Sample records for determination catalytic transformation

  1. Catalytic Transformation of Toluene over High Acidity Y-Zeolite Based S. Al-Khattaf*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    Catalytic Transformation of Toluene over High Acidity Y-Zeolite Based Catalyst S. Al Abstract Catalytic transformation of toluene has been investigated over Y-zeolite based catalysts in the temperature range of 400-500o C to understand the transformation of toluene over high acidity Y-based zeolite

  2. Principles of water oxidation and O2-based hydrocarbon transformation by multinuclear catalytic sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musaev, Djamaladdin G [Chemistry, Emory University; Hill, Craig L [Chemistry, Emory University; Morokuma, Keiji [Chemistry, Emory University

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The central thrust of this integrated experimental and computational research program was to obtain an atomistic-level understanding of the structural and dynamic factors underlying the design of catalysts for water oxidation and selective reductant-free O2-based transformations. The focus was on oxidatively robust polyoxometalate (POM) complexes in which a catalytic active site interacts with proximal metal centers in a synergistic manner. Thirty five publications in high-impact journals arose from this grant. I. Developing an oxidatively and hydrolytically stable and fast water oxidation catalyst (WOC), a central need in the production of green fuels using water as a reductant, has proven particularly challenging. During this grant period we have designed and investigated several carbon-free, molecular (homogenous), oxidatively and hydrolytically stable WOCs, including the Rb8K2[{Ru4O4(OH)2(H2O)4}(?-SiW10O36)2]∑25H2O (1) and [Co4(H2O)2(?-PW9O34)2]10- (2). Although complex 1 is fast, oxidatively and hydrolytically stable WOC, Ru is neither abundant nor inexpensive. Therefore, development of a stable and fast carbon-free homogenous WOC, based on earth-abundant elements became our highest priority. In 2010, we reported the first such catalyst, complex 2. This complex is substantially faster than 1 and stable under homogeneous conditions. Recently, we have extended our efforts and reported a V2-analog of the complex 2, i.e. [Co4(H2O)2(?-VW9O34)2]10- (3), which shows an even greater stability and reactivity. We succeeded in: (a) immobilizing catalysts 1 and 2 on the surface of various electrodes, and (b) elucidating the mechanism of O2 formation and release from complex 1, as well as the Mn4O4L6 ďcubaneĒ cluster. We have shown that the direct O-O bond formation is the most likely pathway for O2 formation during water oxidation catalyzed by 1. II. Oxo transfer catalysts that contain two proximal and synergistically interacting redox active metal centers in the active site form another part of considerable interest of our grant because species with such sites [including methane monooxygenase (MMO) and more] are some of the most effective oxygenase catalysts known. Our team conducted the following research on ?-M2-Keggin complexes: (a) investigated stability of the trimer [{Fe3(OH)3(H2O)2}3(?-SiW10O36)3]15-, 4, in water, and developed the chemistry and catalysis of the di-iron centered POM, [?(1,2)-SiW10{Fe(OH)}2O38]6-, 5, in organic solvents (Figure 2). We also study the thermodynamic and structural stability of ?-M2-Keggin in aqueous media for different Mís (d-electron metals). We have defined two structural classes of POMs with proximally bound d-electron metal centers. We refer to these structural isomers of the {?-M2SiW10} family of POMs as ďin-pocketĒ and ďout-of pocketĒ. We have elucidated the factors controlling the structure and stability of the V, Fe, Ru, Tc, Mo and Rh derivatives of [(SiO4)M2(OH)2W10O32]4- using a range of computational tools. We have: (a) demonstrated that heteroatom X in these polyanions may function as an ďinternal switchĒ for defining the ground electronic states and, consequently, the reactivity of the ?-M2-Keggin POM complexes; (b) elucidated reactivity of divacant lacunary species and polyperoxotungstates (PPTs), {Xn+O4[WO(O2)2]4}n-, which could be degradation products of ?-M2-Keggin complexes in aqueous media; (c) elucidated the role of the POM ligand in stabilization of {Ru2} and {(Ru-oxo)2} fragments in the reactant and product of the reaction of {?-[(Xn+O4)Ru2(OH)2W10O32]}(8-n)- (where X = Si4+, P5+ and S6+) with O2, and (d) the mechanisms of olefin epoxidation catalyzed by these di-d-transition metal substituted and divacant lacunary ?-M2-Keggin complexes. III. Complementing the efforts presented above was the development of less time-consuming but reasonably accurate computational methods allowing one to explore more deeply large catalytic systems. We developed Reactive Force Field (ReaxFF) to study interaction of the targeted POMs with water, pro

  3. Catalytic transformations of vinylthiiranes by tungsten carbonyl complexes. A new route to 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.D.; Perrin, J.L. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    W(CO){sub 5}(NCMe) has been found to transform vinylthiirane and a series of methyl-substituted vinylthiiranes into a series of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiin compounds. Two equivalents of the vinylthiirane are required, and 1 equiv of a butadiene is formed by the transfer of its sulfur atom to the second vinylthiirane, which is then transformed into the dihydrodithiin. The formation of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dithiin proceeds at 15 turnovers/h at 25 C using vinylthiirane as the catalyst. The catalyst is long-lived (up to 2,000 turnovers have been obtained without loss of activity) and relatively insensitive to air. Methyl substituents on the vinyl group increase the rate of reaction while methyl substituents on the thiirane ring slow it considerably. The introduction of phosphine ligands to the catalyst also leads to significant increases in the rate of reaction. The dithiin complex W(CO){sub 5}({ovr SSCH{sub 2}CH{double_bond}CHC}H{sub 2}) was isolated from the catalytic reactions and was structurally characterized. The dihydrodithiin is coordinated to the tungsten atom through one of its two sulfur atoms. This product was shown to be a species in the catalytic cycle. A mechanism involving a vinylthiirane intermediate that undergoes spontaneous ring opening, followed by addition of a second vinylthiirane to the terminal carbon of the chain, elimination of 1 equiv of butadiene, and formation of a sulfur-sulfur bond leading to the compound above is proposed. The vinylthiirane intermediate is regenerated by ligand substitution which releases the dihydrodithiin product. 3,6-dihydro1,2-dithiin readily polymerizes when its pure form is exposed to visible light. If the polymerization is interrupted at an early stage, 1,2,7,8-tetrathiacyclododeca-4,10-diene, a dimer, can be isolated. The dimer was obtained in 5.6% yield and was structurally characterized crystallographically.

  4. Shear Transformation Zones: State Determined or Protocol Dependent?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Gendelman; Prabhat K. Jaiswal; Itamar Procaccia; Bhaskar Sen Gupta; Jacques Zylberg

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a Shear Transformation Zone (STZ) refers to a region in an amorphous solid that undergoes a plastic event when the material is put under an external mechanical load. An important question that had accompanied the development of the theory of plasticity in amorphous solids for many years now is whether an STZ is a {\\em region} existing in the material (which can be predicted by analyzing the unloaded material), or is it an {\\em event} that depends on the loading protocol (i.e., the event cannot be predicted without following the protocol itself). In this Letter we present strong evidence that the latter is the case. Infinitesimal changes of protocol result in macroscopically big jumps in the positions of plastic events, meaning that these can never be predicted from considering the unloaded material.

  5. Determination of the number of catalytic sites for ethylene-octene copolymers made with heterogeneous catalyst via interpretation of ?p13?sC NMR sequence distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moldovan, Daniel Gene

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF THE NUMBER OF CATALYTIC SITES FOR ETHYLENE-OCTENE COPOLYMERS MADE WITH HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST VIA INTERPRETATION OF C NMR SEQUENCE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by DANIEL GENE MOLDOVAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... VIA INTERPRETATION OF C NMR SEQUENCE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by DANIEL GENE MOLDOVAN Approved as to style and content by: C. A. J. oeve (Chair of t e committee) E. A. Meyers (Member) E. T. Ad m" (Member) J. S. Ham (Member) M. B. Hall (Head...

  6. Catalytic Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been...

  7. FOURIER-TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF NORMAL PHOTOELECTRON DIFFRACTION DATA FOR SURFACE-STRUCTURE DETERMINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical Review Letters FOURIER-TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF NORMAL0 eV. (b) Magnitude of the Fourier transform IF(r)l accord∑3. l.94A and V 5 eV. Fourier-transform derived distances ZF

  8. FOURIER-TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF NORMAL PHOTOELECTRON DIFFRACTION DATA FOR SURFACE-STRUCTURE DETERMINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Academy of Sciences USA FOURIER-TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF NORMALeV. (b) Magnitude of the Fourier transform IF(r)l accordingV 0 = 5 eV. Figure 3. Fourier-transform derived distances ZF

  9. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

  10. Catalytic Coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Aberg

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to conservation of energy we cannot directly turn a quantum system with a definite energy into a superposition of different energies. However, if we have access to an additional resource in terms of a system with a high degree of coherence, as for standard models of laser light, we can overcome this limitation. The question is to what extent coherence gets degraded when utilized. Here it is shown that coherence can be turned into a catalyst, meaning that we can use it repeatedly without ever diminishing its power to enable coherent operations. This finding stands in contrast to the degradation of other quantum resources, and has direct consequences for quantum thermodynamics, as it shows that latent energy that may be locked into superpositions of energy eigenstates can be released catalytically.

  11. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  12. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

  13. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

  14. Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a well-established fact that geomagnetic storms influence electrical power transmission and distribution systems. Previous cases of such storms in the northern latitudes have resulted in occasional power disruptions, and in some cases, damage to transformers. These effects are caused by a time variation of the earth's magnetic field creating an induced electric field along the surface of the earth. This E-field acts as a voltage source along long power transmission or distribution lines, and if the line is connected to the earth at both ends, a quasi-dc current can flow. This current can cause unwanted saturation in the magnetic cores of transformers in the power system, and this, in turn produces harmonic distortion and transformer heating. This can lead to system upset (shutdown) and possibly transformer burn-out. The detonation of a high altitude nuclear explosion is also known to affect the magnetosphere, producing late-time variations of the earth's magnetic field for several hundreds of seconds. Known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), or E{sub 3}, this environment is of particular concern to electrical power systems in the event of a nuclear attack. Although the MHD-EMP induced currents can be significantly larger in magnitude, they last for a shorter period of time than do those from a geomagnetic storm. The effect of this environment compounds the adverse effects of the early-time high altitude EMP (HEMP) environment, posing a potentially serious threat to the electrical system. The present paper documents an experimental program designed to better understand the behavior of distribution-class transformers subjected to quasi-dc current excitation. Given the knowledge of the MHD-EMP-induced current flowing in a long power line, and the transformer response characteristics obtained in this program, it will be possible to make more accurate assessments of the behavior of the overall power system to EMP. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  16. CLEAN CAST STEEL TECHNOLOGY: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumbley. L., S.

    2005-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥) and chi (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬£) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling- transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥ + √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬£) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations, The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  17. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  18. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  19. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  20. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  1. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  2. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  3. VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

  4. CATALYTICALLY ENCHANCED SYSTEMS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the conversion of the world to a "hydrogen economy" is the problem of onboard hydrogen storage. Despite decadesCATALYTICALLY ENCHANCED SYSTEMS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE Craig M. Jensen, Dalin Sun, Sesha Sai RamanH/Al and the reverse hydrogenation reactions have been determined through kinetic studies of 2 mol % Ti and Zr doped

  5. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  6. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  7. Study of catalytic diffusion in coal. Final report for 1983/1984 SOMED Project. [Determination of pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of our studies is to determine the pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution in standard bituminous coal samples from various Alabama coal seams such as that of the Mary Lee, Black Creek and Pratt during and after swelling of the coal with different solvents at various temperatures. These samples come from the Penn State Coal Sample Bank at Pennsylvania State University Coal Research Section and from Alabama's Mineral Industries. Methods have been developed in the laboratory whereby free radical probes of varying sizes can be diffused into the coal under various conditions. These probes can be detected and the environment surrounding the probes can be deduced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. To date, we have found that not only can the shape and size of the pores be determined, but that the size distribution varies from one bituminous coal seam to another, even for coal of the same rank, suggesting a different optimal catalyst should be used for each seam. The effect of oxygen on the coal samples during grinding has been studied; however, the free radical technique appears to be insensitive to the presence of oxygen effects. It is our goal to determine the structural differences between various bituminous coals. 9 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  8. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency Purpose: To determine how well your E. coli cells took up and expressed GFP after transformation. Background: Transformation efficiency is a quantitative)______ (Fraction of DNA spread on plate) = ______ Ķg plasmid DNA spread on plate #12;2 5. Transformation efficiency

  10. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  11. Concentric catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J. (Oviedo, FL); Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

  12. Catalytic hydrodesulfurization of bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, R.K.; Olson, E.S. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of the catalytic hydrodesulfurization of Venezuela bitumen and its water emulsion (Orimulsion) were carried out. This material contained a large amount of sulfur and organometallics, such as vanadium and nickel compounds. A variety of nickel and molybdenum catalysts were prepared. These, as well as two commercial catalysts, were tested with Orimulsion and vacuum-dried, pentane-insoluble and soluble bitumen. Catalytic hydrotreatment removed up to 75% of sulfur from the bitumen. Hydrodesulfurization was found to be affected by reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst, and feed material. Moisture-free bitumen and a pentane-soluble bitumen fraction were desulfurized more effectively than Orimulsion. Zeolite-based catalysts gave higher desulfurization than synthetic clay catalysts.

  13. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  14. Challenges in the Selective Transformation of Biomass to Useful Chemical Intermediates and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    highly hydroxylated biomass feedstocks into new chemical intermediates and thermoplastics. New scientific. We have developed new catalytic methods for transforming biomass feedstocks into new monomers

  15. High temperature x ray diffraction determination of the body-centered-cubicface-centered-cubic transformation temperature in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    , generators, transformers, sensors,1 and, more recently, for magnetic refrigeration.4≠6 Recently 16 February 2012) In situ high-temperature x ray diffraction and magnetization measurements were.1063/1.3675990] INTRODUCTION Fe-Ni alloys have been extensively studied, due to their technologically important magnetic

  16. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  18. Catalytic hydrodesulfurization of bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, R.K.; Olson, E.S. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of the catalytic hydrodesulfurization of Venezuela bitumen and its water-emulsion (Orimulsion) were carried out. A variety of catalysts were prepared and some impregnated with molybdenum and sulfided. These and two commercial catalysts were tested with Orimulsion, vacuum-dried Orimulsion, and pentane-insoluble and soluble Orimulsion. Hydrotreatment of feed material was done in a 15-mL tube reactor using a variety of catalysts at 390{degrees}C under an initial 1000-psi hydrogen pressure with a reaction time of 1-3 hours. The hydrotreated products were analyzed by total sulfur analysis. Catalytic hydrotreatment removed up to 75% of sulfur from the bitumen. Nickel and/or molybdenum impregnation on various supports promoted sulfur removal from Orimulsion. Hydrodesulfurization was found to be affected by reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst, and feed material. A moisture-free bitumen and a pentane-soluble bitumen fraction were desulfurized more effectively than Orimulsion. Zeolite-based catalysts gave higher desulfurization than synthetic clay catalysts or commercial AMOCAT and HDN catalysts.

  19. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  20. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  1. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass Re-direct Destination: Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal...

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Function of Novel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterization, and Catalytic Function of Novel Highly Dispersed Tungsten Oxide Catalysts on Mesoporous Silica . Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Function of Novel...

  3. Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Tungsten...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Tungsten Trioxide Cyclic Trimers on FeO(111)Pt(111). Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Tungsten...

  4. CX-004967: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable MaterialsCX(s) Applied: A11, B3.6Date: 12/30/2010Location(s): Rochester, New YorkOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-004964: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable MaterialsCX(s) Applied: A11, B3.6Date: 12/29/2010Location(s): Orangeburg, South CarolinaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. Determination of Landau Fermi-liquid parameters of strongly interacting fermions by means of a nonlinear scaling transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji-sheng Chen

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonlinear transformation approach is formulated for the correlated fermions' thermodynamics through a medium-scaling effective action. An auxiliary implicit variable-effective chemical potential is introduced to characterize the non-Gaussian fluctuations physics. By incorporating the nonlocal correlation effects, the achieved grand partition function is made of coupled highly nonlinear parametric equations. Analytically, the low temperature expansions for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas are performed for the adiabatic compressibility-sound speed and specific heat with the Sommerfeld lemma. The expressions for the Landau Fermi-Liquid parameters $F_0^s$ and $F_1^s$ of the strongly interacting fermion system are obtained. As a universal constant, the effective fermion mass ratio is $m^*/m={10/9}$ at unitarity.

  7. The catalytic oxidation of propane†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  8. The catalytic oxidation of propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis By Charles Frederick Sandersont * * June 1949 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering THE CATALYTICi OXIDATTON OF PROPANE A Thesis By Charles... Frederick ;Sandersonit * June 1949 THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OP PROPANE A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  9. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    +material obtained by water extraction) were determined forwith acetone and water, both these extractions are doneproduct obtained by extraction with water. About 67% of the

  10. Correlations between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.W.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to address the keys to understanding the relation between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Of concern are questions related to enhanced catalytic properties of mixed-metal catalysts and critical active site requirements for molecular synthesis and rearrangement. The experimental approach utilizes a microcatalytic reactor contiguous to a surface analysis system, an arrangement which allows in vacuo transfer of the catalyst from one chamber to the other. Surface techniques being used include Auger (AES), UV and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Our research program builds upon our previous experience relating the results of single crystal kinetic measurements with the results obtained with supported analogs. As well we are exploiting our recent work on the preparation, the characterization, and the determination of the catalytic properties of ultra-thin metal and metal oxide films. The program is proceeding toward the study of the unique catalytic properties of ultrathin metal films; the investigation of the critical ensemble size requirements for principal catalytic reaction types; and the modelling of supported catalysts using ultra-thin planar oxide surfaces.

