National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination cost effective

  1. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  2. Cost-effective ecological restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    whether the cost-effectiveness index in the all seed mixesRestoration cost-effectiveness (index calculated as percentwith the highest cost-effectiveness index values were drill

  3. Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    1 Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date....................................................................................................................... 2 2. Guiding Principles to Determine the Charge of a Cost to a Sponosred Agreement ................................................................................................. 5 5.1. Personnel Costs

  4. Cost Effectiveness NW Energy Coalition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Action 8 Cost Effectiveness Manual Kim Drury NW Energy Coalition Context · Inconsistent consistent understanding and application of how cost effectiveness is calculated and when and how to apply Action Plan for Energy Efficiency published a comprehensive guide on cost effectiveness: best practices

  5. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states use the tests, and how the tests can determine the cost-effectiveness of efficiency measures.

  6. NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs and Benefits Comments of the NW Energy Coalition October 31, 2014 Introduction: Applying (Council) to include a methodology for determining quantifiable environmental costs and benefits in its

  7. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  8. Cogeneration of electricity: Cost-effective over long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, R.L.; Barham, J. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the determination of the cost-effectiveness of a cogeneration project five years after it became operational in 1984. The cogeneration project uses digester sludge gas from a wastewater treatment plant. The topics covered include the history of electrical cogeneration at the site, cogeneration economics in the short term and the long term, and the factors in cost-effectiveness.

  9. On cost-effective communication network designing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guoqiang Zhang

    2010-04-14

    How to efficiently design a communication network is a paramount task for network designing and engineering. It is, however, not a single objective optimization process as perceived by most previous researches, i.e., to maximize its transmission capacity, but a multi-objective optimization process, with lowering its cost to be another important objective. These two objectives are often contradictive in that optimizing one objective may deteriorate the other. After a deep investigation of the impact that network topology, node capability scheme and routing algorithm as well as their interplays have on the two objectives, this letter presents a systematic approach to achieve a cost-effective design by carefully choosing the three designing aspects. Only when routing algorithm and node capability scheme are elegantly chosen can BA-like scale-free networks have the potential of achieving good tradeoff between the two objectives. Random networks, on the other hand, have the built-in character for a cost-effective design, especially when other aspects cannot be determined beforehand.

  10. ...offers early cost-effectiveness check

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    that an innovation is a `must' ­ offering lower costs for enhanced health outcomes. Or it might turn outMATCH Tool ...offers early cost- effectiveness check on innovations ® Medical Device Evaluation and costs persuade the NHS to buy the innovation? In just three hours, the company was able to check out its

  11. Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013 Last-21, Cost Principles for Educational Institutions and the Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB)) identify cost accounting policies that must be followed to receive federal awards. These regulations

  12. Thermal benefits and cost effectiveness of earth berming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speltz, J.; Haves, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of advantages are claimed for earth sheltered buildings; the earth provides both insulation and thermal storage and also serves to reduce infiltration and noise. This paper seeks to quantify the thermal advantages of both earth sheltering and perimeter insulation by comparing the simulated thermal performance of an earth sheltered house, a house with perimeter insulation and a house with neither. The fuel savings are then compared to the estimated construction costs to determine cost-effectiveness. The major saving from an earth sheltered building is obtained in colder climates where the effective elevation of the frost line due to the earth berms considerably reduces the cost of the foundation.

  13. Statistical Inference for Costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2012-07-16

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely conducted in the economic evaluation of new treatment options. In many clinical and observational studies of costs, data are often censored. Censoring brings challenges to both medical cost estimation and cost...

  14. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    calculation include the installed consumer cost (purchase price plus installation cost), operating expenses (energy and

  15. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  16. Determination of a cost-effective air pollution control technology for the control of VOC and HAP emissions from a steroids processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    A steroids processing plant located in northeastern Puerto Rico emits a combined average of 342 lb/hr of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various process operations. The approach that this facility used to implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) may assist others who must contend with MACT for pharmaceutical or related manufacturing facilities. Federal air regulations define MACT standards for stationary sources emitting any of 189 HAPs. The MACT standards detailed in the NESHAPs are characterized by industry and type of emission control system or technology. It is anticipated that the standard will require HAP reductions of approximately 95%. The steroid plant`s emissions include the following pollutant loadings: VOC/HAP Emission Rate (lb/hr): Methanol 92.0; Acetone 35.0; Methylene chloride 126.0; Chloroform 25.0; Ethyl acetate 56.0; Tetrahydrofuran 5.00; and 1,4-Dioxane 3.00. The facility`s existing carbon adsorption control system was nearing the end of its useful life, and the operators sought to install an air pollution control system capable of meeting MACT requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. Several stand-alone and hybrid control technologies were considered for replacement of the carbon adsorption system at the facility. This paper examines the following technologies: carbon adsorption, membrane separation, thermal oxidation, membrane separation-carbon adsorption, and condensation-carbon adsorption. Each control technology is described; the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each technology for the steroid processing plant are examined; and capital and operating costs associated with the implementation of each technology are presented. The rationale for the technology ultimately chosen to control VOC and HAP emissions is presented.

  17. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01

    energy prices (electricity and diesel fuel), and storage pa-delivered cost to electricity or storage costs is based uponassumptions about electricity prices, storage costs or

  18. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    factor O&M – Operations and Maintenance (fraction of capitalfuel cost, and operations and maintenance costs. Table 4and variable operations and maintenance costs (O&M). In

  19. Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective Concentrating Solar Power Systems Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective Concentrating Solar Power...

  20. Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and...

  1. Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective Concentrating Solar Power Systems Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective Concentrating Solar...

  2. Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Better Buildings Residential...

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility Better Buildings Residential Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call...

  4. Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future July 20,...

  5. Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future, November 18, 2008 Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy...

  6. Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future November...

  7. Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Cost-Effective & Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effective & Industrial-Scalable TEG for Vehicle Applications Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Cost-Effective & Industrial-Scalable TEG for Vehicle Applications...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cost-Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effective Fabrication of High-Temperature Ceramic Capacitors for Power Inverters Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cost-Effective Fabrication of High-Temperature...

  9. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    Energy requirements and capital costs for liquefaction arethereby lowering capital costs and reducing the amount of$0.05/kg). The pipeline capital cost and the number and cost

  10. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01

    Energy requirements and capital costs for liquefaction arethereby lowering capital costs and reduc- ing the amount of$0.05/kg). The pipeline capital cost and the number and cost

  11. GMOtrack: Generator of Cost-effective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novak, Petra Kralj

    GMOtrack: Generator of Cost-effective GMO Testing Strategies -- Appendix Formal Problem Definition. The set X can be any, possibly empty, subset of A. GMO traceabil- ity requires that all the GMOs present being tested contains some bacte- rial or viral residue or an unexpected `unofficial' GMO outside A

  12. Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This allocation is done based on the collective savings-weighted load shape of the individual measures in each transmission and distribution systems. Second, some conservation measures, for example high efficiency clothes conservation measures or programs. In the case of conservation, the model uses two separate supply curves

  13. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    3000 kg/day and electricity and storage costs. In all cases,in energy prices (electricity and diesel fuel), and storagedelivered cost to electricity or storage costs is based upon

  14. Ensuring cost effectiveness in the TAP process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trego, A.L.

    1992-06-16

    The Training Accredition Program (TAP) at the Waste Isolation Division (WID) is discussed by the general manager. Cost effectiveness in the TAP process is made possible by saving through sharing which refers to the exchange and co-development of information and technology among Westinghouse Government owned-contractor operators and with other organizations. In 1990 a comprehensive management and supervisor training (MAST) program plan was devised and a MAST certification program of 31 self-paced written moduler was developed. This program has proven to be inexpensive to develop and implement when compared to classroom training. In addition, total quality is used as a tool to continuously improve work process. Continuous improvement requires continued evaluation of work process, such as TAP analysis and development in summary to make training at DOE facilities the most cost-effective training anywhere, we need to share, challenge conventional wisdom, and seek to continuously improve.

  15. New Technology Provides Cost-Effective Emissions Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Technology Provides Cost- Effective Emissions Control Solution for CHP Applications Renewable are the most cost-effective CHP technology less than three MW in size. With a cost effective) applications less than three megawatts (MW). Because they are relatively low cost and have high

  16. TOWARDS NEW METHODOLOGIES OF MEASURING COST EFFICIENCY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF GEOSPATIAL DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to make an assessment of the cost of implementation in relation to the potential capitalized benefits and results, the approaches in the research for health care, technical capital assets or environmental costsTOWARDS NEW METHODOLOGIES OF MEASURING COST EFFICIENCY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF GEOSPATIAL DATA

  17. Cost effective path to DEMO University of Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Cost effective path to DEMO By Tom Jarboe University of Washington To Fusion Power Associates December 14, 2011 #12;2 Outline · Maximizing the development-cost benefit from ITER knowledge · Getting on cost effective path · Requirements of smaller scale experiment · Cost problems are helped

  18. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, Rick

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  19. Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    : Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 In March 2011, a...

  20. EECLP Webinar #1: Overview and Cost Effectiveness-- Text Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar, EECLP Webinar 1: Overview and Cost Effectiveness, presented in December 2014.

  1. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01

    liquefaction and liquid hydrogen storage tanks are needed.low cost of liquid hydrogen storage is offset by the highrefueling pressure. Hydrogen storage requirements vary among

  2. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01

    liquefaction and liquid hydrogen storage tanks are needed.low cost of liquid hydrogen storage is offset by the highrefueling pressure. Hydrogen storage requirements vary among

  3. Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects Better Buildings Residential Network...

  4. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01

    112:307–21. [3] DOE. Hydrogen, fuel cells & infrastructureinfrastructure. Hydrogen fuel is not widely available toA key component of the hydrogen fuel cost is the hydrogen

  5. Memory Hierarchy Considerations for Cost-Effective Cluster Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhichun

    quantitative recommendations for building cost-effective clusters for different workloads. Index TermsMemory Hierarchy Considerations for Cost-Effective Cluster Computing Xing Du, Member, IEEE Computer workstations and PCs to build a cluster for parallel computing has become a common practice. The cost

  6. Are brief interventions to increase physical activity cost-effective? A systematic review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijay, G. C.; Suhrcke, Mark; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen

    2015-07-28

    Objective: To determine whether brief interventions promoting physical activity are cost-effective in primary care or community settings. Design: Systematic review of economic evaluations Methods and data sources: We searched Medline, Embase...

  7. Cost-effective uprating of existing hydrogen production units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cromarty, B.; Hooper, C.W. (ICI Katalco, Billingham (United Kingdom)); Chlapik, K. (ICI Katalco, Oakbrook Terrace, IL (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The demand for supplemental hydrogen production in refineries is growing significantly worldwide as environmental legislation concerning cleaner gasoline and diesel fuels is introduced. The main manufacturing method for this hydrogen uses the well-proven steam reforming process route. This article lists the advances in catalysts and technology in this area, and shows how they can be applied to existing hydrogen plants in order to maximize throughput. Such retrofit options are generally more cost-effective than the construction of a new hydrogen plant; due to the diversity of hydrogen plant designs and feedstocks used, however, a case-by-case evaluation is needed to determine the best options for a particular plant.

  8. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  9. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  10. Optimal Incentive/Disincentive Determination Between Cost and Benefit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Piyush

    2013-08-08

    cost of acceleration, and the upper is the total savings to road users and to the agency. The study data were gathered using Construction Analysis for Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies (CA4PRS) software. These data were then grouped by four different...

  11. AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne Veith Abstract The overall goal of this research was to increase, relative to targeting recommendations, the cost-effectiveness of pollution reduction measures

  12. Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1 Scott R. Miles, Donald M. Haskins watershed and facilities damage and to recommend and prescribe Emergency Burn Area Rehabilitation (EBAR

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call Series: Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility, April 10, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents &...

  14. Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-Effective Vehicle Electrification: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A.; Thornton, M.; Rugh, J.

    2010-02-01

    This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective.

  15. The sunk cost effect of time : an exploration and an explanation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Anton Domingo

    2007-01-01

    Ayton, P. (1999). The sunk cost and concorde effects: Are1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behaviorestimates in the sunk cost effect. Journal of Behavioral

  16. Planning a cost-effective gate rehab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, R.M.; Gundry, J.A. [American Society of Civil Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hydropower project owners are devoting increasing attention to the condition and safety of spillway gates and related equipment. With careful inspection and planning, owners can develop a rehabilitation program that improves gate performance and minimizes cost. The July 1995 failure of a spillway gate at Folsom Dam has spurred increased attention on inspection and rehabilitation of gates. This article explains an approach taken by Northern States Power Company in rehabilitating aged gates at its Wisota Dam project. An update on measures being taken in response to the Folsom Dam incident is also included.

  17. QCD on GPUs: cost effective supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Clark

    2009-12-20

    The exponential growth of floating point power in graphics processing units (GPUs), together with their low cost, has given rise to an attractive platform upon which to deploy lattice QCD calculations. GPUs are essentially many (O(100)) core chips, that are programmed using a massively threaded environment, and so are representative of the future of high performance computing (HPC). The large ratio of raw floating point operations per second to memory bandwidth that is characteristic of GPUs necessitates that unique algorithmic design choices are made to harness their full potential. We review the progress to date in using GPUs for large scale calculations, and contrast GPUs against more traditional HPC architectures

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairey, Philip

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  19. Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation ape012taylor2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact, Light-Weight, and Scalable High...

  20. Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. ape012taylor2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact, Light-Weight, and Scalable High...

  1. Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2009 -- Washington D.C. ape07taylor.pdf More Documents & Publications Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact, Light-Weight, and Scalable High...

  2. Energy Information: The Key to Cost-Effective Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBride, J. R.; Flanagan, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness- simple payback, Net Present Value (NPV) and Return on Investment (ROI) -of permanently installed energy consumption monitoring equipment used as the basis for applying value-added engineering services...

  3. Compatible and Cost-Effective Fault Diagnostic Solutions for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compatible and Cost-Effective Fault Diagnostic Solutions for Air Handling Unit-Variable Air Volume and Air Handling Unit-Constant Air Volume Systems - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

  4. Cost-effective Design Options for IsoDAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Adelmann; J. R. Alonso; W. Barletta; R. Barlow; L. Bartoszek; A. Bungau; L. Calabretta; A. Calanna; D. Campo; J. M. Conrad; Z. Djurcic; Y. Kamyshkov; H. Owen; M. H. Shaevitz; I. Shimizu; T. Smidt; J. Spitz; M. Toups; M. Wascko; L. A. Winslow; J. J. Yang

    2012-10-16

    This whitepaper reviews design options for the IsoDAR electron antineutrino source. IsoDAR is designed to produce $2.6 \\times 10^{22}$ electron antineutrinos per year with an average energy of 6.4 MeV, using isotope decay-at-rest. Aspects which must be balanced for cost-effectiveness include: overall cost; rate and energy distribution of the electron antineutrino flux and backgrounds; low technical risk; compactness; simplicity of underground construction and operation; reliability; value to future neutrino physics programs; and value to industry. We show that the baseline design outlined here is the most cost effective.

  5. Cost-effective Lighting Retrofits: Lessons Learned 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    -effective Lighting Retrofits: Lessons Learned Mark D. Fisher Certified Lighting Efficiency Professional Johnson Controls Dallas, Texas ABSTRACT Facility managers and energy engineers contemplating a lighting retrofit are confronted with a confusing array...

  6. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  7. Probabilistic Critical Path Identification for Cost-Effective Monitoring of Service-based Web Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jean-Guy

    Probabilistic Critical Path Identification for Cost-Effective Monitoring of Service-based Web@hust.edu.cn Steve Versteeg CA Labs Melbourne, Australia 3122 steve.versteeg@ca.com ABSTRACT The critical path as it determines the response time of the Web application. In volatile operating environments, the critical path

  8. Model Conservation Standards COST-EFFECTIVENESS AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF THE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and savings assumptions used to establish the efficiency level that achieves all electricity savings and assumptions used to determine whether the regionally cost-effective efficiency levels are economically of the states in the region have revised their energy codes. Consequently, many of the conservation measures

  9. Supramolecular self-assembled chaos: polyphenolic lignin's barrier to cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2014-01-01

    thereby  cost-­? effective  biofuels  production.   PMID:  effective  lignocellulosic  biofuels.   Achyuthan  KE,  effective   lignocellulosic  biofuels.  Post-­?synthesis  

  10. Cost-Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost-Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data Tracking Systems Cost-Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data Tracking Systems Better Buildings...

  11. A COST-EFFECTIVE DIGITAL FORENSICS INVESTIGATION MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overill, Richard E.

    i #12;ii #12;Chapter 1 A COST-EFFECTIVE DIGITAL FORENSICS INVESTIGATION MODEL R.E. Overill, M. Kwan, K.P. Chow, P. Lai and F. Law Abstract Computers operate at discrete points in time and hence digital the perspective of a digital investigation, it is the duty of digital investigators or forensic examiners

  12. Designing Cost Effective Demand Management Contracts using Game Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the customer to participate in demand management programs and provide load relief. The utility has to design cost effective yet at- tractive demand management contracts. The main goal is to get load relief when management, mechanism design, load interruption, load cur- tailment, system security. 1 #12;Introduction

  13. CLIMATE RISK COMMUNICATION: EFFECTS OF COST, TIMING, AND PROBABILITY OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spirtes, Peter

    Chapter 2 CLIMATE RISK COMMUNICATION: EFFECTS OF COST, TIMING, AND PROBABILITY OF CLIMATE of Technology, Mandi, India 2 Dynamic Decision Making Laboratory, Department of Social and Decision Sciences the psychology of policymaking on climate change. Yet, experiencing climate change consequences in movies

  14. Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Interior Side of Building's Exterior Wall that Supports a Phased Retrofit Cost Model - 2014 BTO Peer Review Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior...

  15. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-01-01

    ECONOMIZER SYSTEM COST EFFECTIVENESS: ACCOUNTING FOR THEand economic benefits of an economizer ventilation controlanalyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs

  16. Cost-effective variable selection in habitat surveys Douglas C. Braun* and John D. Reynolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, John D.

    Cost-effective variable selection in habitat surveys Douglas C. Braun* and John D. Reynolds Earth be explicitly incorpo- rated with costs of data collection to design cost-effective survey programmes. 2. We develop a step-by-step quantitative protocol to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of survey designs under

  17. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James C. Leslie; Mr. Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2000-10-30

    This annual, technical report will discuss the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates the first iteration design of the tube and the tool joint interface. The report discusses standards and specifications to which the CDP design will be tailored and tested, and discusses conclusions of the first iteration design for future design enhancements.

  19. The Effect of Technical Default Cost on Discretionary Accounting Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HassabElnaby, Hassas R.; Mosebach, Janet; Mosebach, Michael; Whisenant, Scott

    2014-08-16

    to create wealth and benefits for their stakeholders. In other words, corporations grow in size and complexity partly because of their ability to mobilize productive resources and create wealth. Contracting theory further suggests that firms are governed... accounting JEL Classifications: G21, G30, G39, M41, M43 2 The Effect of Technical Default Cost1 on Discretionary Accounting Decisions I. Introduction Contracting theory views corporations as institutions engaged in mobilizing resources...

