiana Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy October 1, 2010 CX-004138: Categorical Exclusion Determination Oklahoma-Tribe-Osage Nation CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 10/01/2010 Location(s): Oklahoma Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy October 1, 2010 CX-004133: Categorical Exclusion Determination North Dakota-Tribe-Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 10/01/2010 Location(s): North Dakota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy October 1, 2010 CX-004070: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning for

202

The uncertainties due to quark energy loss on determining nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By means of two different parametrizations of quark energy loss and the nuclear parton distributions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order phenomenological analysis is performed on the nuclear Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei for E772 experimental data. It is shown that there is the quark energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering. The uncertainties due to quark energy loss effect is quantified on determining nuclear sea quark distribution by using nuclear Drell-Yan data. It is found that the quark energy loss effect on nuclear Drell-Yan cross section ratios make greater with the increase of quark momentum fraction in the target nuclei. The uncertainties from quark energy loss become bigger as the nucleus A come to be heavier. The Drell-Yan data on proton incident middle and heavy nuclei versus deuterium would result in an overestimate for nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions with neglecting the quark energy loss. Our results are hoped to provide good directional information on the magnitude and form of nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions by means of the nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data.

C. G. Duan; N. Liu; G. L. Li

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

203

Nanostructured thermoelectrics : big efficiency gains from small features.  

SciTech Connect

The field of thermoelectrics has progressed enormously and is now growing steadily because of recently demonstrated advances and strong global demand for cost-effective, pollution-free forms of energy conversion. Rapid growth and exciting innovative breakthroughs in the field over the last 10-15 years have occurred in large part due to a new fundamental focus on nanostructured materials. As a result of the greatly increased research activity in this field, a substantial amount of new data - especially related to materials - have been generated. Although this has led to stronger insight and understanding of thermoelectric principles, it has also resulted in misconceptions and misunderstanding about some fundamental issues. This article sets out to summarize and clarify the current understanding in this field; explain the underpinnings of breakthroughs reported in the past decade; and provide a critical review of various concepts and experimental results related to nanostructured thermoelectrics. We believe recent achievements in the field augur great possibilities for thermoelectric power generation and cooling, and discuss future paths forward that build on these exciting nanostructuring concepts.

Vineis, C. J.; Shakouri, A.; Majumdar, A.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ.of California at Santa Cruz; Univ. of California at Berkeley

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

New approaches to thermoelectric cooling effects in magnetic fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors review thermoelectric effects in a magnetic field at a phenomenological level. Discussions of the limiting performance and problems with its computation for both Peltier and Ettingshausen coolers are presented. New principles are discussed to guide the materials scientist in the search for better Ettingshausen materials, and a brief review of the subtle measurement problems is presented.

Migliori, A.; Darling, T.W.; Freibert, F.; Trugman, S.A.; Moshopoulou, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sarrao, J.L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

New approaches to thermoelectric cooling effects in magnetic fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors review thermoelectric effects in a magnetic field at a phenomenological level. Discussions of the limiting performance and problems with its computation for both Peltier and Ettingshausen coolers are presented. New principles to guide the materials scientists are discussed for magnetic effects, and a brief review of the subtle measurement problems is presented.

Migliori, A.; Darling, T.W.; Freibert, F. [and others

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor by Using Invisible Dopants  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticle dopants that are invisible to conduction electrons and have sharp dips in their electron scattering rate versus electron energy close to the Fermi level. Replacement of such dopants with traditional impurities results in simultaneous enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and the electron mobility and therefore a large enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved.

Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, B L; Esfarjani, Keivan; Dresselhaus, M S; Chen, Gang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Nanowire silicon as a material for thermoelectric energy conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric (TE) material for TE energy conversion, it is necessary to reduce its relatively high thermal conductivity, while maintaining the high power factor. This can be done by structuring silicon into 1-D ...

A. Stranz; J. Kähler; S. Merzsch; A. Waag; E. Peiner

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Calibration of Instrumented Steam Separators to Determine Quality and Flow Distribution in an Operating Steam Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examined the feasibility of instrumenting steam separators on a steam generator as two-phase flowmeters to measure flow distributions and steam quality near the separator deck plate. Instrumented prototypical separators were tested in a laboratory under steam generator conditions, and test data correlations were developed. The usefulness of such data in the qualification of thermal-hydraulic computer codes was addressed.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Implications of the Stratospheric Water Vapor Distribution as Determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The LIMS experiment on Nimbus 7 has provided new results on the stratospheric water vapor distribution. The data show 1) a latitudinal gradient with mixing ratios that increase by a factor of 2 from equator to ±60 degrees at 50 mb, 2) most of the ...

Ellis Remsberg; James M. Russell III; Larry L. Gordley; John C. Gille; Paul L. Bailey

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of half-Heulser alloy YPdSb from first principles calculations  

SciTech Connect

The structural, electronic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of ternary half-Heusler compound YPdSb are investigated using the first principle calculations. It is found that YPdSb is an indirect semiconductor. The calculated band gap is 0.161 eV with spin-orbital coupling including and 0.235 eV without spin-orbital coupling including, respectively. The electronic transport properties are obtained via Boltzman transport theory. The predicted Seebeck coefficient is 240 {mu}V/K and the thermoelectric performance can be optimized by n-type doping at room temperature. Moreover, the lattice dynamical results regarding the phonon dispersion curves, phonon density of states and thermodynamic properties are reported. Thermodynamics (heat capacity and Debye temperature) as well as mean phonon free path and the thermal conductivity in a temperature range of 0-300 K are determined. - Graphical Abstract: (a) The dependence of the Seebeck coefficient on chemical potential at 300 K. (b) The dependence of the thermopower factor on chemical potential at 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Seebeck coefficient and the thermopower factor are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties are obtained.

Kong, Fanjie, E-mail: fanjiekong@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Hu, Yanfei [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)] [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hou, Haijun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Liu, Yanhua [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Baolin [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Lili [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

System for tomographic determination of the power distribution in electron beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

Elmer, John W. (Pleasanton, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA); O' Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Large-scale Ocean-based or Geothermal Power Plants by Thermoelectric Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat resources of small temperature difference are easily accessible, free and unlimited on earth. Thermoelectric effects provide the technology for converting these heat resources directly into electricity. We present designs of electricity generators based on thermoelectric effects and using heat resources of small temperature difference, e.g., ocean water at different depths and geothermal sources, and conclude that large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects are feasible and economically competitive. The key observation is that the power factor of thermoelectric materials, unlike the figure of merit, can be improved by orders of magnitude upon laminating good conductors and good thermoelectric materials. The predicted large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects, if validated, will have a global economic and social impact for its scalability, and the renewability, free and unlimited supply of heat resources of small temperature difference on earth.

Liu, Liping

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Synthesis and evaluation of single layer, bilayer, and multilayer thermoelectric thin films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The relative efficiency of a thermoelectric material is measured in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT. Though all known thermoelectric materials are believed to have ZT{le}1, recent theoretical results predict that thermoelectric devices fabricated as two-dimensional quantum wells (2D QWs) or one-dimensional (ID) quantum wires could have ZT{ge}3. Multilayers with the dimensions of 2D QWs have been synthesized by alternately sputtering thermoelectric and barrier materials onto a moving single-crystal sapphire substrate from dual magnetrons. These materials have been used to test the thermoelectric quantum well concept and gain insight into relevant transport mechanisms. If successful, research could lead to thermoelectric devices that have efficiencies close to that of an ideal Carnot engine. Ultimately, such devices could be used to replace conventional heat engines and mechanical refrigeration systems.

Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Chapline, G.C. Jr.; Olsen, M.L.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S.; Hicks, L.D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

214

Synthesis and Evaluation of Single Layer, Bilayer, and Multilayer Thermoelectric Thin Films  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The relative efficiency of a thermoelectric material is measured in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT. Though all known thermoelectric materials are believed to have ZT{le}1, recent theoretical results predict that thermoelectric devices fabricated as two-dimensional quantum wells (2D QWs) or one-dimensional (ID) quantum wires could have ZT{ge}3. Multilayers with the dimensions of 2D QWs have been synthesized by alternately sputtering thermoelectric and barrier materials onto a moving single-crystal sapphire substrate from dual magnetrons. These materials have been used to test the thermoelectric quantum well concept and gain insight into relevant transport mechanisms. If successful, research could lead to thermoelectric devices that have efficiencies close to that of an ideal Carnot engine. Ultimately, such devices could be used to replace conventional heat engines and mechanical refrigeration systems.

Farmer, J. C.; Barbee, T. W. Jr.; Chapline, G. C. Jr.; Olsen, M. L.; Foreman, R. J.; Summers, L. J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Hicks, L. D.

1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

215

Characterization by thermoelectric power of a commercial aluminum-iron-silicon alloy (8011) during isothermal precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author has characterized a commercial 8011 (Al-Fe-Si) alloy by studying samples under different initial states of strain hardening and iron and silicon supersaturation using thermoelectric power as a measurement technique. Isothermal kinetics of precipitation are obtained in the temperature range between 225 C and 600 C. He has determined the atom fraction precipitated for each microstructural condition, identifying the dominant alloying additions and evaluating the typical parameters of the precipitated phases, such as, for example, the apparent activation energy. Finally, he determined the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams. These results prove that iron is the alloying addition that controls the precipitation kinetics of the 8011 alloy in the temperature range studied.

Luiggi A., N.J. [Univ. de Oriente, Cumana, Sucre (Venezuela)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

217

Thermoelectric Power of Insulators and Reconsideration of Kelvin’s Relations at Low  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric effects in Kondo insulators are attracting interests because of the emerging possibility of developping better thermoelectric materials for a portable refrigerator without liquid coolant. In this article, the theory of thermoelectric effects are reinvestigated for insulators or semiconductors at low temperatures. It is found that the famous relations established by Lord Kelvin for metals in 1851 must be modified for insulators in order to be consistent with the third law of the thermodynamics. Effects of strong correlation are discussed. 1

T Saso

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Determination of uranium distribution in the evaporation of simulated Savannah River Site waste  

SciTech Connect

The results of an experimental program addressing the distribution of uranium in saltcake and supernate for two Savannah River Site waste compositions are presented. Successive batch evaporations were performed on simulated H-Area Modified Purex low-heat and post-aluminum dissolution wastes spiked with depleted uranium. Waste compositions and physical data were obtained for supernate and saltcake samples. For the H-Area Modified Purex low-heat waste, the product saltcake contained 42% of the total uranium from the original evaporator feed solution. However, precipitated solids only accounted for 10% of the original uranium mass; the interstitial liquid within the saltcake matrix contained the remainder of the uranium. In the case of the simulated post-aluminum dissolution waste; the product saltcake contained 68% of the total uranium from the original evaporator feed solution. Precipitated solids accounted for 52% of the original uranium mass; again, the interstitial liquid within the saltcake matrix contained the remainder of the uranium. An understanding of the distribution of uranium between supernatant liquid, saltcake, and sludge is required to develop a material balance for waste processing operations. This information is necessary to address nuclear criticality safety concerns.

Barnes, M.J.; Chandler, G.T.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Analysis and Modeling of Stresses in Thermoelectrics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2013 ... Our stress distribution results indicate that the brittle TE alloys of the ... source of energy by converting a temperature gradient to electricity.

220

Thermoelectric Study of InGaN-Based Materials for Thermal Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermoelectric Study of InGaN-Based Materials for Thermal ... Structural and Thermal Stability Properties of Cellulose Nanocomposites with ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Mechanical Properties of Thermoelectric Materials PbTe-PbS and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thermoelectric (TE) materials for a variety of applications, including the conversion of waste heat energy into electricity. LAST (Lead-Antimony-Silver-

222

Electrodeposition of PbTe Thermoelectric Materials in NaOH Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dissolution Kinetics of Steelmaking Slag and Its Promotion for the Growth of Algae · Electrodeposition of PbTe Thermoelectric Materials in NaOH Solutions.

223

Interdiffusion experiments in the thermoelectric Mg2Si/Mg2Sn ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The approach generally taken in order to modify the scattering features of electrons and phonons and improve the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials ...

224

The uncertainties due to quark energy loss on determining nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By means of two different parametrizations of quark energy loss and the nuclear parton distributions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order phenomenological analysis is performed on the nuclear Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei for E772 experimental data. It is shown that there is the quark energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering. The uncertainties due to quark energy loss effect is quantified on determining nuclear sea quark distribution by using nuclear Drell-Yan data. It is found that the quark energy loss effect on nuclear Drell-Yan cross section ratios make greater with the increase of quark momentum fraction in the target nuclei. The uncertainties from quark energy loss become bigger as the nucleus A come to be heavier. The Drell-Yan data on proton incident mi...

Duan, C G; Li, G L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

Doris, E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A feasibility study for experimentally determining dynamic force distribution in a lap joint.  

SciTech Connect

Developing constitutive models of the physics in mechanical joints is currently stymied by inability to measure forces and displacements within the joint. The current state of the art estimates whole joint stiffness and energy loss per cycle from external measured force input and one or two acceleration responses. To validate constitutive models beyond this state requires a measurement of the distributed forces and displacements at the joint interface. Unfortunately, introducing measurement devices at the interface completely disrupts the desired physics. A feasibility study is presented for a non-intrusive method of solving for the interface dynamic forces from an inverse problem using full field measured responses. The responses come from the viewable surface of a beam. The noise levels associated with digital image correlation and continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry are evaluated from typical beam experiments. Two inverse problems are simulated. One utilizes the extended Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). The second is a new approach dubbed the method of truncated orthogonal forces. These methods are much more robust if the contact patch geometry is well identified. Various approaches to identifying the contact patch are investigated, including ion marker tracking, Prussian blue and ultrasonic measurements. A typical experiment is conceived for a beam which has a lap joint at one end with a single bolt connecting it to another identical beam. In a virtual test using the beam finite element analysis, it appears that the SWAT inverse method requires evaluation of too many coefficients to adequately identify the force distribution to be viable. However, the method of truncated orthogonal forces appears viable with current digital image correlation (and probably other) imaging techniques.

Mayes, Randall Lee

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

Hasan, Atiya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Watching a Glycine Riboswitch "Switch" Polyamorphism in a Metallic Glass Under Pressure, Vanadium Won't Turn Down the Volume New Nanoscale Engineering Breakthrough Points to Hydrogen-Powered Vehicles Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials MARCH 29, 2007 Bookmark and Share Crystal structure of EuFe4Sb12 showing the cage confined Eu atoms (red) and Fe atoms (brown) surrounded by Sb tilted octahedral (Sb atoms are not shown). Thermoelectric materials such as iron antimonide have drawn intense interest because they offer a pollution-free source of electricity and a

229

NETL: News Release - DOE Estimates Future Water Needs for Thermoelectric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 6, 2007 December 6, 2007 DOE Estimates Future Water Needs for Thermoelectric Power Plants 2007 Analysis Adds Projected Water Requirements for Carbon Capture WASHINGTON, DC - The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has released a 2007 update to its groundbreaking study, Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements. The updated analysis increases understanding of regional and national water needs and usage in the power industry, and provides input for research and development aimed at water-use reduction. MORE INFO Link to the updated study NETL's Water-Energy Interface web page New in this year's report is a response to heightened concerns over atmospheric carbon dioxide. The report examines the possibility that future

230

End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Special Applications RTG Technology Program: Thermoelectric module development summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Special Applications thermoelectric module development program is to design, develop and demonstrate the performance of a module which provides a significant thermoelectric conversion efficiency improvement over available technology for low power, relatively high voltage RTGS intended for terrestrial applications. ``Low power`` can be construed as an RTG power output of 10 watts or less, and ``high voltage`` can be considered as a load voltage of 5 volts or greater. In particular, the effort is to improve the system efficiency characteristic of the state-of-the-art bismuth telluride-based RTG system (e.g., Five-Watt RTG and Half-Watt RTG), typically 3 to 4%, to the range of 6% or better. This increase in efficiency will also permit reductions in the weight and size of RTGs in the low power range.

Brittain, W.M.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach to optimization of thermoelectric devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improvement of thermoelectric systems in terms of performance and range of applications relies on progress in materials science and optimization of device operation. In this chapter, we focuse on optimization by taking into account the interaction of the system with its environment. For this purpose, we consider the illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator coupled to two temperature baths via heat exchangers characterized by a thermal resistance, and we analyze its working conditions. Our main message is that both electrical and thermal impedance matching conditions must be met for optimal device performance. Our analysis is fundamentally based on linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics using the force-flux formalism. An outlook on mesoscopic systems is also given.

Ouerdane, H; Apertet, Y; Michot, A; Abbout, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

King, D.A.

1994-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

235

Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

Crane, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A comparison of thermoelectric phenomena in diverse alloy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The study of thermoelectric phenomena in solids provides a wealth of opportunity for exploration of the complex interrelationships between structure, processing, and properties of materials. As thermoelectricity implies some type of coupled thermal and electrical behavior, it is expected that a basic understanding of transport behavior in materials is the goal of such a study. However, transport properties such as electrical resistivity and thermal diffusivity cannot be fully understood and interpreted without first developing an understanding of the material's preparation and its underlying structure. It is the objective of this dissertation to critically examine a number of diverse systems in order to develop a broad perspective on how structure-processing-property relationships differ from system to system, and to discover the common parameters upon which any good thermoelectric material is based. The alloy systems examined in this work include silicon-germanium, zinc oxide, complex intermetallic compounds such as the half-Heusler MNiSn, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, and rare earth chalcogenides.