  11. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  12. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential Application to ARM MeasurementsDetermination of

  13. INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

  14. Exploring Functional Mellin Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We define functional Mellin transforms within a scheme for functional integration proposed in [1]. Functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

  15. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  16. Transformation Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drewes, Frank

    Proc. AGTIVE'99, to appear in LNCS Graph Transformation Modules and their Composition ? Frank,knirsch,kreo,kuskeg@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the notion of transformation modules as a structuring principle. Based on the notion of transformation units, a concept that allows to specify binary relations on graphs

  17. transformations: representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Dat H.

    Overview 1. Number transformations: from one base to another 2. Integer representations 3. Real rate, caches... #12; ECS 50, Discussion on 4/25 2 Integer Transformation: From Decimal to Binary Let, Discussion on 4/25 3 Integer Transformation: From Binary to Decimal Compute the weight of each digit position

  18. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  19. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  20. Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About...

  1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH INTRODUCTION As a part has contained MTBE (methyl tert­butyl ether) as its primary oxygenate. However, there has been

  2. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  3. Catalytic Nanostructures | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C lKieling ,CatalysisPortalCatalytic

  4. Functional Mellin Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Functional integrals are defined in terms of locally compact topological groups and their associated Banach-valued Haar integrals. This approach generalizes the functional integral scheme of Cartier and DeWitt-Morette. The definition allows a construction of functional Mellin transforms. In turn, the functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

  5. Market Transformation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  6. Cobalt and nickel supported on HY zeolite: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrido Pedrosa, Anne M. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: annemgp@yahoo.com; Souza, Marcelo J.B. [Federal University of Sergipe, Department of Chemical Engineering, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao-SE (Brazil); Melo, Dulce M.A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Antonio S. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Department of Chemistry, CP 1692, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bifunctional catalysts consisting of cobalt and nickel supported on HY zeolite were synthesized by solvent excess impregnation and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption. The profiles of metal reduction on zeolite were obtained by temperature-programmed reduction. The catalytic properties of the bifunctional catalysts were verified by n-hexane hydroconversion. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analyses showed the presence of crystalline phases in HY zeolite and in samples after impregnation. A decrease in the micropore surface area was observed by nitrogen adsorption experiments and attributed to a reduction in the accessibility to micropores. The catalysts showed catalytic activity in the hydroconversion of n-hexane with selectivity to branched hydrocarbons. Such catalytic activity was related to the acid and metallic properties of the bifunctional catalysts used.

  7. Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons...

  8. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

  9. Atomic-Structural Synergy for Catalytic CO Oxidation over Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic-Structural Synergy for Catalytic CO Oxidation over Palladium-Nickel Nanoalloys. Atomic-Structural Synergy for Catalytic CO Oxidation over Palladium-Nickel Nanoalloys....

  10. High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Seven-Membered Diphosphine Ligands Containing High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using...

  11. Nanoporous carbon catalytic membranes and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foley, Henry C. (Hockessin, DE); Strano, Michael (Wilmington, DE); Acharya, Madhav (New Castle, DE); Raich, Brenda A. (Houston, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic membranes comprising highly-dispersed, catalytically-active metals in nanoporous carbon membranes and a novel single-phase process to produce the membranes.

  12. Catalytic converter with thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique design of an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and the inclusion of an ECO valve in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine will meet the strict new emission requirements, especially at vehicle cold start, adopted by several states in this country as well as in Europe and Japan. The catalytic converter (CC) has been a most useful tool in pollution abatement for the automobile. But the emission requirements are becoming more stringent and, along with other improvements, the CC must be improved to meet these new standards. Coupled with the ECO valve, the EHC can meet these new emission limits. In an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), approximately 80% of the energy consumed leaves the vehicle as waste heat: out the tail pipe, through the radiator, or convected/radiated off the engine. Included with the waste heat out the tail pipe are the products of combustion which must meet strict emission requirements. The design of a new CC is presented here. This is an automobile CC that has the capability of producing electrical power and reducing the quantity of emissions at vehicle cold start, the Thermoelectric Catalytic Power Generator. The CC utilizes the energy of the exothermic reactions that take place in the catalysis substrate to produce electrical energy with a thermoelectric generator. On vehicle cold start, the thermoelectric generator is used as a heat pump to heat the catalyst substrate to reduce the time to catalyst light-off. Thus an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) will be used to augment the abatement of tail pipe emissions. Included with the EHC in the exhaust stream of the automobile is the ECO valve. This valve restricts the flow of pollutants out the tail pipe of the vehicle for a specified amount of time until the EHC comes up to operating temperature. Then the ECO valve opens and allows the full exhaust, now treated by the EHC, to leave the vehicle.

  13. CX-004968: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable MaterialsCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6Date: 12/29/2010Location(s): Baton Rogue, LouisianaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. CX-004966: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable MaterialsCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6Date: 12/30/2010Location(s): Ithaca, New YorkOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations Multiple Systems for Spatial Imagery: Transformations of Objects and Bodies Jeffrey M. Zacks* and Barbara Tversky * Washington COGNITION & COMPUTATION #12;SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract Problem-solving often requires imagining

  16. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  17. Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of time, f(t), into a function of frequency, F(s): F {f(t)}(s) = F(s) = Z - f(t)e- j2st dt. The inverse Fourier transform transforms a func. The inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier trans- form is the identity transform: f(t) = Z - Z - f()e- j2s

  18. Reservoir characterization using wavelet transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivera Vega, Nestor

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated detection of geological boundaries and determination of cyclic events controlling deposition can facilitate stratigraphic analysis and reservoir characterization. This study applies the wavelet transformation, a recent advance in signal...

  19. The Laplace Transform 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengulalp, Lynne

    The Laplace Transform Name: 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform Definition. Let f(t) be a function defined for t 0. Then the integral L {f(t)} = 0 e-st f(t)dt is said to be the Laplace transform of f provided the integral converges. Fill in the following Laplace transforms. L {tn } = L {eat } = L

  20. Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties of BIMEVOX (Me = Ta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties for syngas or H2 production from light hydrocarbons. #12;2 Keywords: Dense membrane reactor, BIMEVOX, BITAVOX to decouple the two steps of the redox mechanism that prevails in selective oxidation of hydrocarbons [1

  1. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  2. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  3. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energyís National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 Ė Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  4. Transformers Transformer device used to raise (for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Transformers Transformer ≠ device used to raise (for transmission) and lower (for use) the ac with different #s of turns #12;Transformers Alternating primary current induces alternating magnetic flux in iron dt d NV B PP -= dt d NV B SS -= S S P P N V N V = #12;Transformers Transformation of voltage

  5. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  6. Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewers, Trevor David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C.Y Mou. Catalytic nano-rattle of Au@ hollow silica: towardshollow nanostructures induced by the Kirkendall effect: The basic concept. NanoHollow mesoporous aluminosilica spheres with perpendicular pore channels as catalytic nanoreactors. ACS Nano,

  7. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: National Energy Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exclusion Determination Advancing Coal Catalytic Gasification to Promote Optimum Syngas Production CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 41884 Location(s): Utah Offices(s): National...

  8. Catalytically Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the Freedom CAR hydrogen storage system targets (Key parameters: cost, specific energy, and energy density). #12;Objectives I. Determination of the chemical nature of the titanium species responsible that are compatible with the Freedom CAR hydrogen storage system targets. Key parameters: cost, specific energy

  9. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  10. Transparent and Catalytic Carbon Nanotube Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    for the dye-sensitized solar cell. Other possible applications include batteries, fuel cells and intercalation in hydrogen fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.1,10,12,14 However, the electrochemical activity to optimize performance through processing. In this study, we quantify the catalytic activity of single

  11. Pillared clays as superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Second semiannual report, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Sirilumpen, M.; Tharapiwattananon, N.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the first six months of the program, the work has progressed as planned. We have constructed a reactor system and assembled all laboratory essentials for conducting the three-year project. First, the catalytic activities of the Cu(2+) ion exchanged alumina-pillared clay for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ethylene were measured. The temperature range was 250-500{degrees}C. The activities of this catalyst were substantially higher than the catalyst that has been extensively studied in the literature, Cu-ZSM-5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the acidity of the catalyst. The second part of the work was an in-depth FTIR study of the NO decomposition mechanism on the catalyst. This was planned as the first and the key step to obtain an understanding of the reaction mechanism. Key surface intermediates were identified from the FTIR spectra, and a redox type Eley-Rideal mechanism was proposed for the NO decomposition on this catalyst. This report will be divided into two parts. In Part One, we report results on the catalytic activities of the Cu-alumina-pillared clay and a direct comparison with other known catalysts. In Part two, we focus on the FTIR study and from the results, we propose a NO decomposition mechanism on this new catalyst. Plans for the next six months include tests of different pillared clays as well as the catalytic mechanism. The micro reactor will continue to be the key equipment for measuring the catalytic activities. FTIR will continue to be the major technique for identifying surface species and hence understanding the reaction mechanism.

  12. The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over tetraamminecopper (II) complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oates, Margaret Deron

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Jack H. Lunsford The catalytic activity of tetraamminecopper(II) complexes in aque- ous solution in the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia nas been in- vestigated. Kinetic data for the nitric oxide reduction reaction were determined in a closed... circulating system. Electron paramagnetic reso- spectroscopy was used to determine the zelative quantity of copper in the +2 oxidation state at different temperatures. A reaction mechanism is proposed from these experimental investigations in order...

  13. Testability Transformation --Program Transformation to Improve Testability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binkley, David W.

    Testability Transformation -- Program Transformation to Improve Testability Mark Harman1 , Andr, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, UK. Corresponding Author. Abstract. Testability transformation. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming a program to one that is more amenable

  14. Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Jeremy

    Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability An Overview of Recent Author. Abstract. Testability transformation is a new form of program transfor- mation in which the goal to some chosen test adequacy criterion. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming

  15. Behavior of chars from Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca Lignite (Turkey) during non-catalytic and catalytic gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozkurt, Y.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactivities of chars obtained by pyrolysis of Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut lignite and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca lignite (Turkey) at different temperatures were determined by CO{sub 2} gasification and by combustion with O{sub 2}. Catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gasification reactivity of chars was investigated. Gasification tests were performed in the fixed bed reactors operating at ambient pressure. Reactivity of chars during the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions was determined by calculating the reaction rate constants and reactivity of chars during the O{sub 2} gasification was determined by using ignition temperatures of the samples. Activation energies and Arrhenius constants of the chars on the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions were also calculated by the help of Arrhenius curves. The activation energy for CO{sub 2} gasification was generally decreased with pyrolysis temperature, due to the different surface characteristics and different nature of carbon atoms gasified as the gasification reactions proceed. Generally, the increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an increase in gasification reactivity with CO{sub 2}. The reactivity of chars in catalytic gasification was higher than the corresponding non-catalytic reactivity of the same chars. Ignition temperature increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  16. Method and apparatus for a catalytic firebox reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance L. (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Ulkarim, Hasan (Hamden, CT); Castaldi, Marco J. (Bridgeport, CT); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic firebox reactor employing an exothermic catalytic reaction channel and multiple cooling conduits for creating a partially reacted fuel/oxidant mixture. An oxidation catalyst is deposited on the walls forming the boundary between the multiple cooling conduits and the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, on the side of the walls facing the exothermic catalytic reaction channel. This configuration allows the oxidation catalyst to be backside cooled by any fluid passing through the cooling conduits. The heat of reaction is added to both the fluid in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel and the fluid passing through the cooling conduits. After discharge of the fluids from the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, the fluids mix to create a single combined flow. A further innovation in the reactor incorporates geometric changes in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel to provide streamwise variation of the velocity of the fluids in the reactor.

  17. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuelóbio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  18. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  19. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  20. Analyzing Signals Fourier transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweldens, Wim

    Page 1 1 Analyzing Signals Fourier transform s frequency content s linear combination of sin frequency analysis s windowed Fourier transform 6 #12;Page 4 7 Gabor Transform function to analyze window Gabor Transform Spatial domain Gabor domain b #12;Page 5 9 Gabor Transform Problems s discrete version

  1. The complexity of catalytically "cracking" cellulose | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, transforming bio-feedstock into fuels means quickly and efficiently removing oxygen atoms. World energy consumption is predicted to grow by more than 50 percent between...

  2. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  3. Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohol via Nickel Phosphine Complexes with Pendant Amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Das, Partha Pratim; Higgins, Deanna LM; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel complexes were prepared with diphosphine ligands that contain pendant amines, and these complexes catalytically oxidize primary and secondary alcohols to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these prospective electrocatalysts were performed to understand what influences the catalytic activity. For the oxidation of diphenylmethanol, the catalytic rates were determined to be dependent on the concentration of both the catalyst and the alcohol. The catalytic rates were found to be independent of the concentration of base and oxidant. The incorporation of pendant amines to the phosphine ligand results in substantial increases in the rate of alcohol oxidation with more electron-donating substituents on the pendant amine exhibiting the fastest rates. We thank Dr. John C. Linehan, Dr. Elliott B. Hulley, Dr. Jonathan M. Darmon, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Tyson for helpful discussions. Research by CJW, PD, DLM, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Research by MLH was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  4. GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobler, Waldo

    GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation Waldo Tobler Geography Department University, line, area, or field phenomena, then the sixteen common classes of transformation are: point -> point (scalar, vector, tensor) data, to obtain eighty distinct possible classes of transformation. The common

  5. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  6. Catalytic Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether. Catalytic Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether. Abstract:...

  7. Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an individual catalytic nanoparticle while reactions are occurring. Catalysts are used in manufacturing everything from stain remover to rocket fuel; they make production more...

  8. Improved Low-Temperature Performance of Catalytic Converters...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalytic converters, installed on vehicles with internal combustion and diesel engines, convert the toxic byproducts of combustion to less toxic compounds. In two-way (lean...

  9. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  10. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

  11. The Effects of Trace Contaminants on Catalytic Processing of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing of Biomass-Derived Feedstocks . Abstract: Trace components in biomass feedstocks are potential catalyst poisons when catalytically processing these materials to...

  12. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. has conducted a series of eleven catalytic, multi-stage, liquefaction (CMSL) bench scale runs between February, 1991, and September, 1995. The purpose of these runs was to investigate novel approaches to liquefaction relating to feedstocks, hydrogen source, improved catalysts as well as processing variables, all of which are designed to lower the cost of producing coal-derived liquid products. This report summarizes the technical assessment of these runs, and in particular the evaluation of the economic impact of the results.

  13. Thin film porous membranes for catalytic sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.C.; Boyle, T.J.; Gardner, T.J. [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on new and surprising experimental data for catalytic film gas sensing resistors coated with nanoporous sol-gel films to impart selectivity and durability to the sensor structure. This work is the result of attempts to build selectivity and reactivity to the surface of a sensor by modifying it with a series of sol-gel layers. The initial sol-gel SiO{sub 2} layer applied to the sensor surprisingly showed enhanced O{sub 2} interaction with H{sub 2} and reduced susceptibility to poisons such as H{sub 2}S.

  14. Catalytic Solutions Inc CSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSLInformationMissouri:Catalyst Regeneration MarketCatalytic

  15. BioCatalytics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher Homes JumpMaintenance |BigBigLakeBioCatalytics

  16. transformation languages Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    transformation languages Introduction Transformation languages are widely used for to process can I change / transform the design of a certain task without changing it's logic The common/and hierarchical or/and abstract set of information. It can even be a stream of data. · The transformation engine

  17. Learning Transformations From Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ching Ming

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Natural Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Learning Continuous Transformation from VideoProposed Video Coder

  18. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  19. Correlations between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Progress report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.W.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary focus of this research is to address those issues which are keys to understanding the relationship between surface properties and catalytic activity/selectivity. These issues also impact the understanding of the origins of the enhanced catalytic properties of mixed-metal catalysts. The experimental approach utilizes a microcatalytic reactor contiguous to a surface analysis system, an arrangement which allows in vacuo transfer of the catalyst from one chamber to the other. Surface techniques being used include Auger (AES), ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy (STM and AFM). This research program builds upon previous experience relating the results of single crystal kinetic measurements with the results obtained with supported analogs. As well, the authors are exploiting recent work on the preparation, the characterization, and the determination of the catalytic properties of ultra-thin metal and metal oxide films. Specifically, the program is proceeding toward three goals: (1) the study of the unique catalytic properties of ultrathin metal films; (2) the investigation of the critical ensemble size requirements for principal catalytic reaction types; and (3) the modelling of supported catalysts using ultra-thin planar oxide surfaces.