  20. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix G: MCS Cost-effectiveness for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , cost and savings assumptions used to establish the efficiency level that achieves all electricity.............................................................................................................. 1 Measure Cost Assumptions savings that are cost-effective to the region's power system. The second section describes the methodology

  1. Cost-Effectiveness: Implication for Bonneville and Utility Programs Council document 2007-23 August 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Cost-Effectiveness: Implication for Bonneville and Utility Programs Council document 2007 found to be cost effective if the electric system paid all the costs. Council plan conservation targets are based on availability of conservation that passes this Total Resource Cost (TRC) test. Since its first

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  3. The effect of CO regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The effect of CO 2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production This article has been) 024003 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/024003 The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates

  4. Challenging the Cost Effectiveness of Medi-Cal Managed Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riner, R. Myles

    2009-01-01

    on the average per capita cost of the eligibility cohort orCal population. The per capita cost method of calculatingwith the adjusted average per capita costs (AAPCC), and with

  5. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Federal Government, as the nation's largest energy consumer, has a tremendous opportunity and acknowledged responsibility to lead by example. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) plays a critical role in this effort. FEMP facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. FEMP does this by focusing on the needs of its Federal customers, delivering an array of services across a variety of program areas.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

    2005-03-18

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  7. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? New pulse-width-modulated (PWM) adjustable speed drives (ASDs) may...

  8. Fact #731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional Fact 731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional The U.S....

  9. Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    White paper demonstrating cost-effective and flexible approach in increasing power-sector efficiency and reducing GHG emissions

  10. Measuring it Right: Best Practices in the Selection and Implementation of Cost-Effectiveness Tests

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents the National Home Performance Council's cost-effectiveness tests, stakeholder concerns, public policy issues, and best practices.

  11. Switching Cost, Market Effects and the Pricing Model of e-Commerce , GUO Minyi b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Minyi

    ;2 phenomena. For instance, switching costs have linked to prices, entry decisions, new product diffusion1 Switching Cost, Market Effects and the Pricing Model of e-Commerce LI Ke a , GUO Minyi b and LI to investigate the role of switching cost, trading efficiency and fixed learning cost in a competitive market

  12. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  13. Manufactured Homes Simulated Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylon, David

    1990-05-17

    In 1988 and 1989, 150 manufactured homes were built to comply with Super Good Cents (SGC) specifications adapted from the existing specifications for site-built homes under the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP). Engineering calculations and computer simulations were used to estimate the effects of the SGC specifications on the thermal performance of the homes. These results were compared with consumer costs to establish the cost-effectiveness of individual measures. Heat loss U-factors for windows, walls, floors and ceilings were established using the standard ASHRAE parallel heat flow method. Adjustments resulted in higher U-factors for ceilings and floors than assumed at the time the homes were approved as meeting the SGC specifications. Except for those homes which included heat pumps, most of the homes did not meet the SGC compliance standards. Nonetheless these homes achieved substantial reductions in overall heat loss rate (UA) compared to UAs estimated for the same homes using the standard insulation packages provided by the manufacturers in the absence of the RCDP program. Homes with conventional electric furnaces showed a 35% reduction in total UA while homes with heat pumps had a 25% reduction. A regression analysis showed no significant relationship between climate zone, manufacturer and UA. A modified version of SUNDAY building simulation program which simulates duct and heat pump performance was used to model the thermal performance of each RCDP home as built and the same home as it would have been built without SGC specifications (base case). Standard assumptions were used for thermostat setpoint, thermal mass, internal gains and infiltration rates. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Mobile source emission control cost-effectiveness: Issues, uncertainties, and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1994-12-01

    Emissions from mobile sources undoubtedly contribute to US urban air pollution problems. Consequently, mobile source control measures, ranging from vehicle emission standards to reducing vehicle travel, have been adopted or proposed to help attain air quality standards. To rank various mobile source control measures, various government agencies and private organizations calculate cost-effectiveness in dollars per ton of emissions reduced. Arguments for or against certain control measures are often made on the basis of the calculated cost-effectiveness. Yet, different studies may yield significantly different cost-effectiveness results, because of the various methodologies used and assumptions regarding the values of costs and emission reductions. Because of the methodological differences, the cost-effectiveness results may not be comparable between studies. Use of incomparable cost-effectiveness results may result in adoption of ineffective control measures. This paper first discusses some important methodological issues involved in cost-effectiveness calculation for mobile sources and proposes appropriate, systematic methods for dealing with these issues. Various studies have been completed recently to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mobile source emission control measures. These studies resulted in wide variations in the cost-effectiveness for same control measures. Methodological assumptions used in each study are presented and, based on the proposed methods for cost-effectiveness calculation, adjustments are applied to the original estimates in each study to correct inappropriate methodological assumptions and to make the studies comparable. Finally, mobile source control measures are ranked on the basis of the adjusted cost-effectiveness estimates.

  15. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  16. Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonnet, Maria Claudia

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

  17. Statistical Inference for Medical Costs and Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2015-04-30

    , and therefore will have less costs at the censoring time, and at the potential event time (Lin, 2003). Thus, many standard approaches for survival analysis, such as the Kaplan-Meier estimator (Kaplan and Meier, 1958), or the Cox regression model (Cox, 1972...). The authors point out that traditional methods for handling censored sur- vival data, such as the Kaplan-Meier estimator, Log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression are no longer valid for analyzing censored cost data, due to the “induced...

  18. Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    will develop thermochemical energy storage systems to enable more efficient storage of solar energy while using less storage material, cutting the cost for utility-scale CSP...

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    cost performance and effectiveness of nine small wind energyAND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSIONAND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION

  20. The effect of ankle foot orthosis stiffness on the energy cost of walking: A simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Steven H.

    The effect of ankle foot orthosis stiffness on the energy cost of walking: A simulation study D by weakness of the plantar-flexor muscles. To enhance ankle push-off and to decrease the high energy cost on the amount of energy stored in the Ankle Foot Orthosis and the energy cost of walking. Methods: We developed

  1. Optimization of a Flyback Transformer Winding Considering Two-Dimensional Field Effects, Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization of a Flyback Transformer Winding Considering Two-Dimensional Field Effects, Cost and perhaps miti- gated. And both the cost and the loss in the litz-wire winding are strong functions and cost. In this paper, we address just such a case: a flyback trans- 1Although high-frequency winding

  2. Title: Greening the Grid: The Cost-Effectiveness of Residential Solar Programs in Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Nadine Hanhan, MS Title: Greening the Grid: The Cost-Effectiveness of Residential Solar Programs purchase agreements from third-party installers, and solar leasing ­ and compares the cost of these options to not installing. The paper considers the problem of solar installation to be a cost minimization problem

  3. REGULAR ARTICLE The Sunk-cost Effect as an Optimal Rate-maximizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -term rate of gain; the entry cost of each new task is so great that the forager avoids ever returningREGULAR ARTICLE The Sunk-cost Effect as an Optimal Rate-maximizing Behavior Theodore P. Pavlic for underestimating patch exploitation time. However, proper modeling of costs not only answers these crit- icisms

  4. SUBJECT: Effective Date: Policy Number: Facilities and Administrative Costs (F&A) on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    1 SUBJECT: Effective Date: Policy Number: Facilities and Administrative Costs (F&A) on Sponsored Programs (replaces Waiver of Facilities and Administrative Costs) 1-14-13 10.2.5 Supersedes: Page Of 1 project. II. POLICY It is the general policy of the University to recover full costs for all sponsored

  5. S U P P L E M E N T A R T I C L E Determinants of Household Costs Associated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheingans, Richard

    S U P P L E M E N T A R T I C L E Determinants of Household Costs Associated With Childhood households. We used survey data from sites in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan to estimate the costs borne by households due to childhood diarrhea, including direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs

  6. Report on Cost-Effectiveness and Energy Svaings from Application of Low-Cost Wireless Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Skorpik, James R.; Reid, Larry D.

    2004-12-02

    This report characterizes commercially available wireless technologies that are already being used in building applications or that are suitable for use in commercial buildings. The discussion provides an overview of fundamental concepts of radial broadcasting systems, as well as mesh networks, and will highlight the opportunities and challenges in their integration into existing wired control networks. This report describes two demonstration projects of wireless sensors and their integration into existing control networks and discusses their cost per sensor, their ease of installation, and their reliability. It also describes the load control strategies implemented as a consequence of having the additional data provided by the wireless sensors and provides estimates of the resulting energy and cost savings. The report concludes with presentation of some general future prospects for wireless technologies in buildings applications.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TXDOT CNG fleet conversion. Volume 2. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT stations suitable for conversion to compressed natural gas.

  8. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? - Motor Tip Sheet #12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    New pulse-width-modulated (PWM) adjustable speed drives (ASDs) may be cost-effective replacements for aging or maintenance-intensive eddy-current drives.

  9. Using Integrated Resource Planning to Encourage Investment in Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenot, John

    2011-09-01

    Describes how utility planning processes that allow demand-side resources to compete with supply-side resources can promote cost-effective energy efficiency.

  10. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (PWM) variable frequency drives (VFD) may be cost- effective replacements for aging or high-maintenance eddy-current drives that are used with variable torque loads, such...

  11. DESIGNING COST-EFFECTIVE COARSE-GRAINED RECONFIGURABLE ARCHITECTURE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yoonjin

    2010-07-14

    Application-specific optimization of embedded systems becomes inevitable to satisfy the market demand for designers to meet tighter constraints on cost, performance and power. On the other hand, the flexibility of a system ...

  12. Financing; A Cost Effective Alternative When Upgrading Energy Efficient Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ertle, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    In the 1990's, many organizations are attempting to do more, faster, with less cost and improved quality. In many cases, this involves improving the efficiency of their systems. Increased competition is creating pressure ...

  13. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01

    new starts projects-capital costs and ridership. TechnicalTransit Ridership and Capital Costs Erick Guerra and RobertTransit Ridership and Capital Costs Erick Guerra Robert

  14. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01

    rail transit capital cost study update final. Washington,2005). Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Fundedin US rail transit project cost overrun. Transportation

  15. Some effects of differential amounts of response cost on human responding to unstructured stimuli 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, James Vernon

    1972-01-01

    ), Medium Cost (MC), Low Cost (LC), Knowledge of Results (KR), and iio Treatment (NT) 19 TABLE 1 Summary of Analysis of Variance Applied to Changes in Mean Animal Responses from Baseline to Treatment Phases. Source of Variation SS df MS Between... for participation in the experiment. Final payment for the response cost groups was dependent upon performance The experiment involved three phases: baseline, treatment, and extinction. The general procedure was: (a) the determination of baselines from responses...

  16. Hydroblasting permits safe, cost-effective dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lever, G. [Cavi-Tech Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The cost of using traditional methods to remove lead-based paint from structures subject to strict environmental regulations can be prohibitive, leaving many rehabilitation projects undone. However, alternative methods, including hydroblasting, can reduce debris containment and disposal costs to a tolerable level. This article describes a project which involved the removal of old lead paint and the repainting of a dam situated in a populated recreational area. It details the budgetary, environmental, and public health issues that led to strict specifications and oversight requirements, which saved money and protected the area from lead contamination.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of the non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG): evidence from a cluster randomized controlled trial in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Mavros P, Jönsson B. Use of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis inDecision-Making: How Are Cost-Effectiveness Thresholdsof abortion were collected. Costs include personnel, equip-

  18. Guidebook for Selecting Cost-Effective Wireless Communication Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    0-4449-P1 Guidebook for Selecting Cost-Effective Wireless Communication Technologies Research, The University of Texas at Austin Project 0-4449: Cost-Effective Strategies for Communicating-2650 Sponsoring Organization: Texas Department of Transportation Research and Technology Implementation Office P

  19. Memorandum: Cost-effectiveness valuation framework for Demand Response Resources: Guidelines and Suggestions (DRAFT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memorandum: Cost-effectiveness valuation framework for Demand Response Resources: Guidelines and Suggestions (DRAFT) To: Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project Cost-Effectiveness Working Group From: Chuck Northwest Demand Response Project agreed to form three Working Groups to explore DR issues in more detail

  20. Cost Effective Surface Modification For Metallic Bipolar Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , while composites typically 2-5mm ·Amenable to low cost/high volume manufacturing techniques (e.g. stamping or corrugation) ·Gas impermeable ·Higher electrical and thermal conductivities Relates to DOE R Fuel Cell Environments ·Contamination of Polymer Membrane by Metal Ions ·High Contact Resistance from

  1. PREPRINT 2007:1 On the Cost-Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    billion SEK. A major incentive for environmental clean-up is sustainable development. Sustainable of failure, i.e. the cost associated with the wrong decision, has a strong impact on the result valuation * Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology. Address

  2. DESIGNING COST EFFECTIVE DEMAND MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS USING GAME THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the customer to participate in demand management programs and provide load relief. The utility has to design cost effec- tive yet attractive demand management contracts. The main goal is to get load relief when interruptibility). Keywords: Demand manage- ment, mechanism design, load interruption, load cur- tailment, system

  3. Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

  4. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain segments provide the greatest opportunities for low cost abatement.

  5. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  6. Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores the economics of CO2 emission reductions by added engine technology to determine if there is an overall positive or negative benefit.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle Systems Explores the economics of CO2 emission reductions by added engine technology to determine if there is an overall...

  8. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

  9. THE EFFECT OF INCREASING TRANSPORTATION COST ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gressler, Kimberly

    2009-06-09

    been developed will be expanded to include the dramatic changes in oil prices pre Y2K and post Y2K. It was hypothesized that results will reflect that the cost of transportation will drive investment closer, rather than further, from the origin... on regional country choice of investment. Previous research has confirmed this. Specifically, research conducted in Mileski (2000) has proven that key events that have affected the international oil supply has shown shift in locations chosen for investment...

  10. Cost Effective Production of Giant Magneto-Caloric Materials - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCoolCoronary StentsThe AmesCost

  11. Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeepDecemberCornstalks Cost

  12. On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing Gregg Rothermel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothermel, Gregg

    On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing Gregg Rothermel , Sebastian Elbaum}@cse.unl.edu August 31, 2004 Abstract Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to re-validate software as it evolves. Various methodologies for improving regression testing processes have been explored, but the cost

  13. On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing. Gregg Rothermel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothermel, Gregg

    On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing. Gregg Rothermel , Sebastian Elbaum}@cse.unl.edu August 30, 2003 Abstract Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to re-validate software as it evolves. Various methodologies for improving regression testing processes have been explored, but the cost

  14. A Cost-Effective Critical Path Approach for Service Priority Optimization in the Grid Computing Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhangxi

    1 A Cost-Effective Critical Path Approach for Service Priority Optimization in the Grid Computing as a prioritized PERT graph and prove that the localized conditional critical path, which is based on the cost on the non- critical paths with respect to a given critical path. Keywords: Grid computing, computing power

  15. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  16. Physical time-energy cost of a quantum process determines its information fidelity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau

    2014-08-25

    A quantum system can be described and characterized by at least two different concepts, namely, its physical and informational properties. Here, we explicitly connect these two concepts, by equating the time-energy cost which is the product of the largest energy of a Hamiltonian of quantum dynamics and the evolution time, and the entanglement fidelity which is the informational difference between an input state and the corresponding output state produced by a quantum channel characterized by the Hamiltonian. Specifically, the worst-case entanglement fidelity between the input and output states is exactly the cosine of the channel's time-energy cost (except when the fidelity is zero). The exactness of our relation makes a strong statement about the intimate connection between information and physics. Our exact result may also be regarded as a time-energy uncertainty relation for the fastest state that achieves a certain fidelity.

  17. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics. Phase I, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, R.H.; Ramanath, S.; Simpson, M.; Lilley, E.

    1996-02-01

    Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. This program was a cooperative effort involving three Norton groups representing a superabrasive grinding wheel manufacturer, a diamond film manufacturing division and a ceramic research center. The program was divided into two technical tasks, Task 1, Analysis of Required Grinding Wheel Characteristics, and Task 2, Design and Prototype Development. In Task 1 we performed a parallel path approach with Superabrasive metal-bond development and the higher technical risk, CVD diamond wheel development. For the Superabrasive approach, Task 1 included bond wear and strength tests to engineer bond-wear characteristics. This task culminated in a small-wheel screening test plunge grinding sialon disks. In Task 2, an improved Superabrasive metal-bond specification for low-cost machining of ceramics in external cylindrical grinding mode was identified. The experimental wheel successfully ground three types of advanced ceramics without the need for wheel dressing. The spindle power consumed by this wheel during test grinding of NC-520 sialon is as much as to 30% lower compared to a standard resin bonded wheel with 100 diamond concentration. The wheel wear with this improved metal bond was an order of magnitude lower than the resin-bonded wheel, which would significantly reduce ceramic grinding costs through fewer wheel changes for retruing and replacements. Evaluation of ceramic specimens from both Tasks 1 and 2 tests for all three ceramic materials did not show evidence of unusual grinding damage. The novel CVD-diamond-wheel approach was incorporated in this program as part of Task 1. The important factors affecting the grinding performance of diamond wheels made by CVD coating preforms were determined.

  18. Development of design & technology package for cost effective housing in Gujrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Rajive

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Improve quality of life in rural areas through intervention of infrastructure and housing improvement. Provide methods of building better and cost-effective houses at a quicker pace. Devise strategies of withdrawing ...

  19. National Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Selvacanabady, Abinesh; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2015-06-10

    This PNNL technical report summarizes the results of the national cost-effectiveness analysis of the residential provisions of the 2015 IECC compared to those of the 2012 and 2009 IECC.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of freeway median high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facility conversion to rail guideway transit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Best, Matthew Evans

    1996-01-01

    Many freeways in the United States contain median high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities. These facilities have been envisioned by some as reserved space for future rail guideway transit. This thesis examines the cost-effectiveness of converting a...

  1. Evaluating the Energy Saving Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Industrial Energy Efficiency Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluating the Energy Saving Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Industrial Energy Efficiency Initiatives of the Office of Energy Efficiency Prepared for the Office of Energy Efficiency Prepared ............................................................................................. 18 5 SIMULATION OF THE FIVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Utah.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Montana.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of New York.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Virginia.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Oklahoma.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Texas.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the District of Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-29

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the District of Columbia.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Arkansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-26

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Arkansas.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of New Jersey.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of South Carolina.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Massachusetts.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Wisconsin.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Georgia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Georgia.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-29

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Alabama.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Colorado.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Nebraska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-12-13

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Nebraska.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Iowa.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Kentucky.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Rhode Island.

  1. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Connecticut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-29

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in teh State of Connecticut.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for the State of Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Loper, Susan A.; Myer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Moving to the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 version from the Base Code (90.1-2007) is cost-effective for all building types and climate zones in the State of Delaware.

  3. National Cost-effectiveness of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Halverson, Mark A.; Loper, Susan A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Richman, Eric E.

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cost-effectiveness of the 2013 edition of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES1 Standard 90.1 (ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 2013).