Cook, Bruce

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Economic analysis of municipal wastewater utilization for thermoelectric power production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of freshwater. The large water demand is increasingly a problem, especially for new power plant development, as availability of freshwater for new uses diminishes in the United States. Reusing non-traditional water sources, such as treated municipal wastewater, provides one option to mitigate freshwater usage in the thermoelectric power industry. The amount of freshwater withdrawal that can be displaced with non-traditional water sources at a particular location requires evaluation of the water management and treatment requirements, considering the quality and abundance of the non-traditional water sources. This paper presents the development of an integrated costing model to assess the impact of degraded water treatment, as well as the implications of increased tube scaling in the main condenser. The model developed herein is used to perform case studies of various treatment, condenser cleaning and condenser configurations to provide insight into the ramifications of degraded water use in the cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. Further, this paper lays the groundwork for the integration of relationships between degraded water quality, scaling characteristics and volatile emission within a recirculating cooling loop model.

Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Theregowda, R.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Thermoelectric materials: ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

Sharp, Jeffrey W. (Richardson, TX)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermoelectric materials ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

Sharp, Jeffrey W. (Richardson, TX)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Impact test characterization of carbon-carbon composites for the thermoelectric space power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thirty-eight unique carbon-carbon composite materials of cylindrical architecture were fabricated by commercial vendors for evaluation as alternative impact shell materials for the modular heat source of the thermoelectric space power system. Characterization of these materials included gas gun impact tests where cylindrical specimens containing a mass simulant were fired at 55 m/s to impact a target instrumented to measure force. The force versus time output was analyzed to determine: peak force, acceleration, velocity, and displacement. All impact tests exhibited an equivalence between preimpact momentum and measured impulse. In addition, energy was conserved based on a comparison of preimpact kinetic energy and measured work. Impact test results showed that the currently specified material provided impact energy absorption comparable to the best alternatives considered to date.

Romanoski, G.R.; Pih, Hui

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Design method to determine the optimal distribution and amount of insulation for in-ground heat storage tanks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The seasonal sensible heat storage model developed by F.C. Hooper and C.R. Attwater is modified to describe the thermal behaviour of the soil regime surrounding cylindrical, in-ground, heat storage tanks with optimally distributed insulation. The model assumes steady-state heat transfer, and the surrounding soil is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic. Changes in soil thermal properties due to moisture migration, whether driven by thermal or hydrostatic gradients, are assumed negligible. The optimal distribution is determined using the method of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown that the marginal cost per unit of energy lost and per unit of tank surface area must be the same at all points on the surface of the tank as the condition for minimum total heat loss with a given total investment in insulation. This condition appears to apply for all axi-symmetric in-ground tank geometries. For a given volume of insulation, the incremental increase in storage efficiency with an optimal redistribution of the insulation is a function of tank geometry. The problem of determining the optimal total investment in insulation for a given marginal cost of fuel is described and a method of solution is outlined.

Williams, G.T.; Attwater, C.R.; Hooper, F.C.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

Mowery, Jr., Alfred L. (Potomac, MD)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Hybrid Vehicles: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using advanced materials, thermoelectric conversion of efficiencies on the order of 20% may be possible in the near future. Thermoelectric generators offer potential to increase vehicle fuel economy by recapturing a portion of the waste heat from the engine exhaust and generating electricity to power vehicle accessory or traction loads.

Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Thermoelectric performance of disordered and nanostructured graphene ribbons using Green's function method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermoelectric properties of defected graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and multi-junction (MJ) GNRs coupling periodic armchair sections of different width are analyzed by means of Green's function techniques to simulate electron and phonon transport. ... Keywords: Graphene, Green's function, Phonon transport, Thermal effects, Thermoelectrics

Fulvio Mazzamuto; Jérôme Saint-Martin; Viet Hung Nguyen; Christophe Chassat; Philippe Dollfus

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

Mowery, A.L. Jr.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

252

Finding New Thermoelectric Compounds Using Crystallographic Data: Atomic Displacement Parameters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new structure-property relationship is discussed which links atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and the lattice thermal conductivity of clathrate-like compounds. For many clathrate-like compounds, in which one of the atom types is weakly bound and ''rattles'' within its atomic cage, room temperature ADP information can be used to estimate the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity, the vibration frequency of the ''rattler'', and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Neutron data and X-ray crystallography data, reported in the literature, are used to apply this analysis to several promising classes of thermoelectric materials.

Chakoumakos, B.C.; Mandrus, D.G.; Sales, B.C.; Sharp, J.W.

1999-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

253

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

None

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Effect of Heat Exchanger Material and Fouling on Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. For this purpose an experimental investigation of thermoelectrics in contact with clean and fouled heat exchangers of different materials is performed. The thermoelectric devices are tested on a bench-scale thermoelectric heat recovery apparatus that simulates automotive exhaust. The thermoelectric apparatus consists of a series of thermoelectric generators contacting a hot-side and a cold-side heat exchanger. The thermoelectric devices are tested with two different hot-side heat exchanger materials, stainless steel and aluminum, and at a range of simulated exhaust gas flowrates (40 to 150 slpm), exhaust gas temperatures (240 C and 280 C), and coolant-side temperatures (40 C and 80 C). It is observed that for higher exhaust gas flowrates, thermoelectric power output increases while overall system efficiency decreases. Degradation of the effectiveness of the EGR-type heat exchangers over a period of driving is also simulated by exposing the heat exchangers to diesel engine exhaust under thermophoretic conditions to form a deposit layer. For the fouled EGR-type heat exchangers, power output and system efficiency is observed to be significantly lower for all conditions tested. The study found, however, that heat exchanger material is the dominant factor in the ability of the system to convert heat to electricity with thermoelectric generators. This finding is thought to be unique to the heat exchangers used for this study, and not a universal trend for all system configurations.

Love, Norman [University of Texas, El Paso; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

A charged particle transport analysis of the dose to a silicon-germanium thermoelectric element due to a solar flare event  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A version of the BRYNTRN baryon transport code written at the NASA Langley Research Center has been used to analyze the dose to a typical space reactor thermoelectric (TE) element due to a solar flare event. The code has been used in the past to calculate the dose/dose equivalent distributions to astronauts due to solar flares. It has been modified to accommodate multiple layers of spacecraft and component material. Differential and integrated doses to the TE element are presented and discussed. 5 refs.

Dandini, V.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Geek-Up[6.10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in 10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's Nanostructure Geek-Up[6.10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's Nanostructure June 10, 2011 - 5:07pm Addthis Data image on lead telluride thermal conductivity | Photo Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Data image on lead telluride thermal conductivity | Photo Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? Identifying a key ingredient in bone's nanostructure may help treat and prevent bone diseases such as osteoporosis and develop new light-weight, high-strength materials for innovative technologies. Advanced thermoelectric materials could be used to develop vehicle

258

Exploring electron and phonon transport at the nanoscale for thermoelectric energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are capable of solid-state direct heat to electricity energy conversion and are ideal for waste heat recovery applications due to their simplicity, reliability, and lack of environmentally harmful ...

Minnich, Austin Jerome

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

High-temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Ag2Se.5Te.5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II ... This particular alloy displays very low thermal conductivity and competitive ... of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin-films with Conversion Efficiency Higher Than 8%.

260

Novel thermoelectric materials development, existing and potential applications, and commercialization routes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectrics (TE) are devices which can convert heat in the form of a temperature gradient into electricity, or alternatively generate and absorb heat when an electrical current is run through them. It was established ...

Bertreau, Philippe

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Modeling and characterization of thermoelectric properties of SiGe nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct energy conversion between thermal and electrical energy based on thermoelectric effects is attractive for potential applications in waste heat recovery and environmentally-friendly refrigeration. The energy conversion ...

Lee, Hohyun, 1978-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A batteryless thermoelectric energy-harvesting interface circuit with 35mV startup voltage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A batteryless thermoelectric energy-harvesting interface circuit to extract electrical energy from human body heat is implemented in a 0.35 ?m [mu m] CMOS process. A mechanically assisted startup circuit enables operation ...

Ramadass, Yogesh Kumar

263

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Structure-fluctuation-induced abnormal thermoelectric properties in semiconductor copper selenide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric effects and related technologies have attracted a great interest due to the world-wide energy harvesting. Thermoelectricity has usually been considered in the context of stable material phases. Here we report that the fluctuation of structures during the second-order phase transition in Cu2Se semiconductor breaks the conventional trends of thermoelectric transports in normal phases, leading to a critically phase-transition-enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit zT above unity at 400K, a three times larger value than for the normal phases. Dynamic structural transformations introduce intensive fluctuations and extreme complexity, which enhance the carrier entropy and thus the thermopower, and strongly scatter carriers and phonons as well to make their transports behave critically.

Liu, Huili [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shi, Xun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Uher, Ctirad [University of Michigan; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS); Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nanostructured thin film thermoelectric composite materials using conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials have the ability to convert heat directly into electricity. This clean energy technology has advantages over other renewable technologies in that it requires no sunlight, has no moving parts, and ...

Kuryak, Chris A. (Chris Adam)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Experimental studies of the thermoelectric properties of microstructured and nanostructured lead salts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric devices allow for direct conversion between thermal and electrical energy. There applications, however, are severely limited by their inefficiency. A reduction in thermal conductivity of a material potentially ...

Barron, Kathleen C., 1982-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties of SiC/B{sub 4}C  

SciTech Connect

We report on the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties of {ital p}-type SiC/B{sub 4}C system for thermoelectric devices. Measurements of electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity were made on SiC as a function of both B{sub 4}C doping concentration over the range 0.2%{similar_to}60 wt. % and temperature over the range from room temperature up to 600 {degree}C. The figure of merit increases from 2 to 5 decades with temperature increase from room temperature to 600 {degree}C. We conclude that the SiC/B{sub 4}C system with around 10% of B{sub 4}C is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications in the temperature range 400{similar_to}600 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Okamoto, Y.; Aruga, A.; Kasai, H.; Morimoto, J.; Miyakawa, T.; Fujimoto, S. [Natl. Def. Acad., Dept. MSE (Japan)

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

SNAP-III--THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR ENVIRONMENTAL TEST. VOLUME III  

SciTech Connect

The results of tests on four thermoelectric generators (two each of two different configurations) of the Snap III type to both the J.P.L. and the L.M.S.D. specifications for shock, vibration. and acceleration test are reported. The simulated levels were based on the anticipated environments of the Vega (J.P.L.) and WS117L (L.M.S.D.) systems. All four generators exhibited the same characteristic behavior pattern throughout the vibration portion of the test prograna, showing a d-c ripple in the generator output only in the Y place. This behavior of the generator is attributed to the oscillatory change in internal resistance resulting from vibratory elastic deformation of the thermoelectric elements. This produces a transient in the electrical output with a resultant reduction in generator efficiency. The maximum reduction in efficiency was noted in the 700 cps region. A resonance on the generator shell at 1845 cps was noted, but generator electrical output and efficiency were not affected. Upon discontinuance of the induced vibration, the generators returned to normal operating conditions. While undergoing shock test, a d-c transient was noted at the time of impact, resulting in a slight decrease in effi ciency. The generators immediately returned to their normal operating efficiency. In the acceleration portion of the test no d-c transient was evident in any of the three planes, therefore the generator efficiency remained constant. Steady state conditions were re-established at the start of each new test phase (i.e., changing planes of excitation, changing from shock to vibration, etc.). Thus, any variation from pretest efficiency was attributed to the external load resistance becoming umnatched due to the change in internal resistance. The important result is that complete generator recovery was consistent in all cases and normal operation continued The generator, shell, internal structure and pressure, and the hot and cold junction temperature were not affected during the test. As a result of this test program, it was concluded that the Snap III thermoelectric generator will operate reliably in the enviromnents associated with the Vega and WS117L vehicles. (auth)

Gross, L.W.; Schramm, E.J.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCARâ??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

PERFORMANCE TESTS OF SNAP 10A THERMOELECTRIC ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for the performanee testing of SNAP 10A thermoelectric elements was designed, constructed, and is now in operation. Elements may be tested for any desired length of tfme up to 1400 deg F and in a vacuum of 1 x 10/ sup -5/ of Hg. The equipment used for these tcsts may also be utilized for measuring Seebeck coefficient and resistance as a function of temperature. Element performance is derived from the data on voltages and temperatures. The performance variables which are reported in graphic form are as follows: loaded output voltage at any desired DELTA T; open circuit output voltage at any desired DELTA T; power output under optimum load conditions; current produced under matched load conditions; and internal resistance of the element. (auth)

Bergdorf, C.G.

1961-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools.

Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography to determine microscopic distributions of B-10 in neutron capture therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is heavily dependent on the microscopic distribution of B-10 in tissue. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography (HRQAR) is a potentially valuable analytical tool ...

Harris, Thomas C. (Thomas Cameron)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Pilot Phase of a Field Study to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential Hot-Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

understanding the waste of energy and water in residentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in ResidentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Global distributions of total ozone during January and February 1979 as determined from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer instrument (MFR) was first flown on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite in 1977. Daily analyses of the global distribution of retrieved total ozone are presented for January and February 1979. The temporal and spatial averages and variability of ozone during this period are discussed. Retrieved total column ozone data derived from the MFR measurements for January 1979 are compared with preliminary SBUV measurements and with distributions of total ozone measured between 1958 and 1967.

Luther, F.M.; Ellis, J.S.; Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

First-principles quantum transport modeling of thermoelectricity in single-molecule nanojunctions with graphene nanoribbon electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We overview the nonequilibrium Green function combined with density functional theory (NEGF-DFT) approach to modeling of independent electronic and phononic quantum transport in nanoscale thermoelectrics with examples focused on a new class of devices ... Keywords: First-principles quantum transport, Graphene nanoribbons, Molecular electronics, Thermoelectrics

Branislav K. Nikoli?; Kamal K. Saha; Troels Markussen; Kristian S. Thygesen

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Selected elemental distributions as determined by reference retorting of oil shale and possible correlation with Fischer assay oil yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In previous work, the concentrations and distribution of selected elements in oil shale retort products were reported for the Department of Energy interim reference shales and Mahogany zone shale from Colorado corehole No. 1. As an extension of this work, the distribution of the same elements for a new shale group was investigated. The new shale group was composed of rich and lean shale pairs from other Mahogany zone coreholes in the Piceance Creek and Uinta Basins. This report summarizes graphically the distribution data collected to date, including data for the reference shales, Colorado corehole No. 1, and the rich and lean shale pairs. Also included are elemental concentrations by product stream for the new shale group. The data previously reported for Colorado corehole No. 1 were combined with the data from the new shale group to develop a capability for predicting the distribution of these elements in the different product streams. The data collected for the reference shales were not considered in the development of this predictive capability. The empirical data were collected for the new shale group using the same experimental approach as previously reported. Briefly, the general experimental design was to use mass balance Fischer assay as a reference retorting method, with subsequent analysis of the feedstock and all retort products for the elements of concern by instrumental analysis. The elements examined were arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nitrogen, selenium, silver, sulfur, and zinc. Initially, data analysis also remained the same. Unlike the previous work, statistical analysis was used to test for differences between shale groups for the distribution of a given element in a given product stream. 42 refs., 61 figs., 27 tabs.

Johnson, L.S.; Wood, F.J. Jr.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics | U.S. DOE Office  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » February 2013 Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Exploiting the self-organizing nature of atoms to block heat transfer and improve thermal-to-electrical energy conversion. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of Ctirad Uher

282

High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Thermoelectric power source utilizing ambient energy harvesting for remote sensing and transmitting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for providing electrical energy to an electrical device wherein the electrical energy is originally generated from temperature differences in an environment having a first and a second temperature region. A thermoelectric device having a first side and a second side wherein the first side is in communication with a means for transmitting ambient thermal energy collected or rejected in the first temperature region and the second side is in communication with the second temperature region thereby producing a temperature gradient across the thermoelectric device and in turn generating an electrical current.

DeSteese, John G

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

284

New type of thermoelectric conversion of energy by semiconducting liquid anisotropic media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper describes preliminary investigations of a new effect in conducting anisotropic liquids, which leads to thermoelectric conversion of energy. Nematic liquid crystals with semiconducting dopes are used. A thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = 0.2 is obtained in experiments. The effect can be explained by assuming that the thermocurrent in semiconducting nematics, in contrast to the Seebeck effect, is a nonlinear function of the temperature gradient and of the temperature itself. Though the discovered effect has to be further investigated, the data obtained suggest that it can be effectively used in alternative energy engineering.

Sergey I. Trashkeev; Alexey N. Kudryavtsev

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

285

Thermoelectric Alloys and Devices for Radioisotope Space Power Systems: State of the Art and Current Developments  

SciTech Connect

Lead telluride and silicon germanium type alloys have served over the past several decades as the preferred thermoelectric conversion materials for U. S. radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems for planetary deep space exploration missions. The Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Jupiter/Saturn and the Viking Mars Lander missions employed TAGS-2N (lead and germanium telluride derivatives) power conversion devices. Since 1976, silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys, incorporated into the unicouple device, have evolved as the thermoelectric materials of choice for U. S. RTG powered space missions. These include the U. S. Air Force Lincoln Experimental Satellites 8 & 9 for communications, in 1976, followed in 1977 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Voyager 1 and 2 planetary missions. In 1989, advanced SiGe RTGs were used to power the Galileo exploration of Jupiter and, in 1990, will be used to power the Ulysses investigation of the Sun. In addition, SiGe technology has been chosen to provide RTG power for the 1995 Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby mission and the 1996 Cassini Saturn orbiter mission. Summaries of the flight performance data for these systems are presented.; Current U. S. Department of Energy thermoelectric development activities include (1) the development of conversion devices based on hi-density, close packed couple arrays and (2) the development of improved performance silicon germanium type thermoelectric materials. The silicon germanium type "multicouple", being developed in conjunction with the Modular RTG program, is discussed in a companion paper. A lead telluride type close-packed module, discussed herein, offers the promise of withstanding high velocity impacts and, thus, is a candidate for a Mars Penetrator application.; Recent projects sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, including the Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator programs, have shown that improvements in silicon germanium thermoelectric energy conversion capabilities of at least 50 percent can be achieved by tailoring the characteristics of the silicon germanium alloy materials and devices. This paper compares the properties and characteristics of the SiGe alloys now being developed with those used in the operational space power system.