  20. Correlations between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.W.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to address the keys to understanding the relation between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Of concern are questions related to enhanced catalytic properties of mixed-metal catalysts and critical active site requirements for molecular synthesis and rearrangement. The experimental approach utilizes a microcatalytic reactor contiguous to a surface analysis system, an arrangement which allows in vacuo transfer of the catalyst from one chamber to the other. Surface techniques being used include Auger (AES), UV and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Our research program builds upon our previous experience relating the results of single crystal kinetic measurements with the results obtained with supported analogs. As well we are exploiting our recent work on the preparation, the characterization, and the determination of the catalytic properties of ultra-thin metal and metal oxide films. The program is proceeding toward the study of the unique catalytic properties of ultrathin metal films; the investigation of the critical ensemble size requirements for principal catalytic reaction types; and the modelling of supported catalysts using ultra-thin planar oxide surfaces.

  1. Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    NOx - 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;NOx - 2 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST INTRODUCTION Automobile engines

  2. Perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fengli Yan; Ting Gao; Zhichao Yan

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The perfect NOT transformation, probabilistic perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation are studied. Perfect NOT transformation criteria on a quantum state set $S$ of a qubit are obtained. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for realizing a perfect NOT transformation on $S$ are derived. When these conditions are not satisfied we discuss a probabilistic perfect NOT transformation (gate). We construct a probabilistic perfect NOT machine (gate) by a general unitary-reduction operation. With a postselection of the measurement outcomes, the probabilistic NOT gate yields perfectly complements of the input states. We prove that one can realize probabilistically the NOT gate of the input states secretly chosen from a certain set $S=\\{|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,..., |\\Psi_n>\\}$ if and only if $|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,...,$ and $|\\Psi_n>$ are linearly independent. We also generalize the probabilistic NOT transformation to the conjugate transformation in the multi-level quantum system. The lower bound of the best possible efficiencies attained by a probabilistic perfect conjugate transformation are obtained.

  3. Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates for structured catalytic reactors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for structured catalytic reactors. Thierry Giornelli, Axel Löfberg* and Elisabeth Bordes-Richard Unité de.Lofberg@univ-lille1.fr Abstract The parameters to be controlled to coat metallic walls by VOx/TiO2 catalysts which) was chosen because of its large application in industrial catalytic reactors. TiO2 films on stainless steel

  4. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  5. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  6. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  7. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  8. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  9. Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

  10. Catalytic cracking of residual petroleum fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, H.F.; Mayo, S.L.; Goolsby, T.L. (Research and Development Dept., Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on Arabian Light crude oil vacuum bottoms fractionated into five high-boiling fractions by wiped film evaporation, and the fractions subjected to catalytic cracking in a fixed-fluidized bed using a commercial equilibrium cracking catalyst. Density, aromaticity, and heteroatom content generally increased with boiling point, as did metals content except for vanadium and iron which demonstrated possible bimodal distributions. The cracking response of these fractions showed increasing yields of dry gas and coke, with decreasing gasoline yields, as a function of increasing apparent boiling point as would normally be expected. Surprisingly, however, local maxima were observed for wet gas yield and total conversion, with local minima for cycle oil and slurry yields, in the region of the 1200-1263{degrees}F (650-680{degrees}C) middle fraction. All fractions showed significant response to cracking, with coke yields generally being the only negative factor observed.

  11. Metrics for enterprise transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

  12. Heat transfer rates in fixed bed catalytic reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levelton, Bruce Harding

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX DB DNCLR YFNOAXa rRJRuSIX nSeR 1951i HssNIJFu FT SI TSBuR FXO LIXSRXS NRLIeeRXOROt HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX BSar DNCLR YFNOAXa r...RJRuSIX June 1951 HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  13. Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Afshar Farniya; Maria J. Esplandiu; Adrian Bachtold

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

  14. Evaluating Transformer Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grun, R. L. Jr.

    therefore are a function of the load squared. No-load losses occur from energizing the transformer steel and fore are continuous regardless of the transformer load. TRANSFORMER DESIGN Both types of losses are a fun ce here ion of design. If losses...

  15. Spacetime transformation acoustics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. GarcŪa-Meca; S. Carloni; C. Barcelů; G. Jannes; J. SŠnchez-Dehesa; A. MartŪnez

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently proposed analogue transformation method has allowed the extension of transformation acoustics to general spacetime transformations. We analyze here in detail the differences between this new analogue transformation acoustics (ATA) method and the standard one (STA). We show explicitly that STA is not suitable for transformations that mix space and time. ATA takes as starting point the acoustic equation for the velocity potential, instead of that for the pressure as in STA. This velocity-potential equation by itself already allows for some transformations mixing space and time, but not all of them. We explicitly obtain the entire set of transformations that do not leave its form invariant. It is in these cases that ATA shows its true potential, allowing for building a transformation acoustics method that enables the full range of spacetime transformations. We provide an example of an important transformation which cannot be achieved with STA. Using this transformation, we design and simulate an acoustic frequency converter via the ATA approach. Furthermore, in those cases in which one can apply both the STA and ATA approaches, we study the different transformational properties of the corresponding physical quantities.

  16. LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    Chapter 6 LAPPED TRANSFORMS FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION Ricardo L. de Queiroz Digital Imaging Technology aspects of lapped transforms and their applications to image compression. It is a subject that has been extensively studied mainly because lapped transforms are closely related to filter banks, wavelets, and time

  17. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In vitro selection for DNAzymes that are catalytically active with UO22+ ions as the metal cofactor has been completed. The 10th generation pool of DNA was cloned and sequenced. A total of 84 clones were sequenced and placed into families based on sequence alignments. Selected members of each family were 5-labeled with 32P and amplified using PCR. Activity assays were conducted using the isotopically labeled DNAzymes in order to determine which sequences were the most active. The secondary structures of the two most active sequences, called Clone 13 and Clone 39, were determined using the computer program Mfold. A cleavage rate of approximately 1 min-1 in the presence of 10 uM UO22+ was observed for both clones. Clone 39 was determined to be the best candidate for truncation to create a trans-cleaving DNAzyme, based on its secondary structure. An enzyme strand, called 39E, and a substrate strand, called 39DS, were designed by truncating the cis-cleaving DNAzyme. An alternative enzyme strand, called 39Ec, was also assayed with the 39DS substrate. This strand was designed so that the two binding arms were perfectly complimentary, unlike 39E, which formed three mismatched base pairs with 39DS. Both 39E and 39Ec were found to be active, with a rate of approximately 1 min-1 in the presence of 10 uM UO22+. A preliminary UO22+ binding curve was obtained for the 39Ec/39DS trans-cleaving system. The enzyme is active with UO22+ concentrations as low as 1 nM. Based on the preliminary binding curve data, the apparent UO22+ binding constant is approximately 330 nM, and kmax is approximately 1 min-1.

  18. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  19. Encapsulation of Metal Clusters within MFI via Interzeolite Transformations and Direct Hydrothermal Syntheses and Catalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    with the retention of encapsulated clusters. Clusters uniform in size (1.3-1.7 nm) and exposing clean and accessible into MFI. Encapsulation selectivities, deter- mined from the relative hydrogenation rates of small (toluene

  20. Li?0? in Li-0? batteries : catalytic enhancement of electrochemical oxidation and thermophysical transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Koffi Pierre (Koffi Pierre Claver)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrification of transportation in the United States is of importance in reducing dependence on foreign oil and curtailing global warming. However, optimal market penetration of electric vehicles is confronted with the ...

  1. Catalytic Transformation of Waste CO{sub 2} into Valuable Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Jason; Shepard, Peter; Valente, Ron

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Novomerís novel materials contain up to 50% by mass CO{sub 2} and provide a unique platform for re-using CO{sub 2} from waste industrial sources and converting it into useful products. This Report covers the progress made by Novomer during the DOE funded project (DOE Award #: DE-FE0002474) under the ďCarbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO{sub 2} UseĒ program. This includes Phase 1 and Phase 2, including all three subphases of the latter. Novomer completed all technical and commercial objectives in both Phase 1 and Phase 2, including the six Phase 2 Objectives outlined in the SOPO within budget by the project end date of September 30, 2013. These are: validating the economics are competitive, validate the carbon footprint, validate acceptable product performance, verify robust manufacturing process, validate large markets exist, and qualify at least 3 products with customers.

  2. Catalytic Transformation of C7-C9 Methyl Benzenes over USY-based FCC Zeolite Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    in the petrochemical market. Most of the currently working isomerization plants are using zeolite based catalysts. One) and the diphenyl methane mechanism. It was shown that toluene disproportionation does not require BrŲnsted acid

  3. Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic Mechanism of Methane and Toluene Monooxygenases Friday, June 22, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL Main Conference Room 137-322 Prof....

  4. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  5. Emerging catalytic processes for the production of adipic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Vyver, Stijn

    Research efforts to find more sustainable pathways for the synthesis of adipic acid have led to the introduction of new catalytic processes for producing this commodity chemical from alternative resources. With a focus on ...

  6. Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salinas, S. Adriana

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used...

  7. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  8. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

  9. atp catalytic domain: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 328 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  10. acidic multimetallic catalytic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 106 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  11. automobile catalytic converters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Odei 2006-01-01 408 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  12. atp catalytic cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 275 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  13. advanced catalytic hydrogenation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 188 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  14. apparent catalytic site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 257 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  15. advanced catalytic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 225 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  16. acrylamide catalytically inhibits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 78 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  17. assisted catalytic oxidation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 251 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  18. active catalytic sites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 337 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  19. atpase catalytic domain: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 266 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  20. advanced catalytic materials 1996: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 467 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  1. archaeal primase catalytic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 92 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  2. advanced catalytic science: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 488 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  3. Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Although Pd-Au high-surface area catalysts are used in industry to improve activity and selectivity, a thorough understanding of the nature of these enhancements is lacking. A molecular-level understanding of catalytic ...

  4. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores a novel application of catalytic membrane reactors for high- purity hydrogen extraction from bioethanol reforming. Conventional membrane systems employ hydrogen permselective materials such as palladium, polymer membranes...

  5. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Tobin Jay [Northwestern University

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  6. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  9. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 Ė 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and catalytic properties of {alpha}- and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Guangsheng, E-mail: daqingcgs@163.com [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China); Su, Ling; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Li, Hui [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One-dimensional {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} single-crystalline nanostructures were prepared by hydrothermal process. The products were characterized in detail by multiform techniques: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that the temperature plays important roles in determining produce {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods. In addition, the as-prepared {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods showed excellent catalytic performance in the Fenton-like reaction.

  11. Large power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsai, K.; Kerenyi, D.; Kiss, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book deals with the following aspects of transformer engineering: general principles governing the function of transformers, iron cores, windings, stray losses caused by stray flux, the insulation of transformers, and the structural parts and accessories. This edition includes the developments in theory and practice on the basis of the authors' experience in design, manufacturing and testing of large transformers. New developments have been particularly extensive in the fields of new magnetic materials, cooling methods, dielectric strength for overvoltages of different types, and stray-load loss problems, which are presented in the book in detail. The many diagrams in the book can be used directly in the design, manufacture and testing of large transformers. In preparing their text, the authors have aimed to satisfy the demand for a work that summarizes the latest experience in development and design of large power transformers.

  12. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  13. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  14. Grid Transformation Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-03-Grid-Transformation-Workshop Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  15. An approach to catalytic asymmetric electrocyclization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kothari, Abhishek

    2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    3.4 Solid state conformation 56 3.5 Synthesis of mixed oligomers 57 3.5.1 Synthesis of mixed dimer 57 vi 3.5.2 Synthesis of mixed tetramer 58 3.6 Structural assignments & investigation of conformations 59 3.7 Cyclopropane... to trigger these cyclizations, which disfavours the use of this elegant and efficient transformation in the synthesis of complex and delicate molecules. Thus, it is important to investigate systems with a lower energy barrier to hexatriene electrocyclization...

  16. Effect of surface structure on catalytic reactions: A sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCrea, Keith R.

    2001-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In the results discussed above, it is clear that Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is a unique tool that allows the detection of vibrational spectra of adsorbed molecules present on single crystal surfaces under catalytic reaction conditions. Not only is it possible to detect active surface intermediates, it is also possible to detect spectator species which are not responsible for the measured turnover rates. By correlating high-pressure SFG spectra under reaction conditions and gas chromatography (GC) kinetic data, it is possible to determine which species are important under reaction intermediates. Because of the flexibility of this technique for studying surface intermediates, it is possible to determine how the structures of single crystal surfaces affect the observed rates of catalytic reactions. As an example of a structure insensitive reaction, ethylene hydrogenation was explored on both Pt(111) and Pt(100). The rates were determined to be essentially the same. It was observed that both ethylidyne and di-{sigma} bonded ethylene were present on the surface under reaction conditions on both crystals, although in different concentrations. This result shows that these two species are not responsible for the measured turnover rate, as it would be expected that one of the two crystals would be more active than the other, since the concentration of the surface intermediate would be different on the two crystals. The most likely active intermediates are weakly adsorbed molecules such as {pi}-bonded ethylene and ethyl. These species are not easily detected because their concentration lies at the detection limit of SFG. The SFG spectra and GC data essentially show that ethylene hydrogenation is structure insensitive for Pt(111) and Pt(100). SFG has proven to be a unique and excellent technique for studying adsorbed species on single crystal surfaces under high-pressure catalytic reactions. Coupled with kinetic data obtained from gas chromatography measurements, it can give much insight into how the structure of a single crystal surface affects the chemistry of a catalytic reaction by detecting surface species under reaction conditions.

  17. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  18. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  19. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  20. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  1. IN SITU INFRARED STUDY OF CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF NO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KHALID ALMUSAITEER; RAM KRISHNAMURTHY; STEVEN S.C. CHUANG

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing concerns for the environment and increasingly stringent standards for NO emission have presented a major challenge to control NO emissions from electric utility plants and automobiles. Catalytic decomposition of NO is the most attractive approach for the control of NO emission for its simplicity. Successful development of an effective catalyst for NO decomposition will greatly decrease the equipment and operation cost of NO control. Due to lack of understanding of the mechanism of NO decomposition, efforts on the search of an effective catalyst have been unsuccessful. Scientific development of an effective catalyst requires fundamental understanding of the nature of active site, the rate-limiting step, and an approach to prolong the life of the catalyst. Research is proposed to study the reactivity of adsorbates for the direct NO decomposition and to investigate the feasibility of two novel approaches for improving catalyst activity and resistance to sintering. The first approach is the use of silanation to stabilize metal crystallites and supports for Cu-ZSM-5 and promoted Pt catalysts; the second is utilization of oxygen spillover and desorption to enhance NO decomposition activity. An innovative infrared reactor system will be used to observe and determine the dynamic behavior and the reactivity of adsorbates during NO decomposition, oxygen spillover, and silanation. A series of experiments including X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, temperature programmed reaction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be used to characterized the catalysts. The information obtained from this study will provide a scientific basis for developing an effective catalyst for the NO decomposition under practical flue gas conditions.

  2. Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komarek, Arnost

    Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response Often, support S of Y is S = (0, ). Logarithm is then one of transformations to consider when trying to obtain a correct (wrong. Model Building 1. Transformation of response #12;Logarithmic transformation of response When does

  3. Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing Transformation Systems Jonne van Wijngaarden Eelco Visser UU-CS-2003-048 Institute Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing

  4. IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES Imagined Transformations TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract A number of spatial reasoning problems can be solved by performing an imagined transformation of one's egocentric perspective. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize

  5. A discrete fractional random transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhengjun Liu; Haifa Zhao; Shutian Liu

    2006-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  6. Novel Fast Pyrolysis/Catalytic Technology for the Production of Stable Upgraded Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Oyama, Foster Agblevor, Francine Battaglia, Michael Klein

    2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is the demonstration and development of a novel biomass pyrolysis technology for the production of a stable bio-oil. The approach is to carry out catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and upgrading together with pyrolysis in a single fluidized bed reactor with a unique two-level design that permits the physical separation of the two processes. The hydrogen required for the HDO will be generated in the catalytic section by the water-gas shift reaction employing recycled CO produced from the pyrolysis reaction itself. Thus, the use of a reactive recycle stream is another innovation in this technology. The catalysts will be designed in collaboration with BASF Catalysts LLC (formerly Engelhard Corporation), a leader in the manufacture of attrition-resistant cracking catalysts. The proposed work will include reactor modeling with state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics in a supercomputer, and advanced kinetic analysis for optimization of bio-oil production. The stability of the bio-oil will be determined by viscosity, oxygen content, and acidity determinations in real and accelerated measurements. A multi-faceted team has been assembled to handle laboratory demonstration studies and computational analysis for optimization and scaleup.

  7. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCLģ) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCLģ injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  8. The backflow cell model for fluidized bed catalytic reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, E. V

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE BACKFLOW CELL MODEL FOR FLUIDI2ED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS A Thesis By E. V. Ganapathy Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of' the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1967... Major Subject Chemical En ineerin THE BACKFLOW CELL MODEL FOR FLUIDIZED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS A Thesis E. V. Ganapathy Approved as to style and content by: chairman of Committee ~H+d d D p t t Member Member) May 1967 SO THE BACKFLOW CELL...

  9. Lorentz transformation by mimicking the Lorentz transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that starting with the fact that special relativity theory is concerned with a distortion of the observed length of a moving rod, without mentioning if it is a "contraction" or "dilation", we can derive the Lorentz transformations for the spacetime coordinates of the same event. This derivation is based on expressing the length of the moving rod as a sum of components with all the lengths involved in this summation being measured by the observers of the same inertial reference frame.

