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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Cost-Effective Determination of Biomass from Aerial Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an ongoing collaborative research program between the Computer Science and the Forestry and Wildlife Management Departments at the University of Massachusetts to develop cost-effective methodologies for monitoring biomass and other ...

Howard J. Schultz; Dana Slaymaker; Chris Holmes; Frank Stolle; Allen R. Hanson; Edward M. Riseman; M. Delaney; M. Powell

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships  

SciTech Connect

As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and posted 2/10/2011 and posted 2/10/2011 *Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain $50,000 FONSI: uncertain Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain FONSI: uncertain Total Estimated Cost $70,000 Attachment: Memo, Moody to Marcinowski, III, SUBJECT: NEPA 2011 APS for DOE-SRS, Dated: Annual NEPA Planning Summary Environmental Assessments (EAs) Expected to be Initiated in the Next 12 Months Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Jan-11 Estimated Schedule (**NEPA Milestones) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) issued a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Industrial Stormwater General Permit (IGP) # SCR000000 November 12, with an effective date of January

4

Cost Effective Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

three relevant technologies, namely casting, alloy development and orientation measurement, developed by Rolls-Royce to enable the cost effective production.

5

Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Title, Location Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: 2010 LCLS Undulator 2 is envisioned to be a 0.2 - 2keV FEL x-ray source, capable of delivering x-rays to End Station A (ESA), located in the existing Research Yard at SLAC. It will also be configurable as a non- FEL hard x-ray source capable of delivering a chirped x-ray pulse for single-shot broad-spectrum measurements. The project would entail reconstruction of the electron beam transport to End Station A, construction and installation of a new undulator in the tunnel upstream of ESA and beam dump, and construction and installation of x-ray transport, optics, and diagnostics in ESA. It also includes the construction of an annex to End Station A , providing hutches for experiment stations.

6

Cost effective multimedia courseware development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multimedia technology offers considerable potential for education though the costs of production of courseware are prohibitive especially in a rapidly changing discipline such as computer science. This paper proposes a cost-effective technique which ...

C. J. Pilgrim; Y. K. Leung; D. D. Grant

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Using decision analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of a 70-year-old with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods: A Markov model was designed with the following states; posttreatment, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and death. Transition probabilities from one state to another were calculated from rates derived from the literature for IMRT and 3D-CRT. Utility values for each health state were obtained from preliminary studies of preferences conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The analysis took a payer's perspective. Expected mean costs, cost-effectiveness scatterplots, and cost acceptability curves were calculated with commercially available software. Results: The expected mean cost of patients undergoing IMRT was $47,931 with a survival of 6.27 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The expected mean cost of patients having 3D-CRT was $21,865 with a survival of 5.62 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness comparing IMRT with CRT was $40,101/QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 55.1% probability of IMRT being cost-effective at a $50,000/QALY willingness to pay. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was found to be cost-effective, however, at the upper limits of acceptability. The results, however, are dependent on the assumptions of improved biochemical disease-free survival with fewer patients undergoing subsequent salvage therapy and improved quality of life after the treatment. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, decision analysis can help inform physicians and health policy experts on the cost-effectiveness of emerging technologies.

Konski, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: andre.konski@fccc.edu; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [Department of Population Sciences, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Feigenberg, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kulkarni, Sachin M.S. [Department of Population Sciences, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Beck, J. Robert [Department of Information and Science Technologies, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Cost-Effectiveness of Two Different Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Embolization of the Internal Iliac Artery: Cost-Effectiveness of Two Different ... cost -effectiveness of coils versus the Amplatzer Vascular. Plug (AVP) for occlusion ...

9

Optimal Incentive/Disincentive Determination Between Cost and Benefit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to motivate contractors to complete construction projects early on high-impact highway pavement construction projects, state transportation agencies (STAs) including TxDOT have often used incentive/disincentive (I/D) contracts. However, determining I/D rates is extremely difficult due largely to the lack of systematic methods for helping STAs determine effective I/D rates. The primary goal of this project is to develop a novel framework for determining the most realistic and economical I/D dollar amounts for high-impact highway improvement projects. To achieve its goal, this project proposes an integration analysis including project schedule and the lower and upper bounds of the I/D contract. The lower bound is the contractor’s additional cost of acceleration, and the upper is the total savings to road users and to the agency. The study data were gathered using Construction Analysis for Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies (CA4PRS) software. These data were then grouped by four different types of pavements, namely Joint Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP), Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP), Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), and Milling and Asphalt Concrete Overlay (MACO). With these data, a series of regression analyses were carried out to develop predictive models for the validation of time-cost tradeoff to determine I/D lower bound. Road user cost and agency cost savings were quantified using CA4PRS to develop lookup tables to determine I/D upper bound. Adjustment of contractors’ additional cost of acceleration with Level of Service (LOS) and total savings adjustment using Net Present Value (NPV) were incorporated in the research study to calculate point based estimates of I/D for lower and upper bound, respectively. Lastly, case studies on real world projects were conducted to evaluate robustness of the model. The research results reveal that the predictive models give appropriate results for the case studies in determining the I/D dollar amount for the lower and upper bound. This study will provide the research community with the first view and systematic estimation method that STAs can use to determine the most economical and realistic I/D dollar amount for a given project–an optimal value that allows the agency to stay within budget while effectively motivating contractors to complete projects ahead of schedule. It will also significantly reduce the agency’s expenses in the time and effort required for determining I/D dollar amounts.

Sharma, Piyush

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling  

SciTech Connect

Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ELECTRIC 0.92 ELECTRIC 0.92 ELECTRIC HPWH(2) HPWH(3) HPWH Standard 0.62 EF WH unless high natural gas costs (>1.50therm), in which case recommendations consistent with new...

12

On cost-effective communication network designing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How to efficiently design a communication network is a paramount task for network designing and engineering. It is, however, not a single objective optimization process as perceived by most previous researches, i.e., to maximize its transmission capacity, but a multi-objective optimization process, with lowering its cost to be another important objective. These two objectives are often contradictive in that optimizing one objective may deteriorate the other. After a deep investigation of the impact that network topology, node capability scheme and routing algorithm as well as their interplays have on the two objectives, this letter presents a systematic approach to achieve a cost-effective design by carefully choosing the three designing aspects. Only when routing algorithm and node capability scheme are elegantly chosen can BA-like scale-free networks have the potential of achieving good tradeoff between the two objectives. Random networks, on the other hand, have the built-in character for a cost-effective design, especially when other aspects cannot be determined beforehand.

Guoqiang Zhang

2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

13

The Cost-Effectiveness of Semi-Lagrangian Advection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of semi-Lagrangian advection schemes for a wide variety of geophysical flows at all scales. The approach used is first to determine the minimum computational overhead associated ...

Peter Bartello; Stephen J. Thomas

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Estimate Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential and Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:58am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 3 After identifying petroleum reduction strategies, a Federal agency should estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential and cost effectiveness of these strategies for vehicles and mobile equipment. The table below provides steps for identifying optimal vehicle acquisition strategies. Table 1. Framework for Identifying Optimal Vehicle Acquisition Strategies Step Summary Purpose PLAN and COLLECT 1 Determine vehicle acquisition requirements Establish a structured Vehicle Allocation Matrix (VAM) to determine the numbers and types of vehicles required to accomplish your fleet's mission

15

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Title Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-45618 Year of Publication 2000 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Xiaomin Liu, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-45618 Date Published May 4 Abstract Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential water heater energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a water heater and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers are significant. At the efficiency level examined in this paper, 35% of households with electric water heaters experience LCC savings, with an average savings of $106, while 4% show LCC losses, with an average loss of $40 compared to a pre-standard LCC average of $2,565. The remainder of the population (61%) are largely unaffected.

16

Determining cost and treatment effective soil and plant combinations in bioretention cells for storm water management in the Piedmont Region of Georgia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Six bioretention cells at the Rockdale Career Academy in Conyers, GA were studied in order to determine which set of cells, the control (40% topsoil,… (more)

Tanner, Hillary Smith

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

DOE Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons of Contaminated Ground Water DOE Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons of Contaminated Ground Water...

18

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective,...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future November...

19

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective,...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future, November 18, 2008 Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy...

20

Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cost effectiveness of the 1993 Model Energy Code in Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family homes in Colorado. The goal of this analysis was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to current construction practice in Colorado based on an objective methodology that determined the total life-cycle cost associated with complying with the 1993 MEC. This analysis was performed for the range of Colorado climates. The costs and benefits of complying with the 1993 NIEC were estimated from the consumer`s perspective. The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for homes built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to vary from 0.9 year in Steamboat Springs to 2.4 years in Denver. Compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1190 to $2274, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $119 to $227 (at 10% down). The net present value of all costs and benefits to the home buyer, accounting for the mortgage and taxes, varied from a savings of $1772 in Springfield to a savings of $6614 in Steamboat Springs. The ratio of benefits to costs ranged from 2.3 in Denver to 3.8 in Steamboat Springs.

Lucas, R.G.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with significant non-electricity benefits include clotheswashers and dishwashers with water, sewer, and detergent

23

EFFECT OF REDUCED U-235 PRICE ON FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of changes in natural uranium cost and in separative work charges on fuel cycle costs in nuclear power plants. Reactors considered were a Dresden-type boiling water reactor (BWR) and a Yankee- type pressurized water reactor (PWR), with net power ratings of 100, 300, and 500 Mwe. Fuel cycle costs were calculated for these reactors, using either enriched uranium or U/sup 235/-thorium as the fuel material. The price schedule for uranium was based on a feed material cost of /kg uranium as UF/sub 6/ and separative work costs of /kg uranium (Schedule B) and /kg uranium (Schedule C). The present AEC price schedule for enriched uranium was also used for purposes of a reference case. The results indicate that a reduction in present enriched uranium price to that given by Schedule B would reduce fuel cycle costs for the BWR plants by 0.4 to 0.5 mill/kwh for the enriched-uranium cycle, and 0.4 to 0.7 mill/kwh for the thorium cycle. Reductions in fuel cycle costs for the PWR plants were 0.5 to 0.7 and 0.4 to 0.75 mill/kwh, respectively, for the same situations. (auth)

Bennett, L.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Cost and cost-effectiveness of standard methadone maintenance treatment compared to enriched 180-day methadone detoxification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis, in:B. & Weinstein, M. C. (Eds) Cost-effectiveness in health andK. L. & Hall, S. M. (1999) A cost-effectiveness and cost-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Commissioning: A Highly Cost-Effective Building Energy Management Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commissioning: A Highly Cost-Effective Building Energypractice of building commissioning is a particularly potentefficiency. Although commissioning has earned increased

Mills, Evan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Strategic trade policy, cost uncertainty and FDI determinants.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of my dissertation is in two areas: the relationship between optimal trade policy and demand / cost variances when the timing of investment… (more)

Guo, Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Remittances: determinants, motivations and effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation examines the determinants, motivations and effects of remittances. In that last two decades remittances have gained interest due to their large size. For several developing countries remittances constitute a large portion of their gross domestic product and sometimes exceed foreign direct investment. In the first essay, I use a unique data set from Nicaragua to asses the behavior of persons who send money back home. I estimate a heteroskedastic Tobit with a known form of variance to estimate the correlation of the remitting decisions of migrants. Working, residing in a developed country and belonging to the nuclear family positively affect remittances. The labor status and the level of education of the head of the household both affect remittances. The decision to participate in the remitting process appears to be positively related across migrants within the same receiving household. The second essay presents a simple theoretical model of migrants' remitting behavior. I consider two general motivations for remitting: altruism and self-interest. From the same data set used in the first chapter, I estimate a heteroskedastic Tobit and a sample selection equation to empirically test the findings of the theoretical model. Evidence suggests that migrants from Nicaragua remit for altruistic reasons. Moreover some gender heterogeneity exists in the remitting behavior. In the last essay, I study the impact of remittances on a small open economy using a stochastic limited participation model with cash in advance constraints and costly adjustment of cash holdings. I examine the impact of remittances on the steady state of the economy and on the dynamic response of variables to money shocks, output shocks, and shocks to remittance flows. I also examine the impact on dynamic responses to shocks of alternative specifications regarding the initial impact of a monetary injection or a remittances shock on the economy. I find that a positive remittances shock forces the exchange rate to depreciate and lowers both output and consumption in the period of the shock, irrespective of adjustment costs on money balances. Also, the positive remittance shock lowers utility during the period of the shock but improves it thereafter.

Naufal, Georges Sami

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

29

Energy Tips: Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Senior care resources Small business resources State and local government resources Energy Tips: Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant energy tips cover page This...

30

Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs Agency/Company /Organization: Resources for the Future Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Finance Resource Type: Publications Website: www.rff.org/RFF/Documents/RFF-DP-09-48.pdf Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs Screenshot References: Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs[1] Abstract "We analyze the cost-effectiveness of electric utility rate payer-funded programs to promote demand-side management (DSM) and energy efficiency investments. We develop a conceptual model that relates demand growth rates to accumulated average DSM capital per customer and changes in energy

31

Determining the Cost of Cycling and Varied Load Operations: Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many reasons—heightened wholesale electricity competition under deregulation, new market rules, growing capacity due to additions of new gas-fired capacity, environmental pressures on coal units—the power industry must operate power plants differently. In particular, many generating units that formerly ran around the clock must adjust operations to cycle or to follow load (demand). This report describes a new methodology for estimating the long-term wear and tear costs that inevitably acc...

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

32

Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-Effective Vehicle Electrification: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective.

Brooker, A.; Thornton, M.; Rugh, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performanc...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts Title Estimate of...

34

Sandia creates lifelike, cost-effective robotic hand that can...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

creates lifelike, cost-effective robotic hand that can disable IEDs | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering...

35

Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low Natural Gas Price Environment: Case Study of a Midwestern Residential Energy Upgrade Program NOTICE Due to the...

36

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

37

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Cost-effectiveness of freeway median high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facility conversion to rail guideway transit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many freeways in the United States contain median high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities. These facilities have been envisioned by some as reserved space for future rail guideway transit. This thesis examines the cost-effectiveness of converting a freeway median HOV lane into a guideway transit line. A full-cost model was developed to determine the cost effectiveness of converting an HOV lane into a rail transit line. The measure of cost-effectiveness used was the benefit-to-cost ratio. The full-cost model contained two cost categories (capital and operating costs) and two benefit categories (travel time and externality benefits). This fullcost model was adopted to conditions on the Katy Freeway in Houston Texas which served as a case study for this thesis. It was found that 29 percent of the person-miles of travel on the Katy Freeway under given conditions must utilize guideway transit for conversion to be cost-effective. It was also found that the model is sensitive to assumptions of the value of time, project soft costs (administrative, planning, and design costs) and the operating cost of the rail transit system. The model is also sensitive to assumptions regarding latent demand. It was concluded that conversion to rail guideway transit in the case study example is not cost-effective. It was reconunended that further investigation be taken into full-cost model components to allow more certain estimates of cost components. Also recommended was further consideration of the effects of latent demand on HOV to rail guideway transit conversions.

Best, Matthew Evans

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The sunk cost effect of time : an exploration and an explanation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ayton, P. (1999). The sunk cost and concorde effects: Are1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behaviorestimates in the sunk cost effect. Journal of Behavioral

Navarro, Anton Domingo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Cost-effectiveness of recommended nurse staffing levels for short-stay skilled nursing facility patients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anonymous: Employer Costs for Employee Compensation--BioMed Central Open Access Cost-effectiveness of recommendeddiagnoses. However, the cost-effectiveness of increasing

Ganz, David A; Simmons, Sandra F; Schnelle, John F

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

QCD on GPUs: cost effective supercomputing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The exponential growth of floating point power in graphics processing units (GPUs), together with their low cost, has given rise to an attractive platform upon which to deploy lattice QCD calculations. GPUs are essentially many (O(100)) core chips, that are programmed using a massively threaded environment, and so are representative of the future of high performance computing (HPC). The large ratio of raw floating point operations per second to memory bandwidth that is characteristic of GPUs necessitates that unique algorithmic design choices are made to harness their full potential. We review the progress to date in using GPUs for large scale calculations, and contrast GPUs against more traditional HPC architectures

M. A. Clark

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

42

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future July 20, 2011 - 2:04pm Addthis November 18, 2008 Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy are helping states lead the way in an effort to promote low cost energy efficiency. More than 60 energy, environmental and state policy leaders from across the country have come together to produce the updated National Action Plan Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change. The action plan outlines strategies to help lower the growth in energy demand across the country by more than 50 percent, and shows ways to

43

Cost-effectiveness analysis of genetic testing for familial long QT syndrome in symptomatic index cases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Genetic Testing for FamilialJ, Russell L, Weinstein M. Cost-effectiveness in health andSakowski J: An introduction to cost- effectiveness and cost-

Phillips, Kathryn A; Ackerman, M J; Sakowski, J; Berul, C I

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Cost-effective energy efficiency in the Czech Republic  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency is a particularly important issue in the emerging economies of Eastern Europe. Much of the energy used in the Czech Republic is supplied by lignite, a soft brown form of coal. Its combustion is largely responsible for an extreme acid rain problem and other forms of air pollution and land use complications. Additionally, inefficient energy use is prevalent, placing additional stresses on an already fragile economy. This paper reports on a project in the mid-sized (250,000 residents) and industrial city of Plzen, in the Czech Republic. The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) process, developed by PNL for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), was applied to the city to determine the level of cost-effective energy efficiency potential in the city. Significant potential was found to exist, primarily in large, cooperatively owned apartment buildings heated by district systems.

Shankle, S.A.; Secrest, T.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Zemen, Z.; Popelka, A.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Cost-effective ceramics program in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 5-year Cost-Effective Ceramics for Heat Engines program began in 1993. This effort reflects the realization that the problems with reliability of structural ceramics have been largely overcome, but the high cost of structural ceramics is limited their use in commercial applications. The technical causes of high cost were identified, and a technical plan developed. The work elements in the program include the following: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, standards development, and low-expansion ceramics.

Schulz, R.B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Cost Effective Machining Of Ceramics (CEMOC)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the CEMOC program was to support U.S. industry needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and partner company personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise to a given task while the companies provided operations-specific equipment and shop-floor services. Process control technologies, machining procedures and parameters, and coolant-related environmental tasks were the primary focus areas. The companies were very pleased with the results of the CRADAs and are planning on continuing the relationships. Finish machining operations contribute the majority of the costs associated with fabricating high quality ceramic products. These components are typically used in harsh environments such as diesel engines, defense machinery, and automotive components. The required finishing operations involve a variety of technologies including process controls, machine coolants, product certification, etc. and are not limited only to component grinding methods. The broad range of manufacturing problem solving expertise available in Oak Ridge provided resources that were far beyond what are typically available to the CRADA partners. These partners contributed equipment, such as state-of-the-art machine tools, and operation-specific experience base. In addition, addressing these challenging tasks enabled Oak Ridge personnel to maintain familiarity with rapidly advancing technologies, such as those associated with computer control systems.

Barkman, W.E.

1997-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

47

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future, November 18, 2008 Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future, November 18, 2008 A Department of Energy press release announcing that more than 60 energy, environmental and state policy leaders from across the country have come together to produce the updated "National Action Plan Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change." Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future, November 18, 2008 More Documents & Publications Secretary Chu Announces $620 Million for Smart Grid Demonstration and Energy Storage Projects: Recovery Act Funding Will Upgrade the Electrical Grid, Save Energy, and Create Jobs

48

Finding Cost-Effective Opportunities for Energy Storage on the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Finding Cost-Effective Opportunities for Energy Storage on the Electric Grid Speaker(s): Ben Kaun Date: January 17, 2014 - 12:00pm - 1:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of...

49

Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future Changing the Climate: Looking Towards a More Cost Effective, Energy Efficient Future November 18, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy are helping states lead the way in an effort to promote low cost energy efficiency. More than 60 energy, environmental and state policy leaders from across the country have come together to produce the updated National Action Plan Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change. The action plan outlines strategies to help lower the growth in energy demand across the country by more than 50 percent, and shows ways to save more than $500 billion in net savings over the next 20 years. These

50

Cost effective air pollution control for geothermal powerplants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air pollution control technology developed and demonstrated at The Geysers by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company includes two different, but equally effective methods to reduce the emissions of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal power plants. These technologies may be used in other geothermal areas as well. Cost saving modifications and adaptations needed to apply these technologies in other geothermal areas with different steam composition are described. Cost estimates are presented for some typical cases. If a surface condenser gives poor H/sub 2/S partitioning with ammonia rich steam, neutralizing the ammonia with SO/sub 2/ is a cost effective alternative to secondary abatement with hydrogen peroxide. Nickel is a cost effective alternative to FeHEDTA when an oxidation catalyst is added to the cooling water of a power plant equipped with a contact condenser. 13 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Weres, O.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Cost-effectiveness of bupropion, nortriptyline, and psychological intervention in smoking cessation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ Placebo + Nortrip + Bup + MM MM/PI MM MM Table 2 Cost andincremental cost-effectiveness of smoking cessationestimates) Subjects Cost per person treated Percent Mean

Hall, Sharon M; Lightwood, James M; Humfleet, Gary L; Bostrom, Alan; Reus, Victor I; Muñoz, Ricardo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Test Report: Cost Effective Foundation Insulation  

SciTech Connect

A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate and quantify the thermal effectiveness of rigid insulation board when installed on the exterior of a buried concrete foundation wall. A heated, insulated box was constructed along one wall of an existing, unheated building to simulate the living space of a home. The crawl space beneath the living space was divided into two sections. One featured external foundation insulation, while the other side had none. 36 temperature and heat flux sensors were installed at predetermined locations to measure the temperature profile and heat flow out of the living space. The temperature profile through the foundation was then used to calculate the total heat flow out of the foundation for both cases. This experiment showed that a significant energy savings is available with exterior foundation insulation. Over the course of 3 months, the heat-loss differential between the insulated and non-insulated foundations was 4.95 kilowatt-hours per lineal foot of foundation wall, for a ratio of 3:1. For a 2200 sq. ft home with a foundation perimeter 200 ft. long, this would amount to a savings of 990 kW-hrs in just 3 months, or 330 kW-hrs per month. Extrapolating to an 8-month heating year, we would expect to save over 2640 kW-hrs per year for such a home. The savings for a basement foundation, rather than a crawlspace, would be approach twice that amount, nearing 5280 kW-hr per year. Because these data were not collected during the coldest months of the year, they are conservative, and greater savings may be expected during colder periods.

Jeffrey M. Lacy; T. E. Rahl; G. A. Twitchell; R. G. Kobbe

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

On test suite composition and cost-effective regression testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to re-validate software as it evolves. Various methodologies for improving regression testing processes have been explored, but the cost-effectiveness of these methodologies has been shown to vary with characteristics of regression test suites. One such characteristic involves the way in which test inputs are composed into test cases within a test suite. This article reports the results of controlled experiments examining the effects of two factors in test suite composition — test suite granularity and test input grouping — on the costs and benefits of several regression-testing-related methodologies: retest-all, regression test selection, test suite reduction, and test case prioritization. These experiments consider the application of several specific techniques, from each of these methodologies, across ten releases each of two substantial software systems, using seven levels of test suite granularity and two types of test input grouping. The effects of granularity, technique, and grouping on the cost and fault-detection effectiveness of regression testing under the given methodologies are analyzed. This analysis shows that test suite granularity significantly affects several cost-benefit factors for the methodologies considered, while test input grouping has limited effects. Further, the results expose essential tradeoffs affecting the relationship between test suite design and regression testing cost-effectiveness, with several implications for practice. 1

Gregg Rothermel; Sebastian Elbaum; Alexey Malishevsky; Praveen Kallakuri

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-Effective Vehicle Electrification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrifying transportation can reduce or eliminate dependence on foreign fuels, emission of green house gases, and emission of pollutants. One challenge is finding a pathway for vehicles that gains wide market acceptance to achieve a meaningful benefit. This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective including opportunity charging, replacing the battery over the vehicle life, improving battery life, reducing battery cost, and providing electric power directly to the vehicle during a portion of its travel. Many combinations of PHEV electric range and battery power are included. For each case, the model accounts for battery cycle life and the national distribution of driving distances to size the battery optimally. Using the current estimates of battery life and cost, only the dynamically plugged-in pathway was cost-effective to the consumer. Significant improvements in battery life and battery cost also made PHEVs more cost-effective than today's hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (CVs).

Brooker, A.; Thornton, M.; Rugh, J. P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A Simpler, Smarter and More Cost Effective Approach to Regulation |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Simpler, Smarter and More Cost Effective Approach to Regulation A Simpler, Smarter and More Cost Effective Approach to Regulation A Simpler, Smarter and More Cost Effective Approach to Regulation May 26, 2011 - 9:17am Addthis Sean Lev Sean Lev Acting General Counsel & Deputy General Counsel, Environment & Nuclear Programs What does this mean for me? The Department projects a more than 90% reduction in the paperwork burden imposed on recipients of the Department of Energy's financial assistance. The Department is also working to reduce testing burdens. No one likes the burden of paperwork or the headache of navigating a 20-step process just to get an application completed. Earlier this year, President Obama outlined the creation of a 21st-century regulatory system to reduce burdens for American businesses and consumers

57

Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Determining the Cost of Producing Ethanol from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mature corn-to-ethanol industry has many similarities to the emerging lignocellulose-to-ethanol industry. It is certainly possible that some of the early practitioners of this new technology will be the current corn ethanol producers. In order to begin to explore synergies between the two industries, a joint project between two agencies responsible for aiding these technologies in the Federal government was established. This joint project of the USDA-ARS and DOE/NREL looked at the two processes on a similar process design and engineering basis, and will eventually explore ways to combine them. This report describes the comparison of the processes, each producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol. This paper attempts to compare the two processes as mature technologies, which requires assuming that the technology improvements needed to make the lignocellulosic process commercializable are achieved, and enough plants have been built to make the design well-understood. Ass umptions about yield and design improvements possible from continued research were made for the emerging lignocellulose process. In order to compare the lignocellulose-to-ethanol process costs with the commercial corn-to-ethanol costs, it was assumed that the lignocellulose plant was an Nth generation plant, built after the industry had been sufficiently established to eliminate first-of-a-kind costs. This places the lignocellulose plant costs on a similar level with the current, established corn ethanol industry, whose costs are well known. The resulting costs of producing 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol from each process were determined. The figure below shows the production cost breakdown for each process. The largest cost contributor in the corn starch process is the feedstock; for the lignocellulosic process it is the capital cost, which is represented by depreciation cost on an annual basis.