Barnett, W.; Dick, P.; Beaudry, B.; Gorsuch, P.; Skrabek, E.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Enhanced room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of the dilute bismuthide InGaBiAs  

SciTech Connect

We report room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of Si-doped In{sub 0.52}Ga{sub 0.48}Bi{sub y}As{sub 1-y} with varying Bi concentrations. These films were grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that low Bi concentrations are optimal in improving the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermoelectric power factor, possibly due to the surfactant effects of bismuth. We observed a reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing Bi concentration, which is expected because of alloy scattering. We report a peak ZT of 0.23 at 300 K.

Dongmo, Pernell; Zhong Yujun; Bomberger, Cory; Zide, Joshua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Attia, Peter [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Cheaito, Ramez; Hopkins, Patrick E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 2294 (United States); Ihlefeld, Jon F. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, M.S. 1069, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Validity of automated x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy algorithm to determine the amount of substance and the depth distribution of atoms  

SciTech Connect

The author reports a systematic study of the range of validity of a previously developed algorithm for automated x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, which takes into account the variation in both peak intensity and the intensity in the background of inelastically scattered electrons. This test was done by first simulating spectra for the Au4d peak with gold atoms distributed in the form of a wide range of nanostructures, which includes overlayers with varying thickness, a 5 A layer of atoms buried at varying depths and a substrate covered with an overlayer of varying thickness. Next, the algorithm was applied to analyze these spectra. The algorithm determines the number of atoms within the outermost 3 {lambda} of the surface. This amount of substance is denoted AOS{sub 3{lambda}} (where {lambda} is the electron inelastic mean free path). In general the determined AOS{sub 3{lambda}} is found to be accurate to within {approx}10-20% depending on the depth distribution of the atoms. The algorithm also determines a characteristic length L, which was found to give unambiguous information on the depth distribution of the atoms for practically all studied cases. A set of rules for this parameter, which relates the value of L to the depths where the atoms are distributed, was tested, and these rules were found to be generally valid with only a few exceptions. The results were found to be rather independent of the spectral energy range (from 20 to 40 eV below the peak energy) used in the analysis.

Tougaard, Sven [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M DK-5230 (Denmark)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Quantitative size-dependent structure and strain determination of CdSe nanoparticles using atomic pair distribution function analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 4 nm, has been studied using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method. The core structure of the measured CdSe nanoparticles can be described in terms of the wurtzite atomic structure with extensive stacking faults. The density of faults in the nanoparticles ~50% . The diameter of the core region was extracted directly from the PDF data and is in good agreement with the diameter obtained from standard characterization methods suggesting that there is little surface amorphous region. A compressive strain was measured in the Cd-Se bond length that increases with decreasing particle size being 0.5% with respect to bulk CdSe for the 2 nm diameter particles. This study demonstrates the size-dependent quantitative structural information that can be obtained even from very small nanoparticles using the PDF approach.

A. S. Masadeh; E. Bozin; C. L. Farrow; G. Paglia; P. Juhas; A. Karkamkar; M. G. Kanatzidis; S. J. L. Billinge

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

289

Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

292

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

293

Comparison of different pressing techniques for the preparation of n-type silicon-germanium thermoelectric alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvements to state-of-the-art Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} thermoelectric alloys have been observed in laboratory-scale samples by the powder metallurgy techniques of mechanical alloying and hot pressing. Incorporating these improvements in large scale compacts for the production of thermoelectric generator elements is the next step in achieving higher efficiency RTGs. This paper discusses consolidation of large quantities of mechanically alloyed powders into production size compacts. Differences in thermoelectric properties are noted between the compacts prepared by the standard technique of hot uniaxial pressing and hot isostatic pressing. Most significant is the difference in carrier concentration between the alloys prepared by the two consolidation techniques.

Harringa, J.L.; Cook, B.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Determining Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River Subbasin, Oregon ; 2007 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We will report results of an ongoing project in the Deschutes River Subbasin to describe Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) life history. Project objectives were to determine adult lamprey escapement from Sherars Falls located at Rkm 70.4 and determine lamprey focal spawning areas, spawn timing and habitat through radio telemetry. A mark-recapture study and tribal creel was conducted to determine adult escapement. Lamprey were radio tagged and are currently being mobile, aerial and fixed site tracked to describe spawning. Adult lamprey were collected at Sherars Falls using a long-handled dip net from June-September 2007. The fate of lamprey collected at Sherars Falls was determined based on girth measurements. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two markings for the mark-recapture estimation while those measuring 10.5 cm or greater were implanted with radio transmitters. Two-hundred and nine lamprey were marked during first event sampling, 2,501 lamprey inspected for marks and 64 recaptured during second event sampling. We estimate lamprey abundance to be 8,083 (6,352-10,279) with a relative precision of 19.8. Tribal harvest was 2,303 +/- 88. Escapement was estimated at 5,780 adult lamprey. Thirty-six lamprey received radio transmitters. Lamprey were transported upstream 6.3 Rkm for surgery, held to recover from anesthesia and released. Mobile tracking efforts started mid-July 2007 and are on-going. To date 35 of the 36 lamprey have been detected. Upon release, extensive ground-based tracking was conducted until fish became dormant in mid-October. Since, fixed site downloading and tracking have occurred weekly on the mainstem Deschutes River. Majority of lamprey (88%) are holding in the mainstem Deschutes River. Three lamprey moved upstream more than 70 Rkms into westside tributaries from August-December. Three moved approximately 18 Rkms downstream of the release site. Tracking will continue through the spawning season when redd characteristics will be measured and reported in the 2008-2009 annual report.

Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C. [Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

295

Effect of phonon confinement on the thermoelectric figure of merit of quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of phonon confinement on the thermoelectric figure of merit of quantum wells Alexander in quantum wells and superlattices due to two-dimensional carrier confinement. We predict that the figure of merit can increase even further in quantum well structures with free-surface or rigid boundaries

296

[Radioisotope thermoelectric generators and ancillary activities]. Monthly technical progress report, 1 April--28 April 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tehnical progress achieved during this period on radioisotope thermoelectric generators is described under the following tasks: engineering support, safety analysis, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication/assembly/test, RTG shipping/launch support, design/review/mission applications, and project management/quality assurance/reliability.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Electronic and thermoelectric properties of CoSbS and FeSbS  

SciTech Connect

We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the potential thermoelectric performance of three transition metal antimonide sulfides, CoSbS, FeSbS and NiSbS. From theory we find that NiSbS is metallic and hence of little interest regarding thermoelectric performance. CoSbS and FeSbS are both semiconductors with rather heavy valence and conduction bands, whose thermopower can exceed 200 $\\mu$V/K at temperatures of 900 K and carrier concentrations of 10$^{21}$cm$^{-3}$, which is similar to the $n$-type high performance thermoelectric filled skutterudites. The experimental results on several non-optimized $n$-type CoSbS samples confirm its semiconducting nature and indicate a potential for good high temperature thermoelectric performance, finding a ZT for two of the samples of 0.35 at 773 K. Substantially higher ZT values may be possible if the lattice thermal conductivity can be reduced by alloying and the effects of extrinsic scattering, which appear to be substantial in the experimental results, are reduced.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

DoubleDip: leveraging thermoelectric harvesting for low power monitoring of sporadic water use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present DoubleDip, a low power monitoring system for enabling non-intrusive water flow detection. DoubleDip taps into minute thermal gradients in pipes for both replenishing energy reserves and performing low power wakeup. One of the remaining issues ... Keywords: energy harvesting, low power, sustainability, thermoelectric, water monitoring

Paul Martin; Zainul Charbiwala; Mani Srivastava

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 91, No. 334 thermoelectric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature and has been used in niche appli- cations for refrigeration and power generation since the 1950s that thermoelectric devic- es can compete with traditional refrigeration and power generation technologies.1 calculations and molecular dynamics simulations) provide strategies for the design of nanostructured materials

McGaughey, Alan

300

Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic longitudinal modulation, which may be a compositional modulation or a strain-induced modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Ritz, Clark S. (Middleton, WI)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Semiconductor nanowire thermoelectric materials and devices, and processes for producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides nanowires and nanoribbons that are well suited for use in thermoelectric applications. The nanowires and nanoribbons are characterized by a periodic compositional longitudinal modulation. The nanowires are constructed using lithographic techniques from thin semiconductor membranes, or "nanomembranes."

Lagally, Max G; Evans, Paul G; Ritz, Clark S

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

302

Thermoelectric material development. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have found that there is a limited range of solid solutions between the skutterudite compounds CoSb{sub 3} and RuSb{sub 2}Te (about 5% on each side). For the system (RuSb{sub 2}Te){sub x}(CoSb{sub 3}){sub 1-x}, preliminary results obtained on one n-type sample on the CoSb{sub 3}-rich side show that these alloys have good thermoelectric properties and a maximum ZT of about 0.89 was obtained at about 600 C. More experiments will be started to investigate the possibility of a broader range of miscibility in this system which would allow an even further decrease in the lattice thermal conductivity, resulting in better thermoelectric properties. IrSb{sub 3} and RuSb{sub 2}Te form a complete range of solid solutions. Hot-pressed samples in this system have shown p-type conductivity. The thermoelectric properties of these p-type alloys have been measured and results have shown that their potential for thermoelectric applications is limited mainly because of the relatively low Seebeck coefficient values for p-type materials. Efforts will be directed on preparing n-type samples of the same alloys by doping with various dopants such as Ni and Pd.

Vandersande, J.W.; Caillat, T.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around {sup 192}Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate {sup 192}Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate ({approx}0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a {sup 192}Ir wire source.

Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 55, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

ECONOMIC FACTORS OF MFP THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS. Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

Mixed Fission Products (MFP) for use as a heat source for thermoelectric generators will become increasingly available in the coming years. The Atomic Energy Conamission sponsored program on solidification of nuclear wastes is now entering the hot-bench scale test phase. During this phase approximately 5000 thermal watts of two year old MFP could be produced monthly. Two different types of hot calcination pilot plants are planned for installation at the Hanford National Laboratories in the 1964 to 1966 time period. Each of these plants should be able to produce 160,000 thermal watts of two year MFP and 16,000 thermal watts of ten year MFP on a monthly basis. During this phase, MFP costs should be less than 15 per ihermal watt for two year MFP and 50 for ten year MFP. This cost includes operation of the plant solely to obtain heat sources and sealing the MFP into fuel containers. A full scale plant for a 15,000 Mw(e) nuclear economy is estimated to produce four to five times as much MFP as either of the pilot plants. Costs will be dependent upon AEC policy in effect at the time the plant is operating. lf the policy indicates that the full cost be paid by the user, the prices will approximate that obtained from the pilot plant operation. A conceptual design has been made for MFP fueled generators at several output power levels up to 1000 watts. These are for use at great underwater depths and contain an integral biological shield. A low cost biological shield of high density concrete or cast iron is considered. Economic studies indicate that, in production quantities, a 10 watt generator will cost one tenth an equivalent Strontium90 generator. Because of the low cost for MFP heat sources, radionuclide generators at the hundred and thousand watt level can be reasonably postulated for the first time. At the kilowatt level costs of per watt year are achievable while to 0 are estimated at the ten watt level. Currently available ocean-going craft can handle the placement of MFP generators up to the hundreds of watts level. Investigation of other available vessels is continuing. (auth)

Barmat, M.

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Disordered stoichiometric nanorods and ordered off-stoichiometric nanoparticles in n-type thermoelectric Bi?Te?.?Se?.?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N-type Bi?Te?.?Se?.? bulk thermoelectric materials with peak ZT values up to ?1 were examined by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Two nanostructural features were found: (i) a structural modulation ...

Carlton, Chris E.

306

Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S.  

SciTech Connect

There is a myriad of uses to which our country's freshwater supply is currently committed. Together with increasing quantities of consumption, there are growing constraints on water availability. In our future there will be two elements of consumption at the forefront of concern: availability and efficiency. Availability of freshwater is the most important of these and is the subject of this report. To use water efficiently, we must first have it. Efficiency is key to ensuring availability for future needs. As population grows and economic and technology demands increase - especially for thermoelectric power - needs for freshwater will also increase. Thus, using our limited supplies of freshwater must be done as efficiently as possible. Thermoelectric generating industry is the largest user of our nation's water resources, including fresh, surface, ground, and saline water. Saline water use accounts for approximately 30% of thermoelectric use, while the remaining 70% is from freshwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that thermoelectric generation accounts for roughly 136,000 million gallons per day (MGD), or 39% of freshwater withdrawals. This ranks slightly behind agricultural irrigation as the top source of freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. in 2000. For Americans to preserve their standard of living and maintain a thriving economy it is essential that greater attention be paid to freshwater availability in efforts to meet energy demands - particularly for electric power. According to projections by the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO 2006) anticipated growth of thermoelectric generating capacity will be 22% between 2005 and 2030. In the 2007 Report, EIA estimates that capacity to grow from approximately 709 GW in 2005 to 862 GW in 20303. These large increases in generating capacity will result in increased water demands by thermoelectric power plants and greater competition over water between the energy sector and domestic, commercial, agricultural, industrial, and instream use sectors. The implications of these increased demands have not been adequately researched. This report is a preliminary effort to explore these implications. In addition, since this report was completed in draft form in 2007, there have been several updates and important issues brought to bear on water for energy that should be mentioned. Uncertainties include drought and climate change impacts. Policies such as commitments to Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) quotas; Ethanol production requirements; Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) mandates; increasing nuclear power plant construction; valuing carbon and carbon dioxide emissions all have significant implications on water use and on the need for water in the power sector by 2025.

David Feldman; Amanda Slough; Gary Garrett

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Synthesis and characterization of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2}Si thermoelectric materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mg{sub 2}Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion for the middle high range of temperature. They are very attractive as they could replace lead-based compounds due to their low cost and non toxicity. They could also result in thermoelectric generator weight reduction (a key feature for the automotive application field). The high value of thermal conductivity of the silicide-based materials could be reduced by increasing the phonon scattering in the presence of nanosized crystalline grains without heavily interfering with the electrical conductivity of the thermoelectric material. Nanostructured materials were obtained under inert atmosphere through ball milling, thermal treatment and spark plasma sintering processes. In particular, the role of several bismuth doping amounts in Mg{sub 2}Si were investigated (Mg{sub 2}Si:Bi=1:x for x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 M ratio). The morphology, the composition and the structure of the samples were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS and XRD analyses after each process step. Moreover, the Seebeck coefficient analyses at high temperature and the electrical and thermal conductivity of the samples are presented in this work. The nanostructuring processes were affect by the MgO amount increase which influenced the thermoelectric properties of the samples mainly by reducing the electrical conductivity. With the aim of further increasing the scattering phenomena by interface or boundary effect, carbon nanostructures named Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns were added to the Mg{sub 2}Si in order to produce a nanocomposite material. The influence of the nanostructured filler on the thermoelectric material properties is also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit (ZT) of Bi-doped samples and undoped Mg{sub 2}Si. A maximum ZT value of 0.39 at 600 Degree-Sign C was obtained for the nanocomposite material obtained adding Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns to the Bi 0.02 at% doped silicide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of Bi doping amounts in Mg{sub 2}Si and thermoelectric characterization up to 600 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite materials synthesized by ball milling and Spark Plasma Sintering Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect on scattering phenomena of Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns added to Mg{sub 2}Si Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of oxidation phenomena in nanostructured materials.

Fiameni, S., E-mail: s.fiameni@ieni.cnr.it [CNR - IENI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Famengo, A.; Agresti, F.; Barison, S.; Fabrizio, M. [CNR - IENI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)] [CNR - IENI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Thermal Energy Harvesting with Thermoelectrics for Self-powered Sensors: With Applications to Implantable Medical Devices, Body Sensor Networks and Aging in Place  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6! 1.4. Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting for BiomedicalBiomechanical Energy Harvesting: Generating ElectricityP. K. Wright, “Energy Harvesting - A Systems Perspective,”

Chen, Alic

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Determination of electric field, magnetic field, and electric current distributions of infrared optical antennas: A nano-optical vector network analyzer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In addition to the electric field E(r), the associated magnetic field H(r) and current density J(r) characterize any electromagnetic device, providing insight into antenna coupling and mutual impedance. We demonstrate the optical analogue of the radio frequency vector network analyzer implemented in interferometric homodyne scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) for obtaining E(r), H(r), and J(r). The approach is generally applicable and demonstrated for the case of a linear coupled-dipole antenna in the mid-infrared. The determination of the underlying 3D vector electric near-field distribution E(r) with nanometer spatial resolution and full phase and amplitude information is enabled by the design of probe tips with selectivity with respect to E-parallel and E-perpendicular fabricated by focused ion-beam milling and nano-CVD.