  10. Applying Improved Efficiency Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, N. K.; Malone, T. P.

    primary and secondary windings, and vary significantly with transformer loading. Load or conductor losses vary with the square of the per unit load. Average full load losses of a 1500 kVA transformer can range from 11 to 21 kW. Manufacturers can... to meet the requirements of a particular transformer specification. These designs will have varying amounts of core steel and copper or aluminum conductors with differing no-load and load losses. The lowest cost design that meets all the applicable...

  11. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  12. Continued investigations of the catalytic reduction of N? to NH? by molybdenum triamidoamine complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanna, Brian S. (Brian Stewart)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the effects of employing different solvents and the introduction of dihydrogen during the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia with [HIPTN 3N]Mo complexes was completed. During a catalytic reaction, the ...

  13. Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

  14. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using...

  15. Transforming California's Freight Transport System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Transforming California's Freight Transport System Policy Forum on the Role of Freight Transport Standard #12;2050 Vision- Key Conceptual Outcomes Technology Transformation Early Action Cleaner Combustion Multiple Strategies Federal Action Efficiency Gains Energy Transformation 9 #12;Further reduce localized

  16. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  17. Aluminosilicates as controlled molecular environments for selective photochemical and catalytic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrado, K.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation concerns research that involves photochemical, catalytic and spectroscopic studies of clays, pillared clays and zeolites. Incorporation of uranyl ions into hectorite, montmorillonite, bentonite and vermiculite clays was monitored by XRD and luminescence methods. Excitation and emission characteristics were studied in order to understand the behavior of uranyl ions in clays after various thermal treatments. Luminescence lifetime measurements elucidated the number of uranyl sites. Uranyl-exchanged clays were found to absorb light at lower energies (445-455nm) than analogous uranyl-exchanged zeolites (425nm). Each uranyl-exchanged clay was tested as a catalyst for the photoassisted oxidation of isopropyl alcohol. Energy transfer (ET) between uranyl and Eu(III) ions in different zeolite framework systems was examined. The efficiency of ET (eta/sub t/) was found to be affected by the type of framework present. Pillared bentonites were examined in the hydrocracking of decane. A catalytically and spectroscopically active dopant ion, Cr(III), was introduced into the clays in both pillared and unpillared forms depending upon synthetic conditions. EPR and DRS were employed to monitor the environment of Cr(III) for determination of its location - whether in the micropore structure or associated with alumina pillars. Catalytic behavior based upon this variability of location was examined. Incorporation of Cr(III) ions into an alumina pillar was found to increase the stability and activity with respect to an alumina PILC catalyst. The results of these studies suggest that selective, efficient catalysts can be designed around inorganic ions in aluminosilicate supports.

  18. Final Report: Catalytic Hydrocarbon Reactions over Supported Metal Oxides, August 1, 1995 - July 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, John G.

    1999-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research program focused on the catalysis of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) over molybdenum-based catalysts and how catalyst composition, redox ability, structure and neighboring sites control the catalytic properties of metal oxides. We sought to understand the catalytic features/sites that control hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and isomerization during HDS. Unprompted silica-supported molybdenum oxides and molybdenum sulfides were studied. Model catalyst systems were prepared from organometallic precursors or cluster compounds to generate supported structures that feature Mo(II) and Mo(IV) cations that are isolated or in ensembles and that have either Mo-O or Mo-S bonds. Conventional MOS{sub 2} catalysts, which contain both edge and rim sites, were be studied. Finally, single-layer MOS{sub 2} structures were also prepared from 2H-MoS{sub 2} powder so that the model systems could be compared against a disulfide catalyst that only involves rim sites. Catalytic reactions for thiophene and tetrahydrothione were studied over the various catalysts. Oxidation states were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray crystallography was used to characterize and follow changes in the MOS{sub 2} structures. The program on metal oxides prepared supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state to serve as model templates for the more complex commercial catalysts and then employed these structures in reaction studies. This focus area examined the relationships between structure and cation redox characteristics in oxidation catalysis. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the cations and reaction intermediates.

  19. The Quantum Mellin transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Twamley; G. J. Milburn

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We uncover a new type of unitary operation for quantum mechanics on the half-line which yields a transformation to ``Hyperbolic phase space''. We show that this new unitary change of basis from the position x on the half line to the Hyperbolic momentum $p_\\eta$, transforms the wavefunction via a Mellin transform on to the critial line $s=1/2-ip_\\eta$. We utilise this new transform to find quantum wavefunctions whose Hyperbolic momentum representation approximate a class of higher transcendental functions, and in particular, approximate the Riemann Zeta function. We finally give possible physical realisations to perform an indirect measurement of the Hyperbolic momentum of a quantum system on the half-line.

  20. Transformation inverse design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, David

    We present a new technique for the design of transformation-optics devices based on large-scale optimization to achieve the optimal effective isotropic dielectric materials within prescribed index bounds, which is ...

  1. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  2. Interacting FisherWright Diffusions in a Catalytic Medium Andreas Greven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klenke, Achim

    environment (catalytic medium). Here we introduce a model of interacting Fisher­Wright diffusions where environment, catalytic medium, longtime behaviour, rescaling. AMS Subject Classification: 60K35, 60J70Interacting Fisher­Wright Diffusions in a Catalytic Medium Andreas Greven Mathematisches Institut

  3. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has a important function

  4. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function

  5. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); McLean, Joseph B. (So. Somerville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

  6. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  7. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  8. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  9. Catalytic, Enantioselective Alkylations of N,O-Acetals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lectka, Thomas

    , 10998-10999. (2) Hoveyda et al. have developed a Ni-catalyzed alkylation reaction of allylic acetalsCatalytic, Enantioselective Alkylations of N,O-Acetals Dana Ferraris, Travis Dudding, Brandon Young alkylation reactions of acetals have attained a prominent position in organic synthesis.1 Methods employing

  10. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Hydroxy Enol Ethers: Approach to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Patrick J.

    for the generation of polypro- pionate backbone.1-7 In contrast, the asymmetric acetate aldol reaction that leads associated with acetate aldol reactions have prompted investigations into alternative methods to generate the catalytic asymmetric allylation of aldehydes followed by oxidative cleavage of the allyl group (Scheme 1, A

  11. Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Roger L.

    Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC) MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDUES WITHIN THE ACTIVE SITE AND HYDROPHOBIC RIDGE OF PLC 1* (Received for publication, November 20, 1997 Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, United Kingdom Structural studies of phospholipase C 1 (PLC

  12. Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature or time. In addition, micropores were observed in char that was made in CO2, but not in char, but sintering was not observed during gasification with CO2. This showed that the properties of char depend catalytically or thermally. However, thermal decomposition requires high temperatures, and catalyst deactivation

  13. Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis was to study the relative merits (or liabilities) of these two catalysts in coal char gasification. This work

  14. Structural Dynamics of a Catalytic Monolayer Probed by Ultrafast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    REPORTS Structural Dynamics of a Catalytic Monolayer Probed by Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echoes in solutions. Here, we extend the technique to probing the interfacial dynamics and structure of a silica. The structural dynamics, as reported on by a carbonyl stretch vibration of the surface-bound complex, have

  15. Early diagenetic transformations of peat Original research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    Early diagenetic transformations of peat Original research Organic matter sources and decay;KEY WORDS: bioindicators - carbohydrates - labile organic matter - peat botanical composition to the fate of organic matter (OM) in the underlying peat. Our aims were to determine how moisture conditions

  16. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL¬ģ) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE‚??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL¬ģ concept were demonstrated: RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot and Full RCL¬ģ. The RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL¬ģ pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL¬ģ combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL¬ģ designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL¬ģ catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL¬ģ combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

  17. Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.

  18. From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering approach. In this paper we are interested in semi-automatically gen- erating labelled graph (model) transformations conform to a particu- lar syntax (meta-model). Those transformations are basic operations in model driven

  19. Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikenaga, Bruce

    9≠28≠1998 Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator F (s) = Z b a K(s; t)f(t) dt: The input to the transform is the function f(t); the output is the function F (s). (By convention, small letters denote the inputs to a transform, and the corresponding capital letters denote the corresponding

  20. APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Transforms, Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callen, James D.

    APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Appendix F Transforms, Complex Analysis This appendix discusses Fourier and Laplace transforms as they are used in plasma physics and this book. Also, key properties of complex variable theory that are needed for understanding and inverting these transforms

  1. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  2. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are presented for the autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene and benzene solutions of naphthalene. The tests were run at atmospheric pressure and at moderately high reactant preheat temperatures in the 800-900 K range. Carbon formation lines were determined for paraffinic and aromatic liquids. Profiles were determined for axial bed temperature and composition. Space velocity efforts were assessed, and the locations and types of carbon were recorded. Significant reactive differences between hydrocarbons were identified. Carbon formation characteristics were hydrocarbon specific. The differing behavior of paraffinic and aromatic fuels with respect to their carbon formation may be important in explaining the narrow range of carbon-free operating conditions found in the ATR of number two fuel oil.

  3. Obtaining the right large power transformer for a hydro plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemen, D.M. [Harza Engineering Company, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transformer efficiency and reliability are important factors in determining the productivity of a hydroelectric generating plant. A well-supervised testing program can help plant owners and engineers improve the quality of equipment installed at their plant. This paper addresses such a program as applied to the selection of the generator step-up, or main power, transformer at a hydroelectric generating station.

  4. Generalization of Conformal Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. I. Garas'ko

    2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal transformations of a Euclidean (complex) plane have some kind of completeness (sufficiency) for the solution of many mathematical and physical-mathematical problems formulated on this plane. There is no such completeness in the case of Euclidean, pseudo-Euclidean and polynumber spaces of dimension greater than two. In the present paper we show that using the concepts of analogical geometries allows us to generalize conformal transformations not only to the case of Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces, but also to the case of Finsler spaces, analogous to the spaces of affine connectedness. Examples of such transformations in the case of complex and hypercomplex numbers H_4 are presented. In the general case such transformations form a group of transitions, the elements of which can be viewed as transitions between projective Euclidean geometries of a distinguished class fixed by the choice of metric geometry admitting affine coordinates. The correlation between functions realizing generalized conformal transformations and generalized analytical functions can appear to be productive for the solution of fundamental problems in theoretical and mathematical physics.

  5. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  6. Discrete Fourier Transform Javier Montoya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Discrete Fourier Transform Javier Montoya Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ETH Zurich March 16, 2012 1 Introduction The Discrete form of the Fourier transform is known as Discrete Fourier Transform domain using the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT): f(x) = 1 N N-1 x=0 F(u)ej 2 N ux for u = 0, 1

  7. Coordinate transformations in quaternion spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zihua Weng

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quaternion spaces can be used to describe the property of electromagnetic field and gravitational field. In the quaternion space, some coordinate transformations can be deduced from the feature of quaternions, including Lorentz transformation and Galilean transformation etc., when the coordinate system is transformed into others. And some coordinate transformations with variable speed of light can be obtained in the electromagnetic field and gravitational field.

  8. Abstract Coordinate Transforms in Kinematic Changeable Sets and their Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya. I. Grushka

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the fundamental postulates of the special relativity theory is existence of a single system of universal coordinate transforms for inertial reference frames, that is coordinate transforms, which are uniquely determined by space-time coordinates of a material point. In this paper the abstract mathematical theory of coordinate transforms in kinematic changeable sets is developed. In particular it is proved the formal possibility of existence of kinematics, which do not allow universal coordinate transforms. Such kinematics may be applied for simulation the evolution of physical systems under the condition of hypothesis on existence of particle-dependent velocity of light.

  9. Student Preferences for Academic Advisors as Transformational Leaders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drozd, Deborah Suzanne

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative study was conducted to determine the preferences of undergraduate students for academic advisors as transformational leaders. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to undergraduate students enrolled in leadership classes at a...

  10. Effects of dispersion and support on adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina Co hydrogenation catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of the effects of surface structure, dispersion, and support on the adsorption, catalytic, and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina is described, the objectives of which were to determine (1) the effects of surface structure and metal dispersion on the adsorption and catalytic properties of cobalt and (2) the effects of direct electronic interactions between metal clusters and support, on the adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt supported on alumina. Effects of surface structure and dispersion on the adsorption, activity/selectivity, and electronic properties of Co/W single crystal surfaces and alumina-supported cobalt were investigated in a surface investigation, lab reactor studies, TPD/TPSR studies, and a Moessbauer spectroscopy study. The structure, stability, surface electronic properties, and chemisorptive properties of vapor-deposited cobalt overlayers (0-4 ML) on W(110) and W(100) were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, work function changes, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of cobalt, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. The CO chemisorptive properties of the two cobalt overlayers are quite different, CO adsorption being dissociative on the W(100) surface and nondissociative on the W(110) surface; comparison of the results with those for Ni/W(100) indicate that Co/W(100) dissociates CO as a result of electronic interaction with the tungsten substrate.

  11. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To give a better understanding of autothermal reforming (ATR), a process which offers an advantageous alternative to steam reforming for H/sub 2/ production for fuel cells because of the wider range of fuels which can be converted, the conversion of individual fuel components was studied. Attempts have been made to characterize the chemical reactions of light and heavy paraffins and aromatics in ATR. Results of studies to determine the effects of operating parameters on the carbon-forming tendency of each hydrocarbon type are reported. The catalyst used for the ATR process was three-layers of supported nickel catalysts, Norton NC-100 spheres in the top zone, cylindrical G-56B tablets in the bottom one, and either ICI 46-I or ICI 46-4 Raschig rings in the middle zone. A summary of the experimental studies of the ATR of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene is presented. (BLM)

  12. Transforming Education at Einstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, Andrew

    Transforming Education at Einstein EinstEin Winter/spring 2012 The Magazine for Alumni and Friends of Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University #12;2 EinstEin : WintEr/spring 2012 Meet Our interactive Companion Magazine Give Einstein's "virtual" version a try! this interactive version

  13. Research Councils UK Transforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berzins, M.

    Research Councils UK Transforming our energy future #12;Research funded by the Research Councils in 2002 to create a viable renewable energy research community to foster industrial engagement of research, expertise and the business capability to develop and exploit them commercially. Energy and its

  14. TO TRANSFORM BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IT'S TIME TO TRANSFORM BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION #12;Charles H. & Bettye Barclay Professor Head, Department of Biomedical Engineering Texas A&M University We're dedicated to solving the world in biomedical engineering research and education ≠ and we're well on our way. Our faculty continues to engineer

  15. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  16. Protocol development for evaluation of commercial catalytic cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.M. Jr.; Moore, H.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A complete, new set of testing protocols has been developed for qualification of catalysts for Ashland's commercial catalytic cracking units. The objective of this test development is to identify new generations of improved cracking catalysts. Prior test protocols have classically utilized microactivity (MAT) testing of steamed virgin catalysts, while more advanced methods have utilized fixed fluid bed and/or circulating pilot units. Each of these techniques, however, have been limited by their correlation to commercial operations, weaknesses in metallation and preparation of pseudo-equilibrium catalysts, and mechanical constraints on the use of heavy, vacuum bottoms-containing feedstocks. These new protocols have been baselined, compared to commercial Ashland results on known catalytic cracking catalysts, and utilized to evaluate a range of potentially new catalyst samples.

  17. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  18. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  19. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  20. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  1. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOEís) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  2. Catalytic membrane reactors for chemicals upgrading and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F. [Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting catalytic membrane reactors are being developed for promoting a number of spontaneous chemical reactions either leading to synthesis of value added products or decomposition of environmental contaminants. The dense non-porous ceramic materials behave as short-circuited electrochemical devices whereby ions (oxygen anions or protons) and electrons become simultaneously mediated for one reaction surface to another. The rationale behind membrane materials selection and specific applications will be discussed.

  3. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  4. Particle contamination levels in oil-filled large power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oommen, T.V.; Petrie, E.M.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of particle levels in transformer oil was conducted, covering about 200 samples taken from field and factory units. Factory samples were included to determine a relative base condition on which to compare field data. Particle distribution curves show size and count relationship in transformers. The particles were studied also by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to measure the content of iron, copper and other common metals expected. Particle analysis can supplement more standard laboratory techniques to judge the condition of oil in operating power transformers. The diagnostic value of such analysis, especially in determining pump performance problems, is illustrated with examples.

  5. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  6. Development of a catalytic partial oxidation ethanol reformer for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, W.L.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Bentley, J.M.; Marek, N.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Arthur D. Little in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs are developing an ethanol fuel processor for fuel cell vehicles. Initial studies were carried out on a 25 kWe catalytic partial oxidation (POX) reformer to determine the effect of equivalence ratio, steam to carbon ratio, and residence time on ethanol conversion. Results of the POX experiments show near equilibrium yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide for an equivalence ratio of 3.0 with a fuel processor efficiency of 80%. The size and weight of the prototype reformer yield power densities of 1.44 l/kW and 1.74 kg/kW at an estimated cost of $20/kW.

  7. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

  8. Crystallographic Snapshots of the Complete Catalytic Cycle of the Unregulated Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K Harris; G Cockrell; D Puleo; E Kantrowitz

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Combining the structural data with in silico docking and electrostatic calculations, we have been able to visualize each step in the catalytic cycle of ATCase, from the ordered binding of the substrates, to the formation and decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate, to the ordered release of the products from the active site. Analysis of the conformational changes associated with these steps provides a rationale for the lack of cooperativity in trimeric ATCases that do not possess regulatory subunits.