McAloon, A.; Taylor, F.; Yee, W.; Ibsen, K.; Wooley, R.

2000-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

59

A Framework for Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Framework for Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Demand Response Title A Framework for Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Demand Response Publication Type Report Year of...

60

Financing; A Cost Effective Alternative When Upgrading Energy Efficient Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the 1990's, many organizations are attempting to do more, faster, with less cost and improved quality. In many cases, this involves improving the efficiency of their systems. Increased competition is creating pressure to continuously improve in order to effectively compete in the marketplace. One obvious method of reducing costs and improving productivity is to upgrade old, antiquated equipment such as lighting to more modern energy efficient systems. Most projects provide a return on investment to the owner in several years, through energy and demand savings, Power Utility rebates, maintenance savings and increased productivity, however, the initial capital expense required is cost prohibitive. Budget constraints, a lengthy and complicated approval process and large up-front capital requirements are only a few "road blocks" to improvement. In order to make an equipment acquisition, every company must consider how they will pay for it! How do companies acquire the equipment they need to be more competitive? One cost effective solution -FINANCING! There are numerous benefits to both the end user customer (Lessee) and the installing contractor from utilizing financing to upgrade or retrofit to energy efficient systems. It is possible to provide design, material, installation, maintenance and soft costs as well as positive cash flow to the end user by structuring financing terms and payments around the energy savings. A wide array of programs and services are offered by many different financial organizations.

Ertle, J. M.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cost-effective wearable sensor to detect EMF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present the design of a cost-effective wearable sensor to detect and indicate the strength and other characteristics of the electric field emanating from a laptop display. Our Electromagnetic Field Detector Bracelet can provide an immediate ... Keywords: ambient signals, capacitive sensor, sensing technology, wearable

Cati Vaucelle; Hiroshi Ishii; Joseph A. Paradiso

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

and Cost-Effective Climate-Change Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate change proposals currently under consideration include both a cap-and-trade program to curb greenhouse gas (GHS) emissions and a nationwide renewable electricity standard (RES). Some proposals permit a portion of the renewable electricity requirement to be satisfied by adopting energy efficiency measures, while others include a separate efficiency requirement. This paper examines how these approaches fit together, the costs associated with substantially expanding the portion of electricity generated by renewable resources, and the potential savings from incorporating energy efficiency into an RES. It is now generally accepted that cost-effective environmental regulation uses market mechanisms, such as a tax or a cap-and-trade program, in order to leave choices about the leastcost ways of achieving policy goals to individual producers and consumers. An RES represents the opposite of a market-oriented approach, because it prescribes technologies regardless of cost, rather than prescribing a goal and allowing the market to choose least-cost technologies. Under a cap-and-trade program, an RES is unnecessary to achieve GHG emissionsreduction goals. Moreover, an RES will reduce the economic efficiency advantages of a capand-trade program and raise the cost of achieving any given level of GHG emissions reduction.

Thomas M. Lenard; Thomas M. Lenard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Cost Effectiveness for Solar Control Film for Residential Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the existing housing, retrofitting single or double glazed clear glass window with solar films can be an effective measure to reduce their peak power demand, and large scale application of the same on national level can be an effective tool for demand side management. This paper analyses the field performance data of a solar control film, retrofitted in a Kuwait villa, for establishing its technical viability and cost effectiveness. The paper concludes that the solar film, besides enhancing the thermal comfort, reduced the peak cooling demand and the peak power demand by 6.7% and 4.7%, respectively, during the peak summer period.

Al-Taqi, H. H.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effect of longer combination vehicles on the total logistic costs of truckload shippers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research described in this paper was to examine the effects of using longer and heavier tractor-trailer combinations from the standpoint of the individual firm or shipper rather than from the viewpoint of the motor carrier. The objective was to determine the effect of longer combination vehicles (LCVS) not only on shippers freight costs but on their inventory and other logistical costs as well. A sample of companies in selected industries provided data on their principal products, traffic flows, and logistics costs in a mail survey. These data were entered into a computer program called the Freight Transportation Analyzer (FTA) which calculated the component logistics costs associated with shipping by single trailers and by two alternative types of double trailer LCVS. A major finding of the study was that, given sufficient flows of a company`s product in a traffic lane, LCVs would in most cases greatly reduce the total logistics cost of firms that currently ship in single trailer truckload quantities. Annual lane volume, lane distance, and annual lane ton-mileage appeared to be good indicators of whether or not shipping by LCVs would benefit a company, whereas product value had surprisingly little influence on the cost-effectiveness of LCVS. An even better indicator was the ratio of current annual freight costs to current annual inventory carrying costs for a firm`s single trailer truckload shipments. Given the current trend toward maintaining small inventories and shipping in small quantities, it is not clear to what extent shippers will abandon single trailer transport to take advantage of the potential reduction in total logistics cost afforded by LCVS.

Middendorf, D.P.; Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jacoby, J. [Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Coyle, J.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

THE EFFECT OF INCREASING TRANSPORTATION COST ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study showed that certain influences in the global environment may have an impact on FDI’s regional or country choice of investment. The following research questions were explored. Are changes in FDI location choices due to elevated transportation costs? Has the emphasis on market changed to a stauncher stance toward efficiency factors due to current oil pricing? The data was tested by applying multiple linear regressions using archival data from Dun and Bradstreet, the World Bank, and the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). This study looked at data in snapshots of two years of a decade beginning with 1997 and ending with 2007. A broader dataset which has already been developed will be expanded to include the dramatic changes in oil prices pre Y2K and post Y2K. It was hypothesized that results will reflect that the cost of transportation will drive investment closer, rather than further, from the origin of investment. Due to the nature of FDI immobility, it is further hypothesized that emphasis will be placed on efficiency factors rather than market because of concern about transportation costs. The purpose will be to explore the features that affect the location of the foreign direct investment, and to address the differences in emphasis, if any, by decision-makers upon locations chosen because of the present transport costs. The findings of the tests were theoretically along the same lines as the hypothesis predicted. In 1997 market factors were dominant instead of efficiency factors. This was seen through the significance of GDP growth and the amount of roads paved. In 2007 exchange rates and distance showed significance, moving factors to a stauncher stance toward efficiency. A pooled regression showed the results of the effect of transportation cost over all. When looking at the variances at the 0.1 p level a rise in the level of FDI investment was found, concluding that the hypothesis and transportation cost results were counter intuitive.

Gressler, Kimberly

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

66

Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

67

Cost-Effective Industrial Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas and electricity are expensive to the extent that annual fuel and power costs can approach the initial cost of an industrial boiler plant. Within this context, this paper examines several cost-effective efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed boiler plant replacement project at a large semiconductor manufacturing complex. The "new" boiler plant began service in November, 1996 and consists of four 75,000 lb/hr water-tube boilers burning natural gas and producing 210 psig saturated steam for heating and humidification. Efficiency advancements include: 1) Reheating of cleanroom make-up air with heat extracted during precooling. 2) Preheating of combustion air with heat extracted from boiler flue gas. 3) Preheating of boiler feedwater with heat extracted from the exhaust of a nearby gas turbine. 4) Variable speed operation of boiler feedwater pumps and forced-draft fans. 5) Preheating of boiler make-up water with heat extracted from boiler blow-down. These efficiency advancements should prove of interest to industrial energy users faced with replacement of aging, inefficient boiler plants, rising fuel and power prices, and increasing pressures to reduce operating costs in order to enhance competitiveness.

Fiorino, D. P.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

For appliances, choosing the most cost-effective option depends on ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Consumers in the market for new appliances have a wide range of choices that likely vary by cost, options, and efficiency level. If energy cost effectiveness is a ...

69

Towards Cost-Effective Storage Provisioning for DBMSs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data center operators face a bewildering set of choices when considering how to provision resources on machines with complex I/O subsystems. Modern I/O subsystems often have a rich mix of fast, high performing, but expensive SSDs sitting alongside with cheaper but relatively slower (for random accesses) traditional hard disk drives. The data center operators need to determine how to provision the I/O resources for specific workloads so as to abide by existing Service Level Agreements (SLAs), while minimizing the total operating cost (TOC) of running the workload, where the TOC includes the amortized hardware costs and the run time energy costs. The focus of this paper is on introducing this new problem of TOC-based storage allocation, cast in a framework that is compatible with traditional DBMS query optimization and query processing architecture. We also present a heuristic-based solution to this problem, called DOT. We have implemented DOT in PostgreSQL, and experiments using TPC-H and TPC-C demonstrate sig...

Zhang, Ning; Patel, Jignesh M; Hac?gümü?, Hakan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

2006-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

71

Cost Transfers on Sponsored Agreements Effective July 1, 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be identified specifically with a particular sponsored project; · costs that can be directly assigned to a project with a high degree of accuracy. Facilities and Administrative (F&A) or indirect costs: · costs. Typically, cost transfers are appropriate when they are allowable direct costs of the sponsored project

72

Cost-Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the cost-effectiveness of electric utility rate payer–funded programs to promote demand-side management (DSM) and energy efficiency investments. We develop a conceptual model that relates demand growth rates to accumulated average DSM capital per customer and changes in energy prices, income, and weather. We estimate that model using nonlinear least squares for two different utility samples. Based on the results for the most complete sample, we find that DSM expenditures over the last 18 years have resulted in a central estimate of 1.1 percent electricity savings at a weighted average cost to utilities (or other program funders) of about 6 cents per kWh saved. Econometrically-based policy simulations find that incremental DSM spending by utilities that had no or relatively low levels of average DSM spending per customer in 2006 could produce 14 billion kWh in additional savings at an expected incremental cost to the utilities of about 3 cents per kWh saved.

Toshi H. Arimura; Richard G. Newell; Karen Palmer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

PNNL-21294 Methodology for Evaluating Cost- Effectiveness of Residential Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1294 1294 Methodology for Evaluating Cost- Effectiveness of Residential Energy Code Changes ZT Taylor N Fernandez RG Lucas April 2012 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Contents 1.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1.1 2.0 Estimating Energy Savings of Code Changes .............................................................................. 2.1 2.1 Building Energy Use Simulation Assumptions and Methodology ....................................... 2.1 2.1.1 Energy Simulation Tool ............................................................................................ 2.1

74

Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Federal Government, as the nation's largest energy consumer, has a tremendous opportunity and acknowledged responsibility to lead by example. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) plays a critical role in this effort. FEMP facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. FEMP does this by focusing on the needs of its Federal customers, delivering an array of services across a variety of program areas.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

76

Investigation to Discover Most Effective Method of Teaching Target Costing to Construction-Minded Individuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The construction industry is in the midst of a progressive change in the way projects unfold from design and development to closeout and maintenance. There is a greater demand on contractors to build projects faster, with higher quality and an increased level of detail, while keeping costs lower than ever. Therefore, to meet such demands contractors must turn to an alternative approach of improving product and process with target costing. However, the adoption of target costing by the construction industry has been slow due to limitations in user understanding of the system. The objective of this paper is to identify an effective approach for teaching target costing to construction-focused individuals, by establishing improved user understanding with visual aids, and by determining if user comprehension is influenced by the complexity of the visual supports provided in the lessons. The study challenged the long-implied assumption that the construction community is composed of visual learners, while also differentiating between the levels of success for supporting figures based upon their degree of detail. Results of this study will provide the basis for the development of target costing material that is designed specifically for use in the education of construction industry professionals in Target Cost Estimating.

Hullum, Joshua James

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A Cost Effective, Integrated and Smart Radioactive Safeguard System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear energy is a growing field worldwide due to its wide range of applications in various walks of life. It, however, deals with radioactive materials, specifically special nuclear material, which, if misused, could result in catastrophic consequences. In order to protect this precious resource and ensure its use for the good of mankind, safeguard systems are more important than ever. Current Market solutions are wide ranged but have a large number of disadvantages, some of which include high cost, constant updates, and incomplete efforts. The rising need of a cost effective, efficient, and integrated radioactive safeguard system serves as motivation for the solution outlined in this thesis. The thesis outlines a solution structured around the three pillars of the international safeguards program, namely, visual surveillance and motion detection, containment analysis, and non-destructive analysis. The hardware around each of these pillars work together with a clean and user-friendly application to provide a secure safeguards system that is both flexible and extensible.

Singh, Harneet

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Electrolytic Methods as a Cost and Energy Effective Alternative of Harvesting Algae for Biofuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process variables of electrolytic technology to reduce the energy consumption of harvesting Nonnocloropsis salina were investigated including electro-coagulation, electro-floatation, and electro-flocculation. Electro-coagulation and electro-flocculation showed significant cost savings, however electro-floatation did not. The objectives were to determine the effects of electrode material, pH adjustment and electro-polymer addition for electro-coagulation and determine the performance characteristics for electro-coagulation and electro-flocculation. Both treatments proved to be competitive with the energy consumption of a centrifuge. The best electrolytic treatments were electro-coagulation with aluminum and nickel electrodes. Energy requirements at optimum conditions were 239 and 344 kWh/ton. The best treatment combination using electro-flocculation was 432 kWh/ton with no electrode consumption, which could lead to potential cost savings.

Morrison, Taylor 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

d Total Battery Capacity (Kwh) Cost per Battery ($)e Totalcosts to consumersto purchase a EV fuel economy in miles per kwhKwh equivalent to per-mile gasoline road tax was included. Table 11 Performance and Cost

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

An Effective Cost Lower Bound for Multistage Stochastic Linear ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this context it is useful to have some cost bound in order to assess the quality of the ... programs which provide upper and lower bounds on the optimal cost of.

85

Technology Improvement Pathway to Cost-effective Vehicle Electrification: Preprint  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

454 454 February 2010 Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-Effective Vehicle Electrification Preprint A. Brooker, M. Thornton, and J. Rugh National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at SAE 2010 World Congress Detroit, Michigan April 13-15, 2010 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (ASE), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and ASE retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

86

DUCRETE Shielding: A Cost Effective Alternative Radiation Shield  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary Submitted to Spectrum 2000, Sept 24-28, 2000, Chattanooga, TN Summary Submitted to Spectrum 2000, Sept 24-28, 2000, Chattanooga, TN DUCRETE: A Cost Effective Radiation Shielding Material W. J. Quapp, Starmet CMI W. H. Miller, University of Missouri-Columbia James Taylor, Starmet CMI Colin Hundley, Starmet CMI Nancy Levoy, Starmet Corporation 1. INTRODUCTION A consequence of uranium enrichment in the US has been the accumulation of nearly 740,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) tails. 1 While this material was once considered a feed stock for the United States Breeder Reactor Program, it is no longer needed. Alternative uses of depleted uranium are few. Some have been used for medical isotope transport casks, some for industrial radioactive source shields, some for military anti-tank

87

Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Federal Government, as the nation's largest energy consumer, has a tremendous opportunity and acknowledged responsibility to lead by example. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) plays a critical role in this effort. FEMP facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. FEMP does this by focusing on the needs of its Federal customers, delivering an array of services across a variety of program areas.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

89

A cost-effective, environmentally-responsive ground-water monitoring procedure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground-water monitoring is the primary method used to protect our ground-water resources. The primary objectives of monitoring programs are to detect, to attribute, and to mitigate any changes in-water quality or quantity. Previous monitoring programs have had numerous problems including the failure to produce usable information and the failure to balance the competing factors of cost-effectiveness and environmental protection. A cost-effective, environmentally-responsive ground-water procedure was designed which consists of eight steps and two feedback loops. The reason for monitoring must first be determined before clear monitoring goals can be set. Characterization of the site allows proper design of the monitoring network. Data is then collected and analyzed creating usable information. Applying this new information to the information expansion loop permits a better understanding of the initial site characterization. Finally evaluating the entire routine to determine the effectiveness of the program allows the optimization loop to modify the system for greater efficiency. The value of this procedure was tested at selected sites in the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas. The mine, which is currently in compliance with state regulations, is not operating an efficient monitoring program. The problems included over-monitoring of metals in and around reclaimed mine blocks, over-monitoring by monitoring wells in the same aquifer, and the failure to attribute changes in a monitoring well near a dewatering well. The feedback loops helped to optimize the entire program by recognizing problems in the stratigraphic column and modifying the monitoring program to lower monitoring costs. Three major benefits are gained by using this procedure: the ground-water monitoring routine can be made more cost-effective, environmental protection will be increased, and environmental liability will be decreased.

Doucette, Richard Charles

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A MODEL FOR DETERMINING DIPOLE, QUADRUPOLE, AND COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNET COSTS.  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important considerations in designing large accelerators is cost. This paper describes a model for estimating accelerator magnet costs, including their dependences on length, radius, and field. The reasoning behind the cost model is explained, and the parameters of the model are chosen so as to correctly give the costs of a few selected magnets. A comparison is made with earlier formulae. Estimates are also given for other costs linearly dependent on length, and for 200 MHz superconducting RF.

PALMER, R.B.; BERG,S.J.

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

Couth, R. [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

None

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

Cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary management of Tinnitus at a specialized Tinnitus centre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) will be quantified using the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses will be used to show the impact of variation in non-stochastic input parameters on the incremental cost- utility ratio, such as discount rate, unit prices, and design issues... using integral cost calcu- lations. Costs from productivity loss will be quantified using the friction cost method, as recommended in the Netherlands [28]. Ethical considerations Patients will be informed verbally and in written format about the research...

Cima, Rilana; Joore, Manuela; Maes, Iris; Scheyen, Dyon; El Refaie, Amr El; Baguley, David M; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Anteunis, Lucien

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Sponsor a student project Businesses looking for innovative, cost-effective solutions to their  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sponsor a student project Businesses looking for innovative, cost-effective solutions with academic supervision. Benefit from cost effective project work Sponsoring organisations benefit from on the project in June. Costs and project scope are discussed on a project by project basis. MSc by Research

95

Integrated modelling of risk and uncertainty underlying the cost and effectiveness of water quality measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an overview of the most important sources of uncertainty when analysing the least cost way to improve water quality. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of water quality measures is surrounded by environmental, economic ... Keywords: Cost-effectiveness, Integrated modelling, Risk, Uncertainty, Water quality

Roy Brouwer; Chris De Blois

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Cost-Effective Enzyme for Producing Biofuels from Cellulosic ...  

Potential to be produced in-house: The enzyme could potentially be produced in house by biorefineries, reducing one of the cost impediments to cellulosic biofuels.

97

Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

Sonnet, Maria Claudia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report reiterates the presentation made to DOE/NETL in Morgantown, WV on August 1st, 2002 with the addition of accomplishments made from that time forward until the issue date. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: {sm_bullet} Specifications for both 5-1/2'' and 1-5/8'' composite drill pipe have been finalized. {sm_bullet} Full scale testing of Short Radius (SR) CDP has been conducted. {sm_bullet} Successful demonstration of metal to composite interface (MCI) connection. {sm_bullet} Preparations for full scale manufacturing of ER/DW CDP have begun. {sm_bullet} Manufacturing facility rearranged to accommodate CDP process flow through plant. {sm_bullet} Arrangements to have the 3 3/8'' CDP used in 4 separate drilling applications in Oman, Oklahoma, and Texas.

James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

2002-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates all progress in the first two years of this NETL/DOE supported program. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: (1) Specifications for both 5 5/16 inch and 3 3/8 inch composite drill pipe have been finalized. (2) All basic laboratory testing has been completed and has provide sufficient data for the selection of materials for the composite tubing, adhesives, and abrasion coatings. (3) Successful demonstration of composite/metal joint interfacial connection. (4) Upgrade of facilities to provide a functional pilot plant manufacturing facility. (5) Arrangements to have the 3 3/8 inch CDP used in a drilling operation early in C.Y. 2002. (6) Arrangements to have the 5 5/16 inch CDP marketed and produced by a major drill pipe manufacturer.

James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

AvAilAble for licensing Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AvAilAble for licensing Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs. Benefits Higher-performance, more cost-effective batteries for PHEVs and HEVs. Reduced costs by lowering cost is easier, faster, and more cost-effective. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries

Kemner, Ken

103

Find cost-effective investments | ENERGY STAR Buildings & Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lamps and can save 10 per sign annually in electricity costs. Swap out incandescent light bulbs with ENERGY STAR certified CFLs or LEDs in your desk, task, and floor lamps....

104

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kwh/mile) d Total Battery Capacity (Kwh) Cost per Battery (this study. in Total battery capacity was calculated as:calculated as total battery capacity multiplied by per-unit-

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Impact of the Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program structure on the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency projects  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) analyzed the cost-effective energy efficiency potential of Fort Drum, a customer of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in Watertown, New York. Significant cost-effective investments were identified, even without any demand-side management (DSM) incentives from NMPC. Three NMPC DSM programs were then examined to determine the impact of participation on the cost-effective efficiency potential at the Fort. The following three utility programs were analyzed: (1) utility rebates to be paid back through surcharges, (2) a demand reduction program offered in conjunction with an energy services company, and (3) utility financing. Ultimately, utility rebates and financing were found to be the best programs for the Fort. This paper examines the influence that specific characteristics of the DSM programs had on the decision-making process of one customer. Fort Drum represents a significant demand-side resource, whose decisions regarding energy efficiency investments are based on life-cycle cost analysis subject to stringent capital constraints. The structures of the DSM programs offered by NMPC affect the cost-effectiveness of potential efficiency investments and the ability of the Fort to obtain sufficient capital to implement the projects. This paper compares the magnitude of the cost-effective resource available under each program, and the resulting level of energy and demand savings. The results of this analysis can be used to examine how DSM program structures impact the decision-making process of federal and large commercial customers.

Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Dixon, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1: June 11, 2012 1: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #731: June 11, 2012 Cost-Effectiveness of a Hybrid Vehicle is Highly Conditional on Digg

107

Update of Hydrogen from Biomass -- Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Milestone report summarizing the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via (1) gasification/reforming of the resulting syngas and (2) fast pyrolysis/reforming of the resulting bio-oil. Hydrogen has the potential to be a clean alternative to the fossil fuels currently used in the transportation sector. This is especially true if the hydrogen is manufactured from renewable resources, primarily sunlight, wind, and biomass. Analyses have been conducted to assess the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: (1) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas, and (2) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil. This study was conducted to update previous analyses of these processes in order to include recent experimental advances and any changes in direction from previous analyses. The systems examined were gasification in the Battelle/FERCO low pressure indirectly-heated gasifier followed by steam reforming, gasification in the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) high pressure direct-fired gasifier followed by steam reforming, and pyrolysis followed by coproduct separation and steam reforming. In each process, water-gas shift is used to convert the reformed gas into hydrogen, and pressure swing adsorption is used to purify the product. The delivered cost of hydrogen, as well as the plant gate hydrogen selling price, were determined. All analyses included Latin Hypercube sampling to obtain a detailed sensitivity analysis.

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Amos, W. A.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rail transit capital cost study update final. Washington,2005). Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Fundedin US rail transit project cost overrun. Transportation

Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Load-curve responsiveness to weather and the cost-effectiveness of conservation  

SciTech Connect

A cost-benefit analysis of home-weatherization projects using average incremental power costs instead of peak or off-peak costs shows that some programs are no longer cost-effective. Weatherization improves the energy efficiency of houses and reduces demand on the utility, but a study of how monthly load curves at a Pacific Northwest utility responded to weather over a 12-month period indicates that abnormal weather shifts the entire load curve. 1 figure. (DCK)

Hellman, M.M.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

A Cost-Effective Oxygen Separation System Based on Open Gradient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems A Cost-Effective Oxygen Separation System Based on Open Gradient Magnetic Field by Polymer Beads ITN Energy Systems, Inc. Project Number: SC0010151 Project Description...

111

Patents Outside of the U.S.: A Cost-Effective Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Patents Outside of the U.S.: A Cost-Effective Approach. David V. Radack. Obtaining patent coverage outside of the United States is an expensive and ...

112

Cost-Effective Replacement for Iodide in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Cost-Effective Replacement for Iodide in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Contact Information: Jeremy Nelson Phone: 970.491.7100 Email: jeremy.nelson@colostate.edu

113

Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A spatially-distributed cost-effectiveness analysis framework for controlling water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the aim of comparing various agro-environmental measures to control pesticide pollution in surface waters, we propose a methodological framework for spatially-distributed cost-effectiveness analysis. We use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ... Keywords: Bio-economic modelling, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Integrated modelling, Pesticides, SWAT

Jean-Marie Lescot; Paul Bordenave; Kevin Petit; Odile Leccia

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

On cost-effectiveness of human-centered and socially acceptable robot and automation systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers human-centered and socially appropriate robots as well as automation systems within the context of their cost-effectiveness. Usually, the objection of system designers is that approaches for human-centered and socio-technical design ... Keywords: Cost-effective automation, Human factors, Human-centered systems, Robots, Socially appropriate automation, Socio-technical systems

Janko Cernetic

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cost-Effective Pole or Pad Mounted Power Quality Solution: Component and System Cost Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static Series Compensation (SSC) devices, sometines called "dynamic voltage restorers" or DVRs, have been available on the marketplace since about 1994. These devices are designed to mitigate voltage sags and swells originating from the power system by injecting voltage in series with the power supply. The additive effect of the injected voltage produces an essentially undisturbed voltage for the load. There are several vendors presently producing SSCs. These devices all have essentially the same power e...