  4. RSIM x86: A COST-EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE SIMULATOR Ricardo Fernandez and Jose M. Garcia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acacio, Manuel

    RSIM x86: A COST-EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE SIMULATOR Ricardo Fern´andez and Jos´e M. Garc-mail: {r.fernandez,jmgarcia}@ditec.um.es KEYWORDS High-performance simulators, multiprocessor architec

  5. Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Applications Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronevetsky, G; Quinlan, D; Lumsdaine, A; Hoefler, T

    2012-04-10

    The complexity of petascale and exascale machines makes it increasingly difficult to develop applications that can take advantage of them. Future systems are expected to feature billion-way parallelism, complex heterogeneous compute nodes and poor availability of memory (Peter Kogge, 2008). This new challenge for application development is motivating a significant amount of research and development on new programming models and runtime systems designed to simplify large-scale application development. Unfortunately, DoE has significant multi-decadal investment in a large family of mission-critical scientific applications. Scaling these applications to exascale machines will require a significant investment that will dwarf the costs of hardware procurement. A key reason for the difficulty in transitioning today's applications to exascale hardware is their reliance on explicit programming techniques, such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model to enable parallelism. MPI provides a portable and high performance message-passing system that enables scalable performance on a wide variety of platforms. However, it also forces developers to lock the details of parallelization together with application logic, making it very difficult to adapt the application to significant changes in the underlying system. Further, MPI's explicit interface makes it difficult to separate the application's synchronization and communication structure, reducing the amount of support that can be provided by compiler and run-time tools. This is in contrast to the recent research on more implicit parallel programming models such as Chapel, OpenMP and OpenCL, which promise to provide significantly more flexibility at the cost of reimplementing significant portions of the application. We are developing CoMPI, a novel compiler-driven approach to enable existing MPI applications to scale to exascale systems with minimal modifications that can be made incrementally over the application's lifetime. It includes: (1) New set of source code annotations, inserted either manually or automatically, that will clarify the application's use of MPI to the compiler infrastructure, enabling greater accuracy where needed; (2) A compiler transformation framework that leverages these annotations to transform the original MPI source code to improve its performance and scalability; (3) Novel MPI runtime implementation techniques that will provide a rich set of functionality extensions to be used by applications that have been transformed by our compiler; and (4) A novel compiler analysis that leverages simple user annotations to automatically extract the application's communication structure and synthesize most complex code annotations.

  6. Methodology for determining feasibility and cost for converting dredged material to topsoil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graalum, Sara Jo Ann

    1997-01-01

    ). The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the applicability of converting dredged material to topsoil as a beneficial use of dredged material. The site selection in terms of location, material, and marketing are paramount in determining the most economically...

  7. Cost Effectiveness for Solar Control Film for Residential Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Taqi, H. H.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    For the existing housing, retrofitting single or double glazed clear glass window with solar films can be an effective measure to reduce their peak power demand, and large scale application of the same on national level ...

  8. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

  9. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  10. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  11. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  12. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore »14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  13. Best Practices in Determining the Impacts of Municipal Programs on Energy Use, Air Quality, and Other Ancillary Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.; Mosey, G.

    2006-10-03

    This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 held in Boulder, Colorado, discusses best practices for determining the impacts of municipal programs on energy use, air quality, and other costs and benefits.

  14. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  15. Design and Build- Cost-Effective Energy Conservation: An Opportunity for the Competitive Market 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGeown, D. I.

    1995-01-01

    - COST-EFFECTIVE ENERGY CONSERVATION An Opportunity for the Competitive Market by: David l. McGeown, P.E, C. Eng. ABSTRACT This paper e>''Pands on concepts presented at the World Energy Congress and DAIDSM earlier this year. In the light of recent... that an adaptation of the design and build method of construction offers many of the answers needed for cost effective implementation. The Design & Build contract has most of the key features needed in an energy conservation project. It is a proven method...

  16. Determining an Appropriate Method to Simulate Pump Shear on the Diatom Nitzschia sp. and a Methodology to Quantify the Effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lassig, Jarrett

    2012-12-13

    , there was no statistical difference between strains. While effective, this method would be impractical for a commercial algae cultivation facility as the viscometer in this study costs approximately $100,000. Therefore, tests were performed to determine if a rotary mixer...

  17. Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linn, Rodman Ray (Los Alamos, NM); Koo, Eunmo (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-05-01

    Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

  18. Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linn, Rodman Ray (Los Alamos, NM); Koo, Eunmo (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

  19. Evaluation of Cost Effective Sensor Combinations for a Vehicle Precrash Detection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birdsong, Charles

    Evaluation of Cost Effective Sensor Combinations for a Vehicle Precrash Detection System John the occurrence of an accident before it occurs. There are many different sensor technologies currently available for pre-crash detection. However no single sensor technology has demonstrated enough information gathering

  20. Robust and Cost-Effective Architecture Design for Smart Grid Communications: A Multi-stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    needs such as cost-effective power generation, higher usage of renewable energy sources and two-stage Middleware Deployment Approach Dong-Hoon Shin, Shibo He, and Junshan Zhang School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University Email: {donghon.shin.2, shibo.he, junshan

  1. Call for Proposals Abundant, Clean, and Cost-Effective Energy Systems for Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Call for Proposals Abundant, Clean, and Cost-Effective Energy Systems for Sustainability (ACCESS) Deadline: November 1, 2011 McDonnell Academy Global Energy and Environment Partnership (MAGEEP) www with our McDonnell Academy Partner Universities. Many of the projects that were initially supported by seed

  2. Measuring Technology Effects on Software Change Cost D. L. Atkins, A. Mockus, and H. P. Siy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, David

    that correlates technology usage with effort es- timates based on analysis of the change history of a softwareMeasuring Technology Effects on Software Change Cost D. L. Atkins, A. Mockus, and H. P. Siy May 11, 2000 Abstract We describe a methodologyfor precise quantitative measure- ment of technology impact

  3. Wind Power Variability, Its Cost, and Effect on Power Plant Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Power Variability, Its Cost, and Effect on Power Plant Emissions A Dissertation Submitted The recent growth in wind power is transforming the operation of electricity systems by introducing. As a result, system operators are learning in real-time how to incorporate wind power and its variability

  4. Sacred Cars? Cost-Effective Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Sacred Cars? Cost-Effective Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources Meredith reasons, environmental regulations sometimes treat point source polluters, such as power plants, differently from mobile source polluters, such as vehicles. This paper measures the extent of this regulatory

  5. COLD PLASMA APPARATUS FOR THE FAST, EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COLD PLASMA APPARATUS FOR THE FAST, EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF HIGHLY POLLUTED methods for soil remediation is crucial, since soil contamination by toxic pollutants (industrial wastes species, able to oxidize even the most persistent soil pollutants. These species are produced when

  6. Design and Analysis of a High-Efficiency, Cost-Effective Solar Concentrator John H. Reif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    1 Design and Analysis of a High-Efficiency, Cost-Effective Solar Concentrator John H. Reif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia wsalhalabi@kau.edu.sa Abstract Solar concentrating systems are optical systems that concentrate solar energy for conversion into usable energy. Ideally, a solar concentrating system should have

  7. Probabilistic Critical Path Identification for Cost-Effective Monitoring of Service-based Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jean-Guy

    Probabilistic Critical Path Identification for Cost-Effective Monitoring of Service- based Systems. In volatile operating environments, the critical path of a SBS is probabilistic. As such, it is important to estimate the criticalities of the execution paths and the component services, i.e., the probabilities

  8. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COST EFFECTIVE SURFACE MOUNTED WATER TURBINES FOR RURAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    model and design of hydro dynamically balanced rotor. Small-scale hydro power is the key source of serving the ever increasing demand of power requirements in the shortest time are driving forces for small/low head hydro power generation. This project intends to design and develop cost effective design

  9. Status of Grid Scale Energy Storage and Strategies for Accelerating Cost Effective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Status of Grid Scale Energy Storage and Strategies for Accelerating Cost Effective Deployment MIT · Motivation · Individual Functions/Markets · Energy Storage Technologies · Implementations to Combine) · Previously: · Energy storage and smart grid analyst at Lux Research and GTM Research · MIT SDM '08 (Graduated

  10. Cost effective electronics for LAr and photo-detectors readout Sandro Centro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esole, Jonathan Mboyo

    Cost effective electronics for LAr and photo-detectors readout Sandro Centro University of Padua Critical issues It is important to remember that the DAQ architecture for T600 was conceived in 1997 components are now discontinued. In this scenario it is very important then to make a critical analysis

  11. Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate C.J. Taylor 1 P. In partic- ular, it develops a unique fan and throttling valve control system for a 22m3 test chamber, the throttling valve is employed to restrict airflow at the outlet, so generating a higher static pressure differ

  12. A cost-effective mechanism for Cloud data reliability management based on proactive replica checking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yun

    A cost-effective mechanism for Cloud data reliability management based on proactive replica University, Hefei, Anhui 230039, China *** School of Systems, Management and Leadership, University--In current Cloud computing environments, management of data reliability has become a challenge. For data

  13. The Effect of Transaction Costs on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation for Agriculture and Forestry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seong Woo

    2011-08-08

    of the activities of agricultural and forestry to EPA?s carbon prices: 40 percent from tillage practices, 30 percent from afforestation, 20 percent from methane capture, and 20 percent from production of bioenergy crops. Mooney et al. (2003................................ 14 III ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS: EFFECTS OF INCLUDING TRANSACTION COSTS IN ELIGIBILITY ................................................................................. 19 Introduction...

  14. Cost-Effective Soft Error Protection For Register Files Pablo Montesinos, Wei Liu* and Josep Torrellas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    Shield: Cost-Effective Soft Error Protection For Register Files Pablo Montesinos, Wei Liu renamed P10 is considered short P10 is considered long Ponomarev et al, 2004 Short version: a new Montesinos. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ECCTable entry allocation Entries are allocated when

  15. Cost-Effective Design of a Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Cost-Effective Design of a Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Di Zhu1 to the successful application of hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems in electric vehi- cles (EVs energy storage system comprised of Li-ion batteries only. 1. INTRODUCTION Electric vehicles (EVs) have

  16. Protector: A Probabilistic Failure Detector for Cost-Effective Peer-to-Peer Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Ben Y.

    replicas as needed to compensate for others lost to peer failures. Since replica generation consumesProtector: A Probabilistic Failure Detector for Cost-Effective Peer-to-Peer Storage Zhi Yang, Jing availability, additional replicas must be created when peers fail. Since the majority of failures in P2P

  17. FOOD COMPOSITION AND ADDITIVES GMOtrack: Generator of Cost-Effective GMO Testing Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novak, Petra Kralj

    FOOD COMPOSITION AND ADDITIVES GMOtrack: Generator of Cost-Effective GMO Testing Strategies PETRA are in the approval process. Many countries have adopted legislation to deal with GMO-related issues such as food safety, environmental concerns, and consumers' right of choice, making GMO traceability a necessity

  18. Cost-effective Recovery of an Endangered Species: The Red-cockaded Woodpecker Ryan M. Finseth and Jon M. Conrad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Cost-effective Recovery of an Endangered Species: The Red-cockaded Woodpecker Ryan M. Finseth; % translocation success prob delta = .05; % discount rate rho = 1/(1+delta); % discount factor c2 = 800; % cost of constructing one artificial cavity c1 = 3000; % cost of translocating one breeding pair r = .13; % intrinsic

  19. Life Cost Based FMEA Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Carrying Out a Cost-based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhee, Seung; Spencer, Cherrill; /Stanford U. /SLAC

    2009-01-23

    Failure occurs when one or more of the intended functions of a product are no longer fulfilled to the customer's satisfaction. The most critical product failures are those that escape design reviews and in-house quality inspection and are found by the customer. The product may work for a while until its performance degrades to an unacceptable level or it may have not worked even before customer took possession of the product. The end results of failures which may lead to unsafe conditions or major losses of the main function are rated high in severity. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a tool widely used in the automotive, aerospace, and electronics industries to identify, prioritize, and eliminate known potential failures, problems, and errors from systems under design, before the product is released (Stamatis, 1997). Several industrial FMEA standards such as those published by the Society of Automotive Engineers, US Department of Defense, and the Automotive Industry Action Group employ the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to measure risk and severity of failures. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) is a product of 3 indices: Occurrence (O), Severity (S), and Detection (D). In a traditional FMEA process design engineers typically analyze the 'root cause' and 'end-effects' of potential failures in a sub-system or component and assign penalty points through the O, S, D values to each failure. The analysis is organized around categories called failure modes, which link the causes and effects of failures. A few actions are taken upon completing the FMEA worksheet. The RPN column generally will identify the high-risk areas. The idea of performing FMEA is to eliminate or reduce known and potential failures before they reach the customers. Thus, a plan of action must be in place for the next task. Not all failures can be resolved during the product development cycle, thus prioritization of actions must be made within the design group. One definition of detection difficulty (D) is how well the organization controls the development process. Another definition relates to the detectability of a particular failure in the product when it is in the hands of the customer. The former asks 'What is the chance of catching the problem before we give it to the customer'? The latter asks 'What is the chance of the customer catching the problem before the problem results in a catastrophic failure?' (Palady, 1995) These differing definitions confuse the FMEA users when one tries to determine detection difficulty. Are we trying to measure how easy it is to detect where a failure has occurred or when it has occurred? Or are we trying to measure how easy or difficult it is to prevent failures? Ordinal scale variables are used to rank-order industries such as, hotels, restaurants, and movies (Note that a 4 star hotel is not necessarily twice as good as a 2 star hotel). Ordinal values preserve rank in a group of items, but the distance between the values cannot be measured since a distance function does not exist. Thus, the product or sum of ordinal variables loses its rank since each parameter has different scales. The RPN is a product of 3 independent ordinal variables, it can indicate that some failure types are 'worse' than others, but give no quantitative indication of their relative effects. To resolve the ambiguity of measuring detection difficulty and the irrational logic of multiplying 3 ordinal indices, a new methodology was created to overcome these shortcomings, Life Cost-Based FMEA. Life Cost-Based FMEA measures failure/risk in terms of monetary cost. Cost is a universal parameter that can be easily related to severity by engineers and others. Thus, failure cost can be estimated using the following simplest form: Expected Failure Cost = {sup n}{Sigma}{sub i=1}p{sub i}c{sub i}, p: Probability of a particular failure occurring; c: Monetary cost associated with that particular failure; and n: Total number of failure scenarios. FMEA is most effective when there are inputs into it from all concerned disciplines of the product development t

  20. Coordination and Lock-In: Competition with Switching Costs and Network Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Joseph; Klemperer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    M.G. (1994), \\Switching costs in the bank deposit market",1998), \\Switching costs in the wholesale distribution ofT.M. (2000), \\Switching costs in vertically related

  1. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  2. Inverse determination of effective mechanical properties of adhesive bondlines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hass, Philipp; Mendoza, Miller; Herrmann, Hans J; Niemz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for determining effective mechanical bondline properties using a combined experimental-numerical modal analysis technique is proposed. After characterizing clear spruce wood boards, an adhesive layer is applied to the boards surfaces. The shift of the eigenfrequencies resulting from the adhesive layer together with information on the bondline geometry can then be used to inversely determine the mechanical properties of the adhesive layer using Finite Element Models. The calculated values for clear wood as well as for the adhesive layer lie within reasonable ranges, thus demonstrating the methods potential.

  3. Cost-Effective Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage With Supercritical Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UCLA and JPL are creating cost-effective storage systems for solar thermal energy using new materials and designs. A major drawback to the widespread use of solar thermal energy is its inability to cost-effectively supply electric power at night. State-of-the-art energy storage for solar thermal power plants uses molten salt to help store thermal energy. Molten salt systems can be expensive and complex, which is not attractive from a long-term investment standpoint. UCLA and JPL are developing a supercritical fluid-based thermal energy storage system, which would be much less expensive than molten-salt-based systems. The team’s design also uses a smaller, modular, single-tank design that is more reliable and scalable for large-scale storage applications.

  4. Measuring the Effects of Peaking, Vehicle Capital, and Passenger Capacity on the Cost of Providing Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    include both operating costs and capital costs, though mostthe Peak Period Operating Vehicle Non-vehicle Costs CapitalCosts Capital Costs Total Capital Total Costs Costs This

  5. Cost-effective Interior Wall Retrofit Solutions for Commercial Building Shells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment ofofCorrugated MembraneCost-effective

  6. Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

    2011-03-31

    The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    as a Because this wind private cost with which to evaluateAllow 1 percent of wind machine costs for O&M: The averagein turn will make wind machines cost effective for investors

  8. Cost-effective temporary microirrigation system for grass establishment on environmentally sensitive steep slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y. [University of Central Queensland, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). James Goldston Faculty of Engineering & Physical Systems

    2004-05-15

    An advanced technology cost-effective drip irrigation system design and setup on environmentally sensitive elevated steep slopes (batters) of a coal train derailment site in Central Queensland, Australia, are presented. The final profile of the coal burial site consists of six batters and associated berms with a drop in elevation of about 35 m. A small dam constructed downstream of the confluence of the two main drainage channels at the site supplied water for irrigation of the batters to aid the establishment of grass to control erosion. Water was periodically pumped from the small dam to three storage tanks using a petrol (gas) pump. Three solar pumps drew water from the storage tanks and dam to irrigate the top four batters. Contactors, pressure switches and irrigation control valves in turn shared a single solar power source between the solar pumps. Level balls (floating switches) placed in the storage tanks cut the solar power supply to the pumps when the storage tanks were nearly empty. On the whole, the irrigation system worked very well and excellent grass cover was established within 12 weeks. Given the environmental risks associated with the on-site burying of coal, and the estimated cost of about AU$11.73/m{sup 2} (every 10 years) in maintenance if the railway batters are not treated, the estimated total cost of AU$4.61/m{sup 2} of batter area treated with irrigation, including AU$3.08/m{sup 2} in irrigation cost, is justified.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  11. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  15. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  16. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  17. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  18. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  19. Detailed thermal performance measurements and cost effectiveness of earth-sheltered construction: a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Earth-covering, solar gain, and massive construction are the design concepts successfully blended to produce an energy-efficient, durable, and comfortable building. Twenty-four-hour-quiet sleeping quarters and quality office space were the first design objectives of this building, these were successfully accomplished. The data acquisition system and a unique energy-balance analysis documents the thermal performance of each envelope component. Since the building's typical number of occupants, size, and internal electric loads are similar to those of a large residential building, the energy-performance data are extended to the residential marketplace. First-cost estimates for the whole building, earth-covered roof, and bermed wall are used with the detailed measured energy-use data to estimate cost effectiveness using residential economics criteria, such as 3% discount rate and 30-year life. The results from this analysis confirm the fact that earth, sun, and mass can save substantial amounts of annual and peak energy demand. However, further construction cost reductions are needed to produce more favorable cost effectiveness in the residential market arena. The overall thermal conductance value of this building is lower than the average values from the 300 low-energy residences as reported in the Building Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis, Part A (BECA-A), data base. However, the balance point of this building, with mechanical ventilation to ensure about 0.5 air change per hour, is substantially higher than those reported for low-energy residential buildings. This suggests that most of the energy-efficient homes either have an air-to-air heat exchanger or infiltration levels far below the generally accepted 0.5 air change per hour to ensure healthy indoor air quality. Reflective insulating blinds were installed in this building and have enhanced the daylighting and usability of the building. 9 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Utility Cost Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, S.

    1984-01-01

    One of the first steps in setting up an energy management program in a commercial building is determining operating costs per energy consuming system through a utility cost analysis. This paper illustrates utility cost analysis methods used...

  1. A Cost-Effective Portable Telemedicine Kit for Use in Developing Countries Ari T. Adler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and connectivity costs involved. Developing countries require low-cost, sustainable telemedicine solutions America and the Caribbean. This is accomplished through the use of modified ISO shipping containers

  2. Electrolytic Methods as a Cost and Energy Effective Alternative of Harvesting Algae for Biofuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Taylor 1986-

    2012-08-30

    METHODS AS A COST AND ENERGY EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE OF HARVESTING ALGAE FOR BIOFUEL A Thesis by TAYLOR LEE MORRISON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Energy through the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts. The Texas A&M campus facilities available were Dr. Ron Lacey?s micro-algae lab, Dr. Nikolov?s bio-separations lab and Dr. Karthi?s water quality lab. The offsite facility...