Olmon, Robert L; Krenz, Peter M; Lail, Brian A; Saraf, Laxmikant V; Boreman, Glenn D; Raschke, Markus B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

nergy nergy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Project Title: (0471-1544) Sheetak Inc. - Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage Location: *- Multiple States - New York, Pennsylvania, Texas Proposed Action or Project Description: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: D Funding will support development of a novel system of thermoelectric reactors for efficient automotive thermal energy storage (TREATS) in electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Heating, Ventilation, and Cooling (HVAC) systems. Proposed work consists of indoor laboratory-based research and development, including (1) experimentation and analysis to assess the mechanics and dynamics of thermoelectric reactors, (2) design, fabrication, testing, and analysis of hot and cold reactors, (3) design, fabrication, testing, and

311

Thermoelectric figure of merit of Ag{sub 2}Se with Ag and Se excess  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the temperature range of 100-300 K, the electric ({sigma}) and thermoelectric ({alpha}{sub 0}) properties of Ag{sub 2}Se with an excess of Ag as high as {approx}0.1 at. % and Se as high as {approx}1.0 at. %, respectively, are investigated. From the data on {sigma}, {alpha}{sub 0}, and {chi}{sub tot} (thermal conductivities), the thermoelectric power {alpha}{sub 0}{sup 2}{sigma} and the figure of merit Z are calculated. It is found that {alpha}{sub 0}{sup 2}{sigma} and Z attain the peak values at room temperature and the electron concentration n {approx} 6.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}.

Aliev, F. F., E-mail: farzali@physics.ab.az; Jafarov, M. B.; Eminova, V. I. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ultrasonic examination techniques for multicouple thermoelectric subcomponents and assemblies: Status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the early 1960s, the United States has been using radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), developed by the US Department of Energy and its predecessors, for a variety of environments including space. A recent concept in building RTGs uses modular components to allow for an advanced, lighter space mission generator that provides scaled power level outputs. The scalability feature of the modular isotopic thermoelectric generator (MITG) represents a major advance over earlier RTG designs. However, special problems are encountered in applying nondestructive testing methods because of the miniature size of parts that require inspection. This report describes the status of ultrasonic inspection methods being developed to examine the subcomponents and assemblies of the; MITG. The principal emphasis has been to evaluate various bonds between subcomponents using ultrasonic techniques that employ focused search units and a pulse-echo method.

Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of the thermoelectric properties of of n-type GeTe and SnTe in relation to the lead chalcogenides PbTe and PbSe. We find that the singly degenerate conduction bands of semiconducting GeTe and SnTe are highly non-parabolic, even very close to the band edges. This leads to isoenergy surfaces with a strongly corrugated shape that is clearly evident at carrier concentrations well below 0.005 e per formula unit. Analysis within Boltzmann theory shows that this corrugation is favorable for the thermoelectric transport. As a result these materials may exhibit n-type performance exceeding that of the lead chalcogenides.

Singh, David J [ORNL] [ORNL; Parker, David S [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Xin [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Commercial oxide paints as coatings for SiGe thermoelectric materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Silicon-germanium alloys are used as thermoelectric materials for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. One problem is the loss of the alloy by sublimation. In the Unicouple, sublimation was minimized by a Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ coating. In the Multicouple design the application of Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ coatings which is done at high temperature is not practical. Suppression of sublimation in the Multicouple design is presently accomplished by applying glass coatings. The difficulties encountered with the glass coatings are associated with the poor adherence of the coatings. In the present study, commercial oxide points (mainly ZrO/sub 2/) which have low thermal expansion coefficients are used as coating materials. No spalling from the surface of the coated sample occurred in 1506 hours at 1080/sup 0/C in vacuum, and sublimation was reduced significantly. Zirconium silicate was observed on the surface by x-ray diffraction.

Amano, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

1986-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

315

Transient cooling and heating via a bismuth-telluride thermoelectric device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric cooling or heating can be used to drive materials to specified temperatures. By way of the Peltier effect, heat is liberated or absorbed when a current flows across a 'unction of two dissimilar conductors. A time history of the temperature cycle can be used to correlate a thermal response as a function of electrical current and initial temperature. In this thesis, the thermoelectric cooling and heating of copper and mercury, in conjunction with bismuth-telluride (Bl2Te3) semiconductors, are measured and compared against a I-D approximation developed by Bhattacharyya, Lagoudas, Waiig, and Kinra.' Based on results published in the aforementioned article and unpublished work of the author, refinements in the experimental setup are meant to further insure that the I-D assumptions are followed as accurately as possible. The improvements however are dwarfed by possible misconceptions assumed in the physics of the setup.

Clancy, Terry L

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thermoelectric properties of AgGaTe$_2$ and related chalcopyrite structure materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analysis of the potential thermoelectric performance of p-type AgGaTe$_{2}$, which has already shown a $ZT$ of 0.8 with partial optimization, and observe that the same band structure features, such as a mixture of light and heavy bands and isotropic transport, that lead to this good performance are present in certain other ternary chalcopyrite structure semiconductors. We find that optimal performance of AgGaTe$_2$ will be found for hole concentrations between 4 $\\times 10^{19}$ and 2 $\\times 10^{20}$cm$^{-3}$ at 900 K, and 2 $\\times 10^{19}$ and 10$^{20}$ cm$^{-3}$ at 700 K, and that certain other chalcopyrite semiconductors might show good thermoelectric performance at similar doping ranges and temperatures if not for higher lattice thermal conductivity.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Thermoelectric Materials Evaluation Program. Annual technical report for fiscal year 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimization was initiated with respect to performance, operating temperatures, and thermoelectric properties of an N-type material based on rare earth (neodymium and gadolinium) selenide technology. Effort was expanded to experimentally describe the chemical, electrical and physical behavior of P-type thermoelectric material over a range of temperatures. Emphasis was changed in P-type material research from basic properties to sublimation suppression by wrapping, and to the understanding of contact resistance problems at the hot end. Analytical performance calculations were made as an aid in couple development. In the area of module development an evaluation of the reduction of bypass-heat loss was made and module M-22R was placed on test. Parts were fabricated for M23R. Data on long term operating characteristics, ingradient compatibility, and reliability of elements and couples was obtained.

Hinderman, J.D.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Lunar Nuclear Power Plant With Solid Core Reactor, Heatpipes and Thermoelectric Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a lunar nuclear power plant with the advantages of minimum mass, with no moving parts, no pumped liquid coolant, a solid metal rugged core, with no single point of failure. The electrical output is 100 kilowatts with a 500 kilowatt thermal reactor. The thermoelectric converters surround the potassium heatpipes from the core and water heatpipes surround the converter and connect to the radiator. The solid core reactor is made from HT9 alloy. The fuel is uranium oxide with 90% enrichment. The thermoelectric converter is bonded to the outside of the 1.10 inch ID heat pipe and is 30 inches long. The thermoelectric couple is Si/SiGe-Si/SiC Quantum Well with over 20% efficiency with an 890 K hot side and a 490 K cold side and produces 625 Watts. 176 converters produce 110 kWe. With less than 10% loss in controls this yields 100 kWe for use. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is designed and fabricated by HIPing to keep brittle materials in compression and to ensure conductivity. The solid core is fabricated by machining the heatpipe tubes with 6 grooves that are diffusion bonded together by HIPing to form the fuel tubes. The maximum temperature of the heat pipes is 940 K and the return flow temperature is 890 K. The reactor core is hexagonal shaped, 61 cm. wide and 76.2 cm high with 12 rotating control drums surrounding it. There is shielding to protect components and human habitation. The radiator is daisy shaped at 45 degrees with each petal 5.5 meters long. The design life is ten years.

Sayre, Edwin D. [Engineering Consultant, 218 Brooke Acres Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Ring, Peter J. [Advanced Methods and Materials, 1190 Mountain View-Alviso Rd. Suite P, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Brown, Neil [Engineering Consultant, 5134 Cordoy Lane, San Jose, CA 95124 (United States); Elsner, Norbert B.; Bass, John C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., 7606 Miramar Rd. Suite 7400, San Diego, CA 92126 (United States)

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

319

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium-Silicon and Magnesium-Tin Solid Solutions for Thermoelectric Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The environmentally friendly n-type Mg2(Si, Sn) thermoelectric solid solutions have a strong potential of commercial utilization in thermoelectric (TE) energy conversion due to their availability, low density (~3.02 g/cm3), and high stability at middle temperature range (400-600 ?C) that are typically observed from waste heat dissipating systems. The bulk materials were prepared from element powders via slow cooking under vacuum condition and current-assisted hot-press sintering. Temperature vs time curves have been researched in this thesis for fully reacted magnesium-silicide & magnesium-stannide green ingots with doping materials i.e. antimony, bismuth by different doping ratios. These ingots were ground by a high energy ball miller, uniaxial cold pressed into half inch pallets and then sintered by Direct Current-assisted hot pressing. Different synthesis conditions such as ball milling, sintering time, pressure, have been compared by SEM images and XRD tests analysis to figure out optimized process parameters. Several samples’ thermal conductivities (?) were plotted as a function of temperature to study different synthesis strategies and doping materials’ effects on phonon scattering inside bulk thermoelectric materials.

Hu, Fang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in TiS2 Crystal with Nearly Stoichiometric Composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A TiS2 crystal with a layered structure was found to have a large thermoelectric power factor. The in-plane power factor S2 /? at 300 K is 37.1 µW/K2cm with resistivity (?) of 1.7 m?cm and thermopower (S) of-251 µV/K, and this value is comparable to that of the best thermoelectric material, Bi2Te3 alloy. The electrical resistivity shows both metallic and highly anisotropic behaviors, suggesting that the electronic structure of this TiS2 crystal has a quasi-twodimensional nature. The large thermoelectric response can be ascribed to the large density of state just above the Fermi energy and inter-valley scattering. In spite of the large power factor, the figure of merit, ZT of TiS2 is 0.16 at 300 K, because of relatively large thermal conductivity, 68 mW/Kcm. However, most of this value comes from reducible lattice contribution. Thus, ZT can be improved by reducing lattice thermal conductivity, e.g., by introducing a rattling unit into the inter-layer sites.

H. Imai; Y. Shimakawa; Y. Kubo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with electrochemically deposited Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

An N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with bismuth telluride coating has been successfully synthesised through an electro-deposition technique. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical properties of the combined recycled carbon fibre sheet and bismuth telluride films are reported. Classification of the crystal structure, surface morphology and the elemental composition of the resulting deposits are methodically characterised by XRD, SEM and EDX. Cyclic voltammetry is also carried out in nitric acid solutions to investigate the right range of deposition potential. The synthesis N-type thermoelectric sheet has a highest attainable Seebeck coefficient of -54 {mu}V K{sup -1} and an electrical resistivity of 8.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Ohm-Sign m. The results show slight differences in morphologies and thermoelectric properties for the films deposited at varying deposition potential. The increase in thermoelectrical properties of the recycled carbon fibre is in line with the development of using coated recycled fibre for thermoelectrical applications. - Graphical abstract: SEM image of an N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} coatings. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-type thermoelectric sheet is synthesis through the electrodeposition of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} composition can be controlled by varying the deposition voltage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seebeck coefficient and electrical properties of the combined sheet were reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material characterisations of the deposits are done using XRD, SEM and EDX.

Pang, E.J.X. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Pickering, S.J., E-mail: stephen.pickering@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Chan, A. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Wong, K.H. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Lau, P.L. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

CX-009921: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination 1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009921: Categorical Exclusion Determination Technology Research, Development and Tools for Clean Biomass Cookstoves CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B5.15 Date: 01/07/2013 Location(s): New York, California, Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office The U.S. Department of Energy is proposing to provide federal funding to Iolite LLC to advance cookstove development, through the research, development and testing of an independent combustion engine core, with a thermoelectric (TEG) -powered blower, which can be integrated with an existing cookstove. The proposed project seeks to develop an adaptable, thermoelectrically powered, clean combustion engine core that can bring the low emissions and high efficiency of advanced fan stoves to a range of

323

CX-004918: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Categorical Exclusion Determination 8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004918: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sheetak -Non-Equilibrium Asymmetric Thermoelectric Devices CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/10/2010 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Funding will support bench-scale research and development on a novel thermoelectric device for use in various air conditioning applications. The proposed work is consistent with the goals of Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices: the development of energy efficient cooling technologies and air conditioners for buildings, to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed work consists entirely of research, development, and demonstration work to be completed in Sheetak's

324

Mass Properties Testing and Evaluation for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

Mass properties (MP) measurements were performed for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), serial number (S/N) 0X730401, the power system designated for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Measurements were made using new mounting fixtures at the mass properties testing station in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Space and Security Power Systems Facility (SSPSF). The objective of making mass properties measurements was to determine the generator’s flight configured mass and center of mass or center of gravity (CG). Using an extremely accurate platform scale, the mass of the as-tested generator was determined to be 100.117 ± 0.007 lb. Weight accuracy was determined by checking the platform scale with calibrated weights immediately prior to weighing the MMRTG.a CG measurement accuracy was assessed by surrogate testing using an inert mass standard for which the CG could be readily determined analytically. Repeated testing using the mass standard enabled the basic measurement precision of the system to be quantified in terms of a physical confidence interval about the measured CG position. However, repetitious testing with the MMRTG itself was not performed in deference to the gamma and neutron radiation dose to operators and the damage potential to the flight unit from extra handling operations. Since the mass standard had been specially designed to have a total weight and CG location that closely matched the MMRTG, the uncertainties determined from its testing were assigned to the MMRTG as well. On this basis, and at the 99% confidence level, a statistical analysis found the direct, as-measured MMRTG-MSL CG to be located at 10.816 ± 0.0011 in. measured perpendicular from the plane of the lower surface of the generator’s mounting lugs (Z direction), and offset from the generator’s long axis centerline in the X and Y directions by 0.0968 ± 0.0040 in. and 0.0276 ± 0.0026 in., respectively. These uncertainties are based simply on the statistical treatment of results from repetitive testing performed with the mass standard and included position variations that may have occurred during several mounting/dismounting operations of both the mass standard and mounting fixtures. Because of the limited data available, the computed uncertainty intervals reported are likely, although not assuredly, wider than the intervals that would have been found had more extensive data been available. However, these uncertainties do not account for other contributors to measurement uncertainty that might be applicable. These include potential weighing errors, possible tilt of the as-mounted test article, or translation of the measurement results from the MP instrument coordinates to those of the test article. Furthermore, when testing heat producing test articles such as the MMRTG, measurement degradation can occur from thermal expansion/contraction of the mounting fixtures as they heat up or cool and cause a subtle repositioning of the test article. Analyses for such impacts were made and additional uncertainty allowances were conservatively assigned to account for these. A full, detailed description is provided in this report.

Felicione, Frank S.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

High performance Na-doped PbTe-PbS thermoelectric materials: electronic density of states modification and shaped-controlled nanostructures.  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric heat-to-power generation is an attractive option for robust and environmentally friendly renewable energy production. Historically, the performance of thermoelectric materials has been limited by low efficiencies, related to the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT. Nanostructuring thermoelectric materials have shown to enhance ZT primarily via increasing phonon scattering, beneficially reducing lattice thermal conductivity. Conversely, density-of-states (DOS) engineering has also enhanced electronic transport properties. However, successfully joining the two approaches has proved elusive. Herein, we report a thermoelectric materials system whereby we can control both nanostructure formations to effectively reduce thermal conductivity, while concurrently modifying the electronic structure to significantly enhance thermoelectric power factor. We report that the thermoelectric system PbTe-PbS 12% doped with 2% Na produces shape-controlled cubic PbS nanostructures, which help reduce lattice thermal conductivity, while altering the solubility of PbS within the PbTe matrix beneficially modifies the DOS that allow for enhancements in thermoelectric power factor. These concomitant and synergistic effects result in a maximum ZT for 2% Na-doped PbTe-PbS 12% of 1.8 at 800 K.

Girard, S. N.; He, J.; Zhou, X.; Shoemaker, D.; Jaworski, C. M.; Uher, C.; Dravid, V. P.; Heremans, J. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G. (Materials Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.); (Univ. Michigan-Ann Arbor); (Ohio State Univ.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Sputter deposition of multilayer thermoelectric films: An approach to the fabrication of two-dimensional quantum wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The relative efficiency of a thermoelectric material is measured in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT. Though all known thermoelectric materials are believed to have ZT{le}1, recent theoretical results predict that thermoelectric devices fabricated as two-dimensional quantum wells (2D QWs) or onedimensional (1D) quantum wires could have ZT{ge}3. Multilayers with the dimensions of 2D QWs have been synthesized by alternately sputtering Bi{sub 0.9}Sb{sub 0.1} and PbTe{sub 0.8}Se{sub 0.2} onto a moving single-crystal sapphire substrate from dual magnetrons. These materials have been used to test the thermoelectric quantum-well concept and gain insight into relevant transport mechanisms. If successful, this research could lead to thermoelectric devices that have efficiencies close to that of an ideal Carnot engine. Ultimately, such devices could be used to replace conventional heat engines and mechanical refrigeration systems.

Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Chapline, G.C. Jr.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S.; Hicks, L.D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline type-I Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) clathrates prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods  

SciTech Connect

The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) compounds with the type-I clathrate structure is presented. Samples were prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. Powder x-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show that the solubility limit of gallium in the type-I clathrate phase is close to x=15, which is slightly higher than that for a single crystal. The carrier concentration at room temperature decreases from 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} as the Ga content x increases. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity vary systematically with the carrier concentration when the Ga content x varies. The effective mass (2.0m{sub 0}), the carrier mobility (10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and the lattice thermal conductivity (1.1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are determined for the Ga content x=14.51. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is about 0.55 at 900 K for the Ga content x=14.51. The calculation of ZT using the experimentally determined material parameters predicts ZT=0.8 (900 K) at the optimum carrier concentration of about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. - Graphical abstract: The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties is presented on polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} with the type-I clathrate structure prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches 0.55 at 900 K due to the increase in the Ga content (close to x=15), and a calculation predicts further improvement of ZT at the optimized carrier concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallographic properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} clathrates are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc melting and spark plasma sintering process enables increase of Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We elucidate the Ga composition dependence of thermoelectric properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is improved due to the increased Ga content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation predicts a potential ZT=0.8 at 900 K at optimized carrier concentration.