2000-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

118

Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

James C. Leslie

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. , 2002. A life-cycle cost analysis for setting energyM. , Nicholas Bojda, 2012b. Cost Effectiveness of High-31 Summary of Cost Effective

Letschert, Virginie E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSIONAND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSIONscale wind energy commer- is high capital costs per unit of

Kay, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A cost-Effective Design for a Neutrino Factory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a Neutrino Factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed Feasibility Study (FS2) for a Neutrino Factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as Study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

Berg, J.S.; Bogacz, S.A.; Caspi, S.; Cobb, J.; Fernow, R.C.; Gallardo, J.C.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Witte, H.; Zisman, M.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Effect of Transaction Costs on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation for Agriculture and Forestry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate change and its mitigation is rapidly becoming an item of social concern. Climate change mitigation involves reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations through emissions reduction and or sequestration enhancement (collectively called offsets). Many have asked how agriculture and forestry can participate in mitigation efforts. Given that over 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions arise from the energy sector, the role of agriculture and forestry depends critically on the costs of the offsets they can achieve in comparison with offset costs elsewhere in the economy. A number of researchers have examined the relative offset costs but have generally looked only at producer level costs. However there are also costs incurred when implementing, selling and conveying offset credits to a buyer. Also when commodities are involved like bioenergy feedstocks, the costs of readying these for use in implementing an offset strategy need to be reflected. This generally involves the broadly defined category of transaction costs. This dissertation examines the possible effects of transactions costs and storage costs for bioenergy commodities and how they affect the agriculture and forestry portfolio of mitigation strategies across a range of carbon dioxide equivalent prices. The model is used to simulate the effects with and without transactions and storage costs. Using an agriculture and forestry sector model called FASOMGHG, the dissertation finds that consideration of transactions and storage costs reduces the agricultural contribution total mitigation and changes the desirable portfolio of alternatives. In terms of the portfolio, transactions costs inclusion diminishes the desirability of soil sequestration and forest management while increasing the bioenergy and afforestation role. Storage costs diminish the bioenergy role and favor forest and sequestration items. The results of this study illustrate that transactions and storage costs are important considerations in policy and market design when addressing the reduction of greenhouse gas concentrations in climate change related decision making.

Kim, Seong Woo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Compressed Natural Gas as a VehicleFuel-Volumepetroleumgas, compressed natural gas, and electricity.fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing. Gregg Rothermel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing. Gregg Rothermel , Sebastian Elbaum}@cse.unl.edu August 30, 2003 Abstract Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to re-validate software as it evolves. Various methodologies for improving regression testing processes have been explored, but the cost

Rothermel, Gregg

125

On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing Gregg Rothermel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Test Suite Composition and Cost-Effective Regression Testing Gregg Rothermel , Sebastian Elbaum}@cse.unl.edu August 31, 2004 Abstract Regression testing is an expensive testing process used to re-validate software as it evolves. Various methodologies for improving regression testing processes have been explored, but the cost

Rothermel, Gregg

126

Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Applications Development  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of petascale and exascale machines makes it increasingly difficult to develop applications that can take advantage of them. Future systems are expected to feature billion-way parallelism, complex heterogeneous compute nodes and poor availability of memory (Peter Kogge, 2008). This new challenge for application development is motivating a significant amount of research and development on new programming models and runtime systems designed to simplify large-scale application development. Unfortunately, DoE has significant multi-decadal investment in a large family of mission-critical scientific applications. Scaling these applications to exascale machines will require a significant investment that will dwarf the costs of hardware procurement. A key reason for the difficulty in transitioning today's applications to exascale hardware is their reliance on explicit programming techniques, such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model to enable parallelism. MPI provides a portable and high performance message-passing system that enables scalable performance on a wide variety of platforms. However, it also forces developers to lock the details of parallelization together with application logic, making it very difficult to adapt the application to significant changes in the underlying system. Further, MPI's explicit interface makes it difficult to separate the application's synchronization and communication structure, reducing the amount of support that can be provided by compiler and run-time tools. This is in contrast to the recent research on more implicit parallel programming models such as Chapel, OpenMP and OpenCL, which promise to provide significantly more flexibility at the cost of reimplementing significant portions of the application. We are developing CoMPI, a novel compiler-driven approach to enable existing MPI applications to scale to exascale systems with minimal modifications that can be made incrementally over the application's lifetime. It includes: (1) New set of source code annotations, inserted either manually or automatically, that will clarify the application's use of MPI to the compiler infrastructure, enabling greater accuracy where needed; (2) A compiler transformation framework that leverages these annotations to transform the original MPI source code to improve its performance and scalability; (3) Novel MPI runtime implementation techniques that will provide a rich set of functionality extensions to be used by applications that have been transformed by our compiler; and (4) A novel compiler analysis that leverages simple user annotations to automatically extract the application's communication structure and synthesize most complex code annotations.

Bronevetsky, G; Quinlan, D; Lumsdaine, A; Hoefler, T

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

127

Fatigue reliability of wind turbine fleets: The effect of uncertainty of projected costs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost of repairing or replacing failed components depends on the number and timing of failures. Although the total probability of individual component failure is sometimes interpreted as the percentage of components likely to fail, this perception is often far from correct. Different amounts of common versus independent uncertainty can cause different numbers of components to be at risk of failure. The FAROW tool for fatigue and reliability analysis of wind turbines makes it possible for the first time to conduct a detailed economic analysis of the effects of uncertainty on fleet costs. By dividing the uncertainty into common and independent parts, the percentage of components expected to fail in each year of operation is estimated. Costs are assigned to the failures and the yearly costs and present values are computed. If replacement cost is simply a constant multiple of the number of failures, the average, or expected cost is the same as would be calculated by multiplying by the probability of individual component failure. However, more complicated cost models require a break down of how many components are likely to fail. This break down enables the calculation of costs associated with various probability of occurrence levels, illustrating the variability in projected costs. Estimating how the numbers of components expected to fail evolves over time is also useful in calculating the present value of projected costs and in understanding the nature of the financial risk.

Veers, P.S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Determining suitable funding for p-12 education in Kansas: superintendents’ opinions and selected cost simulations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to determine what school leaders believe is a suitable funding level for Kansas school districts and to simulate the… (more)

Clark, Rustin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Determining educational adequacy in Michigan| An adequacy study utilizing the exemplary schools costing-out model.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The Michigan legislature determines the annual pupil foundation allowance based on available revenues and not on research. As a result of the school reform… (more)

Ochalek, Marianne K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Richmond, Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report is presented of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 5408 Williamsburg Road, Richmond, Virginia. The description of the system is given along with the final cost breakdown, expected performance data and expected payback time for the installed system is estimated to be approximately five (5) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Richmond, Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report is presented of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 5408 Williamsburg Road, Richmond, Virginia. The description of the system is given along with the final cost breakdown, expected performance data and expected payback time for the installed system is estimated to be approximately five (5) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cost effectiveness of park-and-ride lots in the Puget Sound region area. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A cost-effectiveness evaluation and a cost-benefit analysis was performed on a park-and-ride system consisting of 26 park-and-ride lots in the Seattle metropolitan area. Costs and benefits of the system were examined with respect to the user, the community at large, and the public agencies responsible for providing for the community's transportation needs. Using survey and other data as input, a model was developed to calculate the total incurred trip costs of both the park-and-ride trip and the corresponding trip not involving the park-and-ride lot. General results indicated that the park-and-ride system in the Seattle area is cost effective.

Rutherford, G.S.; Wellander, C.A.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Study on the Effect of Class Distribution Using Cost-Sensitive Learning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of class distribution on the predictive performance of classification models using cost-sensitive learning, rather than the sampling approach employed previously by a similar study. The predictive performance is measured ...

Kai Ming Ting

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of design & technology package for cost effective housing in Gujrat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purpose: Improve quality of life in rural areas through intervention of infrastructure and housing improvement. Provide methods of building better and cost-effective houses at a quicker pace. Devise strategies of withdrawing ...

Chaudhry, Rajive

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Hedging effects of wind on retail electric supply costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the short term, renewables - especially wind - are not as effective as conventional hedges due to uncertain volume and timing as well as possibly poor correlation with high-value periods. In the long term, there are more potential hedging advantages to renewables because conventional financial hedges are not available very far in the future. (author)

Graves, Frank; Litvinova, Julia

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Constellation Proposal for an Automated Determination of the RPM Gross Cost of New Entry (CONE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constellation offers the following outline for reforming the annual development of Gross CONE in an automated fashion. The purpose of the proposal is to derive CONE in a manner that reasonably approximates the contemporaneous cost to build a Reference Resource in the auction year, via rules that are easily understood, reasonably accurate, transparent, and replicable. In summary, our proposal features an initial benchmark gross CONE for the 2012?13 Delivery Year that will be adjusted based on an the Handy Whitman Index prior to subsequent annual Base Residual Auctions. Periodically, the prevailing cost to build the reference resource will be comprehensively studied by a third party expert. If the study varies from the index?adjusted CONE by more than a predetermined amount, then the study value shall be set as the CONE for the next BRA and shall be the new benchmark. The gross CONE would subsequently be adjusted to account for expected energy and ancillary services revenues as currently set forth in the OATT.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Constellation Proposal for an Automated Determination of the RPM Gross Cost of New Entry (CONE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constellation offers the following outline for reforming the annual development of Gross CONE in an automated fashion. The purpose of the proposal is to derive CONE in a manner that reasonably approximates the contemporaneous cost to build a Reference Resource in the auction year, via rules that are easily understood, reasonably accurate, transparent, and replicable. In summary, our proposal features an initial benchmark gross CONE for the 2012-13 Delivery Year that will be adjusted based on an the Handy Whitman Index prior to subsequent annual Base Residual Auctions. Periodically, the prevailing cost to build the reference resource will be comprehensively studied by a third party expert. If the study varies from the index-adjusted CONE by more than a predetermined amount, then the study value shall be set as the CONE for the next BRA and shall be the new benchmark. The gross CONE would subsequently be adjusted to account for expected energy and ancillary services revenues as currently set forth in the OATT.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Impact of common completion and workover activities on the effective costs of geothermal wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impacts of completion practices on production and maintenance costs are considered. To evaluate alternative completion and workover technologies, a simple model has been developed that compares total well cost to total production or injection. The model is discussed briefly and results from its application to different completion and workover strategies are emphasized. The model development project had three aspects: (1) the establishment of a data base for the cost and effectiveness of various geothermal completion and workover activities; (2) the development of a computer model to specific cases. The data collected include geothermal production characteristics; initial costs and completion practices for representatives wells; estimated costs and effectiveness of common workover equipment and operations; the frequencies of and times required to perform workovers; etc. The model facilitates comparisons of completion and workover alternatives. The results discussed include an analysis of the impact of variations in well lifetime. A comparison of mechanical descaling of geothermal wells to chemical scale inhibition indicates that for certain conditions chemical inhibition is more cost effective. Results of an analysis of injectivity decline are also presented, as are studies of original well cost, initial flow, and productivity decline for production wells. Other results involving underreaming, changing casing profiles, perforating, and hydraulic fracturing are also discussed.

Carson, C.C.; Mansure, A.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Task 1 of this research was the development of a high-resolution, fully implicit, finite-difference, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional simulator for chemical flooding. The major physical phenomena modeled in this simulator are dispersion, heterogeneous permeability and porosity, adsorption, interfacial tension, relative permeability and capillary desaturation, compositional phase viscosity, compositional phase density and gravity effects, capillary pressure, and aqueous-oleic-microemulsion phase behavior. Polymer and its non-Newtonian rheology properties include shear-thinning viscosity, permeability reduction, inaccessible pore volume, and adsorption. Options of constant or variable space grids and time steps, constant-pressure or constant-rate well conditions, horizontal and vertical wells, and multiple slug injections are also available in the simulator. The solution scheme used in this simulator is fully implicit. The pressure equation and the mass-conservation equations are solved simultaneously for the aqueous-phase pressure and the total concentrations of each component. A third-order-in-space, second-order-in-time finite-difference method and a new total-variation-diminishing (TVD) third-order flux limiter are used that greatly reduce numerical dispersion effects. Task 2 was the optimization of surfactant flooding. The code UTCHEM was used to simulate surfactant polymer flooding.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Low cost MCFC anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

Erickson, D.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

142

Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when necessary. The ranking of distributed wind state policy and economic environments summarized in the attached report, based on the Policy Tool's default COE results, highlights favorable market opportunities for distributed wind growth as well as market conditions ripe for improvement. Best practices for distributed wind state policies are identified through an evaluation of their effect on improving the bottom line of project investments. The case studies and state rankings were based on incentives, power curves, and turbine pricing as of 2010, and may not match the current results from the Policy Tool. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets. In providing a simple and easy-to-use policy comparison tool that estimates financial performance, the Policy Tool and guidebook are expected to enhance market expansion by the small wind industry by increasing and refining the understanding of distributed wind costs, policy best practices, and key market opportunities in all 50 states. This comprehensive overview and customized software to quickly calculate and compare policy scenarios represent a fundamental step in allowing policymakers to see how their decisions impact the bottom line for distributed wind consumers, while estimating the relative advantages of different options available in their policy toolboxes. Interested stakeholders have suggested numerous ways to enhance and expand the initial effort to develop an even more user-friendly Policy Tool and guidebook, including the enhancement and expansion of the current tool, and conducting further analysis. The report and the project's Guidebook include further details on possible next steps. NREL Report No. BK-5500-53127; DOE/GO-102011-3453.

Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study determines the performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. The solar plants are conceptualized to begin commercial operation in the year 2000. It is assumed that major subsystem performance will have improved substantially as compared to that of pilot plants currently operating or under construction. The net average annual system efficiency is therefore roughly twice that of current solar thermal electric power plant designs. Similarly, capital costs reflecting goals based on high-volume mass production that are considered to be appropriate for the year 2000 have been used. These costs, which are approximately an order of magnitude below the costs of current experimental projects, are believed to be achievable as a result of the anticipated sizeable solar penetration into the energy market in the 1990 to 2000 timeframe. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrators comprise the advanced collector concepts studied. All concepts exhibit their best performance when sited in regional areas such as the sunbelt where the annual insolation is high. The regional variation in solar plant performance has been assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems performance and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades are given.

Latta, A.F.; Bowyer, J.M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P.H.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Commercial Standard 90.1 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Results | Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Map Printable Version Development Adoption Compliance Regulations Resource Center Commercial Standard 90.1 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Results The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective energy codes and standards to increase efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a series of cost analyses for ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings - the commercial model energy code. The cost analyses compare Standard 90.1-2010 to the prior 2007 edition, based on six prototype buildings in five representative U.S. climate zones. PNNL also conducted energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2010 and the commercial requirements of the

145

Determining Wind Turbine Gearbox Model Complexity Using Measurement Validation and Cost Comparison: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has conducted extensive field and dynamometer test campaigns on two heavily instrumented wind turbine gearboxes. In this paper, data from the planetary stage is used to evaluate the accuracy and computation time of numerical models of the gearbox. First, planet-bearing load and motion data is analyzed to characterize planetary stage behavior in different environments and to derive requirements for gearbox models and life calculations. Second, a set of models are constructed that represent different levels of fidelity. Simulations of the test conditions are compared to the test data and the computational cost of the models are compared. The test data suggests that the planet-bearing life calculations should be made separately for each bearing on a row due to unequal load distribution. It also shows that tilting of the gear axes is related to planet load share. The modeling study concluded that fully flexible models were needed to predict planet-bearing loading in some cases, although less complex models were able to achieve good correlation in the field-loading case. Significant differences in planet load share were found in simulation and were dependent on the scope of the model and the bearing stiffness model used.

LaCava, W.; Xing, Y.; Guo, Y.; Moan, T.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The effect of lighting system components on lighting quality, energy use, and life-cycle cost  

SciTech Connect

A computational method was developed to examine the effect of lamp, ballast, and fixture selection on the quality and quantity of illumination, energy consumption, and life-cycle cost of lighting systems. Applying this analysis to lighting layouts using different lamp/ballast/fixture combinations suggested that combinations with higher lumen outputs reduced the uniformity of the illuminance distribution at the workplace but did not reduce visibility levels. The use of higher lumen output lamp/ballast/fixture systems and higher efficiency components tended to reduce life-cycle costs as long as the premium cost of the components was not too high.

Rubinstein, F.; Clark, T.; Siminovitch, M.; Verderber, R.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

148

The Cost Effectiveness of Fracture Stimulation in Increasing the Flow from Geothermal Wells  

SciTech Connect

The cost effectiveness of fracture stimulation at The Geysers, the Imperial Valley, and other geothermal resource areas in the United States vas studied using GEOCOM, a computer code for analyzing the impact of completion activities on the life-cycle costs of geothermal wells. Technologies for fracturing the reservoir near the wellbore involve the creation of a pressure pulse in the wellbore by means of either hydraulic or explosive force. The cost of a single fracture stimulation job can vary from $50,000 to over $500,000, with a typical cost of around $300,000. The code shows that additional flow achieved by fracture stimulation must exceed 10,000 pounds per hour for each $100,000 invested in stimulation in order for a fracture treatment to be cost effective. In some reservoirs, this additional flow must be as great as 30,000 pounds per hour. The cost effectiveness of fracturing has not yet been demonstrated in the field. The Geothermal Well Stimulation Program achieved an overall average of about 10,000 pounds per hour for each $100,000 invested.

Brown, Gerald L.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

Weng, Yu-Chi, E-mail: clyde.weng@gmail.com [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Fujiwara, Takeshi [Solid Waste Management Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

DOE Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons of Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons of Contaminated Ground Water DOE Moab Site Cost-Effectively Eliminates 200 Million Gallons of Contaminated Ground Water July 29, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis View of the evaporation pond (right center) on the tailings pile with the forced-air evaporators running. The extraction wells are between the pile and the Colorado River, which can be seen in the lower left. View of the evaporation pond (right center) on the tailings pile with the forced-air evaporators running. The extraction wells are between the pile and the Colorado River, which can be seen in the lower left. Media Contacts Donald Metzler, donald.metzler@gjem.doe.gov (970) 257-2115 Wendee Ryan, wryan@gjemtac.doe.gov (970) 257-2145 Grand Junction, CO - The Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that

151

Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies December 17, 2013 - 12:12pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Energy Department today announced more than $7 million for projects that will help bring cost-effective, advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies online faster. This investment - across four projects in Georgia, Kansas, Pennsylvania and Tennessee - will increase U.S. leadership in fuel cell-powered vehicles and backup power systems, and give businesses more affordable, cleaner transportation and power options.

152

Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies December 17, 2013 - 12:12pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Energy Department today announced more than $7 million for projects that will help bring cost-effective, advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies online faster. This investment - across four projects in Georgia, Kansas, Pennsylvania and Tennessee - will increase U.S. leadership in fuel cell-powered vehicles and backup power systems, and give businesses more affordable, cleaner transportation and power options.

153

The Effects of Prevaling Wage Requirements on the Cost of Low-Income Housing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infill Residential Project Cost Site and Structure CostEstimates of increased project costs un- der Davis-BaconWage Differential (%) Project Cost Increase (%) Source:

Dunn, Sarah; Quigley, John M.; Rosenthal, Larry A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Cost effective analysis of recycled products for use in highway construction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Over 4.5 billion of non-hazardous wastes are generated in the United States each year. Out of these wastes over 200 million tons of post consumer waste is generated. The disposal of post consumer waste is the responsibility of municipality and society. Four waste materials glass, plastic, rubber tires and paper and paperboard were selected for the detail study. A questionnaire survey was conducted for obtaining input from all state Department of Transportation (DOT) Recyclers and solid waste management facilities in the state of Ohio. Responses received from state DOT stated that they use various recycled materials in highway construction but do not conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of recycle waste materials. The cost of disposal of post consumer waste is increasing, which requires an alternate use for these waste materials. One possible use of these post consumer waste materials is in highway construction. An economic analysis is needed for their cost-effectiveness before using these materials in highway construction. Though these recycled waste materials are expensive compared to virgin material, consideration of the savings in terms of societal cost make these materials cost-effective and attractive to use in highway construction.

Gupta, J.D.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOX WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOX BURNERS AND SNCR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop an environmentally acceptable and cost-effective NO{sub x} control system that can achieve less than 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for a wide range of coal-burning commercial boilers. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO{sub x} PC burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. In addition to the above stated NO{sub x} limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu, ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip levels will be targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Testing will be performed in the 100 million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) in Alliance, Ohio. Finally, by amendment action, a limited mercury measurement campaign was conducted to determine if the partitioning and speciation of mercury in the flue gas from a Powder River Basin coal is affected by the addition of Chlorides to the combustion zone.

Hamid Farzan

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Bluefield, West Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 3400 Cumberland Road, Bluefield, West Virginia. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately five (5) years instead of the 7.73 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Woodbrdge, VA. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 13317 Gordon Boulevard, Woodbridge, Virginia is given. The description of the system along with the final breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 7.2 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Bluefield, West Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 3400 Cumberland Road, Bluefield, West Virginia. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately five (5) years instead of the 7.73 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5014: Electricity Price Effect on Electrolysis Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5014 Date: December 15, 2005 5014 Date: December 15, 2005 Title: Electricity Price Effect on Electrolysis Cost Originator: Roxanne Garland Approved by: JoAnn Milliken Date: January 2, 2006 Item: Effect of Electricity Price on Distributed Hydrogen Production Cost (Assumes: 1500 GGE/day, electrolyzer at 76% efficiency, and capital cost of $250/kW) The graph is based on the 2010 target of a 1500 kg/day water electrolysis refueling station described on page 3-12 of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan, February 2005. The graph uses all the same assumptions associated with the target, except for electricity price: Reference: - 76% efficient electrolyzer - 75% system efficiency

160

Tradeable CO sub 2 emission permits for cost-effective control of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Many current global warming mitigation policy proposals call for large, near-term reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, thereby entailing high initial carbon emission tax rates or permit prices. This paper claims that these high initial tax rates or permit prices are not cost-effective in achieving the desired degree of climate change control. A cost-effective permit system is proposed and described that, under certain assumptions, would allow markets to optimally lead permit prices along a gradually increasing trajectory over tie. This price path presents the Hotelling result and would ease the abrupt, inefficient, and costly adjustments imposed on the fossil fuel and other industries in current proposals. This finding is demonstrated using the Argonne Model, a linear programming energy- environmental-economic model that allows for intertemporal optimization of consumer energy well-being. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kosobud, R.F.; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the factors emphasized by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), a national consensus-based standard under the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) for developing sustainable or high performance buildings, is water efficiency. A LEED registered project can attain up to five points under water efficiency upon successful integration of various techniques to conserve water. Many techniques are available to conserve water and grey water reuse is one option considered by many LEED registered projects. In spite of widespread popularity, some of the sustainable techniques including grey water reuse, which is recommended by the USGBC and various agencies engaged in green building constructions, are not viable in many parts of the United States due to their effects on construction cost and project schedules. Even though a project could get one or multiple points upon successful implementation of a grey water reuse system and conserving potable water, the following factors may have a positive or negative effect on the design team’s decision to implement a grey water reuse system: capital cost, maintenance cost, LEED credits, local plumbing codes, project schedule, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. Implementation of a grey water reuse system has a significant effect on the capital cost of a project. The increase in cost may be attributed to dual sanitary and grey water distribution piping which doubles construction piping costs. Disinfection treatment, filtration, overflow protection, grey water storage tanks, etc. also add to the cost of construction. Ninety percent of the projects claim that project schedule is not affected by the implementation of a grey water reuse system in a green building project. The factors which prevent the project team from implementing a grey water reuse system include capital cost, maintenance cost, local plumbing codes, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. LEED credits and the spirit of sustainability are the factors which have a positive effect on the design team’s decision to implement a grey water reuse system.

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Effect of cumulative seismic damage and corrosion on life-cycle cost of reinforced concrete bridges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bridge design should take into account not only safety and functionality, but also the cost effectiveness of investments throughout a bridge life-cycle. This work presents a probabilistic approach to compute the life-cycle cost (LCC) of corroding reinforced concrete (RC) bridges in earthquake prone regions. The approach is developed by combining cumulative seismic damage and damage associated to corrosion due to environmental conditions. Cumulative seismic damage is obtained from a low-cycle fatigue analysis. Chloride-induced corrosion of steel reinforcement is computed based on Fick’s second law of diffusion. The proposed methodology accounts for the uncertainties in the ground motion parameters, the distance from source, the seismic demand on the bridge, and the corrosion initiation time. The statistics of the accumulated damage and the cost of repairs throughout the bridge life-cycle are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulation. As an illustration of the proposed approach, the effect of design parameters on the life-cycle cost of an example RC bridge is studied. The results are shown to be valuable in better estimating the condition of existing bridges (i.e., total accumulated damage at any given time) and, therefore, can help schedule inspection and maintenance programs. In addition, by taking into consideration the deterioration process over a bridge life-cycle, it is possible to make an estimate of the optimum design parameters by minimizing, for example, the expected cost throughout the life of the structure.