  3. Philips Light Sources & Electronics is Developing an Efficient, Smaller, Cost-Effective Family of LED Drivers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Light Sources & Electronics is developing a new family of LED drivers that are more efficient and cost-effective as well as smaller in size than currently available drivers. The new drivers are switch-mode power supplies that are similar to today's drivers, but with an improved design. In addition, they have a different topology—boost plus LLC—for wattages of 40W and above, but they retain the commonly used flyback topology at lower wattages.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cost-Effective Fabrication of High-Temperature Ceramic Capacitors for Power Inverters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about cost-effective...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cost-Effective Fabrication of High-Temperature Ceramic Capacitors for Power Inverters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about cost-effective...

  6. ST Development Path The ST is a cost effective element of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tritium consumption and longer term self-sufficiency (Pfusion ~ 70 - 250 MW) ­ Minimize cost and optimize

  7. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  8. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  9. A framework for improving the cost-effectiveness of DSM program evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnenblick, R.; Eto, J.

    1995-09-01

    The prudence of utility demand-side management (DSM) investments hinges on their performance, yet evaluating performance is complicated because the energy saved by DSM programs can never be observed directly but only inferred. This study frames and begins to answer the following questions: (1) how well do current evaluation methods perform in improving confidence in the measurement of energy savings produced by DSM programs; (2) in view of this performance, how can limited evaluation resources be best allocated to maximize the value of the information they provide? The authors review three major classes of methods for estimating annual energy savings: tracking database (sometimes called engineering estimates), end-use metering, and billing analysis and examine them in light of the uncertainties in current estimates of DSM program measure lifetimes. The authors assess the accuracy and precision of each method and construct trade-off curves to examine the costs of increases in accuracy or precision. Several approaches for improving evaluations for the purpose of assessing program cost effectiveness are demonstrated. The methods can be easily generalized to other evaluation objectives, such as shared savings incentive payments.

  10. Paradoxical effects of cost reduction measures in managed care systems for treatment of severe psoriasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    100% of the cost of a home light unit. With less out-of-rate for one year with home light, companies can potentiallycovering the cost of a home light unit or eliminating office

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TXDOT CNG fleet conversion. Volume 1. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9

  12. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more »90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  13. Maximum power, ecological function and efficiency of an irreversible Carnot cycle. A cost and effectiveness optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G Aragon-Gonzalez; A. Canales-Palma; A. Leon-Galicia; J. R. Morales-Gomez

    2007-01-29

    In this work we include, for the Carnot cycle, irreversibilities of linear finite rate of heat transferences between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs and internal dissipations of the working fluid. A first optimization of the power output, the efficiency and ecological function of an irreversible Carnot cycle, with respect to: internal temperature ratio, time ratio for the heat exchange and the allocation ratio of the heat exchangers; is performed. For the second and third optimizations, the optimum values for the time ratio and internal temperature ratio are substituted into the equation of power and, then, the optimizations with respect to the cost and effectiveness ratio of the heat exchangers are performed. Finally, a criterion of partial optimization for the class of irreversible Carnot engines is herein presented.

  14. Maximum power, ecological function and efficiency of an irreversible Carnot cycle. A cost and effectiveness optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Leon-Galicia, A; Morales-Gomez, J R

    2007-01-01

    In this work we include, for the Carnot cycle, irreversibilities of linear finite rate of heat transferences between the heat engine and its reservoirs, heat leak between the reservoirs and internal dissipations of the working fluid. A first optimization of the power output, the efficiency and ecological function of an irreversible Carnot cycle, with respect to: internal temperature ratio, time ratio for the heat exchange and the allocation ratio of the heat exchangers; is performed. For the second and third optimizations, the optimum values for the time ratio and internal temperature ratio are substituted into the equation of power and, then, the optimizations with respect to the cost and effectiveness ratio of the heat exchangers are performed. Finally, a criterion of partial optimization for the class of irreversible Carnot engines is herein presented.

  15. Probabilistic risk analysis toward cost-effective 3S (safety, safeguards, security) implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2014-09-30

    Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) has been introduced for several decades in safety and nuclear advanced countries have already used this methodology in their own regulatory systems. However, PRA has not been developed in safeguards and security so far because of inherent difficulties in intentional and malicious acts. In this paper, probabilistic proliferation and risk analysis based on random process is applied to hypothetical reprocessing process and physical protection system in nuclear reactor with the Markov model that was originally developed by the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PRPPWG) in Generation IV International Framework (GIF). Through the challenge to quantify the security risk with a frequency in this model, integrated risk notion among 3S to pursue the cost-effective installation of those countermeasures is discussed in a heroic manner.

  16. Investigation to Discover Most Effective Method of Teaching Target Costing to Construction-Minded Individuals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hullum, Joshua James

    2012-07-16

    and an increased level of detail, while keeping costs lower than ever. Therefore, to meet such demands contractors must turn to an alternative approach of improving product and process with target costing. However, the adoption of target costing by the construction...

  17. Cost Effective Storage using Extent Based Dynamic Tiering Jorge Guerra, Himabindu Pucha, Joseph Glider, Wendy Belluomini, Raju Rangaswami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rangaswami, Raju

    of its design. A Con- figuration Adviser EDT-CA determines the adequate mix of storage devices to buy control the overhead due to extent migration. Our results us- ing production workloads show that EDT-tier systems from IBM [29], EMC [17], 3PAR [23] and Compel- lent [24] provide performance gains and cost

  18. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  19. LID is often perceived as a more expensive option than traditional stormwater management. LID can be a cost-effective solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COST LID is often perceived as a more expensive option than traditional stormwater management. LID can be a cost-effective solution to a community's stormwater management challenges due decisions for their community. Valuable outreach in innovative and cost effective stormwater management can

  20. DETERMINATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECTIVE CAPACITY FOR Richard Perez for Clean Power Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    DETERMINATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECTIVE CAPACITY FOR NEW JERSEY Richard Perez for Clean Power) requirements. #12;DETERMINATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECTIVE CAPACITY FOR NEW JERSEY The ELCC metric dispatchable power plant. 2 #12;DETERMINATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECTIVE CAPACITY FOR NEW JERSEY 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  1. Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

    2003-09-26

    The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

  2. Cost-effective design of scale-inhibitor squeeze treatments using a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokal, S.L.; Raju, K.U.; Bayona, H.

    1996-05-01

    Scale formation and deposition in production facilities is a challenging problem faced by the oil industry. Their deposition leads to operational problems, safety hazards, and an overall decrease in production efficiency. Downhole scale-inhibitor squeeze treatments provide the most common and effective means of preventing the formation of oilfield scale deposits. This paper presents an analysis and design study of field-inhibitor squeeze treatments. A mathematical model was used to simulate inhibitor-squeeze return data from several Saudi Aramco wells. A wide range of sensitivities in squeeze treatments were investigated, including inhibitor concentration, inhibitor volume, overflush size, and shut-in time. An optimization of the squeeze injection parameters was carried out with the numerical simulator. This optimization was based on squeeze performance as well as on economic criteria. The results indicate that the optimized treatment strategy is very well-specific and depends on the water production rates and operational parameters, like the scale-inhibitor concentration and volume and the amount of overflush. Recommendations are made for optimizing (in terms of cost effectiveness) the squeeze-treatment design.

  3. Cost effective design of scale inhibitor squeeze treatments using a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokal, S.L.; Raju, K.U.; Bayona, H. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01

    Scale formation and deposition in production facilities is a challenging problem faced by the oil industry. Their deposition leads to operational problems, safety hazards and an overall decrease in production efficiency. Downhole scale inhibitor squeeze treatments provide the most common and effective means of preventing the formation of oilfield scale deposits. This paper presents an analysis and design study of field inhibitor squeeze treatments. A mathematical model was used to simulate inhibitor squeeze return data from several Saudi Aramco wells. A wide range of sensitivities in squeeze treatments were investigated including inhibitor concentration, inhibitor volume, overflush size, shut-in time, etc. An optimization of the squeeze injection parameters was carried out using the numerical simulator. This optimization was based on squeeze performance as well as on economic criteria. The results indicate that the optimized treatment strategy is very well specific and depends on the water production rates, and operational parameters like the scale inhibitor concentration and volume and the amount of overflush. Recommendations are made for optimizing (in terms of cost effectiveness) the squeeze treatment design.

  4. A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Using the Ankle-Brachial Index to Screen for Peripheral Artery Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Nell

    2012-01-01

    PAD-related medical costs (index qtr + 3 qtr fu) Amputationrates and costs. Costs reported for index quarter ofdata, risk-adjusted costs seperated by index and quarters

  5. Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    generation and combined heat and power, Trigen Energypower generation combined heat and power, EnvironmentalInvestment Costs for Combined Heat and Power Systems Nicole

  6. Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Atkinson, B . (2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: EvidenceEvidence on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "of Adjustment of U K Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes"

  7. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. M. Beheary, and K. M. Abdel-Moneim, "Effect of dust on the Transpar- ent Cover of Solar Collectors," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 47, no. 18-19, pp. 3192-3203,...

  8. ADS support for Hardy Oil`s subsea projects: Simple and cost effective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, N.; McCullough, G.; Subik, D.

    1996-12-31

    The use of Atmospheric Diving Systems in support of the Shasta and Mustique Subsea Field Developments for Hardy Oil and Gas and Texaco is reviewed as a simple and cost-effective solution to the subsea intervention requirements of underwater completion tiebacks. The design and installation of the pull-tube system for dual flowlines and a control umbilical on Texaco`s Green Canyon 6A Platform is reviewed as an example of how Atmospheric Diving Systems can be utilized to perform the difficult subsea construction of a pull-tube system on an existing deepwater platform. The design and installation of the flexible flowline jumpers and umbilical flying leads connecting the three subsea trees to the flowline termination skids and the umbilical termination assemblies is reviewed as an example of how Atmospheric Diving Systems can be utilized to connect flowlines and control umbilicals to subsea trees with standard bolted flanged connections and flying leads using the well completion drill rig as a work platform.

  9. Development of a Robust and Cost-Effective Friction Stir Welding Process for Use in Advanced Military Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Development of a Robust and Cost-Effective Friction Stir Welding Process for Use in Advanced potential). Unfortu- nately, these alloys are not very amenable to conventional fusion-based welding technologies and in-order to obtain high-quality welds, solid-state joining technologies such as Friction stir

  10. Abstract--Additive manufacturing techniques are becoming more prominent and cost-effective as 3D printing becomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Abstract-- Additive manufacturing techniques are becoming more prominent and cost-effective as 3D utilizing additive manufacturing, allowing for customizability, as well the durability of professional be a substantial benefit to the development of upper-limb prostheses. I. INTRODUCTION Additive manufacturing, or 3D

  11. 4th International Symposium on Energy & Environment: ACCESS Abundant Clean Cost-effective Energy Systems for Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    for India & US) workshop--December 8, 2012. Clean Coal Technology Projects updates on Consortium for Clean4th International Symposium on Energy & Environment: ACCESS Abundant Clean Cost-effective Energy Coal Utilization activities. Discussion on future activities and multi-country efforts in R

  12. A COST-EFFECTIVE TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTOR STEVEN, G. B., EGAN, C., SHIM, W. VINTAN, L.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vintan, Lucian N.

    - 1 - A COST-EFFECTIVE TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTOR STEVEN, G. B., EGAN, C., SHIM, W. VINTAN.B.Steven@herts.ac.uk wonshim@duck.snut.ac.kr vintan@cs.sibiu.ro ABSTRACT During the 1990s Two-level Adaptive Branch Predictors processors. However, while two-level adaptive predictors achieve very high prediction rates, they tend

  13. ALARP Evaluation: Using Cost Effectiveness and Disproportionality To Justify Risk Reduction ANCOLD 2003 Conference on Dams Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowles, David S.

    2003 Conference on Dams Page 1 ALARP EVALUATION: USING COST EFFECTIVENESS AND DISPROPORTIONALITY as reasonably practicable" (ALARP). The ALARP Principle is founded on the legal obligation of dam owners as duty, Institute for Dam Safety Risk Management, Utah Water Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, Utah State

  14. Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer chemistry. In particular, we focus on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)1 , organic photovoltaics2

  15. Towards Scalable Cost-Effective Service and Survivability Provisioning in Ultra High Speed Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bin Wang

    2006-12-01

    Optical transport networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) are considered to be the most appropriate choice for future Internet backbone. On the other hand, future DOE networks are expected to have the ability to dynamically provision on-demand survivable services to suit the needs of various high performance scientific applications and remote collaboration. Since a failure in aWDMnetwork such as a cable cut may result in a tremendous amount of data loss, efficient protection of data transport in WDM networks is therefore essential. As the backbone network is moving towards GMPLS/WDM optical networks, the unique requirement to support DOE’s science mission results in challenging issues that are not directly addressed by existing networking techniques and methodologies. The objectives of this project were to develop cost effective protection and restoration mechanisms based on dedicated path, shared path, preconfigured cycle (p-cycle), and so on, to deal with single failure, dual failure, and shared risk link group (SRLG) failure, under different traffic and resource requirement models; to devise efficient service provisioning algorithms that deal with application specific network resource requirements for both unicast and multicast; to study various aspects of traffic grooming in WDM ring and mesh networks to derive cost effective solutions while meeting application resource and QoS requirements; to design various diverse routing and multi-constrained routing algorithms, considering different traffic models and failure models, for protection and restoration, as well as for service provisioning; to propose and study new optical burst switched architectures and mechanisms for effectively supporting dynamic services; and to integrate research with graduate and undergraduate education. All objectives have been successfully met. This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this project. The impact of the project manifests in many aspects: First, the project addressed many essential problems that arisen in current and future WDM optical networks, and provided a host of innovative solutions though there was no invention or patent filing. This project resulted in more than 2 dozens publications in major journals and conferences (including papers in IEEE Transactions and journals, as well as a book chapter). Our publications have been cited by many peer researchers. In particular, one of our conference papers was nominated for the best paper award of IEEE/Create-Net Broadnets (International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems) 2006. Second, the results and solutions of this project were well received by DOE Labs where presentations were given by the PI. We hope to continue the collaboration with DOE Labs in the future. Third, the project was the first to propose and extensively study multicast traffic grooming, new traffic models such as sliding scheduled traffic model and scheduled traffic model. Our research has sparkled a flurry of recent studies and publications by the research community in these areas. Fourth, the project has benefited a diverse population of students by motivating, engaging, enhancing their learning and skills. The project has been conducted in a manner conducive to the training of students both at graduate and undergraduate levels. As a result, one Ph.D., Dr. Abdur Billah, was graduated. Another Ph.D. student, Tianjian Li, will graduate in January 2007. In addition, four MS students were graduated. One undergraduate student, Jeffrey Alan Shininger, completed his university honors project. Fifth, thanks to the support of this ECPI project, the PI has obtained additional funding from the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Research Lab, and other sources. A few other proposals are pending. Finally, this project has also significantly impacted the curricula and resulted in the enhancement of courses at the graduate and undergraduate levels, therefore strengthening the bond between research and education.

  16. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  17. Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandre Deur; Volker Burkert; Jian-Ping Chen; Wolfgang Korsch

    2005-09-15

    We extract an effective strong coupling constant from low Q2 data on the Bjorken sum. Using sum rules, we establish its Q2-behavior over the complete Q2-range. The result is compared to effective coupling constants extracted from different processes and to calculations based on Schwinger-Dyson equations, hadron spectroscopy or lattice QCD. Although the connection between the experimentally extracted effective coupling constant and the calculations is not clear, the results agree surprisingly well.

  18. A determination of the effective thickness of a liquid deuterium target for a quasielastic scattering experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turkewitz, Jared Ripley

    2010-01-01

    The effective thickness of a liquid deuterium target was determined by measuring the yield of the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering cross section. The flux of incident neutrons was determined by a fission ionization ...

  19. Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for 15% Above 2009 IECC Code-Compliant House for Residential Buildings in TX 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2011-01-01

    for a 2,325 ft2 house. The increased cost would be $25 - $110 for 75% replacements and $50 - $215 for 100% replacements. 17) 4kW Photovoltaic Array The final test-case house was assumed to be grid-connected, 4 kW PV array of multi... of houses, solar PV and lighting measures that showed a significant reduction in electricity use were very effective in reducing the total energy cost. The measures that reduced electricity use for cooling and fans and pumps also resulted in high energy...

  20. We investigate the role of risk perceptions in societal decision-making and as determinants of the social costs of alternative energy sources. Our point of departure is the internationally unique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    -making and as determinants of the social costs of alternative energy sources. Our point of departure is the internationally in energy policy. The survey elicited explicitly the importance of subjective risks on preferences regarding

  1. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  2. System level design enhancements for cost effective renewable power generation by reverse electrodialysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Adam Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the future competitiveness of reverse electrodialysis (RED) with other energy technologies show that the projected levelized cost of electricity realized through current stack designs is prohibitively high. ...

  3. How Credit Market Conditions Impact the Effect of Voluntary Disclosure on Firms' Cost of Debt Capital 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Bret

    2012-10-19

    Prior literature finds that firms incur a lower cost of debt capital when they voluntarily disclose information. However, the economic literature demonstrates that creditors' lending standards become more stringent (lax) when credit is rationed...

  4. The Social Cost of the Health Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCubbin, Donald R.; Delucchi, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Costs of Air Pollution Motor Vehicles." Journal of TransportPARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION FROMMOTOR-VEHICLES IN THE LOSbound estimate of motor-vehicle pollution damages is quite a

  5. Design methods for cost-effective teams of mobile robots in uncertain terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaluk, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Conducting planetary exploration missions with mobile robots is expensive, with costs ranging from hundreds of millions to billions of dollars. Developing reliable robots to work remotely on rough, uncertain terrain is ...

  6. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Cost-Effectiveness of Linear...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.3 details a set of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38W total power draw) or...

  7. Paradoxical effects of cost reduction measures in managed care systems for treatment of severe psoriasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    A. The annual cost of psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28(Camisa C. Handbook of psoriasis. Malden, Mass. : ; BlackwellGottlieb AB, National Psoriasis Foundation ( U.S. ). Therapy

  8. Cost-effective optical network architecture : a joint optimization of topology, switching, routing and wavelength assignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, Kyle Chi

    2007-01-01

    To provide end users with economic access to high bandwidth, the architecture of the next generation metropolitan area networks (MANs) needs to be judiciously designed from the cost perspective. In addition to a low initial ...

  9. Regulatory Control of Vehicle and Power Plant Emissions: How Effective and at What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, S.

    Passenger vehicles and power plants are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. While economic analyses generally indicate that a broader market-based approach to greenhouse gas reduction would be less costly and more ...