Anno, Hiroaki, E-mail: anno@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan) [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroki; Nakabayashi, Takahiro; Hokazono, Masahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); Shirataki, Ritsuko [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan) [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, 1-1-1 Daigaku-Dori, Sanyoonoda 756-0884 (Japan); JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Lumped and Distributed Parameter SPICE Models of TE Devices Considering Temperature Dependent Material Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on simplified one-dimensional steady-state analysis of thermoelectric phenomena and on analogies between thermal and electrical domains, we propose both lumped and distributed parameter electrical models for thermoelectric devices. For lumped parameter models, constant values for material properties are extracted from polynomial fit curves evaluated at different module temperatures (hot side, cold side, average, and mean module temperature). For the case of distributed parameter models, material properties are calculated according to the mean temperature at each segment of a sectioned device. A couple of important advantages of the presented models are that temperature dependence of material properties is considered and that they can be easily simulated using an electronic simulation tool such as SPICE. Comparisons are made between SPICE simulations for a single-pellet module using the proposed models and with numerical simulations carried out with Mathematica software. Results illustrate accuracy of th...

Mitrani, D; Turo, A; García, M J; Chávez, J A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae=Ca,Sr,Ba, as thermoelectric materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2 Sn, Sr2 Sn and Ba2 Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli - roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Research on Short-term Load Forecasting of the Thermoelectric Boiler Based on a Dynamic RBF Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As thermal inertia is the key factor for the lag of thermoelectric utility regulation, it becomes very important to forecast its short-term load according to running parameters. In this paper, dynamic radial basis function (RBF) neural network is proposed based on the RBF neural network with the associated parameters of sample deviation and partial sample deviation, which are defined for the purpose of effective judgment of new samples. Also, in order to forecast the load of sample with large deviation, sensitivity coefficients of input layer is given in this paper. To validate this model, an experiment is performed on a thermoelectric plant, and the experimental result indicates that the network can be put into extensive use for short-term load forecasting of thermoelectric utility.

Dai, W.; Zou, P.; Yan, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, the authors present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic {open_quotes}cage{close_quotes}. These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, {open_quotes}rattling{close_quotes} ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

Mandrus, D.; Sales, B.C.; Keppens, V. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Anomalously low thermal conductivity and thermoelectric properties of new cationic clathrates in the Sn-In-As-I system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-crystal samples of cationic clathrates in the Sn-In-As-I system with different indium contents have been synthesized. Their crystal structure has been analyzed and their thermoelectric properties have been measured. These compounds are found to be n-type semiconductors with high absolute values of the Seebeck coefficient (S = 400-600 {mu}V/K) and anomalously low thermal conductivity ({kappa} {materials. The reasons for the anomalously low thermal conductivity of these semiconductors are discussed and ways for optimizing their thermoelectric properties are shown.

Shevelkov, A. V.; Kelm, E. A.; Olenev, A. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kulbachinskii, V. A., E-mail: kulb@mig.phys.msu.ru; Kytin, V. G. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Water: A critical resource in the thermoelectric power industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the author’s institution, sharing with colleagues and providing to institution administration. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit:

Thomas J. Feeley Iii A; Timothy J. Skone B; Gary J. Stiegel Jr. B; Andrea Mcnemar A; Michael Nemeth B; Brian Schimmoller B; James T. Murphy B; Lynn Manfredo B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

Satoh, J.A.

1994-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

336

Economic Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) study. Volume I. ERTG design. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and evaluate an ERTG design for a high power, Curium-244 fueled system based on the tubular thermoelectric module technology; (2) to prepare a program plan for the development of a flight qualified ERTG; and (3) to estimate the costs associated with the production of one, ten and twenty flight qualified ERTG's. This volume presents the Reference Design ERTG approach, the results of the engineering trade studies leading to its selection, and the Second Generation ERTG Design proposed for development. (WHK)

Not Available

1973-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Molecular Level Assessment of Thermal Transport and Thermoelectricity in Materials: From Bulk Alloys to Nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to manipulate material response to dynamical processes depends on the extent of understanding of transport properties and their variation with chemical and structural features in materials. In this perspective, current work focuses on the thermal and electronic transport behavior of technologically important bulk and nanomaterials. Strontium titanate is a potential thermoelectric material due to its large Seebeck coefficient. Here, first principles electronic band structure and Boltzmann transport calculations are employed in studying the thermoelectric properties of this material in doped and deformed states. The calculations verified that excessive carrier concentrations are needed for this material to be used in thermoelectric applications. Carbon- and boron nitride-based nanomaterials also offer new opportunities in many applications from thermoelectrics to fast heat removers. For these materials, molecular dynamics calculations are used to evaluate lattice thermal transport. To do this, first, an energy moment term is reformulated for periodic boundary conditions and tested to calculate thermal conductivity from Einstein relation in various systems. The influences of the structural details (size, dimensionality) and defects (vacancies, Stone-Wales defects, edge roughness, isotopic disorder) on the thermal conductivity of C and BN nanostructures are explored. It is observed that single vacancies scatter phonons stronger than other type of defects due to unsatisfied bonds in their structure. In pristine states, BN nanostructures have 4-6 times lower thermal conductivity compared to C counterparts. The reason of this observation is investigated on the basis of phonon group velocities, life times and heat capacities. The calculations show that both phonon group velocities and life times are smaller in BN systems. Quantum corrections are also discussed for these classical simulations. The chemical and structural diversity that could be attained by mixing hexagonal boron nitride and graphene provide further avenues for tuning thermal and electronic properties. In this work, the thermal conductivity of hybrid graphene/hexagonal-BN structures: stripe superlattices and BN (graphene) dots embedded in graphene (BN) are studied. The largest reduction in thermal conductivity is observed at 50% chemical mixture in dot superlattices. The dot radius appears to have little effect on the magnitude of reduction around large concentrations while smaller dots are more influential at dilute systems.

Kinaci, Alper

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

(Design, fabricate, and provide engineering support for radiosotope thermoelectric generators for NASA's CRHF AND CASSINI missions)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical progress achieved during the period 11 January through 31 March 1991 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852.000 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and ancillary activities is described. The system contract consists of the following tasks: (1) Spacecraft Integration and Liaison; (2) Engineering Support; (3) Safety; (4) Qualify Unicouple Fabrication; (5) ETG Fabrication, Assembly and Test; (6) GSE; (7) RTG Shipping and Launch Support; (8) Designs, Reviews, and Mission Applications; (9) Project Management, Quality Assurance and Reliability; and (H) CAGO Acquisition (Capital Funds). The progress achieved is broken down into these tasks. 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Flexible Micro Thermoelectric Generator based on Electroplated Bi2Te3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present and discuss the fabrication process and the performance of a flexible micro thermoelectric generator with electroplated Bi2Te3 thermocouples in a SU-8 mold. Demonstrator devices generate 278uWcm-2 at dTmeas=40K across the experimental set up. Based on model calculations, a temperature difference of dTG=21.4K across the generator is assumed. Due to the flexible design and the chosen generator materials, the performance stays high even for curved contact surfaces. The measurement results correlate well with the model based design optimization predictions.

Schwyter, E; Durrer, L; Hierold, Ch

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Lumped and Distributed Parameter SPICE Models of TE Devices Considering Temperature Dependent Material Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on simplified one-dimensional steady-state analysis of thermoelectric phenomena and on analogies between thermal and electrical domains, we propose both lumped and distributed parameter electrical models for thermoelectric devices. For lumped parameter models, constant values for material properties are extracted from polynomial fit curves evaluated at different module temperatures (hot side, cold side, average, and mean module temperature). For the case of distributed parameter models, material properties are calculated according to the mean temperature at each segment of a sectioned device. A couple of important advantages of the presented models are that temperature dependence of material properties is considered and that they can be easily simulated using an electronic simulation tool such as SPICE. Comparisons are made between SPICE simulations for a single-pellet module using the proposed models and with numerical simulations carried out with Mathematica software. Results illustrate accuracy of the distributed parameter models and show how inappropriate is to assume, in some cases, constant material parameters for an entire thermoelectric element.

D. Mitrani; J. Salazar; A. Turo; M. J. García; J. A. Chávez

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the local political organizations that can influence decisions regarding the use of the alternative source. Often a plan to use reclaimed water will work only if local politics and power plant goals converge. Even then, lengthy negotiations are often needed for the plans to come to fruition. (3) Regulatory requirements for planning and developing associated infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, and back-up supplies that can require numerous approvals, permits, and public participation, all of which can create delays and increased costs. (4) Permitting requirements that may be difficult to meet, such as load-based discharge limits for wastewater or air emissions limitations for particulate matter (which will be in the mist of cooling towers that use reclaimed water high in dissolved solids). (5) Finding discharge options for cooling tower blowdown of reclaimed water that are acceptable to permitting authorities. Constituents in this wastewater can limit options for discharge. For example, discharge to rivers requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits whose limits may be difficult to meet, and underground injection can be limited because many potential injection sites have already been claimed for disposal of produced waters from oil and gas wells or waters associated with gas shale extraction. (6) Potential liabilities associated with using alternative sources. A power plant can be liable for damages associated with leaks from reclaimed water conveyance systems or storage areas, or with mine water that has been contaminated by unscrupulous drillers that is subsequently discharged by the power plant. (7) Community concerns that include, but are not limited to, increased saltwater drift on farmers fields; the possibility that the reclaimed water will contaminate local drinking water aquifers; determining the 'best' use of WWTP effluent; and potential health concerns associated with emissions from the cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emergi

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

342

Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

Creep properties of forged 2219 T6 aluminum alloy shell of general-purpose heat source-radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The shell (2219 T6 aluminum forging) of the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was designed to retain the generator under sufficient elastic stress to secure it during space flight. A major concern was the extent to which the elastic stress would relax by creep. To determine acceptability of the shell construction material, the following proof tests simulating service were performed: 600 h of testing at 270/sup 0/C under 24.1 MPa stress followed by 10,000 h of storage at 177/sup 0/C under 55.1 MPa, both on the ground; and 10,000 h of flight in space at 270/sup 0/C under 34.4 MPa stress. Additionally, systematic creep testing was performed at 177 and 260/sup 0/C to establish creep design curves. The creep tests performed at 177/sup 0/C revealed comparatively large amounts of primary creep followed by small amounts of secondary creep. The early creep is believed to be abetted by unstable substructures that are annealed out during testing at this temperature. The creep tests performed at 270/sup 0/C showed normal primary creep followed by large amounts of secondary creep. Duplicate proof tests simulating the ground exposure conditions gave results that were in good agreement. The proof test simulating space flight at 270/sup 0/C gave 0.11% primary creep followed by 0.59% secondary creep. About 10% of the second-stage creep was caused by four or five instantaneous strains, which began at the 4500-h mark. One or two of these strain bursts, occurred in each of several other tests at 177 and 260/sup 0/C but were assessed as very moderate in magnitude. The effect is attributable to a slightly microsegregated condition remaining from the original cast structure.

Hammond, J.P.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law kappa-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and the macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient and thermal conductivity for the power-law kappa-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are modified significantly by the kappa-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter kappa to infinit they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution.

Jiulin, Du

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Determining Size Distributions and Composition of Particles Suspended in Water: A New SEM–EDS Protocol with Validation and Comparison to Other Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of particle size distributions (PSDs) in seawater is important for understanding several facets of marine science, such as the behavior of light scattering in seawater, phytoplankton dynamics, and biogeochemical cycling. Here, a method ...

Heather Groundwater; Michael S. Twardowski; Heidi M. Dierssen; Antoine Sciandra; Scott A. Freeman

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Specification for strontium-90 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design for a demonstration 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator has been created for the Department of Energy. The design effort was divided into two tasks, viz., create a design specification for a capsule strength member that utilizes a standard Strontium-90 fluoride-filled WESF inner liner, and create a conceptual design for a 500-watt(e) RTG. Both tasks have been accomplished. The strength-member specification was designed to survive an external pressure of 24,500 psi and meet the requirements of special-form radioisotope heat sources. Therefore the capsule can, if desired, be licensed for domestic and international transport. The design for the RTG features a radioisotopic heat source, an array of nine capsules in a tungsten biological shield, four current-technology series-connected thermoelectric-conversion modules, low-conductivity thermal insulation, and a passive finned-housing radiator for waste-heat dissipation. The preliminary RTG specification formulated previous to contract award has been met or exceeded. The power source will generate the required power for the required service period at 28 volts dc with a conversion efficiency of 8%, provided the existing in-pool capsules at WESF meet the assumed thermal-inventory requirements.

Hammel, T.; Himes, J.; Lieberman, A.; McGrew, J.; Owings, D.; Schumann, F.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Selecting the suitable dopants: electronic structures of transition metal and rare earth doped thermoelectric sodium cobaltate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineered Na0.75CoO2 is considered a prime candidate to achieve high efficiency thermoelectric systems to regenerate electricity from waste heat. In this work, three elements with outmost electronic configurations, (1) an open d shell (Ni), (2) a closed d shell (Zn), and (3) an half fill f shell (Eu) with a maximum unpaired electrons, were selected to outline the dopants' effects on electronic and crystallographic structures of Na0.75CoO2. Systematic ab initio density functional calculations showed that the formation energy of these dopants was found to be lowest when residing on sodium layer and ranked as -1.1 eV, 0.44 eV and 3.44 eV for Eu, Ni and Zn respectively. Furthermore Ni was also found to be stable when substituting Co ion. As these results show great harmony with existing experimental data, they provide new insights into the fundamental principle of dopant selection for manipulating the physical properties in the development of high performance sodium cobaltate based thermoelectric materials.

Assadi, M H N; Yu, A B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Thermal Cycling Effects on the Thermoelectric Properties of n-Type In, Ce based Skutterudite Compounds  

SciTech Connect

N-type In-filled CoSb3 are known skutterudite compounds that have shown promising thermoelectric (TE) properties resulting in high dimensionless figure of merit values at elevated temperatures. Their use in various waste heat recovery applications will require that they survive and operate after exposure to harsh thermal cycling environments. This research focused on uncovering the thermal cycling effects on thermoelectric properties of n-type In0.2Co4Sb12 and In0.2Ce0.15Co4Sb12 skutterudite compositions as well as quantifying their temperature-dependent structural properties (elastic modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio). It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity increased only slightly in the double-filled In,Ce skutterudite materials upon thermal cycling. In the In-filled skutterudites the Seebeck coefficient remained approximately the same on thermal cycling, while electrical resistivity increased significantly after thermal cycling. Results also show that thermal conductivity marginally decreases in the case of In-filled skutterudites, whereas the reduction is more pronounced in In, Ce-based skutterudite compounds. The possible reason for this kind of reduction can be attributed to grain pinning effects due to formation of nano inclusions. High temperature structural property measurements (i.e., Young's modulus and shear modulus) are also reported and the results show that these structural properties decrease slowly as temperature increases and the compounds are structurally stable after numerous thermal cycles.

Biswas, Krishnendu; Subramanian, Mas A.; Good, Morris S.; Roberts, Kamandi C.; Hendricks, Terry J.

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

349

Distribution of Water in Hailstones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large number of photographs of thin sections of quenched hailstones have been studied to determine the most common patterns of water distribution within hailstones. The way in which water is distributed throughout the hailstone determines which ...

Petr Chýlek; B. R. D. Gupta; Nancy C. Knight; Charles A. Knight

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

SNAP PROGRAMS TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 2, February 1, 1961 through April 30, 1961  

SciTech Connect

Work in the processing of Sr/sup 90/ into heat sources for 4 radioisotope-fueled thermoelectric power generation systems is described. The design and engineering analysis of these thermoelectric generators are discussed. Fuel process flow and associated equipment requirements for remote conversion of Sr/sup 90/ feed material to strontium titanate pellets are covered. Previously evolved technical standards concerning raw fuel material specification were coordinated. (M.C.G.)

West, W.

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Application and Verification of ASHRAE 152-2004 (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) to DOE-2-1e Simulation Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes the application and verification of duct model on DOE 2.1e version 119 using ASHRAE 152-2004 (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems). It begins with a concept of duct model which is developed by ASHRAE and shows the application and the verification of the duct model to DOE 2.1e version 119 simulation program.

Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Device for use in a furnace exhaust stream for thermoelectric generation  

SciTech Connect

A device for generating voltage or electrical current includes an inner elongated member mounted in an outer elongated member, and a plurality of thermoelectric modules mounted in the space between the inner and the outer members. The outer and/or inner elongated members each include a plurality of passages to move a temperature altering medium through the members so that the device can be used in high temperature environments, e.g. the exhaust system of an oxygen fired glass melting furnace. The modules are designed to include a biasing member and/or other arrangements to compensate for differences in thermal expansion between the first and the second members. In this manner, the modules remain in contact with the first and second members. The voltage generated by the modules can be used to power electrical loads.