Kumar, Ramesh

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

SciTech Connect

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

Hirst, E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices  

SciTech Connect

More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

Hirst, E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cost Effectiveness of On-Site Chlorine Generation for Chlorine Truck Attack Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A chlorine tank truck attack could cause thousands of fatalities. As a means of preventing chlorine truck attacks, I consider the on-site generation of chlorine or hypochlorite at all U.S. facilities currently receiving chlorine by truck. I develop and ... Keywords: applications, cost-effectiveness, public policy, risk analysis, terrorism, uncertainty

Anthony M. Barrett

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Early, Cost-Effective Applications of Photovoltaics in the Electric Utility Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV)-powered systems can compete economically with conventional utility approaches such as distribution line extensions and step-down transformer installation for powering small electric loads. This study identified more than 60 cost-effective applications of PV-powered systems for utilities and their customers.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Photovoltaics for municipal planners. Cost-effective municipal applications of photovoltaics for electric power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Carbon 40 (2002) 18631872 Adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces: cost-effective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon 40 (2002) 1863­1872 Adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces: cost-effective computational levels of theory. The carbonaceous surface is modeled by a graphene layer that has unsaturated carbon sites of a carbonized material. We emphasized the model performance in predicting geometrical parameters

Truong, Thanh N.

170

Robust and Cost-Effective Architecture Design for Smart Grid Communications: A Multi-stage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robust and Cost-Effective Architecture Design for Smart Grid Communications: A Multi.zhang}@asu.edu Abstract--Wide-area monitoring, protection and control (WAMPAC) plays a critical role in smart grid for smart grid. To this end, we consider a middleware approach to leverage the existing commercial

Reisslein, Martin

171

Life Cost Based FMEA Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Carrying Out a Cost-based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Failure occurs when one or more of the intended functions of a product are no longer fulfilled to the customer's satisfaction. The most critical product failures are those that escape design reviews and in-house quality inspection and are found by the customer. The product may work for a while until its performance degrades to an unacceptable level or it may have not worked even before customer took possession of the product. The end results of failures which may lead to unsafe conditions or major losses of the main function are rated high in severity. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a tool widely used in the automotive, aerospace, and electronics industries to identify, prioritize, and eliminate known potential failures, problems, and errors from systems under design, before the product is released (Stamatis, 1997). Several industrial FMEA standards such as those published by the Society of Automotive Engineers, US Department of Defense, and the Automotive Industry Action Group employ the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to measure risk and severity of failures. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) is a product of 3 indices: Occurrence (O), Severity (S), and Detection (D). In a traditional FMEA process design engineers typically analyze the 'root cause' and 'end-effects' of potential failures in a sub-system or component and assign penalty points through the O, S, D values to each failure. The analysis is organized around categories called failure modes, which link the causes and effects of failures. A few actions are taken upon completing the FMEA worksheet. The RPN column generally will identify the high-risk areas. The idea of performing FMEA is to eliminate or reduce known and potential failures before they reach the customers. Thus, a plan of action must be in place for the next task. Not all failures can be resolved during the product development cycle, thus prioritization of actions must be made within the design group. One definition of detection difficulty (D) is how well the organization controls the development process. Another definition relates to the detectability of a particular failure in the product when it is in the hands of the customer. The former asks 'What is the chance of catching the problem before we give it to the customer'? The latter asks 'What is the chance of the customer catching the problem before the problem results in a catastrophic failure?' (Palady, 1995) These differing definitions confuse the FMEA users when one tries to determine detection difficulty. Are we trying to measure how easy it is to detect where a failure has occurred or when it has occurred? Or are we trying to measure how easy or difficult it is to prevent failures? Ordinal scale variables are used to rank-order industries such as, hotels, restaurants, and movies (Note that a 4 star hotel is not necessarily twice as good as a 2 star hotel). Ordinal values preserve rank in a group of items, but the distance between the values cannot be measured since a distance function does not exist. Thus, the product or sum of ordinal variables loses its rank since each parameter has different scales. The RPN is a product of 3 independent ordinal variables, it can indicate that some failure types are 'worse' than others, but give no quantitative indication of their relative effects. To resolve the ambiguity of measuring detection difficulty and the irrational logic of multiplying 3 ordinal indices, a new methodology was created to overcome these shortcomings, Life Cost-Based FMEA. Life Cost-Based FMEA measures failure/risk in terms of monetary cost. Cost is a universal parameter that can be easily related to severity by engineers and others. Thus, failure cost can be estimated using the following simplest form: Expected Failure Cost = {sup n}{Sigma}{sub i=1}p{sub i}c{sub i}, p: Probability of a particular failure occurring; c: Monetary cost associated with that particular failure; and n: Total number of failure scenarios. FMEA is most effective when there are inputs into it from

Rhee, Seung; Spencer, Cherrill; /Stanford U. /SLAC

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

Life Cost Based FMEA Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Carrying Out a Cost-based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Failure occurs when one or more of the intended functions of a product are no longer fulfilled to the customer's satisfaction. The most critical product failures are those that escape design reviews and in-house quality inspection and are found by the customer. The product may work for a while until its performance degrades to an unacceptable level or it may have not worked even before customer took possession of the product. The end results of failures which may lead to unsafe conditions or major losses of the main function are rated high in severity. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a tool widely used in the automotive, aerospace, and electronics industries to identify, prioritize, and eliminate known potential failures, problems, and errors from systems under design, before the product is released (Stamatis, 1997). Several industrial FMEA standards such as those published by the Society of Automotive Engineers, US Department of Defense, and the Automotive Industry Action Group employ the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to measure risk and severity of failures. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) is a product of 3 indices: Occurrence (O), Severity (S), and Detection (D). In a traditional FMEA process design engineers typically analyze the 'root cause' and 'end-effects' of potential failures in a sub-system or component and assign penalty points through the O, S, D values to each failure. The analysis is organized around categories called failure modes, which link the causes and effects of failures. A few actions are taken upon completing the FMEA worksheet. The RPN column generally will identify the high-risk areas. The idea of performing FMEA is to eliminate or reduce known and potential failures before they reach the customers. Thus, a plan of action must be in place for the next task. Not all failures can be resolved during the product development cycle, thus prioritization of actions must be made within the design group. One definition of detection difficulty (D) is how well the organization controls the development process. Another definition relates to the detectability of a particular failure in the product when it is in the hands of the customer. The former asks 'What is the chance of catching the problem before we give it to the customer'? The latter asks 'What is the chance of the customer catching the problem before the problem results in a catastrophic failure?' (Palady, 1995) These differing definitions confuse the FMEA users when one tries to determine detection difficulty. Are we trying to measure how easy it is to detect where a failure has occurred or when it has occurred? Or are we trying to measure how easy or difficult it is to prevent failures? Ordinal scale variables are used to rank-order industries such as, hotels, restaurants, and movies (Note that a 4 star hotel is not necessarily twice as good as a 2 star hotel). Ordinal values preserve rank in a group of items, but the distance between the values cannot be measured since a distance function does not exist. Thus, the product or sum of ordinal variables loses its rank since each parameter has different scales. The RPN is a product of 3 independent ordinal variables, it can indicate that some failure types are 'worse' than others, but give no quantitative indication of their relative effects. To resolve the ambiguity of measuring detection difficulty and the irrational logic of multiplying 3 ordinal indices, a new methodology was created to overcome these shortcomings, Life Cost-Based FMEA. Life Cost-Based FMEA measures failure/risk in terms of monetary cost. Cost is a universal parameter that can be easily related to severity by engineers and others. Thus, failure cost can be estimated using the following simplest form: Expected Failure Cost = {sup n}{Sigma}{sub i=1}p{sub i}c{sub i}, p: Probability of a particular failure occurring; c: Monetary cost associated with that particular failure; and n: Total number of failure scenarios. FMEA is most effective when there are inputs into it from all concerned disciplines of the product development t

Rhee, Seung; Spencer, Cherrill; /Stanford U. /SLAC

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

173

Cost-effectiveness of Different Herbicide and Non-herbicide Alternatives for Treating Transmission Rights of Way Vegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis to compare different programs of vegetation management for electric transmission line rights of way.BackgroundCost effectiveness is an important economic measure for describing and comparing the relative acceptability of different vegetation management programs. Cost-effectiveness analysis is apparently rarely used in the utility industry. This might be related to its apparent complexity, but it can ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

174

New Wind Energy Technologies Are Cost-Effective in Federal Applications--Technology Focus  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

energy systems are producing energy systems are producing electricity in some areas of the United States for 5¢ per kilowatt-hour (kWh) or less. As the demand for advanced wind systems increases, wind turbines can be manufactured on a larger scale. This demand, coupled with improvements in the technology, will further reduce the cost of wind- generated electricity. Today, using wind systems to generate electricity can be a cost-effective option for many Federal facilities. This is especially true for facilities that have access to good wind resources and rela- tively high utility costs, and those that depend on diesel power generation. Applications for wind systems are similar to those for solar systems: * Remote communications equipment * Ranger stations * Military installations * Visitor centers and other facilities in

175

New Wind Energy Technologies Are Cost-Effective in Federal Applications--Technology Focus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind energy systems are producing Wind energy systems are producing electricity in some areas of the United States for 5¢ per kilowatt-hour (kWh) or less. As the demand for advanced wind systems increases, wind turbines can be manufactured on a larger scale. This demand, coupled with improvements in the technology, will further reduce the cost of wind- generated electricity. Today, using wind systems to generate electricity can be a cost-effective option for many Federal facilities. This is especially true for facilities that have access to good wind resources and rela- tively high utility costs, and those that depend on diesel power generation. Applications for wind systems are similar to those for solar systems: * Remote communications equipment * Ranger stations * Military installations * Visitor centers and other facilities in

176

Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Evaluation of The Thermal Performance and Cost Effectiveness of Radiant Barrier Thermal Insulation Materials In Residential Construction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reducing heating and cooling systems loads in buildings is a cost effective way to decrease energy consumption in residential houses. This reduction can be achieved… (more)

Asadi, Somayeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cost effectiveness of the 1993 model energy code in New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

This is an analysis of cost effectiveness the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in New Jersey. Goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to the alternate allowed in the 1993 Building Officials & Code Administrators (BOCA) National Energy Conservation Code -- American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90A-1980 -- based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each. This comparison was performed for Camden, New Brunswick; Somerville, and Sparta. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily unit. For the single-family home buyer, compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1028 to $1564, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $206 to $313 (at 20% down). The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for houses built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was from 1 to 5 years. The home buyer who paid 20% down had recovered increases in down payments and mortgage payments in energy cost savings by the end of the fifth year or sooner and thereafter will save more money each year. For the multifamily unit home buyer first costs were estimated to increase by $121 to $223, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $12 to $22 (at 10% down). The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for houses built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was 1 to 3 years.

Lucas, R.G.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining. Ceramic Technology Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A workshop on ``Cost Effective Ceramic Machining`` (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee`s opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

Blau, P.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining'' (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee's opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

Blau, P.J.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

Hadder, G.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

267 267 June 2010 Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative S. Busche and S. Hockett National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-48267 June 2010 Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative S. Busche and S. Hockett Prepared under Task No. IDHW9170 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

183

Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Insulation for High Performance Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Research Project Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into advanced insulation for high performance wall, roof, and foundation systems. Heat flows from hotter to colder spaces, and insulation is designed to resist this flow by keeping hot air out in the summer and in during the winter. Project Description This project seeks to develop high performing, durable, hydrofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbons -free insulation with an R-value greater than 7.5-per-inch and a Class A fire performance. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Dow Chemical.

184

Interim Report: Coiled Tubing Drilling and Intervention System Using Cost Effective Vessel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOCUMENT TITLE: DOCUMENT TITLE: Self Supporting Riser Technology to Enable Coiled Tubing Intervention for Deepwater Wells Document No.: 08121-1502-12 RPSEA PROJECT TITLE: Coil Tubing Drilling and Intervention System Using a Cost Effective Vessel RPSEA Project No.: 08121-1502 01 April 2011 Charles R. Yemington, PE Project Manager Nautilus International 400 North Sam Houston Parkway East, Suite 105 Houston, Texas 77060 RPSEA Project No.: 08121-1502 Coiled Tubing Drilling and Intervention System Using a Cost Effective Vessel RPSEA Project 08121-1502 01 April 2011 Page 2 of 91 LEGAL NOTICE This report was prepared by Nautilus International, LLC. as an account of work sponsored by the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America (RPSEA). RPSEA members, the

185

Cost-Effective Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage With Supercritical Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UCLA and JPL are creating cost-effective storage systems for solar thermal energy using new materials and designs. A major drawback to the widespread use of solar thermal energy is its inability to cost-effectively supply electric power at night. State-of-the-art energy storage for solar thermal power plants uses molten salt to help store thermal energy. Molten salt systems can be expensive and complex, which is not attractive from a long-term investment standpoint. UCLA and JPL are developing a supercritical fluid-based thermal energy storage system, which would be much less expensive than molten-salt-based systems. The team’s design also uses a smaller, modular, single-tank design that is more reliable and scalable for large-scale storage applications.

None

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8267 8267 June 2010 Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative S. Busche and S. Hockett National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-48267 June 2010 Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative S. Busche and S. Hockett Prepared under Task No. IDHW9170 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

187

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 2009 and 2012 IECC Residential Provisions -- Technical Support Document  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2068 2068 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 2009 and 2012 IECC Residential Provisions - Technical Support Document V Mendon R Lucas S Goel April 2013 PNNL-22068 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 2009 and 2012 IECC Residential Provisions - Technical Support Document V Mendon R Lucas S Goel April 2013 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Executive Summary This analysis was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE supports the

188

Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Technology for Retrofitting Coal-Fired Boilers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost effeCtive Cost effeCtive oxy-Combustion teChnology for retrofitting Coal-fireD boilers Background Electric power generation from fossil fuels represents one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, not just in the United States, but throughout the world. Various technologies and concepts are being investigated as means to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The concept of pulverized coal (PC) oxy-combustion is one potential economical solution, whereby coal is combusted in an enriched oxygen environment using pure oxygen diluted with recycled flue gas. In this manner, the flue gas is composed primarily of CO 2 and H 2 O, so that a concentrated stream of CO 2 is produced by simply condensing the water in the exhaust stream. An advantage of

189

Effects of vaporizer and evaporative condenser pinch points on geofluid effectiveness and cost of electricity for geothermal binary power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief study was conducted in support of the DOE/DGHT Heat Cycle Research Program to investigate the influences of minimum approach temperature differences occurring in supercritical-heater/vaporizer and evaporative-condenser heat rejection systems on geothermal-electric binary power plant performance and cost of electricity. For the systems investigated optimum pinch points for minimizing cost of electricity were estimated to range from 5 to 7/sup 0/F (3 to 4/sup 0/C) for the heater vaporizer. The minimum approach of condensing temperature to wet-bulb temperature for evaporative condensers was estimated to be about 15/sup 0/F (8/sup 0/C) in order to achieve the highest plant net geofluid effectiveness, and approximately 30/sup 0/F (17/sup 0/C) to attain the minimum cost of electricity.

Demuth, O.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use  

SciTech Connect

The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

2004-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

195

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop cost-effective surfactant flooding technology by using surfactant simulation studies to evaluate and optimize alternative design strategies taking into account reservoir characteristics, process chemistry, and process design options such as horizontal wells. Task 1 is the development of an improved numerical method for our simulator that will enable us to solve a wider class of these difficult simulation problems, accurately and affordably. Task 2 is the application of this simulator to the optimization of surfactant flooding to reduce its risk and cost. The objective of Task 2 is to investigate and evaluate, through a systematic simulation study, surfactant flooding processes that are cost-effective. We previously have reported on low tension polymer flooding as an alternative to classical surfactant/polymer flooding. In this reporting period, we have studied the potential of improving the efficiency of surfactant/polymer flooding by coinjecting an alkali agent such as sodium carbonate under realistic reservoir conditions and process behavior. The alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flood attempts to take advantage of high pH fluids to reduce the amount of surfactant needed by the chemical reactions between injection fluid and formation fluid or formation rocks.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Jessen, F.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shown the effects of using oil costs as a measure of avoidedfcity or heat, an oil-based cost city probably overstatescombustion. The external costs of oil use differ coal and

Kay, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Cost-effective remediation and closure of petroleum-contaminated sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book provides environmental managers and their supporting technical specialists with a comprehensive strategy for cost-effectively cleaning up soils and groundwater contaminated by petroleum releases. It includes the most recent advances in site investigation techniques, low-cost remedial approaches, and technologies. It uses a risk-based process to answer key questions involved in developing a remediation or closure plan for a petroleum spill site. Several approaches are described that include risk management methods which use institutional controls to isolate contaminants from human contact and long-term monitoring to verify that natural attenuation is reducing future risk. More traditional risk evaluations and simplified RBCA methods are also presented that use site-specific exposure assumptions to develop risk-based cleanup objectives. Case studies illustrate how various combinations of land-use control, site-specific risk analysis, natural attenuation, and focused source reduction technologies have been used to obtain risk-based closures at sites across the US.

Downey, D.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Miller, R.N.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner’s proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project’s process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

McIlvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.; Chandra, S.; Schleith, K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate and compare several generic depreciation methods to assess the effectiveness of possible policy measures with respect to the depreciation schedules for investments in combined heat and power plants in the United States. We assess the different depreciation methods for CHP projects of various sizes (ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW). We evaluate the impact of different depreciation schedules on the tax shield, and the resulting tax savings to potential investors. We show that a shorter depreciation cycle could have a substantial impact on the cost of producing power, making cogeneration more attractive. The savings amount to approximately 6-7 percent of capital and fixed operation and maintenance costs, when changing from the current system to a 7 year depreciation scheme with switchover from declining balance to straight line depreciation. Suggestions for further research to improve the analysis are given.

Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

CX-009340: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009340: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost-Effective Treatment of Produced Water Using Co-Produced Energy Sources Phase II: Field...

208

CX-009338: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009338: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost-Effective Treatment of Produced Water Using Co-Produced Energy Sources Phase II: Field...

209

CX-006147: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006147: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost Effective Point Concentrator Dish for CSP Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 0713...

210

CX-009339: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009339: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost-Effective Treatment of Produced Water Using Co-Produced Energy Sources Phase II: Field...

211

CX-006157: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006157: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost Effective Point Concentrator Dish for CSP Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 0713...

212

CX-003563: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-003563: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Insulation for High-Performance, Cost-Effective Wall, Roof and Foundation Systems CX(s)...

213

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

BestPractices Steam tip sheet regarding ways to assess steam system efficiency. To determine the effective cost of steam, use a combined heat and power simulation model that includes all the significant effects.

Papar, R. [U.S. Department of Energy (US)

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

214

Effect of changes in DOE pricing policies for enrichment and reprocessing on research reactor fuel cycle costs  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle costs with HEU and LEU fuels for the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor are updated to reflect the change in DOE pricing policy for enrichment services as of October 1985 and the published charges for LEU reprocessing services as of February 1986. The net effects are essentially no change in HEU fuel cycle costs and a reduction of about 8 to 10% in the fuel cycle costs for LEU silicide fuel.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1986-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

COST-EFFECTIVE VISIBILITY-BASED DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL OFFICE LIGHTING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were calculated at the stated cost per Kwh by assuming 30to the work surface. The costs per Kwh essentially span themostly dependent upon the cost per Kwh divided by the area

Clear, Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

included. Therefore, the cost per kWh should not necessarilyproduction, i.e. the cost per kWh only relates to theof the tax shield and cost per kWh of power produced for

Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Process design and costing of bioethanol technology: A tool for determining the status and direction of research and development  

SciTech Connect

Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the US Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. The authors use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help them understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on their latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Their analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Glassner, D.; Sheehan, J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Effective, low-cost HVAC controls upgrade in a small bank building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the measured results from a field study of the performance of a low-cost controls retrofit in a small bank building in Knoxville, TN. The retrofit consisted of a simple upgrade of heating and cooling system controls and new operating strategies. The project was undertaken to better understand how commercial energy use measurement studies should be performed and to demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost controls retrofit in a small commercial building. This report describes the details of the project, including building and building system characteristics, the HVAC control changes made, energy end use patterns, and the heating and cooling energy savings achieved. An improved control strategy involving thermostat setback/setup and on/off control was devised around a single replacement programmable thermostat. The strategy allowed thermostat setback/setup control of the primary HVAC system in the building and provided on/off (time-of-day) control for the two secondary systems. The energy efficiency improvements provided a 33% reduction in heating and a 21% reduction in cooling energy consumptions. Simple payback for the retrofit, including installation cost, was under 1 year. In addition to reducing the energy needs of the building, the replacement electronic thermostat provided improved interior comfort. 9 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Sharp, T.R.; MacDonald, J.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D&D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D&D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D&D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance & monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D&D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D&D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D&D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost-savings. This paper will discuss the development of technologies currently modified with sensor technology by the TDID group, from conceptual design to Deployment at a DOE or commercial nuclear facility. Cost information associated with the respective technology will also be discussed.

Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cost-effective control systems for solar heating and cooling applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A methodology has been defined to arrive at control recommendations for a variety of climate control system designs, applications and regions, and the results are presented in two parts. Part I consists of a literature and market-place survey, involving control strategies, functions, sensors, actuators, and the controllers themselves. Part II represents the bulk of the study effort - an attempt to simulate and evaluate system performance for several representative residential and commercial heating and cooling designs and thus to derive improved performance techniques within cost-effective control systems. (MHR)

Pejsa, J. H.; Bassett, W. W.; Wenzler, S. A.; Nguyen, K. H.; Olson, T. J.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

Linn, Rodman Ray (Los Alamos, NM); Koo, Eunmo (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Determining effects of turbine blades on fluid motion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a technique for simulating wind interaction with wind turbines. A turbine blade is divided into radial sections. The effect that each of these radial sections has on the velocities in Eulerian computational cells they overlap is determined. The effect is determined using Lagrangian techniques such that the calculations need not include wind components in the radial direction. A force on each radial section of turbine blade is determined. This force depends on the axial and azimuthal components of the fluid flow in the computational cell and the geometric properties of the turbine blade. The force on the turbine blade is fed back to effect the fluid flow in the computational cell for the next time step.

Linn, Rodman Ray (Los Alamos, NM); Koo, Eunmo (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

225

A cost-effective differential mobility analyzer (cDMA) for multiple DMA column applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In aerosol research and applications, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) is now considered the standard tool for sizing and classifying monodisperse particles in the sub-micrometer and nanometer size ranges. However, DMA application at the pilot or industrial production scale remains infeasible because of the low mass throughput. A simple way to scale up DMA operation is to use multiple DMA columns. The manufacture and maintenance costs of existing DMAs, however, limit such a scale-up. A cost-effective DMA column (named cDMA) has thus been developed in this work to address the above issue. To reduce its manufacturing cost, the prototype was constructed using parts requiring little machining. The cDMA column was also designed for easy maintenance and easy variation of the classification length for any application-specified size range. In this study, prototypes with two particle classification lengths, 1.75 and 4.50 cm, were constructed and their performance was experimentally evaluated at sheath-to-aerosol flowrate ratios of 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1 via the tandem DMA (TDMA) technique. It was concluded that both prototype cDMAs, operated at a sheath/aerosol flowrate ratio less than 15:1 and with a polydisperse aerosol flowrate of 1.0 lpm, achieved sizing resolution comparable to that offered by Nano-DMA. The longer cDMA had comparable transmission efficiency to that of Nano-DMA, and the shorter cDMA exceeded the performance of Nano-DMA. Hence, the cDMA with the shorter (1.75 cm) classification length is better suited for the characterization of macromolecular samples.

Mei, F.; Fu, H.; Chen, D.-R.

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

226

Cost-effective applications of photovoltaics for electric utilities: An overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cost targets for the large-scale entry of photovoltaic (PV) systems keep moving, subject to the vagaries of global oil prices and the economic health of the world. Over the last four decades since a practical PV device was announced, costs have come down by a factor of 20 or more and this downward trend is expected to continue, albeit at a slower pace. Simultaneously, conversion efficiencies have nearly tripled. There are many applications today for which PV is cost-effective. In recognition of this, utility interest in PV is increasing and this is manifested by projects such as PVUSA and Central and South West`s renewable resource development effort. While no major technical barriers for the entry of PV systems have been uncovered, several key issues such as power quality, system reliability, ramp rates, spinning reserve requirements, and misoperation of protection schemes will have to be dealt with as the penetration of this technology increases. PV is still in the evolutionary phase and is expected to grow for several decades to come. Fueled by environmental considerations, interest in PV is showing a healthy rise both in the minds of the public and in the planning realms of the electric power community. In recognition of this, the Energy Development Subcommittee of the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation Committee organized a Panel Session on photovoltaics applications at the 1993 International Joint Power Generation Conference held in Kansas City, Missouri. Summaries of the four presentations are assembled here for the benefit of the readers of this Review.

Bigger, J.E. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

A new database of residential building measures and estimated costs helps the U.S. building industry determine the most  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new database of residential building measures and estimated costs helps the U.S. building at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures with using various measures to improve the efficiency of residential buildings. This database offers

228

Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.? The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and environmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pretreatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations.

Harish R. Acharya; Claire Henderson; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A framework for improving the cost-effectiveness of DSM program evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The prudence of utility demand-side management (DSM) investments hinges on their performance, yet evaluating performance is complicated because the energy saved by DSM programs can never be observed directly but only inferred. This study frames and begins to answer the following questions: (1) how well do current evaluation methods perform in improving confidence in the measurement of energy savings produced by DSM programs; (2) in view of this performance, how can limited evaluation resources be best allocated to maximize the value of the information they provide? The authors review three major classes of methods for estimating annual energy savings: tracking database (sometimes called engineering estimates), end-use metering, and billing analysis and examine them in light of the uncertainties in current estimates of DSM program measure lifetimes. The authors assess the accuracy and precision of each method and construct trade-off curves to examine the costs of increases in accuracy or precision. Several approaches for improving evaluations for the purpose of assessing program cost effectiveness are demonstrated. The methods can be easily generalized to other evaluation objectives, such as shared savings incentive payments.