  10. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  11. The Effects of Irradiance in Determining the Vertical Distribution of Elk Kelp Pelagophycus porra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fejtek, Stacie Michelle

    2008-01-01

    microscopic stages to higher irradiances appears to be theH. (1996). “Effect of high irradiance on recruitment of theTHESIS The Effects of Irradiance in Determining the Vertical

  12. Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020—from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366’s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with today’s state-of-the-art technologies. 1366’s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366’s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

  13. A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R F

    2009-09-24

    Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing', that is, a bearing that uses magnetic forces to support the rotor against gravity. Magnetic bearings are a virtual necessity for the E-M battery in order to achieve long service life, and to minimize frictional losses so that the battery does not lose its charge (run down) too rapidly. These considerations mitigate against the use of conventional mechanical bearings in the E-M battery for most applications. The Laboratory has pioneered the development of a new form of magnetic bearing to meet the special requirements of the E-M battery: the 'ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing'. Simpler, and potentially much less expensive than the existing 'active' magnetic bearings (ones requiring electronic amplifiers and feedback circuits for their operation) development of the ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing represents a technological breakthrough. Beyond its use in the E-M battery, the ambient-temperature magnetic bearing could have important applications in replacing conventional lubricated mechanical bearings in electrical machinery. Here the gains would be two-fold: reduced frictional losses, leading to higher motor efficiency, and, of equal importance, the elimination of the need for lubricants and for routine replacement of the bearings owing to mechanical wear. Thus an added benefit from a vigorous pursuit of our electromechanical battery concepts could be its impact on many other areas of industry where rotating machinery in need of improved bearings is involved. If perfected, passive magnetic bearings would seem to represent an almost ideal replacement for the mechanical bearings in many types of industrial electrical machinery. Returning to the issued of energy storage, the E-M battery itself has much to contribute in the area of improving the efficiency of stationary energy storage systems. For example, many electrical utilities utilize 'pumped hydro' energy storage systems as a means of improving the utilization of their 'base-load' power plants. That is, electrical energy is stored during off-peak hours for delivery at times of peak usage. These pumped hydro sys

  14. Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janzen, Fredric

    Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination S. E, 2008; Robinson et al., 2009). In many organisms, sex of the offspring is determined by environmental-by-environment interaction; nest-site choice; phenotypic plasticity; sex ratio; temperature-dependent sex determination

  15. EFFECTIVE MATERIALS PROPERTIES: DETERMINATION AND APPLICATION IN MECHANICAL DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    EFFECTIVE MATERIALS PROPERTIES: DETERMINATION AND APPLICATION IN MECHANICAL DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION M. Grujicic, G. Cao and G. M. Fadel Department of Mechanical Engineering Program in Materials for determination of effective mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of multi-phase materials

  16. Sacred Cars? Cost-Effective Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    ) or industry regulation (Olley and Pakes, 1996), failure to equate marginal costs across producers has resulted, the large-scale shift away from the more traditional, more prescrip- tive "command-and-control" approaches-based approaches (such as cap-and-trade programs) has largely been justified on these grounds. A similar transition

  17. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and the effective pooling and exchange of knowledge and experience can only be of benefit to all participants to help complete the cleanup mission more quickly and more cost effectively. This paper examines in detail the tools and processes used to promote information exchange and the progress made to date. It also discusses the challenges and issues involved and proposes recommendations to others who are involved in similar activities. (authors)

  18. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

  19. Centrifugal-Barrier Effects and Determination of the Interaction Radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wu

    2013-05-21

    The interaction radius of a resonance is an important physical quantity to describe the structure of a resonance. But, for a long time, physicists do not find a reliable way to measure the magnitude of the interaction radius of a resonance. In this paper, a method is proposed to measure the interaction radius in physics analysis. It is found that the centrifugal barrier effects have great influence to physical results obtained in the PWA fit, and the interaction radius of some resonances can be well measured in the fit.

  20. Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    upstream of ESA and beam dump, and construction and installation of x-ray transport, optics, and diagnostics in ESA. It also includes the construction of an annex to End Station...

  1. Developing a cost effective environmental solution for produced water and creating a ''new'' water resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran, Glenn; Leong, Lawrence Y.C.

    2000-05-01

    The project goal is to convert a currently usable by-product of oil production, produced water, into a valuable drinking water resource. The project was located at the Placate Oil Field in Santa Clarita, California, approximately 25 miles north of Los Angeles. The project included a literature review of treatment technologies; preliminary bench-scale studies to refine a planning level cost estimate; and a 10-100 gpm pilot study to develop the conceptual design and cost estimate for a 44,000 bpd treatment facility. A reverse osmosis system was constructed, pilot tested, and the data used to develop a conceptual design and operation of four operational scenarios, two industrial waters levels and two irrigation/potable water.

  2. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  3. Two-Year and Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Racquel E. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheets, Nathan C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wheeler, Stephanie B. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nutting, Chris [Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Division of Clinical Studies, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Chera, Bhishamjit S., E-mail: bchera@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of head-and neck-cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We used a Markov model to simulate radiation therapy-induced xerostomia and dysphagia in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old HNC patients. Model input parameters were derived from PARSPORT (CRUK/03/005) patient-level trial data and quality-of-life and Medicare cost data from published literature. We calculated average incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from the US health care perspective as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared our ICERs with current cost-effectiveness standards whereby treatment comparators less than $50,000 per QALY gained are considered cost-effective. Results: In the first 2 years after initial treatment, IMRT is not cost-effective compared with 3D-CRT, given an average ICER of $101,100 per QALY gained. However, over 15 years (remaining lifetime on the basis of average life expectancy of a 65-year-old), IMRT is more cost-effective at $34,523 per QALY gained. Conclusion: Although HNC patients receiving IMRT will likely experience reduced xerostomia and dysphagia symptoms, the small quality-of-life benefit associated with IMRT is not cost-effective in the short term but may be cost-effective over a patient's lifetime, assuming benefits persist over time and patients are healthy and likely to live for a sustained period. Additional data quantifying the long-term benefits of IMRT, however, are needed.

  4. Multiperiod effects of corporate social responsibility on supply chain networks, transaction costs, emissions, and risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    ), the effects of the dissemination of industry standards such as ISO 26000 (Castka and Balzarova, 2008

  5. Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Cho, Hee Jin; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.

  6. National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.

  7. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant oil recovery performance reported in the literature. The second effort is a more fundamental study. It considers the effect of chemical structures of different naphthenic acids (NA) dissolved in decane as model oils that render calcite surfaces oil-wet to a different degree. NAs are common to crude oil and are at least partially responsible for the frequent observation that carbonate reservoirs are oil-wet. Because pure NA compounds are used, trends in wetting behavior can be related to NA molecular structure as measured by solid adsorption, contact angle and our novel, simple flotation test with calcite. Experiments with different surfactants and NA-treated calcite powder provide information about mechanisms responsible for sought after reversal to a water-wet state. Key findings include: (1) more hydrophobic NA's are more prone to induce oil-wetting, and (2) recovery of the model oil from limestone core was better with cationic surfactants, but one nonionic surfactant, Igepal CO-530, also had favorable results. This portion of the project included theoretical calculations to investigate key basic properties of several NAs such as their acidic strength and their relative water/oil solubility, and relate this to their chemical structure. The third category of this project focused on the recovery of a light crude oil from West Texas (McElroy Field) from a carbonate rock (limestone outcrop). For this effort, the first item was to establish a suite of surfactants that would be compatible with the McElroy Field brine. Those were examined further for their ability to recover oil by imbibition. Results demonstrate several types of promising candida

  8. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    cost projections · Chemical Engineering (CE) Plant Construction Cost Index ­ Base value = 100 in 1957.0 in 2Q 2001 · Engineering News Record (ENR) · Nelson Refinery (NR) Construction Cost Index Cost Indices available for estimation are based upon the past · These data must be updated using cost indexes . · Cost

  9. Cost-Effective Cementitious Material Compatible with Yucca Mountain Repository Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, LR

    2004-12-17

    The current plans for the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository project (YMP) use steel structures to stabilize the disposal drifts and connecting tunnels that are collectively over 100 kilometers in length. The potential exist to reduce the underground construction cost by 100s of millions of dollars and improve the repository's performance. These economic and engineering goals can be achieved by using the appropriate cementitious materials to build out these tunnels. This report describes the required properties of YM compatible cements and reviews the literature that proves the efficacy of this approach. This report also describes a comprehensive program to develop and test materials for a suite of underground construction technologies.

  10. DEVELOPING A COST EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTION FOR PRODUCED WATER AND CREATING A ''NEW'' WATER RESOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn Doran

    1997-04-28

    This report summarizes the status of this project for the quarter January 1, 1997 to March 31, 1997. Phase II has been started and Task 7, Develop Pilot Scale Test Work Plan has been completed. The operational portion of this phase, Task 8 has been initiated with several pieces of pilot equipment already on-site. The start up of the full process train will not occur until the next quarter. The project is slightly behind schedule. A no cost extension was requested and was granted. The anticipated completion date is December 31, 1997. The project is on budget.

  11. Cost-Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data Tracking

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeepDecemberCornstalks CostSystems |

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergy comparingDeepDecemberCornstalks CostSystems

  13. Cost Transfer Procedures How And When To Make Cost Transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Cost Transfer Procedures How And When To Make Cost Transfers Effective February 9, 2003, cost elsewhere. Federal regulations require additional documentation to support cost transfers to sponsored program indexes. Costs may not be shifted to other research projects or from one budget period to the next

  14. Determination of applied stresses in rails using the acoustoelastic effect of ultrasonic waves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gokhale, Shailesh Ashok

    2009-05-15

    This research develops a procedure to determine the applied stresses in rails using the acoustoelastic effect of ultrasonic waves. Acoustoelasticity is defined as the stress dependency of ultrasonic wave speed or wave polarization. Analytical models...

  15. Optimal Materials and Deposition Technique Lead to Cost-Effective Solar Cell with Best-Ever Conversion Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the SJ3 solar cell was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Based on NREL and Solar Junction technology, the commercial SJ3 concentrator solar cell - with 43.5% conversion efficiency at 418 suns - uses a lattice-matched multijunction architecture that has near-term potential for cells with {approx}50% efficiency. Multijunction solar cells have higher conversion efficiencies than any other type of solar cell. But developers of utility-scale and space applications crave even better efficiencies at lower costs to be both cost-effective and able to meet the demand for power. The SJ3 multijunction cell, developed by Solar Junction with assistance from foundational technological advances by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has the highest efficiency to date - almost 2% absolute more than the current industry standard multijunction cell-yet at a comparable cost. So what did it take to create this cell having 43.5% efficiency at 418-sun concentration? A combination of materials with carefully designed properties, a manufacturing technique allowing precise control, and an optimized device design.

  16. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A.; Allen, R.B.; Schofield, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs.

  17. Demonstration of a novel dispersive spectral splitting optical element for cost- effective photovoltaic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maragliano, Carlo; Bronzoni, Matteo; Rampino, Stefano; Fitzgerald, Eugene A; Chiesa, Matteo; Stefancich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this letter we report the preliminary validation of a low-cost paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a prismatic Fresnel-like lens to simultaneously concentrate and separate sunlight into continuous laterally spaced spectral bands, which are then fed into spectrally matched single-junction photovoltaic cells. A prismatic lens was designed using geometric optics and the dispersive properties of the employed material, and its performance was simulated with a ray- tracing software. After device optimization, it was fabricated by injection molding, suitable for large-scale mass production. We report an average optical transmittance of ~ 90% over the VNIR range with spectral separation in excellent agreement with our simulations. Finally, two prototype systems were tested: one with GaAsP and c-Si photovoltaic devices and one with a pair of copper indium gallium selenide based solar cells. The systems demonstrated an increase in peak electrical power output of 51% and 64% respectively under wh...

  18. The Social Cost of the Health Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCubbin, Donald R.; Delucchi, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Victor E. (1990). "Air Pollution and Fatal Lung Disease inEffects of Photochemical Oxidant Air Pollution in Exercisinget alo (1992). "Air Pollution and Respiratory Symptoms in

  19. COST-EFFECTIVE VISIBILITY-BASED DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL OFFICE LIGHTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visual Fields." Trans. Lighting Principles Subcommittee:For General Offi ::e Lighting." LBL 1/10514, Energy andThe Energy Effectiveness Lighting Systems." L , Design and

  20. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly reports 1 through 15. Results for each of the tasks in Phase 1 are presented.

  1. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

  2. The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12­14 mm

  3. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INTRAVENOUS NICARDIPINE VERSUS SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE FOR POSTOPERATIVE HYPERTENSION AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Brian Joseph

    2010-11-23

    Postoperative hypertension after cardiac surgery is common and associated with substantial morbidity. Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nicardipine (NIC) are effective in its management. SNP is inexpensive, but associated with labile blood...

  4. Quantifying the Effectiveness of Innovative Contracting Strategies on Schedule, Cost and Change Order 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaur, Ankit

    2013-08-01

    the effectiveness of these strategies. The major objectives of this research were: 1) to evaluate the impact of contracting strategies on dealing with change orders 2) to evaluate the performance of different contracting strategies under varied work type...

  5. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

  6. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  7. Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and Cost Effectiveness Are the Overall Costs of Smog Check? __________________ 2 2.1. Vehicle Testing Costs____________________________________________ 3 2.2. Repair Costs ___________________________________________________ 5 2.3. Administrative Costs

  8. Environmental Cost Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edge, D.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis David Edge Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission 131 ESL-IE-00-04-21 Proceedings from the Twenty-second National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 5-6, 2000 Tuas Natural Resource Conservation Cor...DDliuion Environmental Cost Analysis Presented By David Edge Determine the Costs c> Input co Output c> Hidden c> Capital (non recurring) Envirormenlal Cost Analy.;is "There has to be a measurable result ofimprovement and it should be tied to dollars...

  9. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  10. Multi-Hybrid Power Vehicles with Cost Effective and Durable Polymer Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, Anima

    2014-02-28

    Anima Bose, the principal investigator of the project, originally proposed to develop composite membranes to operate PEMFCs at much higher temperatures than 80{degrees}C and to alleviate the flooding problems often encountered in Nafion menmbrane containing fuel cells. The PI has successfully created composite membranes by blending small quantities of octasilane-poss (OSP) with Nafion. The composite membranes exhibited temperature tolerance up to 110{degrees}C without scarifying cell performance as determined by polarization curves and proton conductivity measurements. These membranes also exhibited superior water management performance as evident from the lack of flooding. Furthermore, these fuel cells performed well under reduced humidities. Structural and thermal analyses revealed that these Nafion-octasilane composite membranes are homogenous at concentrations up to 3 wt% of the OSP and that the siloxane offers additional thermal stability.

  11. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for the State of New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Selvacanabady, Abinesh

    2014-12-01

    This analysis was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE supports the development and adoption of energy efficient and cost-effective residential and commercial building energy codes. These codes set the minimum requirements for energy-efficient building design and construction and ensure energy savings on a national level. The basis of the residential building energy codes is the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) published by the International Code Council (ICC). The IECC is developed and published on a three-year cycle, with a new edition published at the end of each cycle.

  13. Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI) Cost Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Alice Price

    2010-07-11

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) began operating Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) under the Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based and cost-effective program, in December 2006. The NTS SFPI Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Systems (COMPASS) Model is made up of specific elements (MC&A plan, graded safeguards, accounting systems, measurements, containment, surveillance, physical inventories, shipper/receiver differences, assessments/performance tests) and various sub-elements, which are each assigned effectiveness and contribution factors that when weighted and rated reflect the health of the MC&A program. The MC&A Cost Model, using an Excel workbook, calculates budget and/or actual costs using these same elements/sub-elements resulting in total costs and effectiveness costs per element/sub-element. These calculations allow management to identify how costs are distributed for each element/sub-element. The Cost Model, as part of the SFPI program review process, enables management to determine if spending is appropriate for each element/sub-element.

  14. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale E. Brown (Pyrotek); Puja B. Kadolkar (ORNL)

    2005-12-15

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to increase the life of the DFS tubes by 700%. (5) If all the DFS riser tubes used in LPD casting of aluminum automotive components are replaced with the better, longer-lasting castable riser tubes, the potential national energy savings is estimated to be 206 billion Btu/year.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Radiofrequency Ablation for Medically Inoperable, Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wee, Jon O. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The standard management of medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) conventionally has been fractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). The relatively poor local control rate and inconvenience associated with this therapy have prompted the development of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), a technique that delivers very high doses of irradiation typically over 3 to 5 sessions. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has also been investigated as a less costly, single-day therapy that thermally ablates small, peripheral tumors. The cost-effectiveness of these three techniques has never been compared. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states of 65-year-old men with medically inoperable NSCLC after treatment with 3D-CRT, SBRT, and RFA. Given their frail state, patients were assumed to receive supportive care after recurrence. Utility values, recurrence risks, and costs were adapted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in these parameters. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for SBRT over 3D-CRT was $6,000/quality-adjusted life-year, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for SBRT over RFA was $14,100/quality-adjusted life-year. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust across a range of tumor sizes, patient utility values, and costs. This result was confirmed with probabilistic sensitivity analyses that varied local control rates and utilities. Conclusion: In comparison to 3D-CRT and RFA, SBRT was the most cost-effective treatment for medically inoperable NSCLC over a wide range of treatment and disease assumptions. On the basis of efficacy and cost, SBRT should be the primary treatment approach for this disease.

  16. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of Cost-effective, Energy-efficient Steel Framing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nader R. Elhajj

    2003-01-06

    Steel members in wall construction form a thermal bridge that interrupts the insulation layer of a wall. This causes higher rate of heat transfer by conduction through the wall framing than through other parts of the wall. One method to reduce the thermal bridging effect is to provide a break, such as insulating sheathing. A thermally efficient slit-web and stud was developed in this program to mitigate the conductivity of steel. The thermal performance of the slit-web stud was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using hotbox testing. The thermal test results showed that the prototype slit-web stud performed 17% better than the solid-web stud, using R-13 fiber glass batts with exterior OSB sheathing and interior drywall. The structural behavior of this slit-web stud was evaluated in axial, bending, shear, shearwall, and stub-column tests. Test results indicated that the slitweb stud performed similarly or better than the solid-web stud in most structural performance characteristics investigated. Thus, the prototype slit-web stud has been shown to be thermally efficient, economiexecy viable, structurally sound, easily manufactured and usable in a range of residential installations.

  17. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  18. Effect of water washing on oxalic acid content of various fodders and its determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of water washing on oxalic acid content of various fodders and its determination A Kumar CS that high oxalic acid content, producing oxalate toxicity and interfering with the calcium metabolism, reduces milk yield. If these fodders are washed with water, soluble oxalates are released up to a safe

  19. Effects of Shear Rate on Propagation of Blood Clotting Determined Using Microfluidics and Numerical Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Effects of Shear Rate on Propagation of Blood Clotting Determined Using Microfluidics and Numerical-ismagilov@uchicago.edu Abstract: This paper describes microfluidic experiments with human blood plasma and numerical simulations removed. In addition, these results demonstrate the utility of simplified mechanisms and microfluidics

  20. How Hurricane Attributes Determine the Extent of Environmental Effects: Multiple Hurricanes and Different Coastal Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    How Hurricane Attributes Determine the Extent of Environmental Effects: Multiple Hurricanes Program, 1926 Victoria Avenue, Fort Myers, Florida 33901 ABSTRACT: The most recent spate of hurricanes characteristics of hurricanes interact with human land use to lead to various types and degrees of environmental

  1. Information, Diversification, and Cost of Capital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, John S; Liu, Jing; Liu, Jun

    2005-01-01

    insider trading and cost of capital. ” Working paper, UCLA,Information and the cost of capital. ” Journal of Finance,in Determining Cost of Equity Capital,” Review of Accounting

  2. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  3. NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

    2012-07-01

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  4. Candidate alloys for cost-effective, high-efficiency, high-temperature compact/foil heat-exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Neal D; Maziasz, Philip J; Shingledecker, John P; Pint, Bruce A; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2007-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems operate at high temperatures (up to 1000 C and 650 C, respectively), which makes them especially attractive sources for combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration. However, improvements in the efficiency of heat exchange in these fuel cells require both development and careful processing of advanced cost-effective alloys for use in such high-temperature service conditions. The high-temperature properties of both sheet and foil forms of several alloys being considered for use in compact heat-exchangers (recuperators) have been characterized. Mechanical and creep-rupture testing, oxidation studies, and microstructural studies have been performed on commercially available sheet and foil forms of alloy 347, alloys 625, HR230, HR120, and the new AL20-25+Nb. These studies have led to a mechanistic understanding of the responses of these alloys to anticipated service conditions, and suggest that these alloys developed for gas- and micro-turbine recuperator applications are also suitable for use in fuel cell heat-exchangers. Additional work is still required to achieve foil forms with creep life comparable to thicker-section wrought product forms of the same alloys.