Polcyn, Adam D.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

353

High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

None

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Program Final Report - Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We conducted a vehicle analysis to assess the feasibility of thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery and conversion to useful electrical power and found that eliminating the 500 W of electrical power generated by the alternator corresponded to about a 7% increase in fuel economy (FE) for a small car and about 6% for a full size truck. Electric power targets of 300 W were established for city and highway driving cycles for this project. We obtained critical vehicle level information for these driving cycles that enabled a high-level design and performance analysis of radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems for several potential vehicle platforms, and we identified the location and geometric envelopes of the radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems. Based on this analysis, we selected the Chevrolet Suburban as the most suitable demonstration vehicle for this project. Our modeling and thermal analysis assessment of a radiator-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, revealed severe practical limitations. Specifically the small temperature difference of 100°C or less between the engine coolant and ambient air results in a low Carnot conversion efficiency, and thermal resistance associated with air convection would reduce this conversion efficiency even further. We therefore decided not to pursue a radiator-based waste heat recovery system and focused only on the exhaust gas. Our overall approach was to combine science and engineering: (1) existing and newly developed TE materials were carefully selected and characterized by the material researcher members of our team, and most of the material property results were validated by our research partners, and (2) system engineers worked closely with vehicle engineers to ensure that accurate vehicle-level information was used for developing subsystem models and designs, and the subsystem output was analyzed for potential fuel economy gains. We incorporated material, module, subsystem, and integration costs into the material selection criteria in order to balance various materials, module and subsystem design, and vehicle integration options. Our work on advanced TE materials development and on TEG system design, assembly, vehicle integration, and testing proceeded in parallel efforts. Results from our two preliminary prototype TEGs using only Bi-Te TE modules allowed us to solve various mechanical challenges and to finalize and fine tune aspects of the design and implementation. Our materials research effort led us to quickly abandon work on PbTe and focus on the skutterudite materials due to their superior mechanical performance and suitability at automotive exhaust gas operating temperatures. We synthesized a sufficiently large quantity of skutterudite material for module fabrication for our third and final prototype. Our TEG#3 is the first of its kind to contain state-of-the-art skutterudite-based TE modules to be installed and tested on a production vehicle. The design, which consisted of 24 skutterudite modules and 18 Bi-Te modules, attempted to optimize electrical power generation by using these two kinds of TE modules that have their peak performance temperatures matched to the actual temperature profile of the TEG during operation. The performance of TEG#3 was limited by the maximum temperature allowable for the Bi-Te TE modules located in the colder end of the TEG, resulting in the operating temperature for the skutterudite modules to be considerably below optimum. We measured the power output for (1) the complete TEG (25 Watts) and (2) an individual TE module series string (1/3 of the TEG) operated at a 60°C higher temperature (19 Watts). We estimate that under optimum operating temperature conditions, TEG#3 will generate about 235 Watts. With additional improvements in thermal and electrical interfaces, temperature homogeneity, and power conditioning, we estimate TEG#3 could deliver a power output of about 425 Watts.

Gregory Meisner

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

Prior, Gregory P

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

Thermoelectric performance of electron and hole doped PtSb2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the thermoelectric properties of electron and hole doped PtSb2. Our results show that for doping of 0.04 holes per unit cell (1:5 1020 cm 3) PtSb2 shows a high Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, which can also be achieved at other temperatures by controlling the carrier concentration (both electron and hole). The electrical conductivity becomes temperature independent when the doping exceeds some 0.2 electrons/holes per unit cell. The figure of merit at 800 K in electron and hole doped PtSb2 is comparatively low at 0.13 and 0.21, respectively, but may increase significantly with As alloying due to the likely opening of a band gap and reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity

Saeed, Yasir [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Singh, Nirprenda [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Schwingenschlogl, Udo [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Parker, David S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Economic Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) study. Volume II. Development plan. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and evaluate an ERTG design for a high power, Curium-244 fueled system based on the tubular thermoelectric module technology; (2) to prepare a program plan for the development of a flight qualified ERTG; and (3) to estimate the costs associated with the production of one, ten and twenty flight qualified ERTG's. This volume summarizes the program plan for developing and producing flight qualified ERTG's. The information presented explains what will be accomplished and when, in relation to the overall technical and management effort - defining a program geared to the design, development, qualification, and delivery within six years of ERTG hardware satisfying specified USAF performance objectives. In addition, cost estimates are supplied for producing ten and twenty follow-on ERTG units based on the Second Generation ERTG Design. (WHK)

Not Available

1973-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for decades.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have built and tested a miniaturized, thermoelectric power source that can provide in excess of 450 {micro}W of power in a system size of 4.3cc, for a power density of 107 {micro}W/cc, which is denser than any system of this size previously reported. The system operates on 150mW of thermal input, which for this system was simulated with a resistive heater, but in application would be provided by a 0.4g source of {sup 238}Pu located at the center of the device. Output power from this device, while optimized for efficiency, was not optimized for form of the power output, and so the maximum power was delivered at only 41mV. An upconverter to 2.7V was developed concurrently with the power source to bring the voltage up to a usable level for microelectronics.

Aselage, Terrence Lee; Siegal, Michael P.; Whalen, Scott; Frederick, Scott K.; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

360

A prototype on-line work procedure system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An on-line system to manage work procedures is being developed to support radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) assembly and testing in a new production facility. This system implements production work procedures as interactive electronic documents executed at the work site with no intermediate printed form. It provides good control of the creation and application of work procedures and provides active assistance to the worker in performing them and in documenting the results. An extensive prototype of this system is being evaluated to ensure that it will have all the necessary features and that it will fit the user's needs and expectations. This effort has involved the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) operations organization and technology transfer between Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and EG G Mound Applied Technologies Inc. (Mound) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Site. 1 ref.

Kiebel, G.R.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

362

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Michigan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

March 9, 2010 March 9, 2010 CX-006335: Categorical Exclusion Determination Michigan-City-Saginaw City CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 03/09/2010 Location(s): Saginaw City, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy March 8, 2010 CX-001144: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ford Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/08/2010 Location(s): Northville, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 5, 2010 CX-006334: Categorical Exclusion Determination Michigan-City-Novi CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B1.32, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 03/05/2010 Location(s): Novi, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy February 19, 2010 CX-000937: Categorical Exclusion Determination

363

100-WATT CURIUM-242 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR--CONCEPTUAL DESIGN. SNAP Subtask 5.7 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A thermoelectric generator which produces 100 watts of electrical power continuously over a six-month operational life in a space environment was designed. It employs the heat produced by the decay of Cm/sup 24/ as the source of power. Uniform output over the operational life of the generator is accomplished by means of a thermally actuated shutter which maintains the hot junction temperature of the thermoelectric conventer at a constunt figure by varying the amount of surplus heat which is radiated directly to space from the heat source. The isotopic heat source is designed to safely contain the Cm/sup 242/ under conditions of launch pad abont and rocket failure, but to burn up upon re-entry to the earth's atmosphere from orbital velocity. (W.L.H.)

Weddell, J.B.; Bloom, J.

1960-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Great thermoelectric power factor enhancement of CoSb{sub 3} through the lightest metal element filling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium, the lightest metal element with a small ionic radius, is successfully filled into the voids of CoSb{sub 3} by utilizing the high pressure synthesis technique. The synthesized Li{sub 0.4}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} shows the largest thermoelectric power factor of 6000 {mu}W m{sup -1} K{sup -2} among all elemental filled CoSb{sub 3} materials. This significantly enhanced thermoelectric power factor is attributed to the large carrier mobility of Li{sub 0.4}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, 61 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, featuring a good electron crystal property for the Li-filled CoSb{sub 3} samples.

Zhang Jianjun; Xu Bo; Wang Limin; Yu Dongli; Liu Zhongyuan; He Julong; Tian Yongjun [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China)

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

367

Nanostructured Thermoelectrics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... consists of a heat pipe containing sophisticated ... room temperature the dominant heat loss is ... which is compensated through heated radiation shields ...

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

368

Thermoelectric II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... In this work, in order to incorporate nanostructures into the bulk materials, high energy ball milling combined with DC-assisted hot-pressing ...

369

SNAP 7 PROGRAM--TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 5, November 1, 1961 to January 31, 1962  

SciTech Connect

The SNAP 7A battery and converter were subjected to the required shock, vibration and temperature teats. The generator was fueled, postfueling radiation levels were checked and the generator was integrated into the complete SNAP 7A system. After the completion of acceptance tests, the SNAP 7A system was installed in a buoy which, in turn, was anchored in the bay where it will be subjected to further evaluation. The SNAP 7C generator was shipped for transport to Antarctica. The generator will power a five-watt U. S. Navy remote weather station. Tests were also conducted to determine the operational characteristics of SNAP 7B and 7D thermoelectric couples. Also, the reliability model of the generator was operated at high temperature for 23 days. The electrical, converter and battery specifications for the SNAP 7D system were completed and released. The primary effort in the fael processing phase of the program was to provide the necessary liaison with the personnel installing the processing equipment. Maintenance and checkout guides were written to assure satisfactory installation and continued performance throughout the fuel processing span. An operation procedure guide was written to describe the engineering concept of the fuel processing operation. The guide was written for the personnel who will be conducting the fuel processing operation. (auth)

McDonald, W.A.

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: California | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

March 8, 2010 March 8, 2010 CX-001145: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ford Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/08/2010 Location(s): Asuza, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 5, 2010 CX-006103: Categorical Exclusion Determination California-City-San Clemente CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B1.32, B5.1 Date: 03/05/2010 Location(s): San Clemente, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy March 5, 2010 CX-001054: Categorical Exclusion Determination Aquantis 2.5 Megawatt Ocean Current Generation Device CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 03/05/2010 Location(s): California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

371

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: California | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

, 2009 , 2009 CX-009905: Categorical Exclusion Determination 25A1001 - Advanced Semiconductor Materials for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Devices CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/01/2009 Location(s): California, North Carolina, Oklahoma Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy November 18, 2009 CX-000079: Categorical Exclusion Determination El Monte's Installation of "Cool" Roofs on City Hall, Upgrade of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems, and Installation of Direct Digital Controls CX(s) Applied: B5.1, B2.5 Date: 11/18/2009 Location(s): El Monte, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy November 16, 2009 CX-000078: Categorical Exclusion Determination Chico's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy, Audits, Education

372

Composites of Bi{sub 2-x}Sb{sub x}Te{sub 3} nanocrystals and fullerene molecules for thermoelectricity  

SciTech Connect

New nanocomposite thermoelectric material composed from nanocrystallites of Bi-Sb-Te alloys covered by C{sub 60} molecules has been synthesized and studied. An increase of fullerene content leads to the growth of hole concentration in p-type materials and reduction of electron concentration in n-type materials. The fullerene molecules provide additional scattering of phonons reducing lattice heat conductivity. Reduction of heat conductivity exceeds the reduction of electrical conductivity for fullerene content less than 0.5 volume % and essential enhances the thermoelectric figure of merit. The maximum value of thermoelectric figure of merit equals to 1.17 at 450 K was observed in Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} composite containing 0.5 volume % C{sub 60} molecules. The experimental results were analyzed in a frame of the model based on the Boltzmann equation. The analysis considers light and heavy electrons and holes and accounts the intervalley scattering of charge carriers. The calculations of the kinetic coefficients shows that the improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit originates from the reduction of the lattice heat conductivity caused by fullerene molecules. The dependencies of the thermoelectric figure of merit on the acceptor concentration were calculated. - Graphical abstract: New nanocomposite thermoelectric material composed from nanocrystallites of Bi-Sb-Te alloys covered by C{sub 60} molecules has been synthesized and studied. An increase of fullerene content leads to the growth of hole concentration in p-type materials and reduction of electron concentration in n-type materials. The fullerene molecules provide additional scattering of phonons reducing lattice heat conductivity and enhances the thermoelectric figure of merit. The maximum value of thermoelectric figure of merit equal to 1.17 at 450 K was observed in Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} composite containing 0.5 volume % fullerene molecules. Simulations of thermoelectric properties were made in frame of four bands, 12 valleys Boltzmann equation approach. Simulated and measured temperature dependencies of thermoelectric properties were compared to get unknown model parameters. These parameters were used to calculate dependencies of thermoelectric properties on acceptor concentration. Calculated dependencies of thermoelectric figure of merit on acceptor concentration are presented in the figure for p-type composites with 0 vol.% C{sub 60} (solid lines) and 0.5 vol.% C{sub 60} (dashed lines). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 60} doping of Bi-Sb-Te has acceptor effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene molecules prevent recrystallization in Bi-Sb-Te nanocomposites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 60} in Bi-Sb-Te nanocomposites essentially reduces lattice thermal conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocomposite C{sub 60}-Bi-Sb-Te enhanced.

Kulbachinskii, V.A., E-mail: kulb@mig.phys.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Kytin, V.G. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation)] [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Popov, M.Yu.; Buga, S.G.; Stepanov, P.B.; Blank, V.D. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation)] [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electroforming of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) nanowires for high-efficiency micro-thermoelectric cooling devices on a chip.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Active cooling of electronic systems for space-based and terrestrial National Security missions has demanded use of Stirling, reverse-Brayton, closed Joule-Thompson, pulse tube and more elaborate refrigeration cycles. Such cryocoolers are large systems that are expensive, demand large powers, often contain moving parts and are difficult to integrate with electronic systems. On-chip, solid-state, active cooling would greatly enhance the capabilities of future systems by reducing the size, cost and inefficiencies compared to existing solutions. We proposed to develop the technology for a thermoelectric cooler capable of reaching 77K by replacing bulk thermoelectric materials with arrays of Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. Furthermore, the Sandia-developed technique we will use to produce the oriented nanowires occurs at room temperature and can be applied directly to a silicon substrate. Key obstacles include (1) optimizing the Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} alloy composition for thermoelectric properties; (2) increasing wire aspect ratios to 3000:1; and (3) increasing the array density to {ge} 10{sup 9} wires/cm{sup 2}. The primary objective of this LDRD was to fabricate and test the thermoelectric properties of arrays of Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. With this proof-of-concept data under our belts we are positioned to engage National Security systems customers to invest in the integration of on-chip thermoelectric coolers for future missions.

Overmyer, Donald L.; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (,; ); Siegal, Michael P.; Yelton, William Graham

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

DAVIC - Distributed Energy Automation via Implicit Communication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

distributed process, determined by its sub-processes - in our case the loads and distributed generation. Network-based coordination needs to be done very carefully and...

375

Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to WX production at sqrt(s)=7 TeV and an improved determination of light parton distribution functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the muon charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to WX production at sqrt(s)=7 TeV are presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 inverse femtobarns recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. With a sample of more than twenty million W to mu nu events, the statistical precision is greatly improved in comparison to previous measurements. These new results provide additional constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton in the range of the Bjorken scaling variable x from 10E-3 to 10E-1. These measurements and the recent CMS measurement of associated W + charm production are used together with the cross sections for inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA in a next-to-leading-order QCD analysis. The determination of the valence quark distributions is improved, and the strange-quark distribution is probed directly through the leading-order process g + s to W + c in proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

CMS Collaboration

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

376

CX-001172: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

72: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001172: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Dynamic State Estimators, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring...

377

CX-001171: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001171: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Dynamic State Estimators, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring...

378

Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

1990-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

379

Valence Band Structure of Highly Efficient p-type Thermoelectric PbTe-PbS Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New experimental evidence is given relevant to the temperature-dependence of valence band structure of PbTe and PbTe1-xSx alloys (0.04 x 0.12), and its effect on the thermoelectric figure of merit zT. The x = 0.08 sample has zT ~ 1.55 at 773K. The magnetic field dependence of the high-temperature Hall resistivity of heavily p-type (> 1019 cm-3) Na-doped PbTe1-xSx reveals the presence of high-mobility electrons. This put in question prior analyses of the Hall coefficient and the conclusion that PbTe would be an indirect gap semiconductor at temperatures where its zT is optimal. Possible origins for these electrons are discussed: they can be induced by photoconductivity, or by the topology of the Fermi surface when the L and -bands merge. Negative values for the low-temperature thermopower are also observed. Our data show that PbTe continues to be a direct gap semiconductor at temperatures where the zT and S2 of p-type PbTe are optimal e.g. 700-900K. The previously suggested temperature induced rapid rise in energy of the heavy hole LVB relative to the light hole UVB is not supported by the experimental data.

Jaworski, C. M. [Ohio State University; Nielsen, Mechele [Ohio State University; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Girard, Steven N. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Cai, Wei [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Heremans, J. P. [Ohio State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Life testing of conductively coupled thermoelectric cells. Final report for task 11  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four conductively coupled thermoelectric cells, developed under the SP100 program, have been life tested. These cells, referred to as TOC (Task Order Contract) cells, were fourth generation cells, and incorporated design improvements to extend operating life. GS526 glass had been added to suppress the loss of Ge from the MoGe bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite. The previous generation was life limited by the degradation of this electrical bond at the SiGe to graphite hot side interface due to the Ge loss. This led to abnormal internal resistance trends. The TOC cell test data and post test diagnostic have confirmed the effectiveness of the perimeter glass. Three of the four cells demonstrated normal electrical performance trends. The fourth cell (No. 139) tested at JPL showed an abnormal increase in internal resistance and a shift in temperature levels at 12,400 hours following a facility shutdown and restart. When the cell was removed from the test fixture, separation occurred between the hot side compliant pad facesheet and the niobium filament bundles. No degradation of the bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite was found and the change in slope of the internal resistance was attributed to changes in the rate of dopant precipitation caused by the shift in temperature levels.

Kelley, E.; Klee, P.; Hanson, J.; Nakahara, J.

1997-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

Becker, D.L.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Design and operation of an inert gas facility for thermoelectric generator storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While the flight hardware is protected by design from the harsh environments of space, its in-air storage often requires special protection from contaminants such as dust, moisture and other gases. One of these components, the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which powers the missions, was deemed particularly vulnerable to pre-launch aging because the generators remain operational at core temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees centigrade throughout the storage period. Any oxygen permitted to enter the devices will react with thermally hot components, preferentially with molybdenum in the insulating foils, and with graphites to form CO/CO{sub 2} gases which are corrosive to the thermopile. It was important therefore to minimize the amount of oxygen which could enter, by either limiting the effective in-leakage areas on the generators themselves, or by reducing the relative amount of oxygen within the environment around the generators, or both. With the generators already assembled and procedures in place to assure minimal in-leakage in handling, the approach of choice was to provide a storage environment which contains significantly less oxygen than normal air. 2 refs.