Sonnenblick, R.; Eto, J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

For appliances, choosing the most cost-effective option depends on ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Environment. Greenhouse gas data, ... Solar › Energy in Brief ... Customers can quickly review costs, factor in rebates or incentives, ...

231

Projected cost-effectiveness of alternative residential space cooling systems in the Sacramento area  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities around the country are seeking to evaluate new demand-side management (DSM) programs and technologies on an equal basis with supply-side resources. In evaluating future demand and supply resources, utilities need to consider uncertainties inherent in prediction. In this paper, five residential space cooling technologies (high efficiency heat pumps, some coupled with utility direct load control or with thermal energy storage), are defined and computer simulation of their performance are described. Cost-effectiveness of the five alternatives are then evaluated, and the relative uncertainty of the data inputs are tested by using the Monte Carlo technique of probability analysis. This comparative analysis comprises an initial screening of potential DSM technologies, and provides a framework and direction for more detailed analysis of these technologies in the future.

Kallett, R.H. (Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Box 15830, Sacramento, CA (US))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Cost-Affordable Titanium III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Production and Thermomechanical Consolidation of Titanium Alloy Powders · Cost Affordable Developments in Titanium Technology and ...

233

Quantifying the Effectiveness of Innovative Contracting Strategies on Schedule, Cost and Change Order  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transportation infrastructure systems in the United States were built between the 50's and 80's, with 20 years design life. As most of them already exceeded their original life expectancy, State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are now under increased pressure to rebuild deteriorated transportation networks. Over the recent years, state transportation agencies (STAs) have taken into consideration various project delivery approaches apart from conventional project delivery approach to expedite project delivery. Since the introduction of these new alternative delivery approaches, not many substantial studies were conducted that evaluated the performance of these new alternatives. The absence of systematic studies about the effectiveness of these strategies and lack of appropriate analytical tools to evaluate them inhibits the STAs from budgeting precisely and accurately these strategies when they are deliberated for being put into practice. This study tries to address these limitations by evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies. The major objectives of this research were: 1) to evaluate the impact of contracting strategies on dealing with change orders 2) to evaluate the performance of different contracting strategies under varied work type for the state of Florida . For this research the study was conducted to quantify the changes to project duration and cost caused by change orders in the project under different contracting strategies and type of work. This was done through evaluating 2844 completed transportation infrastructure projects, completed between 2002 and 2011 in the state of Florida. These projects comprised of both the conventional projects and innovative alternative projects. The data was then statistically analyzed for evaluating the performance of these contracting strategies. The research concluded that alternative contracting strategies perform much better than conventional contracting in controlling project schedule but are found not to be as effective in controlling the project cost growth. The study also established that project size and work type affect the effectiveness of the contracting strategies. The study indicates that A+B is the worst performing contracting strategy among all the strategies evaluated. The results of this study will help the STAs to make better informed decision regarding selection of contracting strategy for project delivery.

Gaur, Ankit

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

A methodology for determining engineering costs and their effects on the development of product families  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of most firms is to deliver products that satisfy customer needs. Delivering a variety of differentiated products allows firms to satisfy the broadest range of customers. There is, however, a fundamental tension ...

Johnson, Michael DeShawn, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Cost-Effective Methods for Accurate Determination of Sea Level Rise Vulnerability: A Solomon Islands Example  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For millions of people living along the coastal fringe, sea level rise is perhaps the greatest threat to livelihoods over the coming century. With the refinement and downscaling of global climate models and increasing availability of airborne-...

Simon Albert; Kirsten Abernethy; Badin Gibbes; Alistair Grinham; Nixon Tooler; Shankar Aswani

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Cost-Effective Methods for Accurate Determination of Sea Level Rise Vulnerability: A Solomon Islands Example  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For millions of people living along the coastal fringe, sea level rise is perhaps the greatest threat to livelihoods over the coming century. With the refinement and downscaling of global climate models and increasing availability of airborne ...

Simon Albert; Kirsten Abernethy; Badin Gibbes; Alistair Grinham; Nixon Tooler; Shankar Aswani

237

Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004  

SciTech Connect

This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

Richman, Eric E.

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

239

Effect of Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Costs on Plant Life Cycle Decisions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear utilities implementing Life Cycle Management (LCM) Programs and facing run-relicense-retire decisions need to evaluate the financial cost/benefit of such decisions. Decommissioning costs are one element of these evaluations. This report includes a decommissioning cost estimate for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) that can be used as a reference source by nuclear utilities involved in LCM and license renewal (LR) decisions.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Final Subcontract Report, June 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report describes PowerLight Corporation's significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems.

Botkin, J.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Final Subcontract Report, June 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes PowerLight Corporation's significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems.

Botkin, J.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens in Harris County by a abating chemical plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

The work examines the engineering reasonableness and the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens n ambient air by abating emissions of organic chemicals in waste gas streams from chemical plants in Harris County, Texas, which contains the large chemical manufacturing complex in the Houston ship channel areas. The work also examined the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure through changing the way vent streams are released to the atmosphere. The achievable exposure reductions are estimated by use of 1980 census data and of ambient concentration estimates. The ambient concentration estimates are calculated using the Texas Climatological Model Version 2 (TCM-2) and publicly available emissions inventory collected by the Texas Air Control Board. The TCM-2 is based on the steady state Gaussian plume hypothesis, Briggs plume rise formations, Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficient approximations, and first order pollutant decay. The cost estimates rely on published studies and on the waste gas stream parameters of the chemical plant vents. The cost effectiveness results are compared with the cost effectiveness of controls typically applied to new sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are controlled because of their contribution to ozone air pollution, not because of the carcinogenicity of their emissions.

Price, J.H. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The Sunk-cost Effect as an Optimal Rate-maximizing Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

indefinitely provides the optimal long-term rate of gain; the entry cost of each new task is so great that the forager avoids ever returning to search. ..... when most encountered patches are costly to enter, exploitation time in each of these ...

244

Regulatory Control of Vehicle and Power Plant Emissions: How Effective and at What Cost?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passenger vehicles and power plants are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. While economic analyses generally indicate that a broader market-based approach to greenhouse gas reduction would be less costly and more ...

Paltsev, S.

245

Public Utility Commission Regulation and Cost-Effectiveness of Title IV: Lessons for CAIR  

SciTech Connect

There is growing evidence that the cost savings potential of the Title IV SO{sub 2} cap-and-trade program is not being reached. PUC regulatory treatment of compliance options appears to provide one explanation for this finding. That suggests that PUCs and utility companies should work together to develop incentive plans that will encourage cost-minimizing behavior for compliance with the EPA's recently issued Clean Air Interstate Rule.

Sotkiewicz, Paul M.; Holt, Lynne

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Design and Build- Cost-Effective Energy Conservation: An Opportunity for the Competitive Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper expands on concepts presented at the World Energy Congress and DA/DSM earlier this year. In the light of recent developments I have changed the title of the paper, merged some of the issues and updated my comments. The entire energy industry is in a state of flux in anticipation of the deregulation of the electricity supply industry. Utilities are, right now, creating subsidiary companies which will take advantage of the new competitive markets. These companies will trade as Energy Service Providers, offering a wide range of products, including conservation. They will focus on the bills the customers pay, not solely on the rates for energy. As this transition occurs the current methods for implementing energy conservation will be closely examined. We will see some of the aberrant and expensive practices created within a closely regulated Demand Side Management environment disappear. They will be replaced by traditional methodologies used in the construction industry. This paper examined the opportunity for those construction models in the competitive energy supply industry. I contend that an adaptation of the design and build method of construction offers many of the answers needed for cost effective implementation. The Design & Build contract has most of the key features needed in an energy conservation project. It is a proven method, understood by all participants, and it has inherent flexibility, needed to provide the building owner with the optimum solution for the building. Concentrating on the design of comprehensive Energy Conservation Measures (ECM), the D&B firm augments the strengths of its customers, conservation developers. The concepts offered herein are largely speculative; intended to create dialogue on the opportunities suggested. This document is not definitive. Now, can the industry make this work?

McGeown, D. I.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

CX-007576: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination "Development and Demonstration of Self-Expanding Well Construction Technology, Effecting Step Change Reductions in Geothermal Well Cost and...

248

CX-009859: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-009859: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost-Effective Treatment of Flowback and Produced Water via an Integrated Precipitative Supercritical Process CX(s) Applied: A9,...

249

On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final Report of On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells. The objective of this effort was to technologically enable a compact, fast start-up integrated Water Gas Shift-Pd membrane reactor for integration into an On Board Fuel Processing System (FPS) for an automotive 50 kWe PEM Fuel Cell (PEM FC). Our approach was to: (1) use physics based reactor and system level models to optimize the design through trade studies of the various system design and operating parameters; and (2) synthesize, characterize and assess the performance of advanced high flux, high selectivity, Pd alloy membranes on porous stainless steel tubes for mechanical strength and robustness. In parallel and not part of this program we were simultaneously developing air tolerant, high volumetric activity, thermally stable Water Gas Shift catalysts for the WGS/membrane reactor. We identified through our models the optimum WGS/membrane reactor configuration, and best Pd membrane/FPS and PEM FC integration scheme. Such a PEM FC power plant was shown through the models to offer 6% higher efficiency than a system without the integrated membrane reactor. The estimated FPS response time was < 1 minute to 50% power on start-up, 5 sec transient response time, 1140 W/L power density and 1100 W/kg specific power with an estimated production cost of $35/kW. Such an FPS system would have a Catalytic Partial Oxidation System (CPO) rather than the slower starting Auto-Thermal Reformer (ATR). We found that at optimum WGS reactor configuration that H{sub 2} recovery efficiencies of 95% could be achieved at 6 atm WGS pressure. However optimum overall fuel to net electrical efficiency ({approx}31%) is highest at lower fuel processor efficiency (67%) with 85% H{sub 2} recovery because less parasitic power is needed. The H{sub 2} permeance of {approx}45 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5} at 350 C was assumed in these simulations. In the laboratory we achieved a H{sub 2} permeance of 50 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5}) with a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 110 at 350 C with pure Pd. We also demonstrated that we could produce Pd-Ag membranes. Such alloy membranes are necessary because they aren't prone to the Pd-hydride {alpha}-{beta} phase transition that is known to cause membrane failure in cyclic operation. When funding was terminated we were on track to demonstrated Pd-Ag alloy deposition on a nano-porous ({approx}80 nm) oxide layer supported on porous stainless steel tubing using a process designed for scale-up.

Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Zissis Dardas; Ying She; Mallika Gummalla; Benoit Olsommer

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation CTS 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference costs #12;Potential Applications · Roadway Project Feasibility Studies ­ Identified potential roadway infrastructure improvement ­ Documentation of estimated project costs ­ Determine property assessments

Minnesota, University of

251

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities) and 37 percent complex (medical buildings and power plants). Allowing for the influence of one large facility which received less-extensive treatment due to previous work, thorough audits were obtained for an average cost of $0.050/SF. Large medical buildings (greater than about 170,000 square feet) were audited for $0.050/SF or less, and program costs for survey audits of 17.2 million square feet were $0.0028/SF. The effect on audit costs of complexity of recommended modifications, amount of savings determined, amount of implementation costs, building size, and building complexity are discussed. Primary effects on audit costs are size and complexity of buildings. Program guidelines limited consideration of projects with greater than a four year payback.

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020—from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366’s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with today’s state-of-the-art technologies. 1366’s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366’s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

None

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy  

SciTech Connect

Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing', that is, a bearing that uses magnetic forces to support the rotor against gravity. Magnetic bearings are a virtual necessity for the E-M battery in order to achieve long service life, and to minimize frictional losses so that the battery does not lose its charge (run down) too rapidly. These considerations mitigate against the use of conventional mechanical bearings in the E-M battery for most applications. The Laboratory has pioneered the development of a new form of magnetic bearing to meet the special requirements of the E-M battery: the 'ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing'. Simpler, and potentially much less expensive than the existing 'active' magnetic bearings (ones requiring electronic amplifiers and feedback circuits for their operation) development of the ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing represents a technological breakthrough. Beyond its use in the E-M battery, the ambient-temperature magnetic bearing could have important applications in replacing conventional lubricated mechanical bearings in electrical machinery. Here the gains would be two-fold: reduced frictional losses, leading to higher motor efficiency, and, of equal importance, the elimination of the need for lubricants and for routine replacement of the bearings owing to mechanical wear. Thus an added benefit from a vigorous pursuit of our electromechanical battery concepts could be its impact on many other areas of industry where rotating machinery in need of improved bearings is involved. If perfected, passive magnetic bearings would seem to represent an almost ideal replacement for the mechanical bearings in many types of industrial electrical machinery. Returning to the issued of energy storage, the E-M battery itself has much to contribute in the area of improving the efficiency of stationary energy storage systems. For example, many electrical utilities utilize 'pumped hydro' energy storage systems as a means of improving the utilization of their 'base-load' power plants. That is, electrical energy is stored during off-

Post, R F

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing', that is, a bearing that uses magnetic forces to support the rotor against gravity. Magnetic bearings are a virtual necessity for the E-M battery in order to achieve long service life, and to minimize frictional losses so that the battery does not lose its charge (run down) too rapidly. These considerations mitigate against the use of conventional mechanical bearings in the E-M battery for most applications. The Laboratory has pioneered the development of a new form of magnetic bearing to meet the special requirements of the E-M battery: the 'ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing'. Simpler, and potentially much less expensive than the existing 'active' magnetic bearings (ones requiring electronic amplifiers and feedback circuits for their operation) development of the ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing represents a technological breakthrough. Beyond its use in the E-M battery, the ambient-temperature magnetic bearing could have important applications in replacing conventional lubricated mechanical bearings in electrical machinery. Here the gains would be two-fold: reduced frictional losses, leading to higher motor efficiency, and, of equal importance, the elimination of the need for lubricants and for routine replacement of the bearings owing to mechanical wear. Thus an added benefit from a vigorous pursuit of our electromechanical battery concepts could be its impact on many other areas of industry where rotating machinery in need of improved bearings is involved. If perfected, passive magnetic bearings would seem to represent an almost ideal replacement for the mechanical bearings in many types of industrial electrical machinery. Returning to the issued of energy storage, the E-M battery itself has much to contribute in the area of improving the efficiency of stationary energy storage systems. For example, many electrical utilities utilize 'pumped hydro' energy storage systems as a means of improving the utilization of their 'base-load' power plants. That is, electrical energy is stored during off-peak hours for delivery at times of peak usage. These pumped hydro sys

Post, R F

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

258

Effects of vaporizer and evaporative-condenser size on geofluid effectiveness and cost of electricity for geothermal binary power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A special study was conducted to investigate the influences of minimum approach temperature differences occurring in supercritical-heater/vaporizer and evaporative-condenser heat rejection systems on geothermal-electric binary power plant performance and cost of electricity. For the systems investigated optimum pinch points for minimizing cost of electricity were estimated to range from 5 to 7/sup 0/F for the heater vaporizer. The minimum approach of condensing temperature to wet-bulb temperature for evaporative condensers was estimated to be about 30/sup 0/F in order to achieve the lowest cost of electricity.

Demuth, O.J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A Cost Effective Real-Time Tracking System Prototype Using Integrated GPS/GPRS Module  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a real time tracking system that provides accurate localizations of the tracked vehicle with low cost. The system is implemented using GM862 cellular quad band module. A monitoring server and a graphical user interface on a website ... Keywords: GPS, GSM, ITS, Real Time Tracking

Wael El-Medany; Alauddin Al-Omary; Riyadh Al-Hakim; Sufyan Al-Irhayim; Mustafa Nusaif

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

SADmote: a robust and cost-effective device for environmental monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time to deployment for wireless sensor networks could be reduced by using commercial sensor nodes. However, this may lead to suboptimal flexibility, power consumption and cost of the system. Our pilot deployment for precision agriculture and fruit growing ... Keywords: environmental monitoring, hardware design, precision agriculture, sensor networks

Atis Elsts; Rihards Balass; Janis Judvaitis; Reinholds Zviedris; Girts Strazdins; Artis Mednis; Leo Selavo

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Cost Maps for Fossil Assets Management: Based on a Case Study With Minnesota Power Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key to effective management of utility assets is determining the benefits and costs of options over various timeframes. This report describes and illustrates a structured approach to asset management decision making using cost maps.

1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

262

Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies  

SciTech Connect

Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2972 2972 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 BA Thornton SA Loper V Mendon MA Halverson EE Richman MI Rosenberg M Myer DB Elliott November 2013 PNNL-22972 National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 BA Thornton SA Loper V Mendon MA Halverson EE Richman MI Rosenberg M Myer DB Elliott November 2013 Prepared for The U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Executive Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) prepared this analysis for the U.S. Department of

264

Modelling, simulation and analysis of low-cost direct torque control of PMSM using hall-effect sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on the development of a novel Direct Torque Control (DTC) scheme for permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors (surface and interior types) in the constant torque region with the help of cost-effective hall-effect sensors. This method requires no DC-link sensing, which is a mandatory matter in the conventional DTC drives, therefore it reduces the cost of a conventional DTC of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor and also removes common problems including; resistance change effect, low speed and integration drift. Conventional DTC drives require at least one DC-link voltage sensor (or two on the motor terminals) and two current sensors because of the necessary estimation of position, speed, torque, and stator flux in the stationary reference frame. Unlike the conventional DTC drive, the proposed method uses the rotor reference frame because the rotor position is provided by the three hall-effect sensors and does not require expensive voltage sensors. Moreover, the proposed algorithm takes the acceleration and deceleration of the motor and torque disturbances into account to improve the speed and torque responses. The basic theory of operation for the proposed topology is presented. A mathematical model for the proposed DTC of the PMSM topology is developed. A simulation program written in MATLAB/SIMULINK�® is used to verify the basic operation (performance) of the proposed topology. The mathematical model is capable of simulating the steady-state, as well as dynamic response even under heavy load conditions (e.g. transient load torque at ramp up). It is believed that the proposed system offers a reliable and low-cost solution for the emerging market of DTC for PMSM drives. Finally the proposed drive, considering the constant torque region operation, is applied to the agitation part of a laundry washing machine (operating in constant torque region) for speed performance comparison with the current low-cost agitation cycle speed control technique used by washing machine companies around the world.

Ozturk, Salih Baris

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly-spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal cost of delivering wood chips to a specific location given road network maps and maps of farmgate prices and supplies of woody chips from short rotation energy crops. Marginal costs of delivered chips varied by both facility location in the state and facility demand. Marginal costs were lowest in central Tennessee unless the facility demand was greater than 2.7 million dry Mg per year (3 million dry tons per year) in which case west Tennessee was the lowest cost region. Marginal costs rose rapidly with increasing facility demand in the mountainous eastern portion of the state. Transportation costs accounted for 18 to 29% of the delivered cost and ranged between $8 and $18/dry Mg ($7 and $16/dry ton). Reducing the expected farmer participation rate from 100% to 50% or 25% dramatically raised the marginal costs of feedstock supply in the east and central regions of the state. The analysis demonstrates the need to use geographically-specific information when projecting the potential costs and supplies of biomass feedstock.

Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Biofuels Feedstock Development Program; Noon, C.; Daly, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Management Science Program; Moore, A. [Dept. of Trade and Industry, Harwell (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Support Unit

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

Results of research to develop cost effective biomonitoring at oil shale lease tracts. Phase I. Fall sampling report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of censuses conducted during October 1981 to estimate the fall abundance of small mammals and avifauna on replicate plots in the vicinity of Federal Tract C-a (Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company). The objectives of the fall censuses were to evaluate alternative census techniques, test assumptions vital to the use of indices and abundance estimators, determine cost-functions associated with monitoring efforts, and estimate variance components needed to devise optimal monitoring designs. Analyses of the fall census data on small mammal abundance were performed.

Skalski, J.R.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant oil recovery performance reported in the literature. The second effort is a more fundamental study. It considers the effect of chemical structures of different naphthenic acids (NA) dissolved in decane as model oils that render calcite surfaces oil-wet to a different degree. NAs are common to crude oil and are at least partially responsible for the frequent observation that carbonate reservoirs are oil-wet. Because pure NA compounds are used, trends in wetting behavior can be related to NA molecular structure as measured by solid adsorption, contact angle and our novel, simple flotation test with calcite. Experiments with different surfactants and NA-treated calcite powder provide information about mechanisms responsible for sought after reversal to a water-wet state. Key findings include: (1) more hydrophobic NA's are more prone to induce oil-wetting, and (2) recovery of the model oil from limestone core was better with cationic surfactants, but one nonionic surfactant, Igepal CO-530, also had favorable results. This portion of the project included theoretical calculations to investigate key basic properties of several NAs such as their acidic strength and their relative water/oil solubility, and relate this to their chemical structure. The third category of this project focused on the recovery of a light crude oil from West Texas (McElroy Field) from a carbonate rock (limestone outcrop). For this effort, the first item was to establish a suite of surfactants that would be compatible with the McElroy Field brine. Those were examined further for their ability to recover oil by imbibition. Results demonstrate several types of promising candida

William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

270

Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

include energy savings performance include energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs), utility energy service contracts (UESCs), on-site renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), and various Federal and state energy incen- tives programs. With assistance from FEMP, the Federal Government's energy management com- mitment has accelerated and grown in recent years. Since 2005, FEMP facili- tated $3.1 billion of efficiency invest- ments in Federal Government facilities from performance-based contracts, which resulted in cost savings of approximately $8.5 billion over the life of the energy- saving measures. Using sustainable design practices to create high-performance buildings: FEMP helps Federal agencies imple- ment sustainable design practices that

272

Cost-Effective Cementitious Material Compatible with Yucca Mountain Repository Geochemistry  

SciTech Connect

The current plans for the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository project (YMP) use steel structures to stabilize the disposal drifts and connecting tunnels that are collectively over 100 kilometers in length. The potential exist to reduce the underground construction cost by 100s of millions of dollars and improve the repository's performance. These economic and engineering goals can be achieved by using the appropriate cementitious materials to build out these tunnels. This report describes the required properties of YM compatible cements and reviews the literature that proves the efficacy of this approach. This report also describes a comprehensive program to develop and test materials for a suite of underground construction technologies.

Dole, LR

2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

273

Self Aligned Cell: Scaling Up Manufacture of a Cost Effective Cell Architecture for Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two areas of technology for fabrication of higher efficiency Si-wafer solar cells were addressed: (1) the formation of structured texturing that is an improvement over the industry-standard isotexture process for multicrystalline wafers. (2) the formation of fine line (damage, thus allowing for better advances in sawing and a more robust wet process. 1366 Technologies developed 2 pilot machines for 1) deposition and patterning of low-cost resist layers to enable simultaneous Honeycomb front texturing and groove formation for multicrystalline Si wafers, and 2) fine-line dispensing of materials that are self aligned to the grooves.

Gabor, A.; van Mierlo, F.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Cost effectiveness analysis of the SEAMIST{trademark} membrane system technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the cost and performance characteristics of SEAMIST{trademark}, an innovative technology that facilitates measurements of contaminants in both vertical and horizontal vadose zone boreholes. This new technology consists of an airtight membrane linear that is pneumatically emplaced inside the borehole structure. Sampling ports with attached tubing, absorbent collectors, or various in situ measuring devices can be fabricated into the linear and used for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, herbicides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, or radioactive substances. In addition, small instruments can be guided through the lined borehole and measurements taken inside at specified intervals.

Henriksen, A.D.; Booth, S.R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.

Thornton, Brian A.; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Cho, Hee Jin; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

276

National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.

Thornton, Brian; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

On the Use of GPUs in Realizing Cost-Effective Distributed RAID  

SciTech Connect

The exponential growth in user and application data entails new means for providing fault tolerance and protection against data loss. High Performance Computing (HPC) storage systems, which are at the forefront of handling the data deluge, typically employ hardware RAID at the backend. However, such solutions are costly, do not ensure end-to-end data integrity, and can become a bottleneck during data reconstruction. In this paper, we design an innovative solution to achieve a flexible, fault-tolerant, and high-performance RAID-6 solution for a parallel file system (PFS). Our system utilizes low-cost, strategically placed GPUs - both on the client and server sides - to accelerate parity computation. In contrast to hardware-based approaches, we provide full control over the size, length and location of a RAID array on a per file basis, end-to-end data integrity checking, and parallelization of RAID array reconstruction. We have deployed our system in conjunction with the widely-used Lustre PFS, and show that our approach is feasible and imposes acceptable overhead.

Khasymski, Aleksandr [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Rafique, Mustafa [Qatar Foundation; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios [Queen's University, Belfast

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Experimental determination of the effective Taylor dispersivity in a fracture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The applicability and accuracy of the approximation for Taylor Dispersion was experimentally determined for the diffusion of a chemical tracer in flow through a fracture. 12 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

Gilardi, J.R.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Cost Affordable Titanium IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Enhancing the Cost Effectiveness of High Performance Titanium Alloy Component Production by Powder Metallurgy · Evolution of Texture in ...