  5. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Packaging effects: operating frequency, power, complexity, reliability, and cost The packaging challenge is too keep up with the demands of forecasted silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Chintan

    Packaging effects: operating frequency, power, complexity, reliability, and cost The packaging materials, as well as process techniques. Introduction of CU/low-k materials has caused stiffness of package and silicon to become similar. The IC and package become a single physical structure requiring new knowledge

  7. The role of estrogen in turtle sex determination and the effect of PCBs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crews, D.; Bergeron, J.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); McLachlan, J.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gonadal sex is fixed at fertilization by specific chromosomes, a process known as genotypic sex determination (GSD). Only after the gonad is formed do hormones begin to exert an influence that modifies specific structures that eventually will differ between the sexes. Many egg-laying reptiles do not exhibit GSD but rather depend on the temperature of the incubating egg to determine the gonadal sex of the offspring, a process termed temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Research on TSD indicates that gonadal sex is not irrevocably set by the genetic composition inherited at fertilization but depends ultimately on which genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes and hormone receptors are activated during the midtrimester of embryonic development by temperature. Incubation temperature modifies the activity as well as the temporal and spatial sequence of enzymes and hormone receptors to determine gonad type. Estrogen is the physiologic equivalent of incubation temperature and the proximate cue that initiates female sex determination. increasing evidence indicates some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. Reproductive disorders resulting from exposure to these xenobiotic compounds may include reductions in fertility, hatch rate in fish and birds, and viability of offspring, as well as alterations in hormone levels or adult sexual behaviors. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds may be acting to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, by which the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. In TSD turtles, the estrogenic effect of some PCBs reverses gonadal sex in individuals incubating at an otherwise male-producing temperature. Furthermore, certain PCBs are synergistic in their effect at very low concentrations. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Eric; Masur, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    and Eric A. Posner, Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-effects of environmental regulations for other industries.Paper Collection.   Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-

  9. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-28

    When someone mentions integration costs, thoughts of the costs of integrating renewable generation into an existing system come to mind. We think about how variability and uncertainty can increase power system cycling costs as increasing amounts of wind or solar generation are incorporated into the generation mix. However, seldom do we think about what happens to system costs when new baseload generation is added to an existing system or when generation self-schedules. What happens when a highly flexible combined-cycle plant is added? Do system costs go up, or do they go down? Are other, non-cycling, maintenance costs impacted? In this paper we investigate six technologies and operating practices--including VG, baseload generation, generation mix, gas prices, self-scheduling, and fast-start generation--and how changes in these areas can impact a system's operating costs. This paper provides a working definition of integration costs and four components of variable costs. It describes the study approach and how a production cost modeling-based method was used to determine the cost effects, and, as a part of the study approach section, it describes the test system and data used for the comparisons. Finally, it presents the research findings, and, in closing, suggests three areas for future work.

  10. Cost Transfer Review Criteria Revised: 01/28/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    Cost Transfer Review Criteria Revised: 01/28/2011 Cost transfers should contain sufficient. The cost transfer narrative should include enough detail to determine who or what the cost transfer relates to, the type of cost transferred, where the cost is transferred from and to, when the cost

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Installation costs, including well drilling and the diggingplastic pipe drilling & installing pipe Total costs to beproject costs: Tower Foundation (including drilling,

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Installation costs, including well drilling and the diggingproject costs: Tower Foundation (including drilling,plastic pipe drilling & installing pipe Total costs to be

  13. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A. [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States)] [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States); Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States)] [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States); Nachtman, Thomas J. [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)] [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to determine the TRU content of the boxes by assessing the activity of Am-241 (59 keV) and Pu-241 (414 keV). Using the data generated it was possible for qualified subject matter experts (SME) to assess that the gloveboxes could be consigned for disposition as LLW and not as TRU. Once this determination was assessed and accepted the gloveboxes were prepared for final disposition to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This preparation involved fixing any remaining radioactive contamination within the gloveboxes by filling them with a foam compound, prior to transportation. Once the remaining contamination was fixed the gloveboxes were removed from the laboratory and prepared for transported by road to NNSS. This successful glovebox decontamination and decommissioning process illustrates the means by which TRU waste generation has been minimized, LLW generation has been maximized, and risk has been effectively managed. The process minimizes the volume of TRU waste and reduced the decommissioning time with significant cost savings as the result. (authors)

  14. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsalek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ab initio ring polymer contraction (AI-RPC) scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive pro...

  15. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapil, Venkat; Ceriotti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modelling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order fac...

  16. Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coulter

    2007-03-31

    In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and a ''no cost'' time extension was requested and granted to allow IdaTech time to complete task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date is now October 31, 2007.

  17. Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coulter

    2006-12-31

    In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and two ''no cost'' time extensions have been requested and granted to allow Idatech time to complete Task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date of April 7, 2007 has been confirmed by Idatech.

  18. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  19. Vibrational stark effects to identify ion pairing and determine reduction potentials in electrolyte-free environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Miller, John R.

    2015-01-02

    A recently-developed instrument for time-resolved infrared detection following pulse radiolysis has been used to measure the ?(C?N) IR band of the radical anion of a CN-substituted fluorene in tetrahydrofuran. Specific vibrational frequencies can exhibit distinct frequency shifts due to ion-pairing, which can be explained in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect. Measurements of the ratio of free ions and ion-pairs in different electrolyte concentrations allowed us to obtain an association constant and free energy change for ion-pairing. As a result, this new method has the potential to probe the geometry of ion-pairing and allows the reduction potentials of moleculesmore »to be determined in the absence of electrolyte in an environment of low dielectric constant.« less

  20. The effect of standard ambient conditions used for the determination of road load to predict vehicle fuel economy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Michael Lee

    1982-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF STANDARD AN1BIENT CONDITIONS USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ROAD LOAD TO PREDICT VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY A Thesis by Michael Lee Love Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 198Z Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE EFFECT OF STANDARD AMBIENT CONDITIONS USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ROAD LOAD TO PREDICT VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY A Thesis by Michael Lee Love Approved...

  1. Cost-effective and highly sensitive cholesterol microsensors with fast response based on the enzyme-induced conductivity change of polyaniline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Kuan-Chung; Chu, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Kang, Yen-Wen; Fang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Chih-Chen; Li, Sheng-Shian; Andrew Yeh, J.; Yao, Da-Jeng; Wang, Yu-Lin, E-mail: ylwang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chia-Hsien [Division of Medical Engineering, National Health Research Institutes, MiaoLi, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yu-Fen [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, a cost-effective and highly sensitive cholesterol microsensor, which is consisted of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and polyaniline (PANI), was developed based on the enzyme-induced conductivity change of PANI with fast response. Hydrogen peroxide is produced via the reaction between cholesterol and ChOx, which was immobilized in a dialysis membrane. The produced hydrogen peroxide can oxidize HRP, which can be reduced by oxidizing PANI, thus resulting in decreased conductivity of the polyaniline thin film. The reduced HRP can be oxidized again by hydrogen peroxide and the cycle of the oxidation/reduction continues until all hydrogen peroxide are reacted, leading to the high sensitivity of the sensor due to the signal contributed from all hydrogen peroxide molecules. Cholesterol was detected near the physiological concentrations ranging from 100?mg/dl to 400?mg/dl with the cholesterol microsensors. The results show linear relation between cholesterol concentration and the conductivity change of the PANI. The microsensor showed no response to cholesterol when the PANI was standalone without cholesterol oxidase immobilized, indicating that the enzymatic reaction is required for cholesterol detection. The simple process of the sensor fabrication allows the sensor to be cost-effective and disposable usage. This electronic cholesterol microsensor is promising for point-of-care health monitoring in cholesterol level with low cost and fast response.

  2. Determination of effective axion masses in the helium-3 buffer of CAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruz, J

    2011-11-18

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is a ground based experiment located in Geneva (Switzerland) searching for axions coming from the Sun. Axions, hypothetical particles that not only could solve the strong CP problem but also be one of the favored candidates for dark matter, can be produced in the core of the Sun via the Primakoff effect. They can be reconverted into X-ray photons on Earth in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. In order to look for axions, CAST points a decommissioned LHC prototype dipole magnet with different X-ray detectors installed in both ends of the magnet towards the Sun. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV/c{sup 2}. During the second phase, CAST extends its mass sensitivity by tuning the electron density present in the magnetic field region. Injecting precise amounts of helium gas has enabled CAST to look for axion masses up to 1.2 eV/c{sup 2}. This paper studies the determination of the effective axion masses scanned at CAST during its second phase. The use of a helium gas buffer at temperatures of 1.8 K has required a detailed knowledge of the gas density distribution. Complete sets of computational fluid dynamic simulations validated with experimental data have been crucial to obtain accurate results.

  3. Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

  4. Agenda of critical issues: coal price and availability. Final report. [Includes effect of legislation, sulfur content and rail transport costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennican, M.L.; Wayland, R.E.; Weinstein, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Temple, Barker, and Sloane, Inc. developed an agenda of critical issues regarding future coal prices and coal availability for EPRI. TBS interviewed nearly 50 utility, coal company, and railroad officials, academic experts, and coal consultants; held a one-day participatory workshop; and conducted a literature review and follow-up interviews with selected utilities. TBS found four causes of uncertainty in the utility industry over future coal prices. First, the acid deposition proposals in Congress vary in terms of the structure of the legislation, the costs of compliance, and the impact on coal prices; in turn these uncertainties impede utility fuel planning and decision making. Second, powerplant-specific factors will have a major impact on whether utilities switch or scrub in response to acid deposition legislation; existing analyses do not capture these factors. The most important powerplant-specific factors are matching unit characteristics with coal specifications, retrofit scrubber costs, and differing state regulatory environments. Third, TBS found that utility fuel managers have great uncertainty over the availability and future cost of compliance coal. TBS estimated that the existing production capacity of eastern compliance coal is at least twice as high as current production. Fourth, TBS concluded that uncertainty over future coal transportation rates was a major reason for utilities' uncertainty over future delivered prices of coal. Critical transportation-related issues are the strategic and tactical response of eastern coal producers to the Staggers Act; the impact on rail rates of the sale of Conrail, of possible transcontinental mergers, and of multi-modal mergers; and the future pricing policies that eastern railroads will adopt in response to imports of Colombian coal. 21 references.

  5. Determining the Effectiveness of Incorporating Geographic Information Into Vehicle Performance Algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sera White

    2012-04-01

    This thesis presents a research study using one year of driving data obtained from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) located in Sacramento and San Francisco, California to determine the effectiveness of incorporating geographic information into vehicle performance algorithms. Sacramento and San Francisco were chosen because of the availability of high resolution (1/9 arc second) digital elevation data. First, I present a method for obtaining instantaneous road slope, given a latitude and longitude, and introduce its use into common driving intensity algorithms. I show that for trips characterized by >40m of net elevation change (from key on to key off), the use of instantaneous road slope significantly changes the results of driving intensity calculations. For trips exhibiting elevation loss, algorithms ignoring road slope overestimated driving intensity by as much as 211 Wh/mile, while for trips exhibiting elevation gain these algorithms underestimated driving intensity by as much as 333 Wh/mile. Second, I describe and test an algorithm that incorporates vehicle route type into computations of city and highway fuel economy. Route type was determined by intersecting trip GPS points with ESRI StreetMap road types and assigning each trip as either city or highway route type according to whichever road type comprised the largest distance traveled. The fuel economy results produced by the geographic classification were compared to the fuel economy results produced by algorithms that assign route type based on average speed or driving style. Most results were within 1 mile per gallon ({approx}3%) of one another; the largest difference was 1.4 miles per gallon for charge depleting highway trips. The methods for acquiring and using geographic data introduced in this thesis will enable other vehicle technology researchers to incorporate geographic data into their research problems.

  6. COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Arps; K. Coulter

    2006-09-30

    In the past quarter, we have conducted additional characterization and permeation tests on different Pd alloy membranes including PdCuTa ternary alloy materials. We attempted to address some discrepancies between SwRI{reg_sign} and CSM relating to PdCu stoichiometry by preparing a range of PdCu membranes with compositions from {approx}58-65 at% Pd (bal. Cu). While some difficulties in cutting and sealing these thin membranes at CSM continue, some progress has been made in identifying improved membrane support materials. We have also completed an initial cost analysis for large-scale vacuum deposition and fabrication of thin Pd ally membranes and project that the process can meet DOE cost targets. Minimal progress was made in the past quarter relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules at Idatech. In the past quarter Idatech was acquired by a UK investment firm, which we believe may have impacted the ability of key technical personnel to devote sufficient time to support this effort. We are hopeful their work can be completed by the end of the calendar year.

  7. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  8. The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.

  9. The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2012-07-04

    Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

  10. Criteria for determining the effectiveness of utility-initiated energy assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costello, Ken

    2010-04-15

    The affordability of electricity and natural gas to all households requires some form of energy assistance, funded by utilities and their customers. Good regulation demands that EA initiatives have favorable benefit-cost ratios. Regulators should strive to assure that each dollar expended returns the highest possible dividend and that EA initiatives do not seriously impede other regulatory objectives. (author)

  11. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.

  13. RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS --NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided to patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS -- NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine) Patient care costs shall be computed in a manner consistent with the principles and procedures used by the Medicare Program for determining the part of Medicare reimbursement based on reasonable costs

  14. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Participant Support Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Policy on Participant Support Costs Effective: May 15, 2006 Purpose costs are separately accounted for, and expended for appropriate and intended objectives. Background in the conference, workshop or training activity. Participant supports costs are defined as direct costs for items

  15. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  16. Improved supplier selection and cost management for globalized automotive production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franken, Joseph P., II (Joseph Philip)

    2012-01-01

    For many manufacturing and automotive companies, traditional sourcing decisions rely on total landed cost models to determine the cheapest supplier. Total landed cost models calculate the cost to purchase a part plus all ...

  17. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    into COEUS x OPAFS establishes project related IFIS fund and index numbers x Department tracks cost sharing sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  18. Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1993-12-31

    Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

  19. Direct observation of the effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane: Free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshihiro Nishiyama

    2003-07-10

    Effective bending moduli of a fluid membrane are investigated by means of the transfer-matrix method developed in our preceding paper. This method allows us to survey various statistical measures for the partition sum. The role of the statistical measures is arousing much attention, since Pinnow and Helfrich claimed that under a suitable statistical measure, that is, the local mean curvature, the fluid membranes are stiffened, rather than softened, by thermal undulations. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to observe the effective bending moduli directly: We subjected a fluid membrane to a curved reference plane, and from the free-energy cost due to the reference-plane deformations, we read off the effective bending moduli. Accepting the mean-curvature measure, we found that the effective bending rigidity gains even in the case of very flexible membrane (small bare rigidity); it has been rather controversial that for such non-perturbative regime, the analytical prediction does apply. We also incorporate the Gaussian-curvature modulus, and calculated its effective rigidity. Thereby, we found that the effective Gaussian-curvature modulus stays almost scale-invariant. All these features are contrasted with the results under the normal-displacement measure.

  20. Design and characterization of a low cost dual differential proving ring force sensor utilizing Hall-effect sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Christopher W. (Christopher Warren)

    2006-01-01

    A novel dual differential hall-effect based proving ring force sensor has been designed, manufactured, and tested. Strain gauge based force sensors are among the most common methods of measuring static and dynamic forces, ...

  1. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, An T. (An Thien)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon: Challenging Students to Build Energy Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Attractive Solar-Powered Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. The paper discusses the solutions developed for the event. We believe that the solutions implemented for Solar Decathlon 2011 represent current trends and that by analyzing, critiquing, and exposing the solutions pursued, the industry can become better suited to address challenges of the future. Constructing a solar community using high-efficiency design and unique materials while remaining code compliant, safe, and effective results in solutions that are market relevant, important, and interesting to the industry as a whole.

  3. Cost Sharing Basics Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Cost Sharing Basics Definitions Some funding agencies require the grantee institution the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may resources or facilities. If the award is federal, only acceptable non-federal costs qualify as cost sharing

  4. Cooling the greenhouse effect: Options and costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from the American Electric Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helme, N.; Popovich, M.G.; Gille, J. [Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences concludes that the earth is likely to face a doubling of preindustrial greenhouse gases in the next half century. This doubling could be expected to push average global temperatures. up from between 1.8 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Much of the potential for human impacts on the global climate is linked to fossil fuel consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the US totals about one-quarter of the world`s total emissions from energy consumption. Global warming is different from other environmental problems because CO{sub 2} emissions can be captured naturally by trees, grasses, soil, and other plants. In contrast, acid rain emissions reductions can only be accomplished through switching to lower-polluting fuels, conserving energy, or installing costly retrofit technologies. Terrestrial biota, such as trees, plants, grasses and soils, directly affect the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the atmosphere. A number of reports have concluded that forestry and land-use practices can increase CO{sub 2} sequestration and can help reduce or delay the threat of global warming.

  5. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  6. Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tracey

    Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition Shreeshankar Bodas, Jared Grubb, Sriram Sridharan-- This paper analyzes a capacitated network with costs from an information theoretic point of view. Determines a flow decomposition for a network with costs starting from an information theoretic point of view

  7. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  8. Experimental design to determine the effect of temperature and Mach number on entropy noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hake, Mariah I. (Mariah Inez)

    2014-01-01

    The Osney Laboratory sought to create an entropy noise test rig that could determine the relationship between entropy noise and the flow parameters of temperature change and nozzle Mach number. The apparatus simulates ...

  9. Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments.

  10. A cost-effective process to prepare VO{sub 2} (M) powder and films with superior thermochromic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xiudi; Zhang, Hua; Chai, Guanqi; Sun, Yaoming; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Haoliang; Chen, Lihua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Gang

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Combining codeposition and short time post annealing, VO{sub 2} (M) with high quality and excellent phase transition performance is obtained. After mixing the VO{sub 2} powder with acrylic resin, the composite films deposited on glass show superior visible transmission and solar modulation, which can be used as an excellent candidate of low cost smart window in energy saving field. - Highlights: • The VO{sub 2} powder obtained by short time thermolysis method is high purity and crystallinity with superior phase transition performance. • The maximum decreasing efficiency of phase transition temperature is about ?30 K/at% with w = 0.4 at%. • After mixing VO{sub 2} powder with acrylic resin, the maximal visible transmission of the composite films is 48% and the transmission modulation at 2000 nm is 37.3% with phase transition temperature of 66.2 °C. • Though the phase transition performance is weakened by tungsten doping, the film prepared by 1.3 at% tungsten doped VO{sub 2} still show superior transmission modulation about 26.4%, which means that it is a potential candidate as smart windows. - Abstract: VO{sub 2} powder with superior phase transition performance was prepared by convenient thermolysis method. The results illustrated that VO{sub 2} powder show high purity and crystallinity. VO{sub 2} particles are transformed from cluster to quasi-sphere with the increase of annealing temperature. The DSC analysis proves that VO{sub 2} show superior phase transition performance around 68 °C. The phase transition temperature can be reduced to 33.5 °C by 1.8 at% tungsten doping. The maximum decreasing efficiency of phase transition temperature is about ?30 K/at% with w = 0.4 at%. After mixing VO{sub 2} powder with acrylic resin, the maximal visible transmission of the composite thin films on glass is 48% and the transmission modulation at 2000 nm is 37.3% with phase transition temperature of 66.2 °C. Though the phase transition performance is weakened by tungsten doping, the film prepared by 1.3 at% tungsten doped VO{sub 2} still show superior transmission modulation about 26.4% at 2000 nm, which means that it is a potential candidate as smart windows.