Goebel, C.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fabrication and thermoelectric properties of fine-grained TiNiSn compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nearly single-phased TiNiSn half-Heusler compound thermoelectric materials were synthesized by combining mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) in order to reduce its thermal conductivity by refining the grain sizes. Although TiNiSn compound powders were not synthesized directly via MA, dense bulk samples of TiNiSn compound were obtained by the subsequent SPS treatment. It was found that an excessive Ti addition relative to the TiNiSn stoichiometry is effective in increasing the phase purity of TiNiSn half-Heusler phase in the bulk samples, by compensating for the Ti loss caused by the oxidation of Ti powders and MA processing. The maximum power factor value obtained in the Ti-compensated sample is 1720 muW m{sup -1} K{sup -2} at 685 K. A relatively high ZT value of 0.32 is achieved at 785 K for the present undoped TiNiSn compound polycrystals. - Graphical abstract: Nearly single-phased TiNiSn-based half-Heusler compound polycrystalline materials with fine grains were fabricated by combining mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A high ZT value for undoped TiNiSn was obtained because of the reduced thermal conductivity.

Zou Minmin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Jingfeng, E-mail: jingfeng@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Du Bing; Liu Dawei [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kita, Takuji [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Vehicle Engineering Group, Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

Sherrell, D.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

Sherrell, D.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

SNAP-21 program, Phase II. Deep sea radioisotope-fueled thermoelectric generator power supply system. Final design description, 10-watt system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The SNAP-21 10-W system provides electrical power for use under the surface of the sea. It functions by converting the heat from a decaying radioisotope fuel into useful electrical energy. This heat energy is converted into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator. Semiconductor-type thermoelectric materials, maintained in a temperature gradient, accomplish the conversion. The isotopic fuel supplies heat to the thermoelectric materials and sea water acts as the heat sink to maintain the temperature gradient. Other components are employed to increase efficiency and condition the electrical output to the desired form. The components performing these functions are enclosed in a pressure vessel which protects them from sea water pressure and exposure. No external inputs are required to maintain operation of the system. With this type of mechanically-static, unsupported operation, long life with no maintenance is achieved.

Wickenberg, R.F.; Harris, W.W.

1969-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Using Sediment Records to Determine Sources, Distribution, Bioavailability, and Potential Toxicity of Dioxins in the Houston Ship Channel: A Multi-proxy Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban centers are major sources of contaminants to the surrounding air, water and soils. Above all, combustion-derived carbonaceous aerosols, especially black carbon (BC) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), make significant contributions to the pollution in these systems. Here sedimentary records are used to produce a series of historical reconstructions of such contaminants to the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) system and compare these to point source inputs of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). Analytical data on total organic carbon (TOC), BC, PAHs, dioxins and lignin (likely discarded from a pulp and paper mill along the Channel) were determined. This multi-proxy approach revealed that over the last several decades, HOC inputs to the system have been derived from a complex mixture of combustion processes, industrial point-sources, and oil spills. In particular, widespread dioxin contamination was observed throughout the study region with a particular site of the HSC showing total concentrations over 20,000 pg/g and 5000 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)/g dry weight of sediment. Using two models based on sorption constants of total OC and BC, porewater concentrations were estimated to be lower than expected, at 20 pg/L and 5 pg TEQ/L. These values, however, are recognized as being extremely high for freely dissolved concentrations in porous media. The pulp and paper waste pit has recently been declared a Superfund site based on dioxin concentrations alone. The relationship between lignin biomarkers and dioxins observed in these sediments confirms that discharges of pulp and paper effluents were responsible for such high dioxin levels. Concentrations of BC, amorphous OC, and TOC were then used to calculate sediment binding of dioxins in sediments of the HSC. Our study found BC to be extremely low in HSC sediments (0.04 to 0.20%) indicating minimal dioxin sorption capacity. This suggests strong potential for fluxes of dioxins from sediments to the water column both through passive diffusion and physical mixing during natural and anthropogenic sediment remobilization events in this shallow system (hurricanes, storms, and dredging). The purposeful addition of BC to these sediments might be promising as a remediation strategy.

Seward, Shaya M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Equitable distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of distributing available resources occurs in a great variety of networks, each with peculiarities of its own. Coal from mines has to be distributed to central dumps and to small yards. Ice cream must be distributed only to refrigerated stores ...

John A. Gosden

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

CX-010183: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and thermomechanical properties of thermoelectric materials & modules and the modeling of heat exchanger designs. CX-010183.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-001144: Categorical...

392

CX-006995: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Overcome all major obstacles to the commercialization of the thermoelectric generator and demonstrate fuel economy improvement of 5% over the US06 drive cycle....

393

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Enhancement of thermopower of TAGS-85 high-performance thermoelectric materials by doping with the rare earth Dy  

SciTech Connect

Enhancement of thermopower is achieved by doping the narrow-band semiconductor Ag{sub 6.52}Sb{sub 6.52}Ge{sub 36.96}Te{sub 50} (acronym TAGS-85), one of the best p-type thermoelectric materials, with 1 or 2% of the rare earth dysprosium (Dy). Evidence for the incorporation of Dy into the lattice is provided by X-ray diffraction and increased orientation-dependent local fields detected by {sup 125}Te NMR spectroscopy. Since Dy has a stable electronic configuration, the enhancement cannot be attributed to 4f-electron states formed near the Fermi level. It is likely that the enhancement is due to a small reduction in the carrier concentration, detected by {sup 125}Te NMR spectroscopy, but mostly due to energy filtering of the carriers by potential barriers formed in the lattice by Dy, which has large both atomic size and localized magnetic moment. The interplay between the thermopower, the electrical resistivity, and the thermal conductivity of TAGS-85 doped with Dy results in an enhancement of the power factor (PF) and the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) at 730 K, from PF = 28 ?W cm{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} and ZT ? 1.3 in TAGS-85 to PF = 35 ?W cm{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} and ZT ? 1.5 in TAGS-85 doped with 1 or 2% Dy for Ge. This makes TAGS-85 doped with Dy a promising material for thermoelectric power generation.

Levin, Evgenii; Budko, Serfuei; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

The microstructure network and thermoelectric properties of bulk (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report small-angle neutron scattering studies on the microstructure network in bulk (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} synthesized by the melt-spinning (MS) and the spark-plasma-sintering (SPS) process. We find that rough interfaces of multiscale microstructures generated by the MS are responsible for the large reduction of both lattice thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Our study also finds that subsequent SPS forms a microstructure network of {approx}10 nm thick lamellae and smooth interfaces between them. This nanoscale microstructure network with smooth interfaces increases electrical conductivity while keeping a low thermal conductivity, making it an ideal microstructure for high thermoelectric efficiency.

Xie Wenjie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hitchcock, Dale A.; Kang, Hye J.; He Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Tang Xinfeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Laver, Mark [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nano-Science Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Kobenhavn (Denmark); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hammouda, Boualem [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

396

Very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 as a high performance high temperature thermoelectric material  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the thermoelectric behavior, using first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations, of very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 and find that at temperatures of 1250 K and electron dopings of $1-4 \\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-3}$, thermopowers as large or larger in magnitude than 200 $\\mathrm{\\mu}$V/K may be found. Such high thermopowers at such high carrier concentrations are extremely rare, and suggest that good thermolectric performance (i.e. ZT) may be found in these ranges of temperature and doping.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Distribution Screening for Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the deployment of renewable distributed generation increases, the need for traditional energy providers to interact with these resources increases. Detailed modeling and simulation of the distribution and distributed resources is a critical element to better analyze, understand and predict these interactions. EPRI has developed a tool for such analysis called OpenDSS. In addition, as part of the renewable integration program an applet was created for screening distributed generation (DG). This report ...

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermoelectric properties and impedance spectroscopy of polycrystalline samples of the beta-gallia rutile intergrowth, (Ga,In){sub 4}(Sn,Ti){sub 5}O{sub 16}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycrystalline samples of Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{thermoelectric properties and electrical impedance. Using diffuse reflectance data and assuming a direct band gap, the band gap of the material ranges from 3.58 eV for y=0 to 3.74 eV for y=0.2. The dc conductivity decreased with increasing Ti content and was thermally activated, ranging from {thermoelectric materials. A comparison of dc conductivity and impedance data indicated a substantial ionic contribution for samples containing titanium. - Graphical abstract: The thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{materials are broad-band n-type semiconductors with non-negligible ionic conduction for samples prepared with y>0. The thermoelectric figure of merit is much lower than desired for practical thermoelectric devices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{thermoelectric figure of merit for Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16} is lower than desired for practical thermoelectric devices.

Grover, Jeffrey; Arrasmith, Steven [Alfred University, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, 2 Pine Street, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Edwards, Doreen D., E-mail: dedwards@alfred.edu [Alfred University, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, 2 Pine Street, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Energy Spectrum and Chemical Composition of Cosmic Rays between 0.3 and 10 PeV determined from the Cherenkov-Light and Charged-Particle distributions in Air Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the lateral distribution of Cherenkov photons with the wide-angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and of the charged particle lateral distribution with the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air-shower detector complex in air showers are reported. With the atmospheric shower-front sampling technique these detectors measure the electromagnetic component of an extensive air shower via the lateral density distribution of the shower particles and of the Cherenkov photons. The data are compared with events generated with the CORSIKA program package with the QGSJET hadronic-event generator. Consistency checks performed with primary energy-reconstruction methods based on different shower observables indicate satisfactory agreement between these extensive air shower simulations and the experimental data. The energy spectrum features a so called ``knee'' at an energy of E_knee = 3.98 (+4.66) (-0.83) (stat) +- 0.53 (syst) PeV. Power law fits to the differential energy spectrum yield indices of -2.72 (+0.02)(-0.03) (stat) +- 0.07 (syst) below, and -3.22 (+0.47) (-0.59) (stat) +- 0.08 (syst)} above the knee. The best-fit elongation rate for the whole energy range is determined to 78.3 +- 1.0 (stat) +- 6.2 (syst) g/cm^2. At the highest energies it seems to decrease slightly.The best-fit fraction of light nuclei decreases from 37 (+28) (-21) % (combined statistical and systematic) to 8 (+32) (-8) % (combined statistical and systematic) in the energy range discussed here. A detailed study of the systematic errors reveals that a non-changing composition cannot be excluded.

F. Arqueros; The HEGRA Collaboration

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

400

Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules  

SciTech Connect

The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials has improved tremendously over the past decade. The intrinsic thermal and electrical properties of state-of-the-art TE materials demonstrate that the potential for widespread practical TE applications is very large and includes TE generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. TE materials for automotive TEG applications must have good intrinsic performance, be thermomechanically compatible, and be chemically stable in the 400 K to 850 K temperature range. Both n-type and p-type varieties must be available at low cost, easily fabricated, and durable. They must also form robust junctions and develop good interfaces with other materials to permit efficient flows of electrical and thermal energy. Among the TE materials of interest for automotive waste heat recovery systems are the skutterudite compounds, which are the antimony-based transition-metal compounds RTE4Sb12, where R can be an alkali metal (e.g., Na, K), alkaline earth (e.g., Ba), or rare earth (e.g., La, Ce, Yb), and TE can be a transition metal (e.g., Co, Fe). We synthesized a considerable quantity of n-type and p-type skutterudites, fabricated TE modules, incorporated these modules into a prototype TEG, and tested the TEG on a production General Motors (GM) vehicle. We discuss our progress on skutterudite TE module fabrication and present module performance data for electrical power output under simulated operating conditions for automotive waste heat recovery systems. We also present preliminary durability results on our skutterudite modules.

Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Ye, Zuxin [GM Research and Development Center; Moczygemba, Joshua E. [Marlow Industries, Inc; Thompson, Alan [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff W. [Marlow Industries, Inc; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Maloney, Ryan [Michigan State University; Thompson, Travis [Michigan State University; Sakamoto, Jeff [Michigan State University; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Meisner, G P [General Motors Corporation-R& D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

403

FINAL SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT--SNAP 1A RADIOISOTOPE FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The safety aspects involved in utilizing the Task 2 radioisotope-powered thermoelectric generator in a terrestrial satellite are described. It is based upon a generalized satellite mission having a 600-day orbital lifetime. A description of the basic design of the generator is presented in order to establish the analytical model. This includes the generator design, radiocerium fuel properties, and the fuel core. The transport of the generator to the launch site is examined, including the shipping cask, shipping procedures, and shipping hazards. A description of ground handling and vehicle integration is presented including preparation for fuel transfer, transfer, mating of generators to final stage, mating final stage to booster, and auxiliary support equipment. The flight vehicle is presented to complete the analytical model. Contained in this chapter are descriptions of the booster-sustainer, final stage, propellants, and built-in safety systems. The typical missile range is examined with respect to the launch complex and range safety characteristics. The shielding of the fuel is discussed and includes both dose rates and shield thicknesses required. The bare core, shielded generator, fuel transfer operation and dose rates for accidental conditions are treated. mechanism of re-entry from the successful mission is covered. Radiocerium inventories with respect to time and the chronology of re-entry are specifically treated. The multiplicity of conditions for aborted missions is set forth. The definition of aborted missions is treated first in order to present the initial conditions. Following this, a definition of the forces imposed upon the generator is presented. The aborted missions is presented. A large number of initial vehicle failure cases is narrowed down into categories of consequences. Since stratospheric injection of fuel results in cases where the fuel is not contained after re-entry, an extensive discussion of the fall-out mechanism is presented. (auth)

Dix, G.P.

1960-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

Parton Distribution Functions: Impact of HERA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent progresses of the proton structure measurements and determination of parton distribution functions by $ep$ collisions at HERA are introduced.

Kunihiro Nagano; for the H1; ZEUS Collaborations

2008-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Distribution Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

406

Nanocrystallization of amorphous M-Si thin film composites (M=Cr, Mn) and their thermoelectric properties  

SciTech Connect

We report on electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of Cr-Si and Mn-Si composite films at temperatures from 300 K to 1000 K. The films were deposited on unheated Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates by magnetron sputtering from composite targets. The as-deposited films have amorphous structure. We use annealing with in-situ transport properties measurements to transform the films into nanocrystalline state with continuous monitoring their state. Nanocrystallization is considered as a promising way to improve thermoelectric efficiency, primarily due to reduction of lattice thermal conductivity {kappa}. Among variety of methods for fabrication of NC materials, crystallization from amorphous state has features which are crucially important with respect to their electronic transport properties: since the crystallites and their interfaces are formed in this method via solid state reaction, the NC samples are dense and the interfaces are clean. This removes additional factors affecting properties of a nanocrystalline composite, such as contamination of nanocrystal interfaces by elements from environment or nanocrystal lattice distortion during nanocrystallization. Depending on the initial film composition, the films are transformed during annealing into single phase or multi-phase nanocrystalline composites with average grain size of 10 nm to 20 nm. We study the crystallization kinetics, stability of amorphous and nanocrystalline state and relation between electronic transport properties and structural state of the composites.

Burkov, A. T.; Novikov, S. V.; Schumann, J. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Sankt-Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

Hatzikraniotis, E. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ioannou, M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Chrissafis, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chung, D.Y. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Paraskevopoulos, K.M. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kyratsi, Th., E-mail: kyratsi@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

CX-007697: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Autogrid, Inc. - Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation CX(s) Applied: A9, B1.7...

409

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants ProMIS/Project No.:DE-NT0005647  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology to reduce Fresh-WAter evAporAtIve coolIng loss At coAl-BAsed thermoelectrIc poWer plAnts promIs/project no. :de-nt0005647 Background The production of electricity requires a reliable, abundant, and predictable source of freshwater - a resource that is limited in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. The process of thermoelectric generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas is water intensive. According to the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey, thermoelectric-power withdrawals accounted for 48 percent of total water use, 39 percent of total freshwater withdrawals (136 billion gallons per day) for all categories, and 52 percent of fresh surface water withdrawals. As a growing economy drives the need for more electricity, demands on freshwater

410

Unclassified Distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

63 1 Unclassified Distribution UNIVERSITY :OF CALIFORNU Radiation Lab oratory Contract No, W-7405-eng-48 THE DETECTION OF U T I F I C I B L L Y PRODUCED WOTOMESONS WITH COUNTERS *...