280

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired electric utilities are facing a serious challenge with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} emissions. At issue are the NO{sub x} contributions to the acid rain, ground level ozone, and particulate matter formation. Substantial NO{sub x} control requirements could be imposed under the proposed Ozone Transport Rule, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and New Source Performance Standards. McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Fuel Tech are teaming to provide an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. This system will be capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu and target ammonia (NH3) slip level targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Our approach combines the best available combustion and post-combustion NO{sub x} control technologies. More specifically, B and W's DRB-4Z TM ultra low-NO{sub x} PC burner technology will be combined with Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT (SNCR) and NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) systems and jointly evaluated and optimized in a state-of-the-art test facility at MTI. Although the NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) system will not be tested directly in this program, its potential application for situations that require greater NO{sub x} reductions will be inferred from other measurements (i.e., SNCR NO{sub x} removal efficiency plus projected NO{sub x} reduction by the catalyst based on controlled ammonia slip). Our analysis shows that the integrated ultra low-NO{sub x} burner and SNCR system has the lowest cost when the burner emissions are 0.25 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu or less. At burner NO{sub x} emission level of 0.20 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu, the levelized cost per ton of NO{sub x} removed is 52% lower than the SCR cost.

Hamid Farzan

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Self Aligned Cell: Scaling Up Manufacture of a Cost Effective Cell Architecture for Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two areas of technology for fabrication of higher efficiency Si-wafer solar cells were addressed: (1) the formation of structured texturing that is an improvement over the industry-standard isotexture process for multicrystalline wafers. (2) the formation of fine line (<50 micron) metallization seed layers in a self-aligned manner where the fingers can be automatically and perfectly lined up to a selective emitter and where expensive silver screen printing paste can be mostly replaced by plating up the seed layers with silver or copper. The benefits are: a) Lower reflectivity , b) Decoupling the performance of the texture from the saw damage, thus allowing for better advances in sawing and a more robust wet process. 1366 Technologies developed 2 pilot machines for 1) deposition and patterning of low-cost resist layers to enable simultaneous Honeycomb front texturing and groove formation for multicrystalline Si wafers, and 2) fine-line dispensing of materials that are self aligned to the grooves.

Gabor, A.; van Mierlo, F.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

CX-006831: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-006831: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cost Effective Polymer Solar Cells Research and Education CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 0921...

283

DOE geothermal R&D program focused on facilitating long-term, cost-effective private resource development  

SciTech Connect

Analyses conducted in support of the National Energy Strategy projected that as much as 22,000 megawatts of cost-effective, moderate-temperature geothermal energy are available to the U.S. over the long-term, or to the year 2030. Thus, the primary hydrothermal technology research goal of the Department's Geothermal Division is to facilitate the ability of the private sector to exploit competitively this large source of energy up to that capacity level or greater. The primary mechanism for implementing this goal is an R&D core program cost-shared with industry focused on major cost-sensitive technology areas: exploration technology, reservoir engineering and management, and drilling. The NES analyses also indicated that electricity generated with energy derived from hot dry rock could be a geographically dispersed, logical follow-on to hydrothermal electricity in the longer term. In order to demonstrate whether energy at useful temperatures can be extracted over extended periods at competitive energy prices, a long-term flow test of an experimental HDR system will be conducted. This paper describes DOE's current participation in R&D activities leading to the development of ''cutting edge'' technology that will serve the geothermal industry's interest well into the next century.

Mock, John E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Optimal Materials and Deposition Technique Lead to Cost-Effective Solar Cell with Best-Ever Conversion Efficiency (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how the SJ3 solar cell was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Based on NREL and Solar Junction technology, the commercial SJ3 concentrator solar cell - with 43.5% conversion efficiency at 418 suns - uses a lattice-matched multijunction architecture that has near-term potential for cells with {approx}50% efficiency. Multijunction solar cells have higher conversion efficiencies than any other type of solar cell. But developers of utility-scale and space applications crave even better efficiencies at lower costs to be both cost-effective and able to meet the demand for power. The SJ3 multijunction cell, developed by Solar Junction with assistance from foundational technological advances by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has the highest efficiency to date - almost 2% absolute more than the current industry standard multijunction cell-yet at a comparable cost. So what did it take to create this cell having 43.5% efficiency at 418-sun concentration? A combination of materials with carefully designed properties, a manufacturing technique allowing precise control, and an optimized device design.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Fifteenth quarterly report, April-June 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity-process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly Solar Grade silicon. The first reported determinations of the segregation coefficients of tungsten, tantalum, and cobalt for the Czochralski pulling of silicon single crystals were performed. Sensitive neutron activation analysis was used to determine the metal impurity content of the silicon (C/sub S/) while atomic absorption was used to measure the metal content of the residual liquid (C/sub L/) from which the doped crystals were grown. Gettering of Ti-doped silicon wafers improves cell performance by 1 to 2% (absolute) for the highest temperatures and longest times. The measured profile for Ti centers formed after an 850/sup 0/C gettering operation was fitted by a mathematical expression for the out-diffusion of an impurity species. By means of cell performance data and the newly-measured segregation coefficients curves were computed to predict the variation in cell efficiency with impurity concentration for Mo, Ta, W, Nb, and Co, materials commonly employed in the construction of high temperature silicon processing equipment. Using data for second and third generation n-base ingots the cell performance curves were updated for single impurities in n-type silicon. Most impurities degrade n-base cells less than p-base devices. The effect is larges for Mo, Al, Mn, Ti, and V while Fe and Cr behave much the same in both types of solar cells. In contrast Ni and Cu both degrade n-base devices (apparently by a junction mechanism) more severely than p-base cells. (WHK)

Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Blais, P.D.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Safe, Cost Effective Management of Inactive Facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is part of the U.S. Department of Energy complex. It was constructed during the early 1950s to produce basic materials (such as plutonium-239 and tritium) used in the production of nuclear weapons. The 310-square-mile site is located in South Carolina, about 12 miles south of Aiken, South Carolina, and about 15 miles southeast of Augusta, Georgia. Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 200 facilities identified as inactive. These facilities range in size and complexity from large nuclear reactors to small storage buildings. These facilities are located throughout the site including three reactor areas, the heavy water plant area, the manufacturing area, and other research and support areas. Unlike DOE Closure Sites such as Hanford and Rocky Flats, SRS is a Project Completion Site with continuing missions. As facilities complete their defined mission, they are shutdown and transferred from operations to the facility disposition program. At the SRS, Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (FDD) personnel manage the disposition phase of a inactive facility's life cycle in a manner that minimizes life cycle cost without compromising (1) the health or safety of workers and the public or (2) the quality of the environment. The disposition phase begins upon completion of operations shutdown and extends through establishing the final end-state. FDD has developed innovative programs to manage their responsibilities within a constrained budget.

Austin, W. E.; Yannitell, D. M.; Freeman, D. W.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

287

Effect of tax, financing, and operating-cost incentives on retiree homeowners' current and potential decisions to purchase energy-saving improvements  

SciTech Connect

This study focused on retiree homeowners to determine their level of participation, causes of non-participation and the effect of selected incentive modifications on investment decisions. A descriptive-elemental approach was taken to explore three research questions. Fifty semi-structured interviews selected through restricted probability were conducted in Sun City, California. Findings were keyed to sex, age, education and income and statistically analyzed using the chi-square test. Retiree homeowners had coped with rising utility costs through modified usage practice rather than through energy-saving investments. Concerns over access to funding, required initial payout, return on investment, future prices of energy and risk were highest among those of least education or income. A desire to retain an existing life style was important to those of higher education and income. Level of awareness of incentive features was also a major decision factor. The analysis indicated that energy-saving investments will increase if retiree homeowners are offered shared-cost obligation by the individual, government, and utility; exemption from sales tax for all energy-saving-item sales and service; state tax exemption for federal tax credits; exemption of energy-saving improvements from property tax; continued federal tax credit; investment loans sufficiently available to meet demand; energy-producing equipment available for rent or lease at reasonable rates.

Long, A.W. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly reports 1 through 15. Results for each of the tasks in Phase 1 are presented.

Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

David N. Thompson, Robert W. Emerick, Alfred B. England, James P. Flanders, Frank J. Loge, Katherine A. Wiedeman, Michael P. Wolcott

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III): effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Fourteenth quarterly report, January-March 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine how various processes, impurities, and impurity-process interactions affect the properties of silicon and the performance of terrestrial solar cells made from silicon. The data provide a basis for cost-benefit analysis to the producers and users of Solar Grade Silicon. The Phase III effort encompasses five major topics: (1) examination of the interaction of impurities with processing treatments, (2) generation of a data base and modeling of impurity effects in n-base solar cells, (3) extension of previous p-base studies to include impurities likely to be introduced during silicon production, refining or crystal growth, (4) a consideration of the potential impact of anisotropic (nonuniform) impurity distribution in large Czochralski and ribbon solar cells and, (5) a preliminary investigation of the permanence of impurity effects in silicon solar cells. During this quarter (1) the mechanisms responsible for impurity deactivation during high temperature gettering treatments was examined in detail, (2) the sead to tang and center to edge variation in Czechralski ingot properties for commercial-size ingots doped with Ti and Mn was evaluated, and (3) aging effects in solar cells doped with Ti or Mo were assessed. Also, an analysis of impurity effects on crystal structure breakdown, and the monitoring of ingot lifetimes by photoconductive decay lifetime measurement before and after processing were continued. The highlights of this work are described. (WHK)

Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Blais, P.D.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Experimental determination of gravitomagnetic effects by means of ring lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new experiment aimed to the detection of the gravito-magnetic Lense-Thirring effect at the surface of the Earth will be presented; the name of the experiment is GINGER. The proposed technique is based on the behavior of light beams in ring lasers, also known as gyrolasers. A three-dimensional array of ringlasers will be attached to a rigid monument; each ring will have a different orientation in space. Within the space-time of a rotating mass the propagation of light is indeed anisotropic; part of the anisotropy is purely kinematical (Sagnac effect), part is due to the interaction between the gravito-electric field of the source and the kinematical motion of the observer (de Sitter effect), finally there is a contribution from the gravito-magnetic component of the Earth (gravito-magnetic frame dragging or Lense-Thirring effect). In a ring laser a light beam traveling counterclockwise is superposed to another beam traveling in the opposite sense. The anisotropy in the propagation leads to standing waves with slightly different frequencies in the two directions; the final effect is a beat frequency proportional to the size of the instrument and its effective rotation rate in space, including the gravito-magnetic drag. Current laser techniques and the performances of the best existing ring lasers allow at the moment a sensitivity within one order of magnitude of the required accuracy for the detection of gravito-magnetic effects, so that the objective of GINGER is in the range of feasibility and aims to improve the sensitivity of a couple of orders of magnitude with respect to present. The experiment will be underground, probably in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy, and is based on an international collaboration among four Italian groups, the Technische Universitaet Muenchen and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch (NZ).

Angelo Tartaglia

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

292

Cost Effectiveness of Cleaning Techniques for Controlling Human-based Transport of Invasive Exotic Plants on Electric Transmission L ine Rights-of-Way  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a broad overview of accomplishments over the first 3 months of a project to define the cost effectiveness of cleaning techniques on electric transmission rights of way aimed at controlling the spread of invasive exotic (IE) vegetation. It includes the results of a brief literature search of cleaning techniques.BackgroundA science basis for process and procedure to cost effectively clean personnel and equipment so as to reduce the ...

2012-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

293

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrolysis of N2O5, and ultimately leads to the computed reduction in NOx levels. 4. Effects of the different in the source magnitude of LtNOx can lead to a substantial10 reduction in the computed lifetimes of these trace. This increase of O3 at higher altitudes is responsible for the reduction of surface NOx levels simulated at high

294

Cost-Effective Concurrent Test Hardware Design for Linear Analog Circuits Sule Ozev and Alex Orailoglu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

overhead by reduc- ing the number of internal circuit nodes that need to be tapped. Parameter tolerances, electronic circuits are ever more susceptible to external up- sets, such as electron migration and radiation likely to be placed on system boundaries, heightening their exposure to environ- mental effects. Whereas

Orailoglu, Alex

295

Cost Effective Pole or Pad Mounted Power Quality Solution: Functional Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static Series Compensation (SSC) devices, sometimes called "dynamic voltage restorers" or DVRs, have been available on the marketplace since about 1994. These devices are designed to mitigate voltage sags and swells originating from the power system by injecting voltage in series with the power supply. The additive effect of the injected voltage produces an essentially undisturbed voltage for the load. There are several vendors presently producing SSCs. These devices all have essentially the same power e...

2000-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

296

Clean and cost-effective dry boundary lubricants for aluminum forming.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce sliding fiction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal formability tests indicated that the boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by spraying or dipping worked quite well; improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%. These findings have increased the prospect that boric acid can be formulated and optimized as an effective boundary lubricant and used to solve the friction, galling, and severe wear problems currently encountered in cold-forming of aluminum products. Accordingly, the major goal of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness and lubrication capacity of thin boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by simple dipping or spraying processes and to describe the lubrication mechanisms under typical metal forming conditions. We will also examine the nature of chemical bonding between boric acid and aluminum surfaces and develop new ways to optimize its performance as an effective boundary lubricant.

Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1997-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

297

Cost-effective solar collectors using heat pipes. Interim progress report No. 1, September 1977-March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is the demonstration of high performance, cost effective non-concentrating solar collectors using heat pipes. The end products will be directly applicable for efficient use with absorption and Rankine cycle chillers. Evacuated tubular solar collectors were selected as the only economical non-concentrating approach capable of efficient operation of chillers. The General Electric TC family of collectors was chosen because of their superior performance and compatibility with heat pipe integration. The system was designed and specified. This work included the integration of the heat pipe with the evacuated tubular solar collector and the pumped loop heat removal mechanism. To date, two heat pipe fluid-envelope combinations look attractive: water-aluminum bearing steel and ethanol-low carbon steel. The jury is still out on the ability for the water-aluminum bearing steel to survive freezing cycles and for ethanol-low carbon steel to withstand predicted 400/sup 0/C stagnation temperatures. Full scale cost analysis was not completed for either case. Two 4' x 4' panels, each with ten tubular collectors fitted with heat pipes, were erected at Thermacore to test various aspects of the heat pipe and its integration into the collector-pumped loop system.

Ernst, D.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A cost-effective and fuel-conserving nonelectric air conditioner that combines engine-driven compression and absorption cycles  

SciTech Connect

A natural-gas-fueled electricity-producing condensing furnace with the potential of being mass produced at a cost of less than $1000 and providing a cost-effective and highly fuel-conserving alternative to virtually every residential gas furnace in the world has been developed. While this is a new system, it completely consists of existing mass-produced components including single-cylinder air-cooled engines, induction motors/generators, and control devices. Thus, timely commercialization can be expected and an important new energy technology and industry can result. However, all the benefits of this electricity-producing furnace occur during the winter. This has stimulated the search for a new system that can provide comparable benefits in terms of fuel conservation, the environment, and electric utility peak reduction during the summer, along with the prospects of a new and efficient new use for the natural gas surpluses that occur during the summer. The resulting system, which can use existing component equipment, is a commercial-size nonelectric air conditioner that consists of an automobile-type engine converted to natural gas, or possibly a diesel or combustion turbine, driving a Freon compression cycle, with virtually all of the engine reject heat from the exhaust and from the engine cooling system driving a conventional absorption air conditioning cycle.

Wicks, F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Simple cost model for EV traction motors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

Cuenca, R.M.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Microsoft Word - 20110321_LTI_PPM_Tetra Tech_Cost Effective Wireless Application in Power Generation Markets.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11/1483 11/1483 Cost-Effective Wireless Application in the Power Generation Market 21 March, 2011 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or

302

Effects of Coal Quality on Power Plant Performance and Costs, Volume 4: Review of Coal Science Fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs of generating electricity in a coal-fired power plant depend not only on the delivered cost of coal but on how coal quality affects plant performance. Utilities need to account for both these factors to decide which coals provide the most power at the lowest cost.

1986-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to increase the life of the DFS tubes by 700%. (5) If all the DFS riser tubes used in LPD casting of aluminum automotive components are replaced with the better, longer-lasting castable riser tubes, the potential national energy savings is estimated to be 206 billion Btu/year.

Dale E. Brown (Pyrotek); Puja B. Kadolkar (ORNL)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

An Evaluation of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma for the Cost-Effective Deposition of Antireflection Coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Atmospheric-pressure plasma deposition (APPD) has previously been used to deposit various functional materials including polymeric surface modification layers, transparent conducting oxides, and photo catalytic materials. For many plasma polymerized coatings, reaction occurs via free radical mechanism where the high energy electrons from the plasma activate the olefinic carbon-carbon double bonds - a typical functional group in such precursors. The precursors for such systems are typically inexpensive and readily available and have been used in vacuum PECVD previously. The objectives are to investigate: (1) the effect of plasma power, gas composition and substrate temperature on the Si-based film properties using triethylsilane(TES) as the precursor; and (2) the chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of several experimental matrices based on Design of Experiment (DOE) principals. A simple APPD route has been utilized to deposit Si based films from an inexpensive precursor - Triethylsilane (TES). Preliminary results indicates formation of Si-C & Si-O and Si-O, Si-C & Si-N bonds with oxygen and nitrogen plasmas respectively. N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma showed mixed trend; however oxygen remains a significant portion of all films, despite attempts to minimize exposure to atmosphere. SiN, SiC, and SiO ratios can be modified by the reaction conditions resulting in differing film properties. SE studies revealed that films with SiN bond possess refractive index higher than coatings with Si-O/Si-C bonds. Variable angle reflectance studies showed that SiOCN coatings offer AR properties; however thickness and refractive index optimization of these coatings remains necessary for application as potential AR coatings.

Rob Sailer; Guruvenket Srinivasan; Kyle W. Johnson; Douglas L. Schulz

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Electricity Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy volume year month chapter...

306

Electric-utility DSM-program costs and effects, 1991 to 2001  

SciTech Connect

For the past three years (1989, 1990, and 1991), all US electric utilities that sell more than 120 GWh/year have been required to report to the Energy Information Administration data on their demand-side management (DSM) programs. These data provide a rich and uniquely comprehensive picture of electric-utility DSM programs in the United States. Altogether, 890 utilities (of about 3250 in the United States) ran DSM programs in 1991; of these, 439 sold more than 120 GWh and reported details on their DSM programs. These 439 utilities represent more than 80% of total US electricity sales and revenues. Altogether, these utilities spent almost $1.8 billion on DSM programs in 1991, equal to 1.0% of total utility revenues that year. In return for these (and prior-year) expenditures, utility DSM programs cut potential peak demand by 26,700 MW (4.8% of the national total) and cut annual electricity use by 23,300 GWh (0.9% of the national total). These 1991 numbers represent substantial increases over the 1989 and 1990 numbers on utility DSM programs. Specifically, utility DSM expenditures doubled, energy savings increased by almost 50%, and demand reductions increased by one-third between 1989 and 1991. Utilities differed enormously in their DSM-program expenditures and effects. Almost 12% of the reporting utilities spent more than 2% of total revenues on DSM programs in 1991, while almost 60% spent less than 0.5% of revenues on DSM. Utility estimates of future DSM-program expenditures and benefits show continuing growth. By the year 2001, US utilities expect to spend 1.2% of revenues on DSM and to cut demand by 8.8% and annual sales by 2.7%. Here, too, expectations vary by region. Utilities in the West and Northwest plan to spend more than 2% of revenues on DSM that year, while utilities in the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southwest, Central, and North Central regions plan to spend less than 1% of revenues on DSM.

Hirst, E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Long-run marginal costs lower than average costs  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this article is that the long-run marginal costs of electricity are not always greater than the present average costs, as is often assumed. As long as short-run costs decrease with new plant additions, the long-run marginal cost is less than long-run average cost. When average costs increase with new additions, long-run marginal costs are greater than long-run average costs. The long-run marginal costs of a particular utility may be less than, equal to, or greater than its long-run average costs - even with inflation present. The way to determine which condition holds for a given utility is to estimate costs under various combinations of assumptions: probable load growth, zero load growth, and load growth greater than expected; and changes in load factor with attendant costs. Utilities that can demonstrate long-run marginal costs lower than long-run average costs should be encouraged to build plant and increase load, for the resulting productivity gains and slowing of inflation. Utilities that face long-run marginal costs greater than long-run average costs should discourage growth in sales through any available means.

Hunter, S.R.

1980-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

308

Prime movers reduce energy costs  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial plants have found that reciprocating engines used to power generator sets and chiller systems are effective in reducing energy costs as part of a load management strategy, while meeting other plant energy needs. As the trend towards high electric utility costs continues, familiarity with basic analyses used to determine the economic viability of engine-driven systems is essential. A basic method to determine the economic viability of genset or chiller systems is to review the supplying utility`s rate structure, determine approximate costs to install and operate an engine-driven system, and calculate a simple equipment payback period. If the initial analysis shows that significant savings are possible and a quick payback is likely, a thorough analysis should be conducted to analyze a plant`s actual electric load profile. A load profile analysis takes into consideration average loads, peak loads, and peak duration. A detailed study should cover myriad considerations, including local air quality regulations and permitting, space availability, auxiliary system components, and financing options. A basic analysis takes relatively little time and can rule out the need for a detailed study.

Swanson, J.E. [Caterpillar, Inc., Mossville, IL (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Determining thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life for the treatment planning of Graves' disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Thyroid {sup 131}I effective half-life (T{sub eff}) is an essential parameter in patient therapy when accurate radiation dose is desirable for producing an intended therapeutic outcome. Multiple {sup 131}I uptake measurements and resources from patients themselves and from nuclear medicine facilities are requisites for determining T{sub eff}, these being limiting factors when implementing the treatment planning of Graves' disease (GD) in radionuclide therapy. With the aim of optimizing this process, this study presents a practical, propitious, and accurate method of determining T{sub eff} for dosimetric purposes. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD were included in this prospective study. Thyroidal {sup 131}I uptake was measured at 2-h, 6-h, 24-h, 48-h, 96-h, and 220-h postradioiodine administration. T{sub eff} was calculated by considering sets of two measured points (24-48-h, 24-96-h, and 24-220-h), sets of three (24-48-96-h, 24-48-220-h, and 24-96-220-h), and sets of four (24-48-96-220-h). Results: When considering all the measured points, the representative T{sub eff} for all the patients was 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, whereas when using such sets of points as (24-220-h), (24-96-220-h), and (24-48-220-h), this was 6.85 ({+-}0.81), 6.90 ({+-}0.81), and 6.95 ({+-}0.81) days, respectively. According to the mean deviations 2.2 ({+-}2.4)%, 2.1 ({+-}2.0)%, and 0.04 ({+-}0.09)% found in T{sub eff}, calculated based on all the measured points in time, and with methods using the (24-220-h), (24-48-220-h), and (24-96-220-h) sets, respectively, no meaningful statistical difference was noted among the three methods (p > 0.500, t test). Conclusions: T{sub eff} obtained from only two thyroid {sup 131}I uptakes measured at 24-h and 220-h, besides proving to be sufficient, accurate enough, and easily applicable, attributes additional major cost-benefits for patients, and facilitates the application of the method for dosimetric purposes in the treatment planning of Graves' disease.

Willegaignon, Jose; Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Barberio Coura Filho, George; Buchpiguel, Carlos A. [Cancer Institute of Sao Paulo State (ICESP), Clinical Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Nuclear Medicine Service, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Traino, Antonio C. [Unit of Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa 56126 (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

COST EFFECTIVE REGULATORY APPROACHES TO ENHANCE DOMESTIC OIL & GAS PRODUCTION AND ENSURE THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Information Management Suite/Risk Based Data Management System (EIMS/RBDMS) and Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA) programs continue to be successful. All oil and gas state regulatory programs participate in these efforts. Significant accomplishments include: streamline regulatory approaches, enhancing environmental protection, and making oil and gas data available via the Internet. Oil and gas companies worldwide now have access to data on state web sites. This reduces the cost of exploration and enables companies to develop properties in areas that would have been cost prohibited for exploration. Early in project, GWPC and State Oil and Gas agencies developed the EIMS and CERA strategic plan to prioritize long term development and implementation. The planning process identifies electronic commerce and coal bed methane as high priorities. The group has involved strategic partners in industry and government to develop a common data exchange process. Technical assistance to Alaska continues to improve their program management capabilities. New initiatives in Alaska include the development of an electronic permit tracking system. This system allows managers to expedite the permitting process. Nationwide, the RBDMS system is largely completed with 22 states and one Indian Nation now using this nationally accepted data management system. Additional remaining tasks include routine maintenance and the installation of the program upon request for the remaining oil and gas states. The GWPC in working with the BLM and MMS to develop an XML schema to facilitate electronic permitting and reporting (Appendix A, B, and C). This is a significant effort and, in years to come, will increase access to federal lands by reducing regulatory barriers. The new initiatives are coal bed methane and e-commerce. The e-commerce program will provide industry and BLM/MMS access to the millions of data points housed in the RBDMS system. E-commerce will streamline regulatory approaches and allow small operators to produce energy from areas that have become sub-economic for the major producers. The GWPC is working with states to develop a coal bed methane program, which will both manage the data and develop a public education program on the benefits of produced water. The CERA program benefits all oil and gas states by reducing the cost of regulatory compliance, increasing environmental protection, and providing industry and regulatory agencies a discussion forum. Activities included many small and large group forum settings for discussions of technical and policy issues as well as the ongoing State Class II UIC peer review effort. The accomplishments detailed in this report will be the basis for the next initiative which is RBDMS On-Line. RBDMS On-Line will combine data mining, electronic permitting and electronic reporting with .net technology. Industry, BLM, GWPC and all Oil and Gas states are partnering this effort.