  11. Modelling, simulation and analysis of low-cost direct torque control of PMSM using hall-effect sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Salih Baris

    2007-04-25

    3.2 Principles of Self-Commisioning with Identification ..............................68 3.3 Resistance and dq-axis Synchronous Inductance Measurements.............69 3.4 Measurment of the Back-EMF Constant and Rotor Flux Linkage ..........79 3... represented as ..........................26 r 2.3. Q-axis leading d-axis and the rotor angle represented as ? ...........................28 2.4. Line-to-line back-EMF ( ), phase back-EMFs, phase current ab waveforms and hall-effect position...

  12. The Cost-Effectiveness of Investments to Meet the Guiding Principles for High-Performance Sustainable Buildings on the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Judd, Kathleen S.

    2014-08-29

    As part its campus sustainability efforts, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has invested in eight new and existing buildings to ensure they meet the U.S. Department of Energy’s requirements for high performance sustainable buildings (HPSB) at DOE sites. These investments are expected to benefit PNNL by reducing the total life-cycle cost of facilities, improving energy efficiency and water conservation, and making buildings safer and healthier for the occupants. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of the implementing measures that meet the criteria for HPSBs in 3 different types of buildings on the PNNL campus: offices, scientific laboratories, and data centers. In each of the three case studies examined the investments made to achieve HPSB status demonstrated a high return on the HPSB investments that have taken place in these varied environments. Simple paybacks for total investments in the three case study buildings ranged from just 2 to 5 years; savings-to-investment ratios all exceeded the desirable threshold of 1; and the net present values associated with these investments were all positive.

  13. Optimal Transportation Theory with Repulsive Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Di Marino; Augusto Gerolin; Luca Nenna

    2015-06-15

    This paper intents to present the state of art and recent developments of the optimal transportation theory with many marginals for a class of repulsive cost functions. We introduce some aspects of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) from a mathematical point of view, and revisit the theory of optimal transport from its perspective. Moreover, in the last three sections, we describe some recent and new theoretical and numerical results obtained for the Coulomb cost, the repulsive harmonic cost and the determinant cost.

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    oil drilling likely be important sources retortion of divergence between private and social It is unlikely that environmen- cost

  15. Effects of protein and energy levels during the growing and laying periods on performance and egg production costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santana, Jose

    1968-01-01

    Ih O O I IA I O o 0' V V V V Al F! I nlI 0 o 0 0 a J2 nl 0 C4 H 0 I! I! IA O nl A u nl nl nl W A nl A nl nl I! Cl 4 W W 0 0 V 0 '0 cl nl u u V II nl Sl nl nl In n! nl m M nl g A CI CI nl ~ In 28... of diet to pullets from 8 to 21 weeks of age, combined with an all-mash and a mash plus unground milo free choice feeding system, in a factorial arrangement (3xZx2) had no effect on body weight, level of peak production or egg size during the laying...

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    crop irrigation. The system consists of a windmill, pump,irrigation conduits Total gross costs From gross costs I must net out those costs associated an electric with using pumppump water from an eXisting well into a pond. The pond water is used for irrigation

  17. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Kushler. 2009. “Saving Energy Cost-Effectively: A Nationalscale up efforts, what saving energy costs among an array ofhigher CSE. Higher retail energy costs result in lower CSE

  18. Opportunities for Cost Effective Disposal of Radioactively Contaminated Solid Waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN - 13045

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMonia, Brian [Department of Energy, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Department of Energy, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Dunning, Don [Argonne National Laboratory, P.O. Box 6974, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6974 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, P.O. Box 6974, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6974 (United States); Hampshire John [UCOR, PO Box 4699, MS-7593, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [UCOR, PO Box 4699, MS-7593, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the release of non-real property, including solid waste, containing low levels of residual radioactive materials are specified in DOE Order 458.1 and associated guidance. Authorized limits have been approved under the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, predecessor to DOE Order 458.1, to permit disposal of solid waste containing low levels of residual radioactive materials at solid waste landfills located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Specifically, volumetric concentration limits for disposal of solid waste at Industrial Landfill V and at Construction/Demolition Landfill VII were established in 2003 and 2007, respectively, based on the requirements in effect at that time, which included: an evaluation to ensure that radiation doses to the public would not exceed 25 mrem/year and would be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), with a goal of a few mrem/year or less (in fact, these authorized limits actually were derived to meet a dose constraint of 1 mrem/year); an evaluation of compliance with groundwater protection requirements; and reasonable assurance that the proposed disposal is not likely to result in a future requirement for remediation of the landfill. Prior to approval as DOE authorized limits, these volumetric concentration limits were coordinated with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and documented in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the TDEC Division of Radiological Health and the TDEC Division of Solid Waste Management. These limits apply to the disposal of soil and debris waste generated from construction, maintenance, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The approved site-specific authorized limits were incorporated in the URS/CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) waste profile system that authorizes disposal of special wastes at either of the RCRA Subtitle D landfills. However, a recent DOE assessment found that implementation of the site-specific authorized limits for volumetrically contaminated waste was potentially limited due in part to confusion regarding the applicability of volumetric concentration limits and/or surface activity limits to specific wastes. This paper describes recent efforts to update the authorized limits for Industrial Landfill V and Construction/Demolition Landfill VII and to improve the procedures for implementation of these criteria. The approved authorized limits have been evaluated and confirmed to meet the current requirements of DOE Order 458.1, which superseded DOE Order 5400.5 in February 2011. In addition, volumetric concentration limits have been developed for additional radionuclides, and site-specific authorized limits for wastes with surface contamination have been developed. Implementing procedures have been revised to clarify the applicability of volumetric concentration limits and surface activity limits, and to allow the use of non-destructive waste characterization methods. These changes have been designed to promote improved utilization of available disposal capacity of the onsite disposal facilities within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. In addition, these changes serve to bring the waste acceptance requirements at these DOE onsite landfills into greater consistency with the requirements for commercial/ public landfills under the TDEC Bulk Survey for Release (BSFR) program, including two public RCRA Subtitle D landfills in close proximity to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. (authors)

  19. CO2 Reduction by Dry Methane Reforming Over Hexaluminates: A Promising Technology for Decreasing Global Warming in a Cost Effective Manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar-Villalpando, M.D.; Gardner, T.H.

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of CO2 can help to decrease global warming. Methane reforming using carbon dioxide has been of interest for many years, but recently that interest has experienced a rapid increase for both environmental and commercial reasons. The use of CO2 provides a source of clean oxygen, which eliminates the need for costly oxygen separation plants. The product of dry reforming is useful syn-gas, which can be used to generate electrical power in a SOFC or in the production of synthetic fuels (hydrocarbons and alcohols). Hexaaluminate catalysts prepared at NETL may represent a product that can be utilized for the conversion of CO2 to syn-gas. In this work, transition metals dispersed in barium hexaaluminate have shown to be promising new catalysts for dry methane reforming. In this investigation, a series of BaNixAl12-yO19-? catalysts with varying Ni content were prepared by co-precipitation followed by calcination at 1400°C. CO2 reduction by dry methane reforming was carried out to determine catalyst performance as a function of temperature and carbon formation was also quantified after the reforming tests. Results of catalysts characterization, dispersion and surface area, were correlated to catalytic performance.

  20. Modelling Dynamic Constraints in Electricity Markets and the Costs of Uncertain Wind Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musgens, Felix; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2006-03-14

    define model demand as German demand net of CHP, run off river hydro, expected wind generation and international power exchange. Hourly wind forecasts and realisations are provided by ISET e.V. Generation plant data are taken from EWI’s plant data base... one model region and endogenously determine international power exchange. In addition, the model is directly applicable to many other empirical questions, such as the effect of CO2emission costs on plant dispatch and costs or competitive bench...

  1. Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites: Towards cost-effective and high performance binder free lithium ion batteries anode materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, G. Z.; Wang, Y.; Wong, J. I.; Shi, Y. M.; Huang, Z. X.; Yang, H. Y.; Li, S.

    2014-10-06

    Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile thermal annealing method on Cu foils. Compared to pristine CuO and SnO{sub 2} nanostructures, hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit the enhanced electrochemical performances as the anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The binder free CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites deliver a specific capacity of 718 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 500?mA g{sup ?1} even after 200 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and CuO nanoarchitectures. Such hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites could open up a new route for the development of next-generation high-performance and cost-effective binder free anode material of LIBs for mass production.

  2. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  3. Cost Efficient Datacenter Selection for Cloud Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Cost Efficient Datacenter Selection for Cloud Services Hong Xu, Baochun Li henryxu, bli and performance. They need an effective way to direct the user requests to a suitable datacenter, in a cost efficient manner. Previ- ous work focused mostly on the electricity cost of datacenters. The approaches

  4. Financial Policy Manual 2111 UNALLOWABLE COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 2111 UNALLOWABLE COSTS Effective: August 1998 Last Revision PURPOSE: To establish policy for the accounting of costs which are unallowable charges against federally sponsored projects. POLICY: 1. The following costs are unallowable charges to sponsored projects as either

  5. ORNUGWPO-019 Determination of Effective Porosity of Mudrocks-A Feasibility Study

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: AchievementsTemperatures Year 6Report) | SciTechORNUGWPO-019 Determination

  6. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems.S. Colton © GIT 2009 5 #12;LaborLabor Di t ti f ldi· Direct time of welding ­ time to produce a length of weld ­ labor rate ­ multiplication gives labor cost per length · Set-up time, etc. · Personal time

  7. Memory cost of quantum protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Bisio; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

    2011-12-16

    In this paper we consider the problem of minimizing the ancillary systems required to realize an arbitrary strategy of a quantum protocol, with the assistance of classical memory. For this purpose we introduce the notion of memory cost of a strategy, which measures the resources required in terms of ancillary dimension. We provide a condition for the cost to be equal to a given value, and we use this result to evaluate the cost in some special cases. As an example we show that any covariant protocol for the cloning of a unitary transformation requires at most one ancillary qubit. We also prove that the memory cost has to be determined globally, and cannot be calculated by optimizing the resources independently at each step of the strategy.

  8. Determination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    . In this investigation, the effect of microporous layer (MPL) coatings, GDL thickness, and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE TGP-H GDL samples are tested experimentally with and without MPL coatings and varying PTFE loadings, and 750 sccm. MPL coatings and increasing levels of PTFE content introduce significant resistance

  9. Determining the Effectiveness of Graphic-aided Portable Changeable Message Signs in Highway Work Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yilei

    2012-08-31

    the effectiveness of graphic-aided PCMS in reducing vehicle speeds in the upstream of one-lane two-way rural highway work zones. Field experiments and surveys were designed and conducted in two phases. Field experiment Phase I was performed to compare...

  10. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Energy Policy Research Marginal Cost Pricing Project, FirstEnergy Innovative Systems Projects, Solar Energy ResearchEnergy Innovative Systems Projects, Solar Energy Research

  12. Cost-Effective Fabrication Routes for the Production of Quantum Well Structures and Recovery of Waste Heat from Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willigan, Rhonda

    2009-09-30

    The primary objectives of Phase I were: (a) carry out cost, performance and system level models, (b) quantify the cost benefits of cathodic arc and heterogeneous nanocomposites over sputtered material, (c) evaluate the expected power output of the proposed thermoelectric materials and predict the efficiency and power output of an integrated TE module, (d) define market acceptance criteria by engaging Caterpillar's truck OEMs, potential customers and dealers and identify high-level criteria for a waste heat thermoelectric generator (TEG), (e) identify potential TEG concepts, and (f) establish cost/kWatt targets as well as a breakdown of subsystem component cost targets for the commercially viable TEG.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Risks in Reactor Q. ~. Safety Study: An Commercial Nuclear Powernuclear power are While the costs mostly in the form of incurred risk

  14. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  15. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  16. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  17. CX-003197: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003197: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low Cost High Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation CX(s) Applied:...

  18. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  19. Determination of effective mechanical properties of a double-layer beam by means of a nano-electromechanical transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hocke, Fredrik; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.gross@wmi.badw.de [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich, D-80799 München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zhou, Xiaoqing; Kippenberg, Tobias J. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Schliesser, Albert [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Huebl, Hans, E-mail: hans.huebl@wmi.badw.de [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich, D-80799 München (Germany)

    2014-09-29

    We investigate the mechanical properties of a doubly clamped, double-layer nanobeam embedded into an electromechanical system. The nanobeam consists of a highly pre-stressed silicon nitride and a superconducting niobium layer. By measuring the mechanical displacement spectral density both in the linear and the nonlinear Duffing regime, we determine the pre-stress and the effective Young's modulus of the nanobeam. An analytical double-layer model quantitatively corroborates the measured values. This suggests that this model can be used to design mechanical multilayer systems for electro- and optomechanical devices, including materials controllable by external parameters such as piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, or in more general multiferroic materials.

  20. 379ISSN 2042-630510.2217/CER.13.41 2013 Future Medicine Ltd 2(4), 379381 (2013) Evaluation of: Henderson C, Knapp M, Fernndez J-L et al. Cost effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    -term investigations [1]. Most economic evaluations have not been in accordance with standard evaluation techniques [2. The paper reviewed here describes an economic evaluation of telehealth in the routine management in England) Evaluation of: Henderson C, Knapp M, Fernández J-L et al. Cost effectiveness of telehealth for patients

  1. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  2. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  3. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  4. A methodology to assess cost implications of automotive customization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, Laëtitia

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on determining the cost of customization for different components or groups of components of a car. It offers a methodology to estimate the manufacturing cost of a complex system such as a car. This ...

  5. How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, G.

    2007-01-01

    customers control their supply-side costs of energy. Specific topics include distributive wind power generation and solid fuel boilers. It identities factors to consider in determining whether these technologies are economically viable for customers...

  6. Survey Results and Analysis of the Cost and Efficiency of Various Operating Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, John

    2011-03-05

    Existing Hydrogen Fueling Stations were surveyed to determine capital and operational costs. Recommendations for cost reduction in future stations and for research were developed.

  7. Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low Natural Gas Price Environment: Case Study of a Midwestern Residential Energy Upgrade Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    benefits, including avoided energy, capacity, transmissionKrop, R. (May 2010). Non-Energy Benefits: Status, Findings,costs. Screening a Home Energy Upgrade Program in a Low Gas

  8. Cost of trading, effective liquidity measures, and components of the bid-ask spread in the emerging stock market of Ukraine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdyuk, Anna

    2010-11-25

    The thesis studies aspects of the cost of equity trading in the emerging stock market of Ukraine. The market is quite new (opened in 1997 but started to operate actively only in 2004) and little research on this market ...

  9. Use of the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for Life-Threatening Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    morbidity,% 7. Mortality,% Nigeria No NASG NASG No NASG NASG1]. Costs Egypt El Galaa Nigeria Assiut Average UCH Katsinaof 2 for Egypt and 78 for Nigeria. 21 Refer to Technical

  10. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01

    based on India’s current Building Energy Efficiency labelingProducts: The Case of India. Energy Policy McNeil, M.A. ,energy-efficiency cost gigajoule gigaton Indonesia India

  11. Use of the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for Life-Threatening Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    anti-shock garment (NASG). Egypt 1. Number of women in studysite, 2010 (Int $ )[1]. Costs Egypt El Galaa Nigeria Assiutparity (PPP) factors of 2 for Egypt and 78 for Nigeria. 21

  12. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.

  13. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  14. Approach to nitinol power plant cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNichols, J.L. Jr.; Cory, J.S.; Curtis, E.H.

    1982-11-01

    The objective of this paper is tof provide a method for cost evaluation of low grade thermal energy conversion by Nitinol power plants. To accomplish this objective Nitinol power plant costs are subdivided int those which can be obtained through conventional cost analysis, and those which are associated with the Nitino heat engine and are not subject to conventional analysis. Analytic expressions are provided for the Nitinol heat engine capital costs and Nitinol replacement costs in terms of Nitinol performance, heat engine configuration, plant operating factors, material costs, and the cost of capital. Nitinol working material factors are identified that require further definition before firm and reliable costs can be determined. Where data are lacking, plausible assumptions and estimates are utilized tof perform a first-cut analysis. It is found that the Nitinol heat engine capital costs per unit power generating capacity are approximately $0.15/W, and that the cost of produced energy for the Nitinol heat engine portion of the power plant is approximately 0.74 /kWh, includin operation, maintenance, Nitinol replacements and the cost of capital for the heat engine. It is concluded tha Nitinol power plants for the conversion of low grade thermal energy may have a significant economical advantage over conventionally fueled power plants.

  15. High-precision determination of low-energy effective parameters for a two-dimensional Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, F.-J.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2011-04-15

    The two-dimensional (2D) spin-(1/2) Heisenberg antiferromagnet with exchange coupling J is investigated on a periodic square lattice of spacing a at very small temperatures using the loop-cluster algorithm. Monte Carlo data for the staggered and uniform susceptibilities are compared with analytic results obtained in the systematic low-energy effective field theory for the staggered magnetization order parameter. The low-energy parameters of the effective theory, i.e., the staggered magnetization density M{sub s}=0.307 43(1)/a{sup 2}, the spin stiffness {rho}{sub s}=0.180 81(11)J, and the spin wave velocity c=1.6586(3)Ja, are determined with very high precision. Our study may serve as a test case for the comparison of lattice quantum chromodynamics Monte Carlo data with analytic predictions of the chiral effective theory for pions and nucleons, which is vital for the quantitative understanding of the strong interaction at low energies.

  16. Procedures for Unallowable Costs A list of costs that are considered "unallowable" for federal reimbursement is contained within OMB Circular A-21

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Procedures for Unallowable Costs A list of costs that are considered "unallowable" for federal reimbursement is contained within OMB Circular A-21 (Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants of the proposed costs is conducted by the OSP Fiscal Manager to ensure that no unallowable costs are requested

  17. A study to determine the effectiveness of the leadership advisory board in meeting the needs of visioning and advocacy for the Texas agrilife extension service 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ripley, Jeffrey Paul

    2009-05-15

    This study sought to determine and evaluate the effectiveness of the Leadership Advisory Board structure and its membership at meeting the needs of Visioning and Advocacy for Texas AgriLife Extension Service. The research ...

  18. Vibrational stark effects to identify ion-pairing and determine reduction potentials in electrolyte-free environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mani, Tomoyasu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Grills, David C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miller, John R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-28

    A recently-developed instrument for time-resolved infrared detection following pulse radiolysis has been used to measure the ?(C?N) IR band of the radical anion of a CN-substituted fluorene in tetrahydrofuran. Specific vibrational frequencies can exhibit distinct frequency shifts due to ion-pairing, which can be explained in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect. Measurements of the ratio of free ions and ion-pairs in different electrolyte concentrations allowed us to obtain an association constant and free energy change for ion-pairing. This new method has the potential to probe the geometry of ion-pairing and allows the reduction potentials of molecules to be determined in the absence of electrolyte in an environment of low dielectric constant.

  19. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  20. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  1. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft Costs Soft Costs An

  2. National Compact Stellarator Experiment COST AND SCHEDULE ESTIMATING GUIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    ......................................................................................... 2 2.2.3.1 Labor................................................................. 6 3.3.1.1 Step 1 ­ Technical, Cost and Risk Factor Determination....................... 6 3

  3. Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Pricklypear 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

    1999-04-15

    Simple directions help you determine the density of pricklypear on your land, and then estimate the cost of controlling these plants with the pad or stem spray method.