411

Special Distribution  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Special Distribution Special Distribution Issued: December 1977 ',, Radiological Survey and Decontamination of the Former Main Technical Area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico Compiled by A. John Ahlquist Alan K. Stoker Linda K. Trocki c laboratory of, the University of California LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87545 An Alfirmdve Action/Equal Opportunity Employer ..-_- .-- .--.-. c T -,--... _ _._-r..l __,.. - .-,_.. ..- _._ -- .--. " . . _ . - . c- - . . . _ -. . _ . - . - . _ - - n - _ _~ ~_. __ _ ~~_ --..&e+ L.';; CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._____ 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._... _._ 2 I. BACKGROUND .............................................. 15

412

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B3.6 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

22, 2012 22, 2012 CX-009192: Categorical Exclusion Determination (0672-1610) Eaton Corporation - Highly Efficient, Near-Isothermal Liquid-Piston Compressor for Low Cost At-Home Natural Gas Refueling CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/22/2012 Location(s): Michigan, Minnesota, Minnesota, Wisconsin Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy August 22, 2012 CX-008993: Categorical Exclusion Determination Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/22/2012 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): Golden Field Office August 22, 2012 CX-008992: Categorical Exclusion Determination Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/22/2012 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): Golden Field Office

413

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B3.6 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2010 9, 2010 CX-001168: Categorical Exclusion Determination High Temperature Laboratory (HTL) CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/09/2010 Location(s): Albany, Oregon Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 9, 2010 CX-001149: Categorical Exclusion Determination Liquefied Natural Gas Dispenser Installation at Ontario, California Airport CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B2.2, B2.5, B3.6, B5.1 Date: 03/09/2010 Location(s): Ontario, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 8, 2010 CX-001145: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ford Thermoelectric Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/08/2010 Location(s): Asuza, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy

414

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

November 14, 2011 November 14, 2011 CX-007807: Categorical Exclusion Determination Griffith Substation Transformer Addition CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 11/14/2011 Location(s): Nevada Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region November 10, 2011 CX-007667: Categorical Exclusion Determination Federal Bureau of Investigations Radiological Dispersion Device Training CX(s) Applied: B1.2 Date: 11/10/2011 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office November 10, 2011 CX-007703: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sheetak Inc. - Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/10/2011 Location(s): New York, Pennsylvania, Texas Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy November 10, 2011

415

Influence of samarium on the thermoelectric figure of merit of Sm{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x}Te alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical (conductivity {sigma}, the Hall coefficient R), thermoelectric (thermovoltage {alpha}), and thermal (thermal conductivity K{sub tot}) characteristics of Sm{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x}Te alloys (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08) are studied in the temperature range 100-500 K. Using the data for {sigma}, {alpha}, and K{sub tot}, the thermoelectric power {alpha}{sup 2}{sigma}, figure of merit Z, and efficiency {delta} are calculated. It is established that at room-temperature {alpha}{sup 2}{sigma} and Z peak at the hole concentration p Almost-Equal-To 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}.

Aliev, F. F., E-mail: farzali@physics.ab.az; Hasanov, H. A., E-mail: hummat.hasanov@gmail.com [Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Restored Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand on Surface Water Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pierina noceti Pierina noceti Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5428 pierina.noceti@netl.doe.gov steven I. apfelbaum Principal Investigator Applied Ecological Services, Inc. 17921 Smith Road P.O. Box 256 Brodhead, WI 53520 608-897-8641 steve@appliedeco.com Wetland Water Cooling PartnershiP: the Use of restored Wetlands to enhanCe thermoeleCtriC PoWer Plant Cooling and mitigate the demand on sUrfaCe Water Use Background Thermoelectric power plants require a significant volume of water to operate, accounting for 39 percent of freshwater (136 billion gallons per day) withdrawn in the United States in 2000, according to a U.S. Geological Survey study. This significant use of water ranks second only to the agricultural sector

417

High-temperature thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We prepared nanostructured Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} (CCO) thin films by promoting localized epitaxial growth on polycrystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. The thermoelectric properties of the CCO films were studied in the temperature range 300 to 1023 K. We confirmed that localized epitaxial growth occurred on the seed grains that dominate the (006) plane. The nanostructured CCO thin films were found to have a maximum Seebeck coefficient of 206 {mu}V/K and a power factor (at 920 K) of 0.514 mW/mK{sup 2}. Moreover, the presence of nanostructure was found to reduce the thermal conductivity, and thus, should enhance the overall performance of CCO films in thermoelectric devices.

Kang, Min-Gyu [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-Dong, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang-Hwan; Oh, Seung-Min; Kim, Jin-Sang; Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-Dong, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Sahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

418

White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

Farmer, J C

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

419

Relative basicities of the oxygen sites in [V{sub 10}O{sub 28}]{sup 6-}. An analysis of the ab initio determined distributions of the electrostatic potential and of the Laplacian of charge density  

SciTech Connect

An ab initio SCF wave function has been generated for the ground state of the [V{sub 10}V{sub 28}]{sup 6-} ion, with a basis set of triple-zeta quality for the valence shell of oxygen. This wave function has been the starting point for theoretical studies on the relative basicities of the six external oxygen sites of the title ion in order to interpret the experimental findings concerning the preferred sites of proton fixation. The topology of the distribution of the electrostatic potentials (ESP) around the ion is deduced from the determination of V(r) in some specific planes and on spherical surfaces centered on each of the six oxygen sites. Several ESP minima not equivalent by symmetry have been characterized, most of them, but not all, lying in the vicinity of a specific oxygen atom. The two deepest nonequivalent ESP minima are associated with the two distinct sites, referred to as O{sub B} and O{sub C} undergoing protonation in [H{sub 3}V{sub 10}{sub 28}]{sup 3-}. An analysis of the Laplacian of the charge of density shows that the direction of the maxima in -{triangledown}{sup 2}p which characterize the local charge concentrations around the oxygen atoms, coincides within a few degrees with the direction of the ESP minima when existing, and with that of the protons in [H{sub 3}V{sub 10}O{sub 28}]{sup 3-} in the vicinity of sites O{sub B} and O{sub C}. 32 refs., 16 fig., 5 tab.

Kempf, J.Y.; Rohmer, M.M.; Poblet, J.M.; Bo, C.; Benard, M., [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

1992-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

420

Determination of Cryolite Ratio of Aluminum Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Applicability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Primary Aluminium Smelters · The Determination of Pot Current Distribution by Measuring Magnetic ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

CX-003916: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-003916: Categorical Exclusion Determination Integrated Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration Task 1 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B5.1...

422

CX-010748: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

748: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-010748: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Resource Energy Analysis and Management System Development for Real-Time Grid...

423

CX-011015: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-011015: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of...

424

CX-011013: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-011013: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of...

425

CX-005907: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-005907: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry CX(s) Applied:...

426

CX-005908: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-005908: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry CX(s) Applied:...

427

CX-005910: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-005910: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry CX(s) Applied:...

428

CX-011017: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-011017: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of...

429

CX-011016: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-011016: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of...

430

CX-011014: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-011014: Categorical Exclusion Determination Distributed Fiber Optic Arrays: Integrated Temperature and Seismic Sensing for Detection of...

431

CX-005334: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-005334: Categorical Exclusion Determination Maximizing Alternative Fuel Use and Distribution in Colorado CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 02282011...

432

CX-002956: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-002956: Categorical Exclusion Determination Maximizing Alternative Fuel Use and Distribution in Colorado CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 07092010...

433

CX-002241: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-002241: Categorical Exclusion Determination Maximizing Alternative Fuel Use and Distribution in Colorado CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05132010...

434

CX-002970: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-002970: Categorical Exclusion Determination Maximizing Alternative Fuel Use and Distribution in Colorado CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 07092010...

435

CX-007108: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007108: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy-Saving Opportunities in Water Treatment and Distribution CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 10...

436

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I O I S . rubcontracton. o r their employees. makes any warranr)., exprcs or !mplwd. or assumes any legal liability or respanability io: the ~ c c u o c y . complctencn or uvfulneu of any miormarlon. apparatcr. product or p r o m s dtwlorcd. or r c p r e v n u that its UP would not infringe privately owned r

437

Large-scale production of Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} thermoelectric alloys by mechanical alloying  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced processing techniques were combined with refinements in composition to produce homogeneous, production-scale quantities of n- and p-type Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} alloys with improved thermoelectric properties. Two p-type compacts of Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} doped with 0.8 atom% boron and one n-type compact doped with 0.8 m/o GaP and a P/Ga ratio of 2.38 were prepared by mechanical alloying. Resulting powders were consolidated into 7.62 cm diameter compacts by vacuum hot pressing. Transport and thermoelectric properties were measured. As-pressed samples were found to have low carrier mobility. Metallographic analysis revealed a sub-micron grain size which would suggest a high density of grain boundary potential barriers. A heat treatment was applied and the measurements were repeated. The post-treatment p-type samples showed a 33% grain growth and an integrated average figure of merit of 0.6{times}10{sup {minus}3} K{sup {minus}1} over the 573--1273 K range. This paper presents the details of fabrication method and compares the thermoelectric properties with the properties of similar alloys manufactured by traditional vacuum casting and hot pressing.

Cook, B.A.; Harringa, J.L. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Loughin, S.; Centurioni, D.X. [Martin Marietta Astro Space, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

439

Distribution of Mutual Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the analysis of time series from nonlinear sources, mutual information (MI) is used as a nonlinear statistical criterion for the selection of an appropriate time delay in time delay reconstruction of the state space. MI is a statistic over the sets of sequences associated with the dynamical source, and we examine here the distribution of MI, thus going beyond the familiar analysis of its average alone. We give for the first time the distribution of MI for a standard, classical communications channel with Gaussian, additive white noise. For time series analysis of a dynamical system, we show how to determine the distribution of MI and discuss the implications for the use of average mutual information (AMI) in selecting time delays in phase space reconstruction.

Henry D. I. Abarbanel; Naoki Masuda; M. I. Rabinovich; Evren Tumer

2000-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

440

Power Quality Impacts of Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distribution systems are designed for one-way power flow and can accommodate only a limited amount of distributed generation (DG) without alterations. This project focused on the economics associated with upgrading and designing distribution systems to support widespread integration of distributed resources, especially distributed generation. Costs were determined in the area of protection requirements and voltage regulation requirements, two of the main areas where changes are required to accommodate DG.

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination distributed thermoelectric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distributed Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Untapped Value of Backup Generation Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized solutions. These backup generators exist today in large numbers and provide utilities with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie Mellon's Electricity

442

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 1996 Table State Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) Marketed Production Total Consumption Alabama................................................................... 3.02 2.69 1.48 Alaska ...................................................................... 5.58 2.43 2.04 Arizona..................................................................... NA 0 0.55 Arkansas.................................................................. 0.88 1.12 1.23 California.................................................................. 1.25 1.45 8.23 Colorado .................................................................. 4.63 2.90 1.40 Connecticut.............................................................. 0 0 0.58 D.C...........................................................................

443

Parton Distributions in Hadrons  

SciTech Connect

We use the statistical model of Zhang et al. to calculate parton distributions in hadrons. The model does reasonably well in predicting the distributions of partons in the proton, including the (d-bar - u-bar) excess in the proton sea. We extend the model to calculate quark and gluon distributions in the pion, kaon, and the pentaquark. The hadrons are described in terms of quark and gluon Fock states. Detailed balance between each pair of states is assumed, from which the coefficients of the Fock state expansion are determined. The parton distribution functions are found in the hadron rest frame from a Monte Carlo calculation. The results are evolved to appropriate QCD scales for comparison with experiment. Despite its simplicity, the model is in good agreement with the experimentally measured distributions of partons in the pion and kaon. This project has included significant participation by undergraduates at Seattle University, made possible by support from the Research in Undergraduate Institutions Program of the National Science Foundation.

Alberg, Mary [Department of Physics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Henley, Ernest M. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

444

Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

toward the dome summit. The anomaly pattern is believed to result from a combination of thermoelectric, electrokinetic, and fluid disruption effects within and surrounding the...

445

Distribution Category:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist Radiological Survey Group Health Physics Section Occupational Health and Safety Division April 1984 Work Performed under Budget Activity DOE KN-03-60-40 and ANL 73706 iii PREFACE AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is one in a series of reports resulting from a program initiated

446

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers by State, 1996 Table State Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Utilities Alabama..................................... 1.08 0.92 2.27 0.08 0.23 Alaska ........................................ 0.31 0.87 0.85 - 1.16 Arizona....................................... 0.53 0.92 0.30 3.91 0.70 Arkansas.................................... 0.88 0.98 1.59 0.11 1.24 California.................................... 9.03 7.44 7.82 43.11 11.64 Colorado .................................... 2.12 2.18 0.94 0.58 0.20 Connecticut................................ 0.84 1.26 0.37 1.08 0.38 D.C............................................. 0.33 0.52 - 0.21 - Delaware.................................... 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.86 Florida........................................

447

Parton distributions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-section for the virtual photon-proton interaction can be written in the factorized form ?(ep ? eX) = ? i CDISi (x, ?s(Q2))? fi(x,Q2) where Q2 is the photon virtuality, x = Q22m? , the mo- mentum fraction of parton (?=energy transfer in the lab frame), and the fi(x,Q2... distribution comes from inclusive jet measure- ments by D0 and CDF at Tevatron. They mea- 0 50 100 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Dc 2 k Valence quarks Figure 6. ??2 against the isospin violating parameter ?. sure d?/dET d? for central rapidity CDF...

Thorne, Robert S

448

Distribution Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strong industry push toward grid modernization is based on several advantages. Specifically, the grid will enable customers to actively determine their energy choices, accommodate customers’ generation and storage options, and provide the higher reliability and consistent power quality required by today’s digital economy. These benefits will be realized when the industry optimizes grid operation and its use of present and future assets. Future power grids will become reality by ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

449

The thermal expansion coefficient as a key design parameter for thermoelectric materials and its relationship to processing-dependent bloating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a key design parameter for thermoelectric (TE) materials, especially in energy harvesting applications since stresses generated by CTE mismatch, thermal gradients, and thermal transients scale with the CTE of the TE material. For the PbTe PbS-based TE material (Pb 0.95 Sn 0.05 Te) 0.92(PbS) 0.08 0.055 % PbI 2 over the temperature ranges of 293 543 and 293 773 K, a CTE, alpha avg , of 21.4 0.3 x 10-6 K-1 was measured using (1) dilatometry and (2) high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) for powder and bulk specimens. The CTE values measured via dilatometry and HT-XRD are similar to the literature values for other Pb-based chalcogenides. However, the processing technique was found to impact the thermal expansion such that bloating (which leads to a hysteresis in thermal expansion) occurred for hot pressed billets heated to temperatures [603 K while specimens fabricated by pulsed electric current sintering and as-cast specimens did not show a bloating-modified thermal expansion even for temperatures up to 663 K. The relationship of bloating to the processing techniques is discussed, along with a pos- sible mechanism for inhibiting bloating in powder processed specimens.

Ni, Jennifer E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Schmidt, Robert [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Chun-I [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hogan, Timothy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Monitoring of the electrical distribution network operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distribution network operation is determined by the behaviour of the load. To plan and analyse the electrical network operation, precise modelling of load is substantial. The adequate approach to understand the electrical distribution network operation ... Keywords: SCADA, busloads, distribution network, load monitoring, mathematical model of load, network operation monitoring, state estimation

Jako Kilter; Mati Meldorf

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

EIA - Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal...

453

Distribution of formaldehyde emission in particleboards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to study the distribution of formaldehyde emission determined by the flask method as a function of the samples pack configuration. The formaldehyde emission was determined on particleboards with the thicknesses of 8, 12 ... Keywords: distribution, flask method, formaldehyde emission, particleboards

Judith Kinga David; Valeriu Petrovici; Octavia Zeleniuc; Anne-Marie Loredana Badescu; Simona Nicoleta Urdea; Livia Sangeorzan

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Thermoelectric properties of fine-grained FeVSb half-Heusler alloys tuned to p-type by substituting vanadium with titanium  

SciTech Connect

Fine-grained Ti-doped FeVSb half-Heusler alloys were synthesized by combining mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering and their thermoelectric properties were investigated with an emphasis on the influences of Ti doping and phase purity. It was found that substituting V with Ti can change the electrical transport behavior from n-type to p-type due to one less valence electron of Ti than V, and the sample with nominal composition FeV{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.4}Sb exhibits the largest Seebeck coefficient and the maximum power factor. By optimizing the sintering temperature and applying annealing treatment, the power factor is significantly improved and the thermal conductivity is reduced simultaneously, resulting in a ZT value of 0.43 at 500 Degree-Sign C, which is relatively high as for p-type half-Heusler alloys containing earth-abundant elements. - Graphical abstract: Fine-grained Ti-doped FeVSb alloys were prepared by the MA-SPS method. The maximum ZT value reaches 0.43 at 500 Degree-Sign C, which is relatively high for p-type half-Heusler alloys. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-doped FeVSb half-Heusler alloys were synthesized by combining MA and SPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting V with Ti changes the electrical behavior from n-type to p-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties are improved by optimizing sintering temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties are further improved by applying annealing treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high ZT value of 0.43 is obtained at 500 Degree-Sign C for p-type Ti-doped FeVSb alloys.

Zou, Minmin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Jing-Feng, E-mail: jingfeng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kita, Takuji [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Vehicle Engineering Group, Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)] [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Vehicle Engineering Group, Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Influence of processing conditions on the thermoelectric properties of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05)  

SciTech Connect

La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05) powders were prepared using the citrate-gel (Pechini) process. Pellets formed from these powders were sintered at various temperatures. All samples were characterized by means of X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to investigate their structural and morphological properties. The electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermopower were measured in a wide range of temperatures (2-350K) in order to understand the influence of the different processing conditions on the thermoelectric properties of the compounds.

Papageorgiou, Ch.; Athanasopoulos, G. I.; Kyratsi, Th.; Giapintzakis, J. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Avenue, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

456

Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Assessment of Solar Energy Conversion Technologies-Application of Thermoelectric Devices in Retrofit an Office Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermo electric (TE) devices offer an opportunity to introduce renewable energy into existing and new buildings. TE devices harvest energy from the temperature differential between the hot and cold side of a semiconductor material. In this study, the feasibility of integration of TE devices using the model of a generic enclosure will be explored. Some of these applications will involve the use of these devices as heat exchangers. However, these devices will be examined for their use in harvesting energy to provide the electric service for an office. Since demanded energy for some electronic devices can be generated directly, provided energy has the potential to take those loads off from the distribution. Besides, generated electricity expected to be replaced a greater amount of grid electricity for the periods when TE is generating. This paper represents a critical step for performing an analysis of using the proposed TE system in an office.

Azarbayjani, M.; Anderson, J.