Ben Grunewald; Paul Jehn; Tom Gillespie; Ben Binder

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

313

Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A recent review by the U.S. Advanced Ceramics Association, the Aluminum Association, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (DOE/OIT) described the status of advanced ceramics for aluminum processing, including monolithics, composites, and coatings. The report observed that monolithic ceramics (particularly oxides) have attractive properties such as resistance to heat, corrosion, thermal shock, abrasion, and erosion [1]. However, even after the developments of the past 25 years, there are two key barriers to commercialization: reliability and cost-effectiveness. Industry research is therefore focused on eliminating these barriers. Ceramic coatings have likewise undergone significant development and a variety of processes have been demonstrated for applying coatings to substrates. Some processes, such as thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines, exhibit sufficient reliability and service life for routine commercial use. Worldwide, aluminum melting and molten metal handling consumes about 506,000 tons of refractory materials annually. Refractory compositions for handling molten aluminum are generally based on dense fused cast silica or mullite. The microstructural texture is extremely important because an interlocking mass of coarser grains must be bonded together by smaller grains in order to achieve adequate strength. At the same time, well-distributed microscopic pores and cracks are needed to deflect cracks and prevent spalling and thermal shock damage [2]. The focus of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective, low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both smelting and casting environments. The primary goal was to develop improved coatings and functionally graded materials that will possess superior combinations of properties, including resistance to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting. When these materials are successfully deployed in aluminum smelting and casting operations, their superior performance and durability will give end users marked improvements in uptime, defect reduction, scrap/rework costs, and overall energy savings resulting from higher productivity and yield. The implementation of results of this program will result in energy savings of 30 trillion Btu/year by 2020. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) project, riser tube used in the low-pressure die (LPD) casting of aluminum was selected as the refractory component for improvement. In this LPD process, a pressurized system is used to transport aluminum metal through refractory tubes (riser tubes) into wheel molds. It is important for the tubes to remain airtight because otherwise, the pressurized system will fail. Generally, defects such as porosity in the tube or cracks generated by reaction of the tube material with molten aluminum lead to tube failure, making the tube incapable of maintaining the pressure difference required for normal casting operation. Therefore, the primary objective of the project was to develop a riser tube that is not only resistant to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting, but is also less permeable, so as to achieve longer service life. Currently, the dense-fused silica (DFS) riser tube supplied by Pyrotek lasts for only 7 days before undergoing failure. The following approach was employed to achieve the goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions; (4) Optimize refractory formulations to minimize wetting by molten aluminum, and characterize erosion, corrosion, and spallation rates under realistic service conditions; and (5) Scale up the processing methods to full-sized components and perform field testi

Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tests to determine effect of humidity on high-efficiency filters when installed horizontally  

SciTech Connect

The object of tests is to determine effect of high-humidity air on the physical characteristics of filter media and separators when the filter is mounted in the horizontal position. Usual installation is with the filter mounted vertically.

Palmer, J.H.

1960-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

315

Minimization of investment costs and the effect on economy and availability of coal-fired power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low manufacturing costs and short construction periods are two factors with a major influence on the economy of power plants. This paper identifies, on the basis of a power plant design concept actually developed, potential plant cost savings at the concept design and component design levels and the sometimes contradictory implications to be considered and attempts to assess the impact of these savings on plant economy and availability. By comparison with a conventionally constructed plant, the cost savings that can be achieved over the entire plant, including erection costs, total just on 15 percent. The construction period can be reduced by about 20%. The simplifications implemented in this design concept with a view to minimizing plant costs are expected to entail only a negligible reduction in plant availability, so that this type of power plant retains its overall economic lead.

Hebel, G.; Hauenschild, R. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (DE))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Improving the Cost-Effectiveness of Artificial Visual Baits for Controlling the Tsetse Fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tsetse flies, which transmit sleeping sickness to humans and nagana to cattle, are commonly controlled by stationary artificial baits consisting of traps or insecticide-treated screens known as targets. In Kenya the use of electrocuting sampling devices showed that the numbers of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) visiting a biconical trap were nearly double those visiting a black target of 100 cm6100 cm. However, only 40 % of the males and 21 % of the females entered the trap, whereas 71 % and 34%, respectively, alighted on the target. The greater number visiting the trap appeared to be due to its being largely blue, rather than being three-dimensional or raised above the ground. Through a series of variations of target design we show that a blue-and-black panel of cloth (0.06 m 2) flanked by a panel (0.06 m 2) of fine black netting, placed at ground level, would be about ten times more cost-effective than traps or large targets in control campaigns. This finding has important implications for controlling all subspecies of G. fuscipes, which are currently responsible for more than 90 % of sleeping sickness cases.

Jenny M. Lindh; Steve J. Torr; Glyn A. Vale; Mike J. Lehane

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Candidate alloys for cost-effective, high-efficiency, high-temperature compact/foil heat-exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems operate at high temperatures (up to 1000 C and 650 C, respectively), which makes them especially attractive sources for combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration. However, improvements in the efficiency of heat exchange in these fuel cells require both development and careful processing of advanced cost-effective alloys for use in such high-temperature service conditions. The high-temperature properties of both sheet and foil forms of several alloys being considered for use in compact heat-exchangers (recuperators) have been characterized. Mechanical and creep-rupture testing, oxidation studies, and microstructural studies have been performed on commercially available sheet and foil forms of alloy 347, alloys 625, HR230, HR120, and the new AL20-25+Nb. These studies have led to a mechanistic understanding of the responses of these alloys to anticipated service conditions, and suggest that these alloys developed for gas- and micro-turbine recuperator applications are also suitable for use in fuel cell heat-exchangers. Additional work is still required to achieve foil forms with creep life comparable to thicker-section wrought product forms of the same alloys.

Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Development of cost-effective surfactant flooding technology. First annual report for the period, September 30, 1992--September 29, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research consists of the parallel development of a new chemical flooding simulator and the application of existing UTCHEM simulation code to model surfactant flooding. The new code is based upon a completely new numerical method that combines for the first time higher order finite difference methods, flux limiters, and implicit algorithms. Early results indicate that this approach has significant advantages in some problems and will likely enable simulation of much larger and more realistic chemical floods once it is fully developed. Additional improvements have also been made to the UTCHEM code and it has been applied for the first time to the study of stochastic reservoirs with and without horizontal wells to evaluate methods to reduce the cost and risk of surfactant flooding. During the first year of this contract, significant progress has been made on both of these tasks. The authors have found that there are indeed significant differences between the performance predictions based upon the traditional layered reservoir description and the more realistic and flexible descriptions using geostatistics. These preliminary studies of surfactant flooding using horizontal wells shows that although they have significant potential to greatly reduce project life and thus improve the economics of the process, their use requires accurate reservoir descriptions and simulations to be effective. Much more needs to be done to fully understand and optimize their use and develop reliable design criteria.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12;· Marginal Cost: ­ Change in total cost ­ Any production process involves fixed and variable costs. As production increases/expands, fixed costs are unchanged, so

Boisvert, Jeff

320

Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks

McGaughey, Alan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chapter 30 - Cost Accounting Standards Administration | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30 - Cost Accounting Standards Administration Chapter 30 - Cost Accounting Standards Administration 30.1DOE'sOversightofCertainContractorDefinedPensionPlansandItsEffect...

322

On developing a fast, cost-effective and non-invasive method to derive data center thermal maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ongoing research has demonstrated the potential benefits of thermal-aware load placement in data centers to both reduce cooling costs and component failure rates. However, thermal-aware load placement techniques have not been widely deployed in existing ...

Michael Jonas; Georgios Varsamopoulos; Sandeep K. S. Gupta

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Environmental Costs and Benefits Case Study : Nuclear Power Plant : Quantifications and Economic Valuation of Selected Environmental Impacts/Effects. Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This case study is an application, to a nuclear power plant, of the methodology for quantifying environmental costs and benefits, contained in the regional energy plan, adopted in April, 1983, by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to Public Law 96-501.The study is based on plant number 2 of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WNP-2), currently nearing completion on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington State. This report describes and documents efforts to quantify and estimate monetary values for the following seven areas of environmental effects: radiation/health effects, socioeconomic/infrastructure effects, consumptive use of water, psychological/health effects (fear/stress), waste management, nuclear power plant accidents, and decommissioning costs. 103 references.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Power and Resources Management.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Cost Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Phase: "Evaluate Options and Determine Feasibility" is not in the list of possible values (Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed) for this property. User Interface: Website Website: www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/progs/cost_anal.php?0/E85 Calculate the cost to drive a flex-fueled vehicle (one that can run on either E85 Ethanol or gasoline) on each fuel type.

325

Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

Shih, Chien-Ju

2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

326

Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maintaining Activity-based Cost Estimates with Feature-Based2004). “Effective Cost Estimate and Construction Processesof new designs. These cost estimates are inflated by the

Nguyen, Hung Viet

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings October 4, 2013 - 4:54pm Addthis To help facility managers make sound decisions, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials assume discount rates and energy price projections determined

328

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

includes an accounting of project costs and a valuation ofpessimistic (e.g. , actual project costs are likely to behas reported the following project costs: Tower Foundation (

Kay, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be less. Item Battery Mode Cost Hours required Backgroundwiring Total battery mode capital costs Adjustments fora detailed list of costs in the battery mode of operation.

Kay, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

High Performance Metallic Materials for Cost Sensitive Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost Effective Synthesis, Processing and Applications of Light-Weight. Metallic Materials . ... Prospects for Cost Reduction of Titanium Via Electrolysis .

331

Cost-effective solar collectors using heat pipes. Interim progress report No. 3, October 1978-June 1979  

SciTech Connect

The heat pipe collector system design was re-evaluated as a new system, as compared to previous evaluation where the heat pipe was an interchangeable component in the standard TC-101 system. Collector hardware components were finalized, including production costs. Heat pipe fluid-vessel testing continued indoors and outdoors in the solar panel. A prototpe production processing station has been designed which shows that the labor content of processing individual heat pipes can be reduced to 15 seconds with a total cost of $1.50.

Ernst, D.M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Determination and Mitigation of Precipitation Effects on Portal Monitor Gamma Background Levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to establish a correlation between precipitation and background gamma radiation levels at radiation portal monitors (RPM) deployed at various ports worldwide, and to devise a mechanism by which the effects of these precipitation-induced background fluctuations could be mitigated. The task of detecting special nuclear materials (SNM) by passive gamma spectroscopy is very difficult due to the low signal-to-noise ratio observed in an uncontrolled environment. Due to their low activities and the low energies of their characteristic gamma rays, the signals from many types of SNM can easily be obscured by background radiation. While this can be somewhat mitigated by taking regular background radiation measurements, even this cannot resolve the issue if background levels change suddenly and dramatically. Furthermore, any increase in background count rate will increase the statistical uncertainty of the count rate measurement, and thus decrease the minimum quantity of SNM that can be reliably detected. Existing research suggests that the advent of precipitation is the culprit behind many such large and sudden increases in background radiation. The correlation between precipitation and background levels was explored by in-situ testing on a full-scale portal monitor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and by comparing previously recorded background radiation and weather data from portal monitors located at ports worldwide. The first was utilized to determine the frequency and magnitude at which precipitation introduces background activity, and the second was used to quantify the effects of various quantities and types of precipitation in various parts of the world. Once this analysis was complete, various methods of mitigating these changes in background radiation were developed based on the collected data. Precipitation was found to be the most common culprit for rapid increases in background count rate, and was attributable to 85.6% of all such events. Based on extensive simulation via the Origen-ARP and MCNP software, a response function for the portal monitor was developed, and an algorithm designed to predict the contribution of the precipitation to the background count rate was developed. This algorithm was able to attenuate the contribution of precipitation to the background count rate by an average of 45% with very minimal over-correction. Such an algorithm could be utilized to adjust the alarm levels of the RPM to better allow it to compensate for the rise and fall in background count rate due to precipitation. Additionally, the relative contribution of precipitation which landed at various distances from the portal monitor to the increase in background count rate was measured via simulation. This simulation demonstrated that 37.2% of all background counts were due to the radon daughters which landed within a 2.76 m radius from the center of the portal monitor. This radius encompasses the area between the two portals. Based on this, several designs for shielding were simulated, the most successful of which was a concrete structure that was able to attenuate 71.3% of the background radiation caused by a given precipitation event at a materials cost of approximately $6,000 per RPM. This method is recommended as the primary means of mitigating this issue.

Revis, Stephen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Natural Gas Vehicle Cost Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Natural Gas Vehicle Cost Calculator Natural Gas Vehicle Cost Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Natural Gas Vehicle Cost Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Phase: "Evaluate Options and Determine Feasibility" is not in the list of possible values (Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed) for this property. User Interface: Website Website: www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/natural_gas_calculator.html Determine the costs to acquire and use a Natural Gas Vehicle (Honda Civic GX) as compared to a conventional vehicle.

334

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and a ''no cost'' time extension was requested and granted to allow IdaTech time to complete task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date is now October 31, 2007.

K. Coulter

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Cost-Effectiveness and Impact Analysis of Adoption of Standard 90.1-2007 for New York State  

SciTech Connect

This report is a subset of the commercial nationwide building energy code analysis. New York has cost criteria that must also be met, and this report includes those details. This report will be finalized when the nationwide analysis report is finalized in September.

Halverson, Mark A.; Gowri, Krishnan; Bartlett, Rosemarie

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

336

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and two ''no cost'' time extensions have been requested and granted to allow Idatech time to complete Task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date of April 7, 2007 has been confirmed by Idatech.

K. Coulter

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Production Cost Optimization Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved thermal performance of coal-fired power plants continue to grow, as the costs of fuel rise and the prospect of a carbon dioxide cap and trade program looms on the horizon. This report summarizes the efforts to date of utilities committed to reducing their heat rate by 1.0% in the Production Cost Optimization (PCO) Project. The process includes benchmarking of plant thermal performance using existing plant data and a site-specific performance appraisal. The appraisal determines po...

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

339

Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin Engineering College of Mines and Earth Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and G. YAMAUCHI films has been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry. Surface

Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

340

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials provided here assume discount rates and energy price projections (TXT 17 KB) determined annually by FEMP and the Energy Information Administration. Building Life Cycle Cost Software FEMP's Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) software can help you calculate life cycle costs, net savings, savings-to-investment ratio, internal rate of return, and payback period for Federal energy and water conservation projects funded by agencies or alternatively financed. BLCC also estimates emissions and emission reductions. An energy escalation rate calculator (EERC) computes an average escalation rate for energy savings performance contracts when payments are based on energy cost savings.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Silicon materials task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project (Phase IV). Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Twentieth quarterly report, July-September 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes and any impurity-process interactions upon the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly solar grade silicon. Spectral response measurements made on single crystal and polycrystalline silicon solar cells containing specific impurities agreed well with measured cell efficiencies. For polycrystalline cells it is shown that both grain boundaries and metallic impurities reduce carrier lifetime, resulting in reduced red response and reduced cell efficiency. Spectral response and DLTS measurements on chromium-doped polycrystalline silicon cells indicate an interaction between chromium and grain boundaries; the nature of this interaction is not yet understood. Measurements were made to evaluate possible long term effects of copper contamination on solar cell performance. Nine groups of cells, including a baseline cell group, are undergoing electrical/temperature tests to determine whether electric fields play a role in long term cell degradation. A mathematical model for impurity effects in high efficiency solar cells has been developed.

Hopkins, R.H.; Hanes, M.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H.C.

1980-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

342

Cost Effectiveness of Cleaning Techniques for Controlling Human-based Transport of Invasive Exotic Plants on Electric Transmission Line Rights-of-Way  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update provides a broad overview of accomplishments over the first full year of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) project to investigate the cost effectiveness of cleaning techniques to control human-based transport of invasive exotic plants on electric transmission line rights-of-way. One-half of the intended field work for the whole project (2012-2015) was completed, with attendant greenhouse and office work ongoing. EPRI expects the project to be completed in ...

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

343

Determination of applied stresses in rails using the acoustoelastic effect of ultrasonic waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research develops a procedure to determine the applied stresses in rails using the acoustoelastic effect of ultrasonic waves. Acoustoelasticity is defined as the stress dependency of ultrasonic wave speed or wave polarization. Analytical models are developed that predict the acoustoelastic effect for longitudinal waves, shear waves, Lamb waves, and Rayleigh waves. Using a programming tool, a numerical simulation of the models is generated to obtain the stress dependent curves of wave velocity and polarization of the various ultrasonic waves propagating in rail steel. A comparison of the sensitivity of the acoustoelastic effect is made to determine the feasibility of ultrasonic waves for further study. Rayleigh waves are found to be most sensitive to stress change. Rayleigh waves are generated using ultrasonic transducer and detected using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The LDV measures the in-plane and out-of-plane velocities. Polarization is defined as the ratio of in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. Initially, polarization is determined for the specimen in unstressed condition. Thereafter, the rail specimen is stressed in a compression testing machine, the experiment repeated, and the polarization determined. Thus, Rayleigh wave polarization is obtained as a function of applied stress. Finally, the change in polarization obtained experimentally is compared with the analytical model.

Gokhale, Shailesh Ashok

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Silicon Materials Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project (Phase II). Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Tenth quarterly report, 1 January 1978--31 March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine how various processes, impurities and impurity-process interactions affect the properties of silicon and the performance of terrestrial solar cells made from silicon. The development of this data base permits the definition of the tolerable impurity levels in a low-cost solar grade silicon and identifies processes which mitigate or enhance impurity effects in silicon. The data further provide the silicon manufacturer with a means to select materials of construction which minimize product contamination and permit the cost effective selection of chemical processes for silicon purification. For the silicon ingot, sheet or ribbon manufacturer the data suggest what silicon feedstock purity must be selected to produce wafers suitable for cell production and what furnace materials minimize wafer contamination. The cell manufacturer may use the data to define an acceptable wafer purity for cell processing or to identify processes which minimize impurity impact on efficiency. In short the data provide a basis for cost-benefit analysis to the producers and users of Solar Grade Silicon. During this quarter the focus of the experimental activity has been in the following four areas: (1) effects of crystal growth rate and thermal processing of silicon on impurity distribution and electrical activity, (2) impurity-grain boundary interactions in polycrystalline silicon, (3) preliminary measurements of impurity trap levels, trap concentrations and capture cross sections by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy of purposely contaminated solar cells and (4) improvement of the solar cell-impurity concentration data base for n- and p-type silicon for subsequent modeling studies.

Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Blais, P.D.; Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Hanes, M.H.; McCormick, J.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define program characteristics In a technical baseline description document, identify the program's

346

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

347

A. Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appendix: Cost Estimate for the Facility Determining the cost of a facility as complex as the neutrino source presented here is a very difficult task within the short time period...

348

Reliable, Efficient and Cost-Effective Electric Power Converter for Small Wind Turbines Based on AC-link Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Grid-tied inverter power electronics have been an Achilles heel of the small wind industry, providing opportunity for new technologies to provide lower costs, greater efficiency, and improved reliability. The small wind turbine market is also moving towards the 50-100kW size range. The unique AC-link power conversion technology provides efficiency, reliability, and power quality advantages over existing technologies, and Princeton Power will adapt prototype designs used for industrial asynchronous motor control to a 50kW small wind turbine design.

Darren Hammell; Mark Holveck; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, we have conducted additional characterization and permeation tests on different Pd alloy membranes including PdCuTa ternary alloy materials. We attempted to address some discrepancies between SwRI{reg_sign} and CSM relating to PdCu stoichiometry by preparing a range of PdCu membranes with compositions from {approx}58-65 at% Pd (bal. Cu). While some difficulties in cutting and sealing these thin membranes at CSM continue, some progress has been made in identifying improved membrane support materials. We have also completed an initial cost analysis for large-scale vacuum deposition and fabrication of thin Pd ally membranes and project that the process can meet DOE cost targets. Minimal progress was made in the past quarter relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules at Idatech. In the past quarter Idatech was acquired by a UK investment firm, which we believe may have impacted the ability of key technical personnel to devote sufficient time to support this effort. We are hopeful their work can be completed by the end of the calendar year.

J. Arps; K. Coulter

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

High-sensitivity, and cost-effective system for infrared imaging of concealed objects in dynamic mode.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel, cost-efficient, and highly-sensitive IR imaging systems play an important role in homeland security functions. Technical limitations in the areas of sensitivity, contrast ratio, bandwidth and cost continue to constrain imaging capabilities. We have designed and prototyped a compact computer-piloted high sensitivity infrared imaging system. The device consists of infrared optics, cryostat, low-noise pre-amplifier, Analog-to-Digital hardware, feedback electronics, and unique image processing software. Important advantages of the developed system are: (i) Eight electronic channels are available for simultaneous registration of IR and visible images in multiple spectral ranges, (ii) Capability of real-time analysis such as comparing the 'sensed' image with 'reference' images from a database, (iii) High accuracy temperature measurement of multiple points on the image by referencing the radiation intensity from the object to a black body model, (iv) Image generation by real-time integration of images from multiple sensors operating from the visible to the terahertz range. The device was tested with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, single-pixel HgCdTe detector for imaging in 8-12 microns range. The demonstrated examples of infrared imaging of concealed objects in static and dynamic modes include a hammer (metal head and wooden handle), plastic imitator of handguns hidden under clothes, powder in an envelope, and revealing complex wall structures under decorative plaster.

Gordiyenko, E.; Yefremenko, V.; Pearson, J.; Bader, S.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

351

SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Heliostat Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Heliostat Development Cost Heliostat Development HiTek logo Photo of a machine with two round discs connected by intertwined chains. A staged-chain drive unit eliminates destructive coupling loads from severe wind conditions and greatly reduces cumulative fatigue damage. HiTek Services, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is conducting fundamental parametric analyses of the optimum heliostat size and developing a novel low-cost heliostat design. Approach There are four tasks under this award: Develop a means to determine the optimum size range of the heliostat, in terms of the applied forces and moments, manufacturing learning curve effects, O&M, and optical efficiency. The outcome of this task will be a spreadsheet analysis tool for parametrically determining heliostat costs that are appropriately allocated into categories with inputs for a specific design.

352

Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit fromutilize an iterative projection process involving historicalto determine whether projections of future costs are

Wiser, Ryan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Over 7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Energy Department Invests Over 7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel...

355

Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. This analysis showed that the cost of replacing natural gas with crude glycerol requires a strong function of the market price per unit of energy for the traditional fuel. However, the economics can be improved through the inclusion of a federal tax credit for the use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in remote regions, where the cost of energy is higher and the cost of crude glycerol is lowest. Lastly, the commercialization strategy analyzed competing technologies, namely traditional natural gas and electric heaters, as well as competing glycerol burners, and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for a pilot demonstration.

William L. ROberts

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Cost effective machining and inspection of structural ceramics. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1292-0088  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This CRADA supports the objective of demonstrating feasibility and minimizing manufacturing costs associated with the use of ceramic components in a heavy duty diesel engine manufactured by Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). Studies were conducted to evaluate existing, known data for ceramic material, and to identify additional data needed to better characterize a valve of ceramic composition. Tests were conducted to provide important information required for redesign of existing metal valves and other engine head components. A vendor was selected by DDC to produce the valve shapes for testing and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) provided design modeling/analysis support. The effort also included the development of a bench-test apparatus to simulate the environment of a valve in operation that provided material data and confirmation of analytical results.

Hensley, J.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalish, Y. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)

1996-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

357

PAFC Cost Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ...

358

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.

Kay, J.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Cost-effective ways to improve the fabrication and installation of solar heating and cooling systems for residences. Final report, June 1, 1977-September 30, 1978  

SciTech Connect

A Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory study investigating cost-effective ways of improving fabrication and installation of residential solar energy heating systems is documented. The study entailed on-site observation of twelve installations focusing on the phase of mounting and manifolding of solar collectors. Time lapse photography and work measurement techniques were employed to record these installations. Generic collector types studied included air and liquid panels both internally and externally manifolded. Principal findings of the study synthesized from field observations, analysis of photographic data, time studies, and discussion with installation personnel and manufacturers' representatives are presented in the technical report.

Thayer, S.B.; Jacobs, P.; Weaver, N.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cost-effective ways to improve the fabrication and installation of solar heating and cooling systems for residences. Final report, June 1, 1977-September 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory study investigating cost-effective ways of improving fabrication and installation of residential solar energy heating systems is documented. The study entailed on-site observation of twelve installations focusing on the phase of mounting and manifolding of solar collectors. Time lapse photography and work measurement techniques were employed to record these installations. Generic collector types studied included air and liquid panels both internally and externally manifolded. Principal findings of the study synthesized from field observations, analysis of photographic data, time studies, and discussion with installation personnel and manufacturers' representatives are presented in the technical report.

Thayer, S.B.; Jacobs, P.; Weaver, N.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Minimum Changeover Cost Arborescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

having minimum changeover cost, a cost that we now describe. ... We define the changeover cost at j, denoted by d(j), as the sum of the costs at j paid for each of  ...

362

Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

Vu, An T. (An Thien)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Design and characterization of a low cost dual differential proving ring force sensor utilizing Hall-effect sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel dual differential hall-effect based proving ring force sensor has been designed, manufactured, and tested. Strain gauge based force sensors are among the most common methods of measuring static and dynamic forces, ...

Rivest, Christopher W. (Christopher Warren)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Improved supplier selection and cost management for globalized automotive production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For many manufacturing and automotive companies, traditional sourcing decisions rely on total landed cost models to determine the cheapest supplier. Total landed cost models calculate the cost to purchase a part plus all ...

Franken, Joseph P., II (Joseph Philip)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

The costs of environmental regulation in a concentrated industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The typical cost analysis of an environmental regulation consists of an engineering estimate of the compliance costs. In industries where fixed costs are an important determinant of market structure this static analysis ...

Ryan, Stephen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Determination of effective acceleration for use in design at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An rms-based effective acceleration study has been conducted for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The study used real time history records with epicentral distances, magnitudes and site conditions deemed appropriate for the LLNL Livermore site. Only those records having strong motion durations, T{sub D}{prime}, >3.0 seconds, and peak ground acceleration {ge} .4g were selected for determining the effective acceleration hazard curve used in design. These parameters are consistent with LLNL's use of broad-band Newmark-Hall Spectra for design, and the high peak instrumental accelerations corresponding to the return intervals of interest. Study results were used to modify the acceleration hazard curve for facility design/evaluation at LLNL.