  9. Algorithms for transform selection in multiple-transform video compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Xun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selecting proper transforms for video compression has been based on the rate-distortion criterion. Transforms that appear reasonable are incorporated into a video coding system and their performance is evaluated. This ...

  10. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  11. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  12. Efficient Search-Space Pruning for Integrated Fusion and Tiling Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumgartner, Gerald

    Efficient Search-Space Pruning for Integrated Fusion and Tiling Transformations Xiaoyang Gao1-time optimizations involve a number of transformations such as loop permutation, fusion, tiling, array contraction, etc. Determination of the choice of these transformations that minimizes the execution time

  13. Optimal Choice for Number of Strands in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Choice for Number of Strands in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding C. R. Sullivan Found Choice for Number of Strands in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding Charles R. Sullivan Thayer School/inductor Abstract -- The number of strands to minimize loss in a litz-wire transformer winding is determined

  14. FOURIER TRANSFORM MULTIPLE QUANTUM NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drobny, G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of transition observed in Fourier transform multiple quantumDecember 18-19, 1979 FOURIER TRANSFORM MULTIPLE QUANTUM NMRof London, December 1978. FOURIER TRANSFO~~ MULTIPLE QUANTUM

  15. Unanticipated Effects of Epoxy Impregnating Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SANCHEZ,ROBERT O.; ARCHER,WENDEL E.

    2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Many Sandia components for military applications are designed for a 20-year life. In order to determine if magnetic components meet that requirement, the parts are subjected to selected destructive tests. This paper reviews the re-design of a power transformer and the tests required to prove-in the re-design. The re-design included replacing the Epon 828/Mica/methylenedianiline (curing agent Z) epoxy encapsulant with a recent Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) developed epoxy encapsulant. The new encapsulant reduces the Environmental Safety and Health (ES and H) hazards. Life testing of this re-designed transformer generated failures; an open secondary winding. An experimental program to determine the cause of the broken wires and an improved design to eliminate the problem was executed. This design weakness was corrected by reverting to the hazardous epoxy system.

  16. Transformer requirements for the year 2000. Final report, December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this program was to determine the design parameters required for transformers of the year 2000. The approach to meeting this objective was to determine the changes which may occur in transmission and distribution systems over the next twenty years, and how these changes might affect design parameters of distribution and power transformers. Emphasis was placed on domestic requirements, although the impact of international practices was factored into the overall requirements for transformers. Possible investigations that could help transformer designers meet the long term technical requirements of future transformers were also identified. The principal conclusions of this study were: 1200 kV transmission could be in service by the late 1980's and it is essential to develop 1200 kV transformers for these systems; transformer manufacturers must be prepared to supply higher MVA ratings at all voltage levels; there will be a strong demand for low-loss, minimum cost transformers; and environmental/safety, reliability, and size reduction considerations will increase in importance. (LLL)

  17. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the ĖNiĖO- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form ĖO(H)CH2CH2Ė (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The ĖO(H)CH2CH2Ė, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a ĖOCH2CH2Ė oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the ĖNiĖO rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

  18. Generalized Transforms and Special Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Dattoli; E. Sabia

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the properties of different type of transforms by means of operational methods and discuss the relevant interplay with many families of special functions. We consider in particular the binomial transform and its generalizations. A general method, based on the use of the Fourier transform technique, is proposed for the study of the properties of functions of operators.

  19. Renormalization Group Transformation for the Wave Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanae El Hattab; Janos Polonyi

    1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem considered here is the determination of the hamiltonian of a first quantized nonrelativistic particle by the help of some measurements of the location with a finite resolution. The resulting hamiltonian depends on the resolution of the measuring device. This dependence is reproduced by the help of a blocking transformation on the wave function. The systems with quadratic hamiltonian are studied in details. The representation of the renormalization group in the space of observables is identified.

  20. Scaling Issues of Micro Catalytic Reactors Tzong-Shyng Leu1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    combustor, Microscale combustion, Power MEMS Abstract. Micro catalytic combustors are studied experimentally thermal management. For example, "Swiss Roll" [4] and multi-quartz tubes[5] utilized insulated conditions

  1. A Simple Approach of Tuning Catalytic Activity of MFI-Zeolites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Catalysts via First Principles (Agreement ID:10635) Catalysts via First Principles Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons...

  2. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of synthesis gas employing a catalytic membrane reactor wherein the membrane comprises a mixed metal oxide material.

  3. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close...

  4. Method and apparatus for decoupled thermo-catalytic pollution control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim Z.; Martin, Eric

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for design and scale-up of thermocatalytic processes is disclosed. The method is based on optimizing process energetics by decoupling of the process energetics from the DRE for target contaminants. The technique is applicable to high temperature thermocatalytic reactor design and scale-up. The method is based on the implementation of polymeric and other low-pressure drop support for thermocatalytic media as well as the multifunctional catalytic media in conjunction with a novel rotating fluidized particle bed reactor.

  5. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  6. Method for low temperature catalytic production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a process for the catalytic production of a hydrogen feed by exposing a hydrogen feed to a catalyst which promotes a base-catalyzed water-gas-shift reaction in a liquid phase. The hydrogen feed can be provided by any process known in the art of making hydrogen gas. It is preferably provided by a process that can produce a hydrogen feed for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The step of exposing the hydrogen feed takes place preferably from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C.

  7. Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirstchampions,Department ofConversionCatalytic

  8. New Developments in Titania-Based Catalysts for Selective Catalytic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |EnergyNew CatalyticDemands on Heavy

  9. Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Progress report, April 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. Our approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. Our current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. Oxide catalysis can be a complex process with both metal cation and oxygen anions participating in the chemical reactions. From an energy perspective carbon-carbon bond formation is particularly relevant to CO hydrogenation in isosynthesis. Hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation form the basis for heteroatom removal in fuels processing. Understanding the catalysis of these processes (and others) requires isolating reaction steps in the overall cycle and determining how structure and composition influence the individual reaction steps. Specially designed oxides, such as we use, permit one to study some of the steps in oxidation, carbon-carbon coupling and heteroatom removal catalysis. During the course of our studies we have: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by methathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

  10. Market Transformation Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & GasTechnical Publications ¬Ľ Market Analysis Transformation

  11. Transforming Commercial Building Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenter Gets People Work,Amy Hollander: I'dTransforming

  12. Pressure Induced Structural Transformation in Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in determining the pressure induced phase transformation. Citation: Xiao HY, and WJ Weber.2011."Pressure Induced Structural Transformation in Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7."Journal of...

  13. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  14. Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Advanced Energy...

  15. LU transformation invariant operators and LU transformation invariant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xin-wei Zha; Chun-min Zhang

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed a concept of LU transformation invariant operators. By using this operator, arbitrary multi-qubit states LU transformation invariant and SLOCC invariant could be easily obtained. And we find that presences two kinds of invariant operators and corresponding invariants. One kind of operators yields LU invariants and the other operators results in SLOCC invariants. For three-qubit states, all independence LU transformation invariant are obtained. Furthermore, by this system method, arbitrary multi-qubit states invariants can be given.

  16. Studies Relevent to Catalytic Activation Co & other small Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Peter C

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed annual and triannual reports describing the progress accomplished during the tenure of this grant were filed with the Program Manager for Catalysis at the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. To avoid unnecessary duplication, the present report will provide a brief overview of the research areas that were sponsored by this grant and list the resulting publications and theses based on this DOE supported research. The scientific personnel participating in (and trained by) this grant's research are also listed. Research carried out under this DOE grant was largely concerned with the mechanisms of the homogeneous catalytic and photocatalytic activation of small molecules such as carbon monoxide, dihydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Much of the more recent effort has focused on the dynamics and mechanisms of reactions relevant to substrate carbonylations by homogeneous organometallic catalysts. A wide range of modern investigative techniques were employed, including quantitative fast reaction methodologies such as time-resolved optical (TRO) and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy and stopped flow kinetics. Although somewhat diverse, this research falls within the scope of the long-term objective of applying quantitative techniques to elucidate the dynamics and understand the principles of mechanisms relevant to the selective and efficient catalytic conversions of fundamental feedstocks to higher value materials.

  17. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  18. Fourier transform and related integral transforms in superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrik De Bie

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper extensions of the classical Fourier, fractional Fourier and Radon transforms to superspace are studied. Previously, a Fourier transform in superspace was already studied, but with a different kernel. In this work, the fermionic part of the Fourier kernel has a natural symplectic structure, derived using a Clifford analysis approach. Several basic properties of these three transforms are studied. Using suitable generalizations of the Hermite polynomials to superspace (see [H. De Bie, F. Sommen, Hermite and Gegenbauer polynomials in superspace using Clifford analysis, J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 10441-10456]) an eigenfunction basis for the Fourier transform is constructed.

  19. z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So, Hing-Cheung

    z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes: (i) Understanding the relationship between transform and the Fourier transform for discrete-time signals (ii) Understanding the characteristics and properties of transform (iii) Ability to compute transform and inverse transform (iv) Ability to apply

  20. Contamination of the transformer oil of power transformers and shunting reactors by metal-containing colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L'vov, S. Yu. [LLC 'Presselektro' (Russian Federation); Komarov, V. B.; Bondareva, V. N.; Seliverstov, A. F. [A. N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IFCE of RAS) (Russian Federation); Lyut'ko, E. O.; L'vov, Yu. N. [JSC 'R and D Centre for Power Engineering' (Russian Federation); Ershov, B. G. [A. N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IFCE of RAS) (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a measurement of the contamination of the oil in 66 transformers by metal-containing colloidal particles, formed as a result of the interaction of the oil with the structural materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank and core etc.), and also the results of measurements of the optical turbidity of the oil in 136 transformers when they were examined at the Power Engineering Research and Development Center Company are presented. Methods of determining the concentration of copper and iron in transformer oil are considered. The limiting values of the optical turbidity factors, the copper and iron content are determined. These can serve as a basis for taking decisions on whether to replace the silica gel of the filters for continuously purifying the oil of power transformers and the shunting reactors in addition to the standardized oil contamination factors, namely, the dielectric loss tangent and the acidity number of the oil.

  1. Catalytic oxidation of CO by platinum group metals: from ultrahigh vacuum to elevated pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    oxidation over platinum group metals has been investigated for some eight decades by many researchersCatalytic oxidation of CO by platinum group metals: from ultrahigh vacuum to elevated pressures A Catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum group metals (Pt, Ir, Rh and Pd) has been the subject of many

  2. Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application Takashi: A micro-scale catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology has been developed surface reaction of butane. In combustion experiments with a prototype combustor, the wall temperature

  3. Non-uniform Heat Generation in Micro Catalytic Combustor Takashi Okamasa*, Yuji Suzuki, and Nobuhide Kasagi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Non-uniform Heat Generation in Micro Catalytic Combustor Takashi Okamasa*, Yuji Suzuki@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract We developed a micro catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology and nano-porous alumina catalyst layer. It is found that failure of the ceramic combustor occurs due

  4. Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered. The first reactor that generates the majority in the fuel cell anode and (ii) the temperature of the catalytic partial oxidation reactor during transient

  5. Multiscale Modeling and Solution Multiplicity in Catalytic Pellet Reactors Kedar Kulkarni,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Multiscale Modeling and Solution Multiplicity in Catalytic Pellet Reactors Kedar Kulkarni, Jeonghwa phenomena in catalytic pellet reactors are often difficult to analyze because of coupling between heat at the macroscopic level as well as the catalyst pellets at the microscopic level. The resulting approach yields

  6. ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT SHELLS, and academic organizations is developing a steam reforming process to be demonstrated on the gaseous byproducts, catalytic, steam-reforming reactor was then successfully operated on methane and peanut shell pyrolysis

  7. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Havstad, Mark A. (Davis, CA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  8. The Catalytic Chemistry of HCN+NO over Na- and Ba-Y, FAU: An...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Catalytic Chemistry of HCN+NO over Na- and Ba-Y, FAU: An In Situ FTIR and TPDTPR Study. The Catalytic Chemistry of HCN+NO over Na- and Ba-Y, FAU: An In Situ FTIR and TPDTPR...

  9. Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis of catalytically assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of the tantalum/carbon material system. © 2001 by The Combustion Institute INTRODUCTION Self-propagating high-temperature combustion synthesis

  10. Monitoring Uranium Transformations Determined by the Evolution of Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, Terence L.

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Our contribution to the larger project (ANL) was the phylogenetic analysis of evolved communities capable of reducing metals including uranium.

  11. A VSP transformation technique for the determination of subsurface structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malloy, Jeffrey Edward

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    offset is 305 m, and reflector depth is 3000 m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 13 5 Plot showing normalized coverage as a function of dip of the reflector. Source offset is 305 m. Reflector depth is 2000 m, 6 Plot showing normalized... Geometry showing significance of as. 10 Physical significance of angle uo. 20 22 11 Stacking fold vs. bin offset for a reflector at 2000 m with a dip of 15'. Source offset is 305 m. 23 12 Stack'ing fold vs. bin offset for a reflector at 2000 m with a...

  12. Transformational Manufacturing | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about 12 million people and generates another 7 million jobs in related businesses. Argonne is working with industry to develop innovative and transformational technology to...

  13. Transformation Nets -A Runtime Model for Transformation Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochreiter, Sepp

    as first-class arti- facts throughout the software lifecycle requiring the availability of proper of Software Technology and Interactive Systems Vienna University of Technology FavoritenstraŖe 9)--called Transformation Nets--for the development, execution and debugging of model transformations on a high level

  14. ForReview.Confidential-ACS Catalytic Transformation of 1,3,5 -Trimethyl Benzene over USY Zeolite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    and trimethylbenzenes (TMB) coming from the reforming and pyrolysis of gasoline, into benzene and xylenes via

  15. Central Moloney: Noncompliance Determination (2013-SE-4702)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Central Moloney, Inc. finding that liquid-immersed distribution transformer basic models 30300150 and 32500095 do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  16. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, L.M.; Chatterjee, K.; Cheng, C.; Ettinger, M.; Flores, F.; Jiralerspong, S.; Miyake, M.; Muntean, J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to convert coal into a soluble substance under mild conditions. The strategy involved two steps, first to breakdown the macromolecular network of coal, and second to add hydrogen catalytically. We investigated different basic reagents that could, in priciple, break down coal's structure and alkylation strategies that might enhance its solubility. We examined O- and C-alkylation, the importance of the strength of the base, the character of the added alkyl groups and other reaction parameters. This work provided new information concerning the way in which hydrogen bonding, polarization interactions between aromatic structures and covalent bonding could be disrupted and solubility enhanced. The objective of our research was to explore new organochromium chemistry that might be feasible for the hydrogenation of coal under mild conditions.

  17. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, L.M.; Chatterjee, K.; Cheng, C.; Ettinger, M.; Flores, F.; Jiralerspong, S.; Miyake, M.; Muntean, J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to convert coal into a soluble substance under mild conditions. The strategy involved two steps, first to breakdown the macromolecular network of coal, and second to add hydrogen catalytically. We investigated different basic reagents that could, in priciple, break down coal`s structure and alkylation strategies that might enhance its solubility. We examined O- and C-alkylation, the importance of the strength of the base, the character of the added alkyl groups and other reaction parameters. This work provided new information concerning the way in which hydrogen bonding, polarization interactions between aromatic structures and covalent bonding could be disrupted and solubility enhanced. The objective of our research was to explore new organochromium chemistry that might be feasible for the hydrogenation of coal under mild conditions.

  18. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  19. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  20. Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

  1. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  2. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  3. Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

  4. Tantalum pillard montmorillonite: II. Acidic and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiu, G.; Grange, P. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acidic and catalytic properties of a series of Ta-PILCs synthesized with a different initial tantalum content were characterized by adsorption of gaseous probe molecules (TPD of ammonia and FTIR spectra of absorbed pyridine) and by the test reaction of 1-butanol dehydration. A large increase of acidity was noted in Ta-PILCs compared to Na-montmorillonite or tantalum oxide. Cross-linking pillars and silica layers of the clay induce stronger Lewis and new Bronsted sites. The lack of basic sites formation is evidenced by the dehydration of 1-butanol to butene selectivity (100%). The incorporation of the tantalum oxide between the montmorillonite sheets produce, within Ta-PILC, acid centers of the same nature as observed for the silicon-tantalum mixed oxides. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of how catalyst composition, redox ability, and structure control the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Oxide systems that permit examination of the role of metal oxide cations separately and in pairwise combinations are being developed. Organometallic complexes containing C{sub 3}-allyl, cyclopentadienyl, or carbonyl ligands are exchanged with the hydroxide ligands of silica, alumina, titania, zirconia and magnesia supports. The exchange technique is used to achieve high metal oxide loadings without the formation of supported crystallites over silica. The organometallic route may also lead to oxygen-bridged cations and/or cation pairs over the supports prior to full oxidation. The anchored complex is subsequently oxidized to generate a supported oxide. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  7. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  8. Fabrication of fuel cell electrodes and other catalytic structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.L.

    1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte. 1 fig.

  9. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬łnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  10. Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

  11. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Inversion of the star transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan Zhao; John C. Schotland; Vadim A. Markel

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of the conventional X-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically.