  4. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    investment for reducing US gasoline consumption Scott B. Peterson a , Jeremy J. Michalek a,b,n a Dept per gal than oil premium estimates. c Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium

  6. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Steece, B. 2000. Software cost estimation with COCOMO II.Developing a Framework of Cost Elements for PreservingAshley, K. 1999. Digital archive costs: Facts and fallacies.

  7. University of Pittsburgh FINANCIAL GUIDELINE Subject: Allowability of Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    University of Pittsburgh FINANCIAL GUIDELINE Subject: Allowability of Costs I. Scope This guideline establishes the requirements for determining the allowability of direct and indirect costs on the financial to ensure the allowability of the direct and indirect costs recorded on their sponsored projects

  8. Low-Risk and Cost-Effective Prior Savings Estimates for Large-Scale Energy Conservation Projects in Housing: Learning from the Fort Polk GHP Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Thornton, Jeff W.

    1997-08-01

    Many opportunities exist for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing: military housing, federally-subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers) to name a few. Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention, as a means to implement such projects. This paper proposes an improved method for prior (to construction) savings estimates for these projects. More accurate prior estimates reduce project risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction legal disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. The proposed approach to prior estimates is verified against data from Fort Polk, LA. In the course of evaluating the ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana, we have collected energy use data - both at the electrical feeder level and at the level of individual residences - which allowed us to develop calibrated engineering models which accurately predict pre-retrofit energy consumption. We believe that such calibrated models could be used to provide much more accurate estimates of energy savings in retrofit projects, particularly in cases where the energy consumption of large populations of housing can be captured on one or a few meters. The improved savings estimating approach described here is based on an engineering model calibrated to field-collected data from the pre-retrofit period. A dynamic model of pre-retrofit energy use was developed for all housing and non-housing loads on a complete electrical feeder at Fort Polk. The feeder serves 46 buildings containing a total of 200 individual apartments. Of the 46 buildings, there are three unique types, and among these types the only difference is compass orientation. The model included the heat transfer characteristics of the buildings, the pre-retrofit air source heat pump, a hot water consumption model and a profile for electrical use by lights and other appliances. Energy consumption for all 200 apartments was totaled, and by adjusting thermostat setpoints and outdoor air infiltration parameters, the models were matched to field-collected energy consumption data for the entire feeder. The energy conservation measures were then implemented in the calibrated model: the air source heat pumps were replaced by geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) with desuperheaters; hot water loads were reduced to account for the low-flow shower heads; and lighting loads were reduced to account for fixture delamping and replacement with compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). Our analysis of pre- and post-retrofit data (Shonder and Hughes, 1997) indicates that the retrofits have saved 30.3% of pre-retrofit electrical energy consumption on the feeder modeled in this paper. Using the method outlined, we have been able to predict this savings within 0.1% of its measured value, using only pre-construction energy consumption data, and data from one pilot test site. It is well-known that predictions of savings from energy conservation programs are often optimistic, especially in the case of residential retrofits. Fels and keating (1993) cite several examples of programs which achieved as little as 20% of the predicted energy savings. Factors which influence the sometimes large discrepancies between actual and predicted savings include changes in occupancy, take-back effects (in which more efficient system operation leads occupants to choose higher levels of comfort), and changes in base energy use (e.g. through purchase of additional appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers). An even larger factor, perhaps, is the inaccuracy inherent in the engineering models (BLAST, DOE-2, etc.) commonly used to estimate building energy consumption, if these models are not first calibrated to site-monitored data. For example, prior estimates of base-wide savings from the Fort Polk ESPC were on the order of 40% of pre-retrofit electrical use; our analysis has shown the true savings for the entire project (which includes 16 separate electrical feeders) to be about 32%. It should be noted that the retrofits ca

  9. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  10. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of these opportunities can be implemented at little or no cost. For example, tuning burners to reduce excess air is a cost-effective technique to reduce the amount of heat lost...

  11. Quantifying the cost uncertainty of climate stabilization policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck, Travis Read

    2005-01-01

    Climate change researchers are often asked to evaluate potential economic effects of climate stabilization policies. Policy costs are particularly important because policymakers use a cost/benefit framework to analyze ...

  12. Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Federal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments.

  13. Price Stickiness: Empirical Evidence of the Menu Cost Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Eric

    A leading explanation in the economic literature is that monetary policy has real effects on the economy because firms incur a cost when changing prices. Using a unique database of cost and retail price changes, we find ...

  14. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Modeling Advanced Li-ion Couples 13 Courtesy of Junbing Yang & K. Amine Graphite with LNMO and LMRNMC similar in cost and energy density LMRNMC shows synergy...

  15. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

  16. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  17. Apportioning Climate Change Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Apportioning Climate Change Costs Daniel A. Farber* I. II.ON CLIMATE CHANGE FOUR QUESTIONS ABOUTof how to respond to climate change. Most public attention

  18. Prediction markets for cost and risk assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Taroon

    2011-01-01

    Several temporal and political factors can sometimes limit the effectiveness of traditional methods of project tracking and cost estimation. A large organization is susceptible to internal and external risks that are ...

  19. Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

  20. Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Guide describes the clarification of how agencies determine the life-cycle cost for investments required by Executive Order 13123.

  1. Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    low-costcarbonfibersfactsheet.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-009154: Categorical Exclusion Determination Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors Development and...

  2. Estimating demolition cost of plutonium buildings for dummies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tower, S.E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary purpose of the Rocky Flats Field Office of the US Department of Energy is to decommission the entire plant. In an effort to improve the basis and the accuracy of the future decommissioning cost, Rocky Flats has developed a powerful but easy-to-use tool to determine budget cost estimates to characterize, decontaminate, and demolish all its buildings. The parametric cost-estimating tool is called the Facilities Disposition Cost Model (FDCM).

  3. Comparison of financing costs for wind turbine and fossil powerplants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper compares the financing costs of wind turbine powerplants with those of fossil powerplants. The goal of this examination is to determine the extent to which these costs differ and what the sources of such differences may be. The discussion is organized in the following fashion. Section 2 introduces basic terminology and concepts from finance, as they apply in the powerplant setting. Section 3 reviews available data from a variety of sources to estimate the magnitude of the variables identified in Section 2. In Section 4 we examine the effect of the production tax credit enacted in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 on the financing of wind turbine projects. Conclusions are offered in Section 5. In the past two years there have been only two wind turbine projects that have been financed, so the basis for broad conclusions is limited. Nonetheless, there appears to be a significant advantage in financing costs for conventional projects compared to wind turbines. The two sources of disadvantage to wind power are first, the cost of equity capital is significantly more expensive, and second, the capital structure of wind projects has a much greater fraction of expensive equity than conventional alternatives.

  4. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  5. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  6. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Marty Kushler. 2009. “Saving Energy Cost-Effectively: Ascale up efforts, what saving energy costs among an array ofgenerally supportive of saving energy (e.g. , energy savings

  7. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  8. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  9. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Pressure monitoring technique provides cost-savings solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, J.O.

    1994-05-01

    EnergyNorth Natural Gas, Inc. solved its concern over cost-effectively retrieving various amounts of data over an extensive geographical area with a smart pressure transmitter. Much of the company's existing technology was either old, or required a substantial degree of manual intervention. It was determined that the age along with manual requirements would have an adverse effect on future management operations. The company explored the market for alternative solutions and the search led to the Rosemount Model 1151 Smart Pressure Transmitter. The transmitter was particularly appealing because it allowed direct communication with the transmitter through a modem without additional peripheral devices. The supplier was contacted directly regarding the interest in using the devices for monitoring the ENGI system pressures. Specifications for the HART protocol was provided which was used to determine how to utilize the transmitters to obtain cost-effective pressure readings. The smart transmitters proved to be the driving force behind the entire SCADA system installation. The use of these transmitters will pay for SCADA installation over a 5-year period.

  11. CX-003976: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CX-003976: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of a High-Concentration Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation CX(s)...

  12. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    station and equipment costs Capital equipment costs Non-a function of capital cost and is therefore represented intechnology and therefore capital cost and maintenance cost

  13. Establishment of a Cost-Effective and Robust Planning Basis for the Processing of M-91 Waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2004-07-30

    This report identifies and evaluates viable alternatives for the accelerated processing of Hanford Site transuranic (TRU) and mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) that cannot be processed using existing site capabilities. Accelerated processing of these waste streams will lead to earlier reduction of risk and considerable life-cycle cost savings. The processing need is to handle both oversized MLLW and TRU containers as well as containers with surface contact dose rates greater than 200 mrem/hr. This capability is known as the ''M-91'' processing capability required by the Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-91--01. The new, phased approach proposed in this evaluation would use a combination of existing and planned processing capabilities to treat and more easily manage contact-handled waste streams first and would provide for earlier processing of these wastes.

  14. Use of the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for Life-Threatening Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Zambia and Zimbabwe trial noted above compares effect on outcomes of earlier application of the NASG at the community level before transport

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMSEFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMSFor Evaluating Small Wind Energy Systems Introduction This

  16. Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Luminescent Solar Concentrators And Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Shin Woei

    2014-01-01

    S. Lewis, “Toward Cost-Effective Solar Energy Use,” Science,D. S. Ginley, “Low-Cost Inorganic Solar Cells: From Ink Toto lowering the cost of solar electricity production with

  17. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Beaini, S.

    2010-01-01

    Incentive Program: Solar PV Costs and Incentive Factors, £0.20 /kWh)  to find PV cost  effective at £4/Wp  before Model for the Projection of PV Module Costs and Its  Policy 

  18. Evaluation of the effects of contaminant injection location and injection method on the determination of overall relative room ventilation efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen Dale

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate an emerging concept called ventilation effectiveness at several points in a real room. Ventilation effectiveness was calculated using the pulse and step-up injection methods which were performed in four...

  19. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

  20. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  1. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20)...

  2. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  3. cost.f

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUBROUTINE COST (N,X,WSAVE) IMPLICIT DOUBLE PRECISION (A-H, O-Z) DIMENSION X(1) ,WSAVE(1) NM1 = N-1 NP1 = N+1 NS2 = N/2 IF (N-2) ...

  4. Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyonsource History View NewTransparent Cost

  5. Research Administration Policy Policy 50.1: Allowable Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Research Administration Policy Policy 50.1: Allowable Costs Effective Date: July 1, 2012 Last with the federal requirements defined in 2 CFR 220 (OMB Circular A-21), Cost Principles for Educational from the beginning to the close of each research project. Circular A-21 provides that for a cost

  6. Determining the effect of seawater on the interfacial strength of an interlayer E-glass-graphite/epoxy composite using observations of transverse cracking made in-situ in an environmental SEM 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Catherine Ann

    1996-01-01

    The oil industry is interested in drilling for oil in the ocean at depths of 2000 m and greater. In order to do this in a cost effective manner, the use of composites as risers is under investigation. Presently, the long-term effects of seawater...

  7. Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Yesterday the Energy Department announced more than 7 million for projects that will help bring cost-effective, advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies online faster. This...

  8. Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    than 7 million for projects that will help bring cost-effective, advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies online faster. This investment - across four projects in Georgia,...

  9. Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of commercial-scale production. The projects include: * Hawaii Bioenergy (5 million DOE investment): Based in Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii Bioenergy will develop a cost-effective...

  10. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Curation: Cost of Digital Migration Ulla Bøgvad Kejser, Thefocus especially on costing digital migration activities. Inof the OAIS Model digital migration includes both transfer (

  11. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  12. CX-010239: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Determination CX-010239: Categorical Exclusion Determination Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 02142013 Location(s):...

  13. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  14. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  15. Thermo-Physical Modeling of W.I.S.E. Observed Asteroids; Determining the Diameter and Investigating the Yarkovsky Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angles, University of

    depleted through collisions and by ejection into the inner solar system while simultaneously being determined. 1 Introduction The largest population of Asteroid's in the inner solar system is the main belt population of solar sys- tem bodies known as near-Earth objects (NEOs), which are asteroids and comets

  16. Determining Price Reasonableness in Federal ESPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    This document reports the findings and implementation recommendations of the Price Reasonableness Working Group to the Federal ESPC Steering Committee. The working group was formed to address concerns of agencies and oversight organizations related to pricing and fair and reasonable price determination in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). This report comprises the working group's recommendations and is the proposed draft of a training curriculum on fair and reasonable price determination for users of federal ESPCs. The report includes: (1) A review of federal regulations applicable to determining price reasonableness of federal ESPCs (section 2), (2) Brief descriptions of the techniques described in Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) 15.404-1 and their applicability to ESPCs (section 3), and (3) Recommended strategies and procedures for cost-effectively completing price reasonableness determinations (sections 4). Agencies have struggled with fair and reasonable price determinations in their ESPCs primarily because this alternative financing vehicle is relatively new and relatively rare in the federal sector. The methods of determining price reasonableness most familiar to federal contracting officers (price competition based on the government's design and specifications, in particular) are generally not applicable to ESPCs. The regulatory requirements for determining price reasonableness in federal ESPCs have also been misunderstood, as federal procurement professionals who are inexperienced with ESPCs are further confused by multiple directives, including Executive Order 13123, which stresses life-cycle cost-effectiveness. Uncertainty about applicable regulations and inconsistent practice and documentation among agencies have fueled claims that price reasonableness determinations have not been sufficiently rigorous in federal ESPCs or that the prices paid in ESPCs are generally higher than the prices paid for similar goods and services obtained through conventional procurements. While claims of excessive prices are largely unsubstantiated and based on anecdotal evidence, the perception that there is a problem is shared by many in the ESPC community and has been noted by auditors and oversight organizations. The Price Reasonableness Working Group determined that a more formal emphasis on FAR 15.404-1 in the ESPC process could remove much of the doubt about price reasonableness determinations. The working group's recommended consensus policy on price reasonableness stresses the price analysis techniques described in the FAR that are applicable to ESPCs and includes guidance for agencies use of these techniques in determining price reasonableness for their ESPC delivery orders. The recommended policy and guidance, if communicated to federal ESPC stakeholders, can ensure that agencies will comply with the FAR in awarding ESPCs, obtain fair and reasonable prices and best value for the government, and follow procedures that provide auditable documentation of due diligence in price reasonableness determinations.

  17. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular, ...

  18. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  19. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  20. 2006 Industrial Engineering Research Conference 1 WebShipCost -Risk Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossetti, Manuel D.

    2006 Industrial Engineering Research Conference 1 WebShipCost - Risk Analysis with a Geographical this uncertain data through simulation and sensitivity analysis. WebShipCost-Risk allows online determination system (GIS) integrated, web-based application (WebShipCost-Risk) with the ability to provide cost, time

  1. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  2. Wind Fins: Novel Lower-Cost Wind Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Morris; Dr. Will D. Swearingen

    2007-10-08

    This project evaluated the technical feasibility of converting energy from the wind with a novel “wind fin” approach. This patent-pending technology has three major components: (1) a mast, (2) a vertical, hinged wind structure or fin, and (3) a power takeoff system. The wing structure responds to the wind with an oscillating motion, generating power. The overall project goal was to determine the basic technical feasibility of the wind fin technology. Specific objectives were the following: (1) to determine the wind energy-conversion performance of the wind fin and the degree to which its performance could be enhanced through basic design improvements; (2) to determine how best to design the wind fin system to survive extreme winds; (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of the best wind fin designs compared to state-of-the-art wind turbines; and (4) to develop conclusions about the overall technical feasibility of the wind fin system. Project work involved extensive computer modeling, wind-tunnel testing with small models, and testing of bench-scale models in a wind tunnel and outdoors in the wind. This project determined that the wind fin approach is technically feasible and likely to be commercially viable. Project results suggest that this new technology has the potential to harvest wind energy at approximately half the system cost of wind turbines in the 10kW range. Overall, the project demonstrated that the wind fin technology has the potential to increase the economic viability of small wind-power generation. In addition, it has the potential to eliminate lethality to birds and bats, overcome public objections to the aesthetics of wind-power machines, and significantly expand wind-power’s contribution to the national energy supply.

  3. Requirements for the Effective Use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) -- Determined by Field Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbich, J. B.; Smith, E. B.; Benson, J. D.

    1969-11-15

    A field evaluation study of user requirements for effective use of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) is described. The study included several components including an analysis of potential users ...

  4. Policy on Cost Sharing Policy on Cost Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Cost Sharing 12/26/2014 Policy on Cost Sharing I. Purpose and Scope Northeastern University does not encourage cost sharing commitments in sponsored research, and generally will not commit for approval for cost sharing arrangements, and explains the requirements for how any such arrangements

  5. Policy on Cost Transfer Policy on Cost Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Cost Transfer 12/22/2014 Policy on Cost Transfer I. Purpose and Scope The University has posting of a cost to the general ledger, initiated by payroll charges, purchase orders or check requests (and the purchasing card). Cost Transfer means any subsequent transfer of the original charge

  6. Cost Sharing -1 -Approved: 01/07/2013 Cost Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Cost Sharing - 1 - Approved: 01/07/2013 Cost Sharing Policy Type: Administrative Responsible Office and Purpose The purpose of this policy is to define VCU's cost-sharing policy for sponsored programs. The university will make a cost-sharing commitment only when required by the sponsor or by the competitive nature

  7. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. • High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. • The nanofibers calcined at 100–700 °C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. • The calcined nanofibers at 400 °C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 °C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 20–90 nm in diameter and 2–7 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300–400 °C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 °C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 600–1000 °C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300–700 °C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 800–1000 °C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the nanofibers calcined at 400 °C for 2 h was found to be not merely higher than those of the commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles powders (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03) but also the highest of all the samples in this study.

  8. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  9. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs ­ direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  10. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschall, R.K. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, Mail Stop IB57, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-10

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp[gt]870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified.

  11. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  12. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development *

  13. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

  14. Determination of the effective parameters of proton-$^{3}$He scattering on the basis of the neutron-triton scattering data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. P. Levashev

    2008-12-22

    We have studied the relations between the neutron-triton scattering lengths and effective ranges and the corresponding quantities for the p --$^{3}$He scattering in the framework of the potential model with an effective nucleon-nucleus interaction in the form of a $\\delta $-shell potential. It is shown that the Coulomb renormalization of the pure nuclear scattering lengths does not change the relation well established for the n + $^{3}$H system between the lengths: $A^{1} scattering lengths which give preference to set I of the phase analysis performed by E.A. George et al. (2003), which corresponds to the inequality $A^{1}_{nc} scattering lengths.

  15. MEMO OF UNDERSTANDING Service Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Lucia

    MEMO OF UNDERSTANDING Service Cost July 2013 1/4 Thera Kalmijn Chief Operating Officer 1608 Fourth] [Division Name] Re: CSS Service Cost for Fiscal Year 2013 - 2015 Please find the service cost for [Division [Division Name] implements into CSS. The service cost for [Division Name] will remain fixed throughout

  16. Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halldórsson, Magnús M.

    Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga Magn´us M. Halld´orsson Hiroshi Nagamochi Abstract We consider graph coloring problems where the cost of a coloring is the sum of the costs of the colors, and the cost of a color is a monotone concave function of the total weight of the class. This models resource

  17. The Costs and Revenues of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry Owen Davies & Gary Kerr March 2011 #12;2 | Costs and Revenues of CCF | Owen Davies & Gary Kerr | March 2011 Costs and Revenues of CCF The costs and revenues of transformation to continuous cover forestry: Modelling silvicultural options

  18. Allocable costs What are they?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Allocable costs What are they? The A-21 circular definition: a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective (i.e., a specific function, project, sponsored agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost objective in accordance

  19. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  20. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992