Coats, D.W. Jr.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Cohesion enhancing effect of magnesium in aluminum grain boundary: A first-principles determination  

SciTech Connect

The effect of magnesium on grain boundary cohesion in aluminum was investigated by means of first-principles calculations using the Rice-Wang model [Rice and Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 107, 23 (1989)]. It is demonstrated that magnesium is a cohesion enhancer with a potency of -0.11 eV/atom. It is further determined through electronic structure and bonding character analysis that the cohesion enhancing property of magnesium is due to a charge transfer mechanism which is unusually strong and overcomes the negative result of the size effect mechanism. Consistent with experimental results, this work clarifies the controversy and establishes that Mg segregation does not contribute to stress corrosion cracking in Al alloys.

Zhang Shengjun; Freeman, Arthur J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Kontsevoi, Oleg Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Olson, Gregory B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

Wang, M.Q.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Update of Hydrogen from Biomass-Determination of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Operated for the U.S. Dep. of Energy by Midwest Research Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass via two thermochemical processes: 1) gasification followed by reforming of the syngas, and 2) fast pyrolysis followed by reforming of the carbohydrate fraction of the bio-oil. In each process, water-gas shift is used to convert the reformed gas into hydrogen, and pressure swing adsorption is used to purify the product. This study was conducted to incorporate recent experimental advances and any changes in direction from previous analyses. The systems examined are based on the Battelle/FERCO low pressure indirectly-heated biomass gasifier, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) high pressure direct-fired gasifier, and fluidized bed pyrolysis followed by coproduct separation. The pyrolysis case assumes a bio-oil feed which is shipped from remote locations to the hydrogen production plant. The delivered cost of hydrogen, as well as the plant gate hydrogen selling price, were determined using both a cash flow spreadsheet and Crystal Ball ® risk assessment software. This software is able to predict the sensitivity of the hydrogen selling price to changes in various analysis parameters, and determines which of the parameters contribute the greatest uncertainty to the results. All of the parameters are varied at once, giving a combined uncertainty of hydrogen selling price. Several cases were run for each of the biomass conversion technologies at varying plant sizes and internal

Pamela L. Spath; Janice M. Lane; Margaret K. Mann; Wade A. Amos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon: Challenging Students to Build Energy Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Attractive Solar-Powered Houses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. The paper discusses the solutions developed for the event. We believe that the solutions implemented for Solar Decathlon 2011 represent current trends and that by analyzing, critiquing, and exposing the solutions pursued, the industry can become better suited to address challenges of the future. Constructing a solar community using high-efficiency design and unique materials while remaining code compliant, safe, and effective results in solutions that are market relevant, important, and interesting to the industry as a whole.

Simon, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Heat exchanger Exergoeconomic lifecycle cost optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering lifecycle cost analysis during the design phase of thermal systems gives the design effort more worth. Furthermore thermodynamic exergetic optimization is proven to be useful method for determining the most lifecycle cost optimal design of ... Keywords: entropy generation, exergy destruction, heat exchanger, operating cost, optimization, thermodynamics

Liaquat Ali Khan; Ali El-Ghalban

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Cost effective interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in low and middle income countries: a systematic review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Rexrode KM, Kumanyika SK, Appel LJ, Whelton PK: Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ 2007, 334(7599):885–888. 7. Mendis S, Fukino K... , Rexrode KM, Kumanyika SK, Appel LJ, Whelton PK: Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ 2007, 334(7599):885–888. 7. Mendis S, Fukino K...

Shroufi, Amir; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Anchala, Raghupathy; Stevens, Sarah; Blanco, Patricia; Han, Tha; Niessen, Louis; Franco, Oscar H

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

374

Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research: discount rate determination and the fossil fuel price effect  

SciTech Connect

In current and previous efforts, ECON has provided a preliminary economic assessment of a fusion research program. Part of this effort was the demonstration of a methodology for the estimation of reactor system costs and risk and for the treatment of program alternatives as a series of steps (tests) to buy information, thereby controlling program risk and providing a sound economic rationale for properly constructed research programs. The first phase of work also identified two areas which greatly affect the overall economic evaluation of fusion research and which warranted further study in the second phase. This led to the two tasks of the second phase reported herein: (1) discount rate determination and (2) evaluation of the effect of the expectation of the introduction of fusion power on current fossil fuel prices. In the first task, various conceptual measures of the social rate of discount were reviewed and critiqued. In the second task, a benefit area that had been called out by ECON was further examined. Long-range R and D yields short-term benefits in the form of lower nonrenewable energy resource prices because the R and D provides an expectation of future competition for the remaining reserves at the time of technology availability. ECON developed a model of optimal OPEC petroleum pricing as a function of the expectation of future competing technologies. It was shown that the existence of this expectation lowers the optimal OPEC export price and that accelerated technology R and D programs should provide further price decreases. These price reductions translate into benefits to the U.S. of at least a billion dollars.

1978-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

375

Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential negative effect of habitat corridors used in conservation, but the impacts of corridors on pathogen movement have never been tested empirically. Using sweet corn (Zea mays) and southern corn leaf blight (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) as a model plant-pathogen system, we tested the impacts of connectivity and habitat fragmentation on pathogen movement and disease development at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. Over time, less edgy patches had higher proportions of diseased plants, and distance of host plants to habitat edges was the greatest determinant of disease development. Variation in average daytime temperatures provided a possible mechanism for these disease patterns. Our results show that worries over the potentially harmful effects of conservation corridors on disease dynamics are misplaced, and that, in a conservation context, many diseases can be better managed by mitigating edge effects.

Johnson, Brenda, L.; Haddad, Nick, M.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Koomey, J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In continuation of efforts from last quarter, processing parameters, used in the formation of Pd-Cu alloy films, were being optimized in a drum (web) coater system with the goal of producing large-area, contiguous, pinhole-free films for H{sub 2} separation membranes. Since the (pre-treatment) functionality of the surface of the plastic backing material is sub-optimal, they tended to produce films in the drum coater that were either not contiguous (disseminates upon release from the polymer backing material) or contain pinholes. Alternative approaches, such as direct deposition onto thermally oxidized silicon wafers, have been attempted to yield pinhole-free films; i.e., formation of a poorly adherent Pd-Cu film on silicon will then directly release from the silicon substrate. Permeation characteristics of a 25 {micro}m-thick, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} alloy foil were conducted. After pre-treating the sample to stabilize the FCC {beta}-phase, the hydrogen permeability was determined to be 5.4 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 3} cmcm{sup -2}s{sup -1}cm Hg{sup -1/2}. Thin, 1-3 {micro}m-thick Pd-Cu alloy films have been prepared on PS films and samples will be prepared and tested in the next quarter.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, significant progress has been made in optimize the deposition and release characteristics of ultrathin (less than 4 micron) membranes from rigid silicon substrates. Specifically, we have conducted a series of statistically designed experiments to examine the effects of plasma cleaning and compliant layer deposition conditions on the stress, release and pinhole density of membranes deposited on 4 inch and 6 inch round substrates. With this information we have progressed to the deposition and release of ultra-thin membranes from 12-inch diameter (113 sq. in.) rigid substrates, achieving a key milestone for large-area membrane fabrication. Idatech received and is beginning preparations to test the Pd alloy membranes fabricated at SwRI the previous quarter. They are currently evaluating alternate gasketing methods and support materials that will allow for effective sealing and mounting of such thin membranes. David Edlund has also recently left Idatech and Bill Pledger (Chief Engineer) has replaced him as the primary technical point of contact. At Idetech's request a small number of additional 16 sq. in, samples were provided in a 2 in. by 8 in. geometry for use in a new module design currently under development. Recent work at the Colorado School of Mines has focused on developing preconditioning methods for thin Pd alloy membranes (6 microns or less) and continuing tests of thin membranes produced at SwRI. Of particular note, a 300-hour short-term durability study was completed over a range of temperatures from 300-450 C on a foil that showed perfect hydrogen selectivity throughout the entire test. With a 20 psi driving force, pure hydrogen flow rates ranged from 500 to 700 cc/min. Calculated at DOE specified conditions, the H{sub 2} flux of this membrane exceeded the 2010 Fossil target value of 200 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.

J. Arps

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Energy Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness, and Air Pollutant Reduction Analysis From Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Projects in Texas Public Schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary results from an analysis of the potential energy savings, and resultant air pollution reductions associated with the energy savings from the application of cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) projects applied to new and existing Texas Independent School Districts (ISDs). The final report from this analysis would be used in a marketing outreach program to school districts through the Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas Association of School Boards (TASB), and others. This outreach program would be designed in concert with State agencies such as the State Energy Conservation Office (SECO), Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT), and Texas General Land Office (GLO); NGOs, and other federal agencies as appropriate.

Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Kim, H.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Do, S.; Kim, K.; Baltazar, J. C.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Properties of low cost, high volume glasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The properties of new and weathered samples of low cost, high volume glasses have been studied to determine their usefulness for solar energy applications. Glasses of varying compositions produced by float, drawn, rolled fusion, and twin ground techniques were examined. Spectral transmittance and reflectance were measured and solar weighted values calculated. Laser raytrace techniques were used to evaluate surface parallelism and bulk homogeneity. Compositional changes were examined with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and Auger electron spectroscopy. These techniques were used in conjunction with ellipsometry to study the surface effects associated with weathering.

Lind, M. A.; Hartman, J. S.; Buckwalter, C. Q.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part I: Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the optical thickness and effective particle radius of stratiform cloud layers from reflected solar radiation measurements. A detailed study is presented which shows that the cloud optical thickness (?c) and ...

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Cost Study Manual  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

28, 2012 28, 2012 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a percent of payroll exceeds the comparator group by more than five percent. For example, if per capita benefit costs for the comparator group are $10,000 and the benefit costs as a percent of payroll for the comparator group are 20%, the threshold for the contractor's benefits as a

383

The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

King, D.; Bohlen, C.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the last quarter, we developed procedures for producing free-standing, defect free films using rigid silicon and glass substrates over areas up to 12 square inches. Since formation of contiguous Pd-Cu films in the 2-3 {micro}m-thick range is ultimately governed by the size of the particle contamination on the supporting substrate surface, we have adopted techniques utilized by the semiconductor industry to reduce and eventually eliminate particle contamination. We have found these techniques to be much more effective on rigid substrates and have made a down select decision on removal methods (a key milestone) based on these results and the performance of membranes fabricated by this technique. The path to fabricating even larger membranes is straightforward and will be demonstrated in the coming months. Hydrogen permeation tests were also conducted this quarter on as-deposited, Pd-Cu membranes, between 6-14 {micro}m-thick. In the case of a 6 {micro}m-thick film, the pure hydrogen flux at 20 psig and {approx}260 C was 36 cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2} min. This flux corresponds to a pure hydrogen permeability of 7.4 {center_dot} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 3} cm cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} cm Hg{sup -1/2} at 250 C. This value is within 20% of the pure hydrogen permeability at 250 C reported in the McKinley patent. In the case of a 14 {micro}m-thick membrane tested at 350 C, the pure hydrogen flux, measured before initiating a pinhole-size leak, was 2.1 {center_dot} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 3}(STP) {center_dot} cm/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s {center_dot} cm Hg{sup 0.5}. This value is considerably lower than the expected permeability of Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} materials at 400 C. To date, essentially all of the sputtered deposited Pd-Cu thin film membranes have had palladium compositions that were as much as 3% greater than the ideal 60 weight percent composition (this is a direct consequence of sputtering from a 60/40, Pd/Cu alloy target). As the concentration of Pd is increased beyond the optimum 60% value, a less desirable two-phase structure forms at the higher temperatures (in this case, above 260-280 C). As we continue development of procedures for producing thinner Pd-Cu films next quarter, we will also be optimizing alloy composition and corresponding hydrogen permeation flux as well.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

factors add 20 percent to liquefaction plant total installed cost 6 Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for current urban and...

386

Energy and cost analysis of residential heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Several energy-saving design changes in residential space-heating systems were examined to determine their energy-conservation potential and cost effectiveness. Changes in conventional and advanced systems (such as the gas heat pump) were considered. The energy and cost estimates were developed from current literature, conversations with heating and equipment manufacturers and dealers, and discussions with individuals doing research and testing on residential space-heating equipment. Energy savings as large as 26, 20, 57% were estimated for design changes in conventional gas, oil, and electric space-heating systems, respectively. These changes increased capital cost of the three systems by 27, 16, and 26%, respectively. For advanced gas and electric systems, energy savings up to 45 and 67%, respectively, were calculated. The design changes needed to produce these energy savings increased capital costs 80 and 35%. The energy use and cost relationships developed for the space heating systems were used as input to the ORNL residential energy-use simulation model to evaluate the effect of space-heating improvements on national energy use to the year 2000. Results indicated a large reduction in national energy use if improved conventional and advanced systems were made available to consumers and if consumers minimized life-cycle costs when purchasing these systems.

O' Neal, D.L.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Determining the Effectiveness of Incorporating Geographic Information Into Vehicle Performance Algorithms  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents a research study using one year of driving data obtained from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) located in Sacramento and San Francisco, California to determine the effectiveness of incorporating geographic information into vehicle performance algorithms. Sacramento and San Francisco were chosen because of the availability of high resolution (1/9 arc second) digital elevation data. First, I present a method for obtaining instantaneous road slope, given a latitude and longitude, and introduce its use into common driving intensity algorithms. I show that for trips characterized by >40m of net elevation change (from key on to key off), the use of instantaneous road slope significantly changes the results of driving intensity calculations. For trips exhibiting elevation loss, algorithms ignoring road slope overestimated driving intensity by as much as 211 Wh/mile, while for trips exhibiting elevation gain these algorithms underestimated driving intensity by as much as 333 Wh/mile. Second, I describe and test an algorithm that incorporates vehicle route type into computations of city and highway fuel economy. Route type was determined by intersecting trip GPS points with ESRI StreetMap road types and assigning each trip as either city or highway route type according to whichever road type comprised the largest distance traveled. The fuel economy results produced by the geographic classification were compared to the fuel economy results produced by algorithms that assign route type based on average speed or driving style. Most results were within 1 mile per gallon ({approx}3%) of one another; the largest difference was 1.4 miles per gallon for charge depleting highway trips. The methods for acquiring and using geographic data introduced in this thesis will enable other vehicle technology researchers to incorporate geographic data into their research problems.

Sera White

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

CX-009162: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

62: Categorical Exclusion Determination 62: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009162: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of a Low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signature of a Geothermal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 09/11/2012 Location(s): Nevada Offices(s): Golden Field Office Board of Regents, NSHE, obo University of Nevada, Reno would utilize DOE and cost share funds to research cost-effective characterization of geothermal reservoir properties from which drilling targets would be identified by utilizing existing and newly acquired seismic survey data to test and validate a cost-effective, non-invasive, seismic exploration method based on seismic interferometry. CX-009162.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-000267: Categorical Exclusion Determination

389

Criteria for determining the effectiveness of utility-initiated energy assistance  

SciTech Connect

The affordability of electricity and natural gas to all households requires some form of energy assistance, funded by utilities and their customers. Good regulation demands that EA initiatives have favorable benefit-cost ratios. Regulators should strive to assure that each dollar expended returns the highest possible dividend and that EA initiatives do not seriously impede other regulatory objectives. (author)

Costello, Ken

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems` (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems` (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle.

Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

The External Damage Cost of Direct Noise From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects and Social Costs of Road Transport,” Transportationreview of the social costs of transportation in the U. S.social cost MV = motor vehicle NIPA = National Income Product Accounts NOx = nitrogen oxides NPTS = Nationwide Personal Transportation

Delucchi, Mark A.; Hsu, Shi-Ling

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Cost-benefit analysis conducted for nutrition education in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the California Expanded Food are cost-effective and thatE, et al. 1999. Ap- plying cost-bene?t analysis to nutritionRH, Lambur M, Lewis E. 2002. Cost- bene?t analysis indicates

Block Joy, Amy; Goldman, George; Pradhan, Vijay

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Determining an Appropriate Method to Simulate Pump Shear on the Diatom Nitzschia sp. and a Methodology to Quantify the Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When cultivated properly in bioreactors, microalgae have been found to produce vast amounts of biomass. In the case of diatom cultivation where the organisms will fall out of suspension quite easily, paddle wheels or pumps are the primary means to maintain the necessary velocity in the raceway. This study will focus on the potentially harmful shear stress these devices may impart onto the organisms. The system used to impart shear stress to a diatom culture was a cone and plate viscometer. Cells were counted using a fluorescein diacetate staining method with a fluorescent and brightfield microscope. Under the white light all cells were visible while only the healthy cells were visible under fluorescent light. The sample was exposed to shear stress with the cone and plate viscometer at 6 Pascals for 10 minutes and compared against a non-sheared sample. For each sample, 5 pairs of white and fluorescent light images were captured, counted, and averaged. A non-sheared sample was paired with a sheared sample to calculate the decrease in cell viability. The slope was calculated from the plot of shear stress and cell viability for 9 strains. In each case shear stress resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability; however, there was no statistical difference between strains. While effective, this method would be impractical for a commercial algae cultivation facility as the viscometer in this study costs approximately $100,000. Therefore, tests were performed to determine if a rotary mixer could be substituted for the viscometer. The hypothesis was that the cell damage was a product of shear stress and exposure time. For the viscometer test, the shear exposure was 3600 Pa s. Two rotational mixer tests were performed, one at 1250 RPM for 7 hours and one at 313 RPM for 28 hours, providing the same 3600 Pa s shear exposure. After staining, cell viability decreased 35.62% and 11.07% in the 1250 RPM and 313 RPM test, respectively. This difference was significant compared to the 6.04% decrease in the viscometer test. The increased cell damage was attributed to turbulence in the mixer tests and the basis for further study.

Lassig, Jarrett

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

395

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

396

Early Station Costs Questionnaire  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early Station Costs Questionnaire Early Station Costs Questionnaire Marc Melaina Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Market Readiness Workshop February 16-17th, 2011 Washington, DC Questionnaire Goals * The Early Station Costs questionnaire provides an anonymous mechanism for organizations with direct experience with hydrogen station costs to provide feedback on current costs, near-term costs, economies of scale, and R&D priorities. * This feedback serves the hydrogen community and government agencies by increasing awareness of the status of refueling infrastructure costs National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions for Market Readiness Workshop Attendees * Are these questions the right ones to be asking?

397

Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency. The final PAwith the “all cost- effective energy efficiency provisions”Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs

Cappers, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Durable Seal Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability Transportation: 5,000 hr Stationary: 40,000 hr Durability Improve mechanical and chemical stability to achieve 40,000 hr of useful operating life. Low Cost Low Cost A material cost equivalent to or less than the cost of silicones in common use. 3 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL

399

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

national access to foreign oil, the federal government hasalmost exclusively and on oil foreign oil. shale costs ofprincipal bases. First, foreign oil does find its way into

Kay, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Cost-Effective Fabrication Routes for the Production of Quantum Well Structures and Recovery of Waste Heat from Heavy Duty Trucks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objectives of Phase I were: (a) carry out cost, performance and system level models, (b) quantify the cost benefits of cathodic arc and heterogeneous nanocomposites over sputtered material, (c) evaluate the expected power output of the proposed thermoelectric materials and predict the efficiency and power output of an integrated TE module, (d) define market acceptance criteria by engaging Caterpillar's truck OEMs, potential customers and dealers and identify high-level criteria for a waste heat thermoelectric generator (TEG), (e) identify potential TEG concepts, and (f) establish cost/kWatt targets as well as a breakdown of subsystem component cost targets for the commercially viable TEG.

Willigan, Rhonda

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "determination cost effective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

OOTW COST TOOLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Silicon materials task of the low-cost solar-array project. Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The object of the program has been to investigate the effects of various processes, metal contaminants, and contaminant-process interactions on the properties of silicon and on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The study has encompassed topics such as thermochemical (gettering) treatments, base-doping concentration, base-doping type (n vs. p), grain boundary-impurity interaction in polycrystalline devices, and long-term effects of impurities and impurity impacts on high-efficiency cells, as well as a preliminary evaluation of some potential low-cost silicon materials. The effects have been studied of various metallic impurities, introduced singly or in combination into Czochralski, float zone, and polycrystalline silicon ingots and into silicon ribbons grown by the dendritic web process. The solar cell data indicate that impurity-induced performance loss is caused primarily by a reduction in base diffusion length. An analytical model based on this observation has been developed and verified experimentally for both n- and p-base material. Studies of polycrystalline ingots containing impurities indicate that solar cell behavior is species sensitive and that a fraction of the impurities are segregated to the grain boundaries. HCl and POCl gettering improve the performance of single-crystal solar cells containing Fe, Cr, and Ti. In contrast Mo-doped material is barely affected. The efficiencies of solar cells fabricated on impurity-doped wafers is lower when the front junction is formed by ion implantation than when conventional diffusion techniques are used. For most impurity-doped solar cells stability is expected for projected times beyond 20 years. Feedstock impurity concentrations below one part per million for elements like V, or 100 parts per million for more benign impurities like Cu or Ni, will be required.

Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Hanes, M.H.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Initiative Life-cycle Cost Analysis Canada and Mexico –baseline energy consumption. Canada’s and Mexico’s marketsMexico minimum efficiency performance standard million tons (of CO 2 ) national equipment cost National Electric Manufacturers Association national energy

Letschert, Virginie E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

OBSERVATIONS OF A POTENTIAL SIZE-EFFECT IN EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF FRACTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETERMINATION OF THE HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF FRACTURES P. A.cell 5. Variation of hydraulic conductivity in a fracturecceleratior of gravity hydraulic head fracture intrinsic

Witherspoon, P.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

Botkin, J.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Correlating Cycle Duty with Cost at Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work described in this report is part of the ongoing EPRI Cycling Impacts Program to develop a range of analysis and simulation-capable planning tools. The objectives are to better determine cycling impacts (including incremental costs), reliability impact, component level effects, and impacts and other elements needed to better plan and manage operational and financial aspects of power generation. This report documents early efforts to establish strong correlations between the cycle duty of a produc...

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

407

Operations Cost Allocation Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms OCP Cost Allocation Spreadsheets OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation - Questions and Answers - September 19 - 20, 2011 Additional Questions and Answers Customer Comments/Questions and Answers: Arizona Municipal Power Users Association Arizona Power Authority Central Arizona Project Colorado River Commission Colorado River Energy Distributors Association City of Gilbert, AZ Irrigation and Electrical Districts Association of Arizona Town of Marana, AZ City of Mesa, AZ Town of Wickenburg, AZ Western's Final Decision Regarding the Long-Term Cost Allocation Methodology for Operations Staff Costs

408

Minimum Cost Arborescences ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the cost allocation problem when a group of agents or nodes have to be connected to a source, and where the cost matrix describing the cost of connecting each pair of agents is not necessarily symmetric, thus extending the well-studied problem of minimum cost spanning tree games, where the costs are assumed to be symmetric. The focus is on rules which satisfy axioms representing incentive and fairness properties. We show that while some results are similar, there are also significant differences between the frameworks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric cost matrices.

Bhaskar Dutta; Debasis Mishra; We Thank Daniel Granot; Anirban Kar; Herve Moulin For Comments

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

CLASAdministratorJobAid CostSharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

per square foot from FPM. Pro-rate by percentage of time that the office is used for the project x;CLASAdministratorJobAid CostSharing Preparedby:M.Kuznia8/1/11 Page2 Use of an office: determine square footageCLASAdministratorJobAid CostSharing Preparedby:M.Kuznia8/1/11 Page1 I. Definitions A. Cost

Baskaran, Mark

411

Evaluating Utility Costs from Cogeneration Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the method of calculation of incremental costs of steam, condensate, feedwater and electricity produced by the industrial cogeneration plant. (This method can also be applied to other energy production plants.) It also shows how to evaluate the energy consumption by the process facility using the costs determined by the method. The paper gives practical examples of calculation of the incremental costs of various utilities and emphasizes the importance of the calculation accuracy.

Polsky, M. P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: The Effects of Wind and Solar PowerÂ…Induced Cycling on Wear-and-Tear Costs and Emissions (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind and Solar Power- Wind and Solar Power- Induced Cycling on Wear-and-Tear Costs and Emissions Results From the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine. Changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding variable renewable generation such as wind and solar power affects the operation of conventional power plants, and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) was initiated to determine the wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts of cycling and to simulate grid operations to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar power on

413

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

414

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

415

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

416

Documents: Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Search Documents: Search PDF Documents View a list of all documents Cost Analysis PDF Icon Summary of the Cost Analysis Report for the Long-term Management of Depleted UF6...

417

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Presented by: J.M. Hieb, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company CHPRC1204-04 Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Everyone is trying to stretch a...

418

NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Cost of Energy Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Solar, Water Power, Wind Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Topics: Finance, Market analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.nrel.gov/analysis/tech_lcoe.html Web Application Link: www.nrel.gov/analysis/tech_lcoe.html OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools

419

Cost Estimation Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...D.P. Hoult and C.L. Meador, Manufacturing Cost Estimating, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

420

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparing the national final energy consumption E(y) of theNational Operating Cost (NOC) is the total (site) energy consumption (Energy Consumption 14 Market Share Weighting . 14 Appliance Group Data . 15 Lifetime Assumptions .. 30 National

Letschert, Virginie E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

A multiple secretary problem with switch costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we utilize probabilistic reasoning and simulation methods to determine the optimal selection rule for the secretary problem with switch costs, in which a known number of applicants appear sequentially in a ...

Ding, Jiachuan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Low-cost inertial measurement unit.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, w