  13. The Hyperanalytic Wavelet Transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. C. Olhede; G. Metikas

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper novel classes of 2-D vector-valued spatial domain wavelets are defined, and their properties given. The wavelets are 2-D generalizations of 1-D analytic wavelets, developed from the Generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations and represented as quaternionic functions. Higher dimensionality complicates the issue of analyticity, more than one `analytic' extension of a real function is possible, and an `analytic' analysis wavelet will not necessarily construct `analytic' decomposition coefficients. The decomposition of locally unidirectional and/or separable variation is investigated in detail, and two distinct families of hyperanalytic wavelet coefficients are introduced, the monogenic and the hypercomplex wavelet coefficients. The recasting of the analysis in a different frame of reference and its effect on the constructed coefficients is investigated, important issues for sampled transform coefficients. The magnitudes of the coefficients are shown to exhibit stability with respect to shifts in phase. Hyperanalytic 2-D wavelet coefficients enable the retrieval of a phase-and-magnitude description of an image in phase space, similarly to the description of a 1-D signal with the use of 1-D analytic wavelets, especially appropriate for oscillatory signals. Existing 2-D directional wavelet decompositions are related to the newly developed framework, and new classes of mother wavelets are introduced.

  14. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marshall Name Christopher L. Marshall Institution Argonne National Laboratory Department Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Areas of Focus Characterization & Catalytic...

  15. A new perspective on renormalization: the scattering transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael E. Glinsky

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The scattering transformation developed by Mallat is put into the perspective of field theory. It is shown to be a simultaneous transformation of the field and the "time" parameter explicitly used in the definition of path integrals central to the Lagrangian approach and in the definition of the "time" ordered products used in the Hamiltonian (or canonical) approach. This transformation preserves the form of the S-matrix as "time" ordered products. The transformed "time" coordinate is the inverse "time" scale. This is traditionally the UV cutoff or renormalization parameter in standard approaches to renormalization. The critical calculation will be the determination of the form of the effective action in this transformed coordinate system. This action will now be expressed as an integral of a Lagrangian density that is a function of the renormalization parameter or transformed "time". Other symmetries of the action can be explicitly built into the transformation. It will be demonstrated on a simple 1D $\\phi^4$ field theory. This non-perturbative approach has great potential in possibly being used to renormalize quantum gravity and obtaining expressions for the strongly coupled limit of QCD.

  16. Formal Transformations and WSL Martin Ward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Jeremy

    Formal Transformations and WSL Part Two Martin Ward STRL Senior Research Fellow Royal Society of Transformations #12;Types of Transformations A Syntactic Transformation changes the syntax of the program but preserves the exact sequence of operations carried out by the program. Many restructuring transformations

  17. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of ďkeyĒ transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturerís factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBís actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  18. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of ďkeyĒ transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturerís factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBís actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  19. 2298 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 13, NO. 2, JUNE 2003 Cryogenic Cooling Temperature of HTS Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    , thermal optimization, transformer. I. INTRODUCTION MAIN advantages of HTS power transformers are the small and efficiency. As small size and low power consumption are conflicting in determining the oper- ating at around 77 K [1]. Toward the practical applications, an operation of HTS transformers at temperatures well

  20. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the hydrogen generation in the SME cycle when the hydrogen levels are high enough to be noteworthy. Mercury has a role in catalytic hydrogen generation. Two potentially distinct roles have been identified. The most dramatic effect of Hg on hydrogen generation occurs between runs with and without any Hg. When a small amount of Hg is present, it has a major inhibiting effect on Rh-catalyzed H{sub 2} generation. The Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study showed that increasing mercury from 0.5 to 2.5 wt% in the SRAT receipt total solids did not improve the inhibiting effect significantly. The next most readily identified role for Hg is the impact it has on accelerating NO production from nitrite ion. This reaction shifts the time that the ideal concentration of nitrite relative to Rh occurs, and consequently causes the most active nitro-Rh species to form sooner. The potential consequences of this shift in timing are expected to be a function of other factors such as amount of excess acid, Rh concentration, etc. Graphical data from the Rh-Ru-Hg study suggested that Hg might also be responsible for partially inhibiting Ru-catalysis initially, but that the inhibition was not sustained through the SRAT and SME cycles. Continued processing led to a subsequent increase in hydrogen generation that was often abrupt and that frequently more than doubled the hydrogen generation rate. This phenomenon may have been a function of the extent of Hg stripping versus the initial Ru concentration in these tests. Palladium is an active catalyst, and activates during (or prior to) nitrite destruction to promote N{sub 2}O formation followed by a very small amount of hydrogen. Pd then appears to deactivate. Data to date indicate that Pd should not be a species of primary concern relative to Rh and Ru for hydrogen generation. Pd was a very mild catalyst for hydrogen generation compared to Rh and Ru in the simulated waste system. Pd was comparable to Rh in enhancing N{sub 2}O production when present at equal concentration. Pd, however, is almost always present at less than a quarter of the Rh concentration in S

  1. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  2. Effects of dispersion and support on adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina Co hydrogenation catalysts. Final progress report, August 1, 1987--July 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of the effects of surface structure, dispersion, and support on the adsorption, catalytic, and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina is described, the objectives of which were to determine (1) the effects of surface structure and metal dispersion on the adsorption and catalytic properties of cobalt and (2) the effects of direct electronic interactions between metal clusters and support, on the adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt supported on alumina. Effects of surface structure and dispersion on the adsorption, activity/selectivity, and electronic properties of Co/W single crystal surfaces and alumina-supported cobalt were investigated in a surface investigation, lab reactor studies, TPD/TPSR studies, and a Moessbauer spectroscopy study. The structure, stability, surface electronic properties, and chemisorptive properties of vapor-deposited cobalt overlayers (0-4 ML) on W(110) and W(100) were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, work function changes, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of cobalt, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. The CO chemisorptive properties of the two cobalt overlayers are quite different, CO adsorption being dissociative on the W(100) surface and nondissociative on the W(110) surface; comparison of the results with those for Ni/W(100) indicate that Co/W(100) dissociates CO as a result of electronic interaction with the tungsten substrate.

  3. Catalytic conversion of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ paraffins to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelder, R.F.; Pennline, H.W.; Schehl, R.R.; Finseth, D.H.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of propane and butane to form gasoline-range hydrocarbons in a single-step catalytic process has been investigated in a tubular packed-bed reactor maintained at near isothermal conditions. Three catalyst systems were studied: a zeolite, ZSM-5; a dehydrogenation catalyst, chromia-alumina; and a 50:50 mixture by weight of the previous two catalysts. The effects of process parameters on the catalyst activity and product selectivity were determined. It was found that ZSM-5 alone will convert propane or butane to gasoline-range products over a temperaure range of 350/sup 0/ to 540/sup 0/C. The reaction of butane over ZSM-5 results in a large selectivity to propane (30 to 70 weight percent) depending on the temperature. The addition of chromia-alumina to ZSM-5 increased the first-order rate constant for butane conversion by 60% at 450/sup 0/C. The addition of chromia-alumina to ZSM-5 also increased the C/sub 5+/ selectivity for butane conversion by 30% at 540/sup 0/C. The addition of chromia-alumina to ZSM-5 had little effect on the rate of propane conversion, but it did increase the C/sub 5+/ selectivity for propane conversion by over 100% at 540/sup 0/C. The liquid product from alkane conversion was highly aromatic (>80%) under all conditions tested. 12 references, 8 figures.

  4. Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic hydroprocessing has been applied to biomass fast pyrolysis liquid product (bio-oil) in a bench-scale continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor system. The intent of the research was to develop process technology to convert the bio-oil into a petroleum refinery feedstock to supplement fossil energy resources and to displace imported feedstock. The project was a cooperative research and development agreement among UOP LLC, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This paper is focused on the process experimentation and product analysis undertaken at PNNL. The paper describes the experimental methods used and relates the results of the product analyses. A range of catalyst formulations were tested over a range of operating parameters including temperature, pressure, and flow-rate with bio-oil derived from several different biomass feedstocks. Effects of liquid hourly space velocity and catalyst bed temperature were assessed. Details of the process results were presented including mass and elemental balances. Detailed analysis of the products were provided including elemental composition, chemical functional type determined by mass spectrometry, and product descriptors such as density, viscosity and Total Acid Number (TAN). In summation, the paper provides an understanding of the efficacy of hydroprocessing as applied to bio-oil.

  5. TRANSFORMING ACADEMIA Historical Developments, Contemporary Perspectives and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    ISyE 8803A TRANSFORMING ACADEMIA Historical Developments, Contemporary Perspectives independence and this organizational structure represent the first major transformation of academia. These characteristics of academia have persisted for over 900 years and seem immutable. Yet, notable transformations

  6. Transforms for the Motion Compensation Residual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamisli, Fatih

    The Discrete-Cosine-Transform (DCT) is the most widely used transform in image and video compression. Its use in image compression is often justified by the notion that it is the statistically optimal transform for first-order ...

  7. HIGH-TECH BUILDINGS MARKET TRANSFORMATION PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49112 HT-457 HIGH-TECH BUILDINGS MARKET TRANSFORMATION PROJECT Cleanroom Energy Benchmarking High-Performance Fume Hood Demonstration/Test Market Transformation Activities FINAL REPORT ........................................................................................3 Market Transformation Activities

  8. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for biomedical and catalytical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaoxing

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous silica materials, discovered in 1992 by the Mobile Oil Corporation, have received considerable attention in the chemical industry due to their superior textual properties such as high surface area, large pore volume, tunable pore diameter, and narrow pore size distribution. Among those materials, MCM-41, referred to Mobile Composition of Matter NO. 41, contains honeycomb liked porous structure that is the most common mesoporous molecular sieve studied. Applications of MCM-41 type mesoporous silica material in biomedical field as well as catalytical field have been developed and discussed in this thesis. The unique features of mesoporous silica nanoparticles were utilized for the design of delivery system for multiple biomolecules as described in chapter 2. We loaded luciferin into the hexagonal channels of MSN and capped the pore ends with gold nanoparticles to prevent premature release. Luciferase was adsorbed onto the outer surface of the MSN. Both the MSN and the gold nanoparticles were protected by poly-ethylene glycol to minimize nonspecific interaction of luciferase and keep it from denaturating. Controlled release of luciferin was triggered within the cells and the enzymatic reaction was detected by a luminometer. Further developments by varying enzyme/substrate pairs may provide opportunities to control cell behavior and manipulate intracellular reactions. MSN was also served as a noble metal catalyst support due to its large surface area and its stability with active metals. We prepared MSN with pore diameter of 10 nm (LP10-MSN) which can facilitate mass transfer. And we successfully synthesized an organo silane, 2,2'-Bipyridine-amide-triethoxylsilane (Bpy-amide-TES). Then we were able to functionalize LP10-MSN with bipyridinyl group by both post-grafting method and co-condensation method. Future research of this material would be platinum complexation. This Pt (II) complex catalyst has been reported for a C-H bond activation reaction as an alternative of the traditional Friedel-Crafts reaction. And we will compare the turnover numbers of MSN supported material with homogenous catalyst to evaluate the catalytical efficiency of our material.

  9. Signal Analysis by Generalized Hilbert Transforms on the Unit Sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wietzke, Lennart; Fleischmann, Oliver; Sommer, Gerald [Institute of Computer Science, Chair of Cognitive Systems, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1D signal processing local energy and phase can be determined by the analytic signal. Local energy, phase and orientation of 2D signals can be analyzed by the monogenic signal for all i(ntrinsic)1D signals in an rotational invariant way by the generalized Hilbert transform. In order to analyze both i1D and i2D signals in one framework the main idea of this contribution is to lift up 2D signals to the higher dimensional conformal space in which the original signal can be analyzed with more degrees of freedom by the generalized Hilbert transform on the unit sphere. An appropriate embedding of 2D signals on the unit sphere results in an extended feature space spanned by local energy, phase, orientation/direction and curvature. In contrast to classical differential geometry, local curvature can now be determined by the generalized Hilbert transform in monogenic scale space without any derivatives.

  10. Chinese Passives: Transformational or Lexical?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiuwu; Wen, Xiaohong

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two types of passive constructions in Chinese. Type I is a syntactic passive since it is derived through a transformational rule. Type II is a lexical passive. It has certain properties in common with the predicate ...

  11. Presidential address Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Corresponding Editor: David L. Hawksworth Keywords: Carbonates Clay minerals Environmental biotechnology Lichens of the fungal transformations discussed have beneficial applications in environmental biotechnology, e and radionuclides by fungi, bioweathering and bioremediation Geoffrey M. GADD* Division of Environmental and Applied

  12. Physical transformations between quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zejun Huang; Chi-Kwong Li; Edward Poon; Nung-Sing Sze

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Given two sets of quantum states {A_1, ..., A_k} and {B_1, ..., B_k}, represented as sets of density matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a physical transformation T, represented as a trace-preserving completely positive map, such that T(A_i) = B_i for i = 1, ..., k. General completely positive maps without the trace-preserving requirement, and unital completely positive maps transforming the states are also considered.

  13. Coupled diffusional/displacive transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mujahid, Shafiq Ahmad

    ), TRIP steels (transformation in- duced plasticity), ausforming steels (plastically deformed austenite prior to quenching) and dual phase steels (a mixture of ferrite + martensite obtained by quenching from the 1+ Q' field). a c b d Figure 1... Supersaturated Ferrite Plates 137 v Abstract The displacive transformation of austenite to ferrite in steels containing both substitutional and interstitial elements has been studied. The aim was to establish the conditions under which plates of the product phase...

  14. Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way...

  15. Structural Studies of the Catalytic and Regulatory Mechanisms of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of phenylalanine hydroxylase were investigated by structural studies of in this research. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH) hydroxylates phenylalanine to produce tyrosine using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4...

  16. Reaction mechanisms for catalytic partial oxidation systems : application to ethylene epoxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anantharaman, Bharthwaj

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rapid advances in kinetic modeling, building elementary surface mechanisms have become vital to understand the complex chemistry for catalytic partial oxidation systems. Given that there is selected experimental ...

  17. Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro Galnares, SebastiŠn (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

  18. Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

  19. Comparison of Gas Catalytic and Electric Infrared Performance for Industrial Applications†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshraghi, R. R.; Welch, D. E.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gas catalytic and electric infrared for industrial applications. The project focused on fabric drying, paper drying, metal heating, and plastic forming as target industrial applications. Tests...

  20. argonaute-like catalytic triad: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produc Kik, Pieter 93 Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine MIT - DSpace Summary: As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine...

  1. Comparison of Gas Catalytic and Electric Infrared Performance for Industrial Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshraghi, R. R.; Welch, D. E.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gas catalytic and electric infrared for industrial applications. The project focused on fabric drying, paper drying, metal heating, and plastic forming as target industrial applications. Tests...

  2. Bipolar Electrochemical Mechanism for the Propulsion of Catalytic Nanomotors in Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bipolar Electrochemical Mechanism for the Propulsion of Catalytic Nanomotors in Hydrogen Peroxide the bipolar electrochemical propulsion mechanism for bimetallic nanorods. Introduction Catalyic molecular nonbiological schemes for making micro/nanoscale ma- chines involve externally applied magnetic2 or electrical

  3. FOR THE RECORD Protein folding coupled to DNA binding in the catalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Mark P.

    for substrate recognition and catalysis. We have examined the solution conformation of the catalytic domain (C mass spectra provides a quick and effective means to identify conformational heterogeneity of proteins

  4. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heating biomass with a catalyst to create bio-oils, which can be used to produce biofuel blendstocks. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast...

  5. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    biomass is heated with catalysts to create bio-oils, which are then used to produce biofuel blendstocks. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast...

  6. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  7. Regional catalytic economic impacts and noise-damage costs of aviation growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Ryan Aung Min, 1973-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing recognition that transportation or infrastructure improvements can have longer-term catalytic impacts economic productivity, which are in addition to the direct, indirect, or induced household spending ...

  8. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NO x Using Cu-zeolite D. William Brookshear 1 , Todd J. Toops 2 , William Rohr 1 , Ke Nguyen 1 , and Bruce G....

  9. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held...

  10. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to...

  11. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras,...

  12. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report...

  13. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy. Abstract: The...

  14. The Industrial Transformation of Subarctic Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathoor, Vineeth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the subarctic region of Canada. The role of scientificTransformation of Subarctic Canada By Liza Piper Reviewed byTransformation of Subarctic Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC

  15. Energy Department Finalizes Loan Guarantee for Transformational...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transformational Rooftop Solar Project Energy Department Finalizes Loan Guarantee for Transformational Rooftop Solar Project September 30, 2011 - 3:37pm Addthis Washington D.C. -...

  16. Structure and Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate: A Solid-State 43Ca NMR and Computational Molecular Dynamics Structure and Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate: A...

  17. Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program - 2015 Peer Review Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program - 2015 Peer Review...

  18. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  19. Gauge transformations in non-perturbative chiral gauge theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner Kerler

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We reconsider gauge-transformation properties in chiral gauge theories on the lattice observing all pertinent information and show that these properties are actually determined in a general way for any gauge group and for any value of the index. In our investigations we also clarify several related issues.

  20. TEC as electric generator in an automobile catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensson, R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Holmlid, L. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern cars use more and more electric power due to more on-board electric systems, e.g., ABS brakes, active suspension systems, electric windows, chair adjustment systems and electronic engine control systems. One possible energy source for electricity generation is to use the waste heat from the car`s engine, which generally is as much as 80% of the total energy from the combustion of the gasoline. Maybe the best location to tap the excess heat is the Catalytic Converter (Cat) in the exhaust system or perhaps at the exhaust pipes close to the engine. The Cat must be kept within a certain temperature interval. Large amounts of heat are dissipated through the wall of the Cat. A Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC) in coaxial form could conveniently be located around the ceramic cartridge of the Cat. Since the TEC is a rather good heat insulator before it reaches its working temperature the Cat will reach working temperature faster, and the final temperature of it can be controlled better when encapsulated in a concentric TEC arrangement. It is also possible to regulate the temperature of the Cat and the TEC by controlling the electrical load of the TEC. The possible working temperatures of present and future Cats appear very suitable for the new low work function collector TEC, which has been demonstrated to work down to 470 K.

  1. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Constraints on Supersymmetric Models from Catalytic Primordial Nucleosynthesis of Beryllium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Pospelov; Josef Pradler; Frank Daniel Steffen

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalysis of nuclear reactions by negatively charged relics leads to increased outputs of primordial ^6Li and ^9Be. In combination with observational constraints on the primordial fractions of ^6Li and ^9Be, this imposes strong restrictions on the primordial abundance and the lifetime of charged relics. We analyze the constraints from the catalysis of ^9Be on supersymmetric models in which the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle and a charged slepton--such as the lighter stau--the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP). Barring the special cases in which the primordial fraction of the slepton NLSP is significantly depleted, we find that the ^9Be data require a slepton NLSP lifetime of less than 6x10^3 seconds. We also address the issue of the catalytic destruction of ^6Li and ^9Be by late forming bound states of protons with negatively charged relics finding that it does not lead to any significant modification of the limit on the slepton lifetime.

  3. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO[sub 2]-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO[sub 2] with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO[sub 2] with H[sub 2]S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO[sub 2] reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO[sub 2] reduction planned over various CeO[sub 2]-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought Claus-alternative'' for coal-fired power plant applications.

  4. Structural Basis for Catalytic Activation of a Serine Recombinase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenholtz, Ross A.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A. (Glasgow); (UC)

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Sin resolvase is a site-specific serine recombinase that is normally controlled by a complex regulatory mechanism. A single mutation, Q115R, allows the enzyme to bypass the entire regulatory apparatus, such that no accessory proteins or DNA sites are required. Here, we present a 1.86 {angstrom} crystal structure of the Sin Q115R catalytic domain, in a tetrameric arrangement stabilized by an interaction between Arg115 residues on neighboring subunits. The subunits have undergone significant conformational changes from the inactive dimeric state previously reported. The structure provides a new high-resolution view of a serine recombinase active site that is apparently fully assembled, suggesting roles for the conserved active site residues. The structure also suggests how the dimer-tetramer transition is coupled to assembly of the active site. The tetramer is captured in a different rotational substate than that seen in previous hyperactive serine recombinase structures, and unbroken crossover site DNA can be readily modeled into its active sites.

  5. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suna, Yuki [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujita, Etsuko [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ertem, Mehmed Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, Wan-Hui [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Univ. of Technology, Panjin (China); Kambayashi, Hide [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Manaka, Yuichi [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Muckerman, James T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Himeda, Yuichiro [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6Ė5.6 range for the 4Ė6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leads to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4Ė and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4Ė and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO? hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H? heterolysis and CO? insertion steps indicated that H? heterolysis is the rate-determining step for both complexes. The presence of a pendent base in the 6DHBP complex was found to facilitate the rate-determining step, and renders 6DHBP a more effective catalyst for formate production.

  6. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Suna, Yuki [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujita, Etsuko [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ertem, Mehmed Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, Wan-Hui [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Univ. of Technology, Panjin (China); Kambayashi, Hide [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Manaka, Yuichi [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Muckerman, James T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Himeda, Yuichiro [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan)

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6Ė5.6 range for the 4Ė6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of a value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4Ė and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4Ė and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO? hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H? heterolysis and CO? insertion steps indicated that H? heterolysis is the rate-determining step for both complexes. The presence of a pendent base in the 6DHBP complex was found to facilitate the rate-determining step, and renders 6DHBP a more effective catalyst for formate production.

  7. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6Ė5.6 range for the 4Ė6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of more†Ľto an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4Ė and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4Ė and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO? hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H? heterolysis and CO? insertion steps indicated that H? heterolysis is the rate-determining step for both complexes. The presence of a pendent base in the 6DHBP complex was found to facilitate the rate-determining step, and renders 6DHBP a more effective catalyst for formate production.ę†less

  8. Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); Lee, Lap-Keung (Cranbury, NJ)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.

  9. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  11. Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Assistant Professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagrams R. Manna Assistant Professor Centre of Advanced.ac.uk #12;Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram There are two types of CCT diagrams I) Plot and transformation finish temperature against transformation time on each cooling curve II) Plot of (for each type

  12. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

  13. Catalytic properties of thimet oligopeptidase H600A mutant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machado, Mauricio F.M.; Marcondes, Marcelo F. [Departamento de Biofisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Departamento de Biofisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rioli, Vanessa [Laboratorio Especial de Toxinologia Aplicada, Instituto Butantan, 05467-010 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil) [Laboratorio Especial de Toxinologia Aplicada, Instituto Butantan, 05467-010 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular e Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferro, Emer S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Departamento de Biologia Celular e Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz [Departamento de Biofisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Departamento de Biofisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Vitor, E-mail: vitor.oliveira@unifesp.br [Departamento de Biofisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Departamento de Biofisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15, TOP) is a metallo-oligopeptidase that participates in the intracellular metabolism of peptides. Predictions based on structurally analogous peptidases (Dcp and ACE-2) show that TOP can present a hinge-bend movement during substrate hydrolysis, what brings some residues closer to the substrate. One of these residues that in TOP crystallographic structure are far from the catalytic residues, but, moves toward the substrate considering this possible structural reorganization is His{sup 600}. In the present work, the role of His{sup 600} of TOP was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. TOP H600A mutant was characterized through analysis of S{sub 1} and S{sub 1}' specificity, pH-activity profile and inhibition by JA-2. Results showed that TOP His{sup 600} residue makes important interactions with the substrate, supporting the prediction that His{sup 600} moves toward the substrate due to a hinge movement similar to the Dcp and ACE-2. Furthermore, the mutation H600A affected both K{sub m} and k{sub cat}, showing the importance of His{sup 600} for both substrate binding and/or product release from active site. Changes in the pH-profile may indicate also the participation of His{sup 600} in TOP catalysis, transferring a proton to the newly generated NH{sub 2}-terminus or helping Tyr{sup 605} and/or Tyr{sup 612} in the intermediate oxyanion stabilization.

  14. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  15. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shield, Jeffrey E. [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering] [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering; Belashchenko, Kirill [Department of Physics & Astronomy] [Department of Physics & Astronomy

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  16. Polyanalytic relativistic second Bargmann transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zouhair Mouayn

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct coherent states through special superpositions of photon number states of the relativistic isotonic oscillator. In each superposition the coefficients are chosen to be L 2 eingenfunctions of a sigma weight Maass Laplacian on the Poincare disk, which are associated with discrete eigenvalues. For each nonzero m the associated coherent states transform constitutes the m true polyanalytic extension of a relativistic version of the second Bargmann transform, whose integral kernel is expressed in terms of a special Appel Kampe de Feriet hypergeometric function. The obtained results could be used to extend the known semi classical analysis of quantum dynamics of the relativistic isotonic oscillator.

  17. Fourier transforms of UD integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Kondrashuk; Anatoly Kotikov

    2008-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    UD integrals published by N. Usyukina and A. Davydychev in 1992-1993 are integrals corresponding to ladder-type Feynman diagrams. The results are UD functions $\\Phi^{(L)},$ where $L$ is the number of loops. They play an important role in N=4 supersymmetic Yang-Mills theory. The integrals were defined and calculated in the momentum space. In this paper the position space representation of UD functions is investigated. We show that Fourier transforms of UD functions are UD functions of space-time intervals but this correspondence is indirect. For example, the Fourier transform of the second UD integral is the second UD integral.

  18. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Francisco

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of singlephase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014. The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 kVA transformer passed the impulse test in KEMA high-voltage laboratories. Additional products include: nine papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, one patent has been filed, three PhD students weresupported from beginning to graduation, five postdoctoral fellows, and three MSc students were partially supported. The electrical characteristics of our dry-type toroidal transformers are similar to those of the oil-immersed pole mounted transformers currently in use by many utilities, but toroids have higher efficiency. The no-load losses of the 50 kVA prototype are only 45 W. A standard transformer has no-load losses between 90 and 240 W. Thus, even the finest transformer built today with standard technology has double the amount of no-load losses than the prototype toroidal transformer. When the manufacturing process is prepared for mass production, the cost of a dry-type toroidal transformer would be similar to the price of an oil-filed standard design. However, because of the greatly reduced losses, the total ownership cost of a toroidal transformer could be about half of a traditional design. We got a grant from Power Bridge NY in the amount of $149,985 from June 2014 to May 2015 to continue developing the transformer with commercialization objectives. We are considering the possibility to incorporate a company to manufacture the transformers and have contacted investors. The current status of the real life testing is as follows: after several months of silence, Con Edison has re-started conversations and has shown willingness to test the transformer. Other companies, PSE&G and National Grid have recently also shown interest and we will present our product to them soon.

  19. Temperature, acetosyringone, virulence genes and wounding effects on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salas Fernandez, Maria Guadalupe

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several conditions were evaluated to determine their impact on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency. Temperature and acetosyringone (AS) effects were first studied in tobacco, as a plant model system and then applied to cotton...

  20. Material transformation designing shape changing interfaces enabled by programmable material anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ou, Jifei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis takes a material perspective on designing transformable interfaces. The structure of material and mechanical properties such as stiffness, can determine not only its static performances, but also, with the help ...

  1. Model Transformations? Transformation Models! Jean Bezivin (A) , Fabian Buttner (B) , Martin Gogolla (B) ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

    Model Transformations? Transformation Models! Jean Bezivin (A) , Fabian Bň?uttner (B) , Martin of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the properties a transformation has

  2. ENGI 2422 Laplace Transforms Page 5-01 5.01 Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Glyn

    ENGI 2422 Laplace Transforms Page 5-01 5.01 Transforms In some situations, a difficult problem can be transformed into an easier problem, whose solution can be transformed back into the solution of the original problem. For example, an integrating factor can sometimes be found to transform a non-exact first order

  3. Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation covers new content available on the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center regarding diesel vehicles, diesel exhaust fluid, and selective catalytic reduction technologies.

  4. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts continued towards the synthesis of new pillared clay catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by ammonia. The possibility of utilizing hydrocarbons was also investigated.

  5. Induced geometry from disformal transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Fang Yuan; Peng Huang

    2015-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note, we use the disformal transformation to induce a geometry from the manifold which is originally Riemannian. The new geometry obtained here can be considered as a generalization of Weyl integrable geometry. Based on these results, we further propose a geometry which is naturally a generalization of Weyl geometry.

  6. Transformer Abdullah Al-Otaibi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    : they are used for three-phase supplies. 3. Leakage transformers: also called a stray-field, there are used. By cooling type: air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, or water cooled. 5. By application function: such as power supply, impedance matching, output voltage and current stabilizer, or circuit isolation. 6. By end

  7. PHASE TRANSFORMATIONSPHASE TRANSFORMATIONS Nucleation & Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    ;Energies involved Bulk Gibbs free energy Interfacial energy Strain energy Important in solid to solid at constant T & P), (ii) increase in (interface free-energy), (iii) increase in strain energy. In a liquid). Volume of transformed material New interface created #12;Energies involved Bulk Gibbs free energy

  8. Some Special Fourier Transform Pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    Some Special Fourier Transform Pairs 24.3 Introduction ' & $ % Prerequisites Before starting to . . . #12;1. Parseval's Theorem Recall from Unit 2 on Fourier Series that for a periodic signal fT (t) with complex Fourier coefficients cn(n = 0, ¬Ī1, ¬Ī2, . . .) Parseval's Theorem holds: 1 T + T 2 - T 2 f2 T (t

  9. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

  10. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); McLean, Joseph B. (Somerville, NJ)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600.degree.-750.degree. F. to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650.degree. F. and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft.sup.3 catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760.degree.-860.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600.degree.-750.degree. F..sup.+ fraction containing 0-20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials.

  11. Transformer procurement and relocation at a large electric utility: A mixed 0-1 linear programming model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, L.C. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong). Decision Science and Managerial Economics] [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong). Decision Science and Managerial Economics; Khator, S.K. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Industrial and Management Systems Engineering] [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Industrial and Management Systems Engineering

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Power Delivery Substation Division at Florida Power and Light (FPL) must plan and provide logistical support for about 2,000 transformers located at roughly 400 substations. Each year, to meet new transformer requirements, the Division must make the decision of procuring and/or relocating transformers. Due to the large number of transformers and substations involved, there is a strong need for a systematic approach to determine optimally the decisions for transformer procurement and relocation, as well as their schedules. In this paper, a mixed 0-1 linear programming model is developed for that purpose.

  12. A catalytic approach to estimate the redox potential of heme-peroxidases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Marcela [Departamento de Ingenieria Celular y Biocatalisis, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210 (Mexico)]. E-mail: maa@ibt.unam.mx; Roman, Rosa [Departamento de Ingenieria Celular y Biocatalisis, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210 (Mexico); Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael [Departamento de Ingenieria Celular y Biocatalisis, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210 (Mexico)

    2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The redox potential of heme-peroxidases varies according to a combination of structural components within the active site and its vicinities. For each peroxidase, this redox potential imposes a thermodynamic threshold to the range of oxidizable substrates. However, the instability of enzymatic intermediates during the catalytic cycle precludes the use of direct voltammetry to measure the redox potential of most peroxidases. Here we describe a novel approach to estimate the redox potential of peroxidases, which directly depends on the catalytic performance of the activated enzyme. Selected p-substituted phenols are used as substrates for the estimations. The results obtained with this catalytic approach correlate well with the oxidative capacity predicted by the redox potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple.

  13. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at temperatures of 850-950oF. Hydrogen - rich off - gases are fired in combinations of process furnaces. Heat is transferred to hydrocarbon fluids by radiation, principally. Feed or return stream temperatures determine the need for convection sections...

  14. System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

  15. Institute for Atom-efficient Chemical Transformations trifold...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of theoretical insights at the atomic level, providing guidance in the discovery of new catalytic materials. Selectivity of formic acid decomposition to CO 2 as a function of...

  16. Polymer network/carbon layer on monolith support and monolith catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nordquist, Andrew Francis; Wilhelm, Frederick Carl; Waller, Francis Joseph; Machado, Reinaldo Mario

    2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an improved monolith catalytic reactor and a monolith support. The improvement in the support resides in a polymer network/carbon coating applied to the surface of a porous substrate and a catalytic metal, preferably a transition metal catalyst applied to the surface of the polymer network/carbon coating. The monolith support has from 100 to 800 cells per square inch and a polymer network/carbon coating with surface area of from 0.1 to 15 m.sup.2 /gram as measured by adsorption of N.sub.2 or Kr using the BET method.

  17. Structural, textural and catalytic properties of Al-, Ti-pillared clays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Galvan, C.E.; Dominguez, J.M.; Sandoval-Robles, G.; Castillo-Mares, A.; Nava E, N.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Al-, Ti- and Zr-pillared clays were characterized and NiMo/Pilc`s were tested in HDS reactions. The combination of activity measurements with Moessbauer Spectroscopy and x-ray microanalysis at microscopical scale give insight in the metal phases migration during pillaring, reaction and regeneration steps. {Alpha}-Fe phase in free Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} islands predominate together with structural Fe{sup 3+} phase, but during the catalytic reaction Fe{sup 2+} forms. Delamination of the Ti- and Zr-Clay supports, together with high Lewis acidity might enhance their catalytic properties.

  18. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammels, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  19. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  20. Hydrogen ions produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using nickel grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Kawata, K.; Hibino, T. [Department of Electronic Device Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Device Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Positive and negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid, where the irradiation current density of positive ions onto the grid can be controlled by the discharge power. The irradiation energy can be controlled by both the grid potential and the discharge plasma potential. Extraction properties and energy distributions of positive and negative ions produced in the cases of using the grid and a porous nickel plate are compared. Two production mechanisms of negative ions are found in the process of plasma-assisted catalytic ionization.

  1. The Effects of Trace Contaminants on Catalytic Processing of Biomass-Derived Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Peterson, Keith L.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Alderson, Eric V.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2004-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace components in biomass feedstocks are potential catalyst poisons when catalytically processing these materials to value-added chemical products. Trace components include inorganic elements such as alkali metals and alkaline earths, phosphorus or sulfur, aluminum or silicon, chloride, or transition metals. Protein components in biomass feedstocks can lead to formation of peptide fractions (from hydrolysis) or ammonium ions (from more severe breakdown) both of which might interfere with catalysis. The effects of these components on catalytic hydrogenation processing has been studied in batch reactor processing tests

  2. Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Ceramic Tape Casting Takashi OKAMASA, Gwang-Goo LEE, Yuji SUZUKI, and Nobuhide KASAGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Ceramic Tape Casting Takashi OKAMASA, Gwang-Goo LEE@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract Micro-scale catalytic combustor fueled by butane is investigated. A cost-effective ceramic combustor is developed using high- precision tape-casting technology. Nano-porous alumina fabricated through

  3. Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso-propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    1 Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso- propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts S.Al-Khattaf1 describes catalytic cracking experiments developed in a novel CREC Riser Simulator using 1,3,5-Tri-iso

  4. Nonlinear transform coding with lossless polar coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ba, Demba Elimane

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In conventional transform coding, the importance of preserving desirable quantization partition cell shapes prevents one from considering the use of a nonlinear change of variables. If no linear transformation of a given ...

  5. Transforms for prediction residuals in video coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam??l?, Fatih

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typically the same transform, the 2-D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), is used to compress both image intensities in image coding and prediction residuals in video coding. Major prediction residuals include the motion ...

  6. Harmonic Wavelet Transform and Image Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhihua; Saito, Naoki

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOI 10.1007/s10851-010-0202-x Harmonic Wavelet Transform andwe approximate f by a harmonic function u such that thebanks. We call this the Harmonic Wavelet Transform (HWT).

  7. Tunable fractional-order Fourier transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyutin, A A [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A fractional two-dimensional Fourier transformer whose orders are tuned by means of optical quadrupoles is described. It is shown that in the optical scheme considered, the Fourier-transform order a element of [0,1] in one of the mutually orthogonal planes corresponds to the transform order (2-a) in another plane, i.e., to inversion and inverse Fourier transform of the order a. (laser modes and beams)

  8. The TRANSFORMATION OF CONFLICTS AMONG ETHIOPIAN PASTORALISTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    The TRANSFORMATION OF CONFLICTS AMONG ETHIOPIAN PASTORALISTS: Ethnography of the Notion of Conflict This PhD thesis is concerned with studying the conceptualization, performance and transformation in their nature and have not yet achieved full transformation to peace. The research supports the notion

  9. Ribaucour transformations revisited Armando V. Corro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenenblat, Keti

    Ribaucour transformations revisited Armando V. Corro Keti Tenenblat Abstract We present a revised definition of a Ribaucour transformation for submanifolds of space forms, with flat normal bundle, motivated- cise treatment of the geometric aspect of such transformations preserving lines of curvature and it can

  10. YANGMILLS THEORY AND THE SEGALBARGMANN TRANSFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YANG≠MILLS THEORY AND THE SEGAL≠BARGMANN TRANSFORM BRIAN C. HALL Abstract. Motivated by the results cylinder, with the goal of obtaining an appropriate Segal≠Bargmann transform. Using a Gaussian mea≠ sure a variant of the classical Segal≠Bargmann transform. A simple but non≠rigorous argument shows

  11. LAPPED TRANSFORMS Ricardo L. de Queiroz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    LAPPED TRANSFORMS Ricardo L. de Queiroz Advanced Color Imaging Xerox Corporation queiroz@wrc.xerox.com 0.1 Introduction The idea of a lapped transform (LT, for short) maintaining orthogonality and non with the blocking artifacts so common in traditional block transform coding of images. The idea was to extend

  12. Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Toby

    Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications Alan M. Frisch1 , Brahim Hnich2 , Ian choose model transformations to reduce greatly the amount of effort that is required to solve a problem by systematic search. It is a consid- erable challenge to automate such transformations. A problem may be viewed

  13. AALBORGUNIVERSITY DEPARTMENTOFENERGY TECHNOLOGY Transformer in series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da

    AALBORGUNIVERSITY≠ DEPARTMENTOFENERGY TECHNOLOGY Transformer in series Filipe Miguel Faria Da that corresponds to a neighbour transformer. Both loads are 3-phase loads, which can be unbalanced to generated. The harmonics are generated inside the farm, thus, the current source is grounded at the transformer's neutral

  14. Simulation of Top Oil Temperature for Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulation of Top Oil Temperature for Transformers Masters Thesis and Final Project Report Power-Oil Temperature for Transformers Thesis and Final Report Yong Liang PSERC Publication 01-21 February 2001 #12 for the PSERC project "On-Line Peak Loading of Substation Distribution Transformers Through Accurate Temperature

  15. WAVELET TRANSFORMATIONS AS DIVERSITY ENHANCERS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    WAVELET TRANSFORMATIONS AS DIVERSITY ENHANCERS 1 By Prem Goel Ohio State University and Duke University and Brani Vidakovic Duke University Discrete wavelet transformations have became indispensable of wavelet transformations and propose novel thresholding and wavelet selection methods. This is achieved via

  16. Interpolating Wavelet Transforms David L. Donoho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donoho, David

    Interpolating Wavelet Transforms David L. Donoho Department of Statistics Stanford University October, 1992 Abstract We describe several \\wavelet transforms" which characterize smoothness spaces-interpret the empirical wavelet transform, i.e. the common practice of applying pyramid #12;lters to samples of a function

  17. RECENTER -ADVERSITY INTO TRANSFORMATION Course Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, William A.

    Center" delivers power tools and real time strategies for creating performance transformation ≠ no matter what and practical system for transforming your communication skills from the inside and outside. ∑ Use real timeRECENTER - ADVERSITY INTO TRANSFORMATION Course Description: Knowing how to use adversity

  18. Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lidia Ruiz-Perez; Juan Carlos Garcia-Escartin

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.

  19. Birefringent Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Andy

    Birefringent Fourier-transform imaging spectrometer Andrew Robert Harvey and David William Fletcher.r.Harvey@hw.ac.uk http://www.ece.eps.hw.ac.uk/~arharvey Abstract: Fourier-transform imaging spectrometers offer important, for application in harsh environments, deployment of Fourier-transform instruments based on traditional moving

  20. The Fourier Transform -A Primer Hagit Shatkay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    The Fourier Transform - A Primer Hagit Shatkay Department of Computer Science Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 02912 CS-95-37 November 1995 #12;#12;The Fourier Transform { A Primer Hagit Shatkay Department of Computer Science Brown University Providence, RI 02912 1 Introduction The Fourier transform

  1. Lecture 2: Fourier transforms and frequency response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Xingzhe

    Lecture 2: Fourier transforms and frequency response Course at a glance Discrete-time signals and systems Fourier-domain representation DFT/FFT System structures Filter structures Filter design Filter z-transform Sampling and reconstruction System analysis System Fourier transforms and frequency response Frequency

  2. Fourier transform channeled spectropolarimetry in the MWIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    Fourier transform channeled spectropolarimetry in the MWIR Michael W. Kudenov,1 Nathan A. Hagen, 1 Abstract: A complete Fourier Transform Spectropolarimeter in the MWIR is demonstrated. The channeled and links 1. P. Griffiths and J. D. Haseth, "Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry," (John Wiley & Sons

  3. A programmable Fresnel transform pulse shaper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    A programmable Fresnel transform pulse shaper G. Mīinguez-Vega1, J.D. McKinney2 and A.M. Weiner2 1@purdue.edu Abstract: We demonstrate the first reprogrammable Fresnel transform pulse shaper based on a modified direct a free-space Fresnel transform which causes quadratic dispersion of the output temporal waveform. When

  4. On Lorentz Transformations in Symplectic Deformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuesta, R.; Sabido, M. [Departamento de Fisica, DCI-Campus Leon, Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Guanajuato (Mexico); Guzman, W. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study noncommutative Lorentz transformations using symplectic deformations. In this framework we define an infinitesimal line element that is invariant under this noncommutative Lorentz transformations. Using the symplectic geometry formalism, we find that noncommutative Lorentz transformations intertwine the canonical momentums with canonical position coordinates.

  5. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; BrŁser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

  6. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godeke, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Superconducting Transformer System for High Current CableDC) superconducting transformer system for the high currentsuperconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-

  7. active transforming growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Transformer Engineering Websites Summary: converters as distribution transformers 1. A power electronics-based solid state transformer (SST) providesAc-Ac Dual...

  8. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godeke, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Superconducting Transformer System for High Current Cablea Direct-Current (DC) superconducting transformer system forhigh current test of superconducting cables. The transformer

  9. Towards Sustainable Communities: Transitions and Transformations in Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Kaustuv

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transformations in Environmental Policy Daniel A. MazmanianTransformations in Environmental Policy (2 ed). Cambridge,Transformation in Environmental Policy is the second edition

  10. Cauchy transforms of measures viewed as some functionals of Fourier transforms #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurek, Zbigniew J.

    Cauchy transforms of measures viewed as some functionals of Fourier transforms # Zbigniew J. Jurek Urbanik ABSTRACT. The Cauchy transform of a positive measure plays an impor≠ tant role in complex analysis and more recently in so≠called free probability. We show here that the Cauchy transform restricted

  11. Cauchy transforms of measures viewed as some functionals of Fourier transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurek, Zbigniew J.

    Cauchy transforms of measures viewed as some functionals of Fourier transforms Zbigniew J. Jurek Urbanik ABSTRACT. The Cauchy transform of a positive measure plays an impor- tant role in complex analysis and more recently in so-called free probability. We show here that the Cauchy transform restricted

  12. Learning transformation rules from transformation examples: An approach based on Relational Concept Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    Learning transformation rules from transformation examples: An approach based on Relational Concept), model transformations are basic and primordial entities, thus easing their design and implementation is an important issue. A quite recently proposed way to create model transformations consists in deducing

  13. Novel Catalytic Fuel Reforming Using Micro-Technology with Advanced Separations Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Catalytic Fuel Reforming Using Micro-Technology with Advanced Separations Technology Patricia by the combustion of membrane raffinate for the production of clean hydrogen by steam reforming natural gas. Advanced membrane technology is being used to remove CO and CO2 from the reformate. The fuel processor

  14. Hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello Simulations of Catalytic and Enzymatic Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    1 Hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello Simulations of Catalytic and Enzymatic Reactions MariaCarola Colombo, we review some recent applications of hybrid Car-Parrinello simulations of chemical and biological recently developed a combination of these two techniques into a hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello scheme [4

  15. Supporting Information for: Exoelectrogenic biofilm as a template for sustainable formation of a catalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and (B) anode potential (vs. SHE) of electrodes operated in a hydrogen fuel cell without potentiostatic that were pyrolyzed, but did not undergo the subsequent oxidation step generated with an RDE at 1000 rpm were alternately sparged with nitrogen and hydrogen to show the catalytic response of the reactors

  16. High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to be reached between 2010 and 2015 are clear: the catalyst of a fuel cell can cost no more than 4 per kilowatt1 High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings C in plasma fuel cell deposition devices. Pt loadings lower than 0.01 mg cm-2 have been realized. The Pt

  17. Exoelectrogenic Biofilm as a Template for Sustainable Formation of a Catalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the electrochemically plated control electrode, even though 30% less Pd was present in the biotemplated catalyst was used as a sustainable template to form mesoporous Pd structures while eliminating the need formation, producing a catalytic Pd mesoporous (pore size 9.7 ∆ 0.1 nm) structure attached to the graphite

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER New Catalytic Materials for the Direct Epoxidation of Propylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    ORIGINAL PAPER New Catalytic Materials for the Direct Epoxidation of Propylene by Oxygen propylene oxide (PO) from propylene and oxygen using array channel microreactors at 1 atm and 300, 333 oxidation Ń Nanoparticle synthesis Ń Multimetallic catalysis 1 Introduction Propylene oxide (PO

  19. Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures M. H. Kuang and Z of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China Received 19 October 1999; accepted for publication 11 January 2000 Recent interest in the growth of aligned carbon nanotube films using transition metal catalysts has led

  20. An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of the transition-metal particles and onto the surface of carbon nanotubes, carbon atom attachment to the growing. Carbon nanotubes are generally processed by laser ablation of carbon rods e.g. [7], a direct current arc

  1. Comment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    . Obviously, heating Rh in pure oxygen to T ) 230 įC and above will lead to the formation of surface Rh oxideComment on "Catalytic Activity of the Rh Surface Oxide: CO Oxidation over Rh(111) under Realistic suggest the importance of a surface oxide phase for high CO2 formation in CO-O2 reactions. However

  2. Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol the pretreatment. KEYWORDS: platinum, methanol oxidation, operando, XAFS, EXAFS, XANES, alumina, nanoparticle, size

  3. Aligned carbon nanotube with electro-catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Westmont, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst for an electro-chemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of a bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes having a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally in said nanotubes. A method of making an electro-chemical catalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) having a bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes, where a substrate is in a first reaction zone, and a combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into the first reaction zone which is maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is then introduced to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes over the substrate with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  4. Functionalized Graphene as a Catalytic Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    %).1,2 In typical DSSC architectures, the photon-induced oxida- tion of a dye occurs at a TiO2 photoanode, while but typically requires a platinum catalyst in DSSC operation.3 5 Platinum has high catalytic activity toward I3, since platinum is a precious metal, much incentive exists to develop DSSC counter electrodes using

  5. Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Catalytic Properties of Supported MoO3 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane Kaidong The effects of MoOx structure on propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rates and selectivity were examined with those obtained on MoOx/ZrO2. On MoOx/Al2O3 catalysts, propane turnover rate increased with increasing Mo

  6. Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes Brian L. Edelbach, New York 14627 Received May 24, 1999 The nickel alkyne complexes (dippe)Ni(PhCtCPh), 1, (dippe reported using (C5Me5)Rh- (PMe3)H2 5e and several platinum, palladium, and nickel phosphine complexes.5i

  7. Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received June 11, 1999 The nickel alkyne complexes (dippe)Ni(Me3Si, and nickel phosphine complexes.3 Milstein and co-workers reported the cata- lytic hydrogenolysis

  8. Long life catalytic membrane reactors for spontaneous conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M., White, J., Deych, S., Millard, J., Myers, M., Sammells, A.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program is focusing on the development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials based on the brown millerite structure for use in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs). These CMRs are being evaluated for promoting the spontaneous and highly selective oxidative reforming of carbon dioxide / natural gas mixtures to synthesis gas.

  9. DOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    % ethanol conversion) were much higher than in previous re- ports. The presence of TiO2 during syn- thesisDOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed Mo, easily separated from organic reactants and products, and gas-phase process- es that avoid solid

  10. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601618 Dual Nanoparticle/Substrate Control of Catalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to polymerize and are the primary feed- stock of the petrochemical industry, especially ethene (n = 2. It has been found that oxidative catalytic dehydrogenation, that is, a process assisted by both a solid studies seeking under- standing that may help optimization of the process.[3,4,6,7] It has been

  11. Production of renewable jet fuel range alkanes and commodity chemicals from integrated catalytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    and techno-economic analysis of a catalytic process for the conversion of whole biomass into drop-in aviation processing of biomass Jesse Q. Bond,a Aniruddha A. Upadhye,b Hakan Olcay,c Geoffrey A. Tompsett,d Jungho Jae fuels with maximal carbon yields. The combined research areas highlighted include biomass pretreatment

  12. Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Properties of Bis[bis(sulfonamido)] Titanium Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Patrick J.

    Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Properties of Bis[bis(sulfonamido)] Titanium Complexes Eva Royo, Pennsylvania 19104 Received May 29, 2000 Reaction of the titanium tetraamide Ti(NMe2)4 with 2 equiv of racemic diastereomers are very different, the metrical parameters are not. Each of the titanium centers

  13. In Situ Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic and Kinetic Investigations of Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Yun

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    below the temperature previously reported. Characterizations of highly catalytically active Au films have also been carried out. Electronic and chemical properties of (1 x 1)- and (1 x 3)-Au/TiOx/Mo(112) films are investigated by PM-IRAS using CO as a...

  14. Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

  15. Tandem Catalytic Conversion of Glucose to 5Hydroxymethylfurfural with an Immobilized Enzyme and a Solid Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    , the direct conversion of glucose, a more abundant monosaccharide than fructose, to HMF in a one-pot fashionTandem Catalytic Conversion of Glucose to 5Hydroxymethylfurfural with an Immobilized Enzyme: Conversion of cellulosic biomass to renewable chemicals such as 5-hydroxyme- thylfurfural (HMF) is of high

  16. Characterization of catalytic lanthanum oxide for double bond isomerization of n-butenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Janan Sherlene

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are unfortunate in th1s series of oxides where reactivity patterns are expected to prevail. As part of a systematic study of the catalytic activity and sur- face properties of the lanthanide oxides, the behavior of La203 as a catalyst for double-bond migration...

  17. SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method Toshiaki NISHII1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    plants. Furthermore, carbon dioxide gas is exhausted from most industrial plants as one of Greenhouse. (2) R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, (1988 CVD SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method * Toshiaki

  18. Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Tantalum Carbide Powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Tantalum Carbide Powders Troy high-temperature combustion synthesis (SHS) of materials has gained recognition for its energy in the context of gas-phase and solid-phase transport models. I. Introduction IN RECENT years, self-propagating

  19. ==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    pumps ambient air to the combustion chamber by utilizing the vapor pressure of liquified fuel. Catalytic with the excessive heat of the exhaust gas. The advantage of using ejector is that air-entrainment is achieved without an additional air container or a micro pump, and thus the system should be simple, safe

  20. Prediction of catalytic residues in proteins using machine-learning techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction of catalytic residues in proteins using machine-learning techniques Natalia V. Petrova) and prediction of protein function using various properties of proteins and amino acids (2). Prediction of the functional residues is a challenging and interesting task. The results of such prediction could

  1. in: Nanotechnology 7(1), pp. 307314, 1996 Emergent Computation by Catalytic Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittrich, Peter

    in: Nanotechnology 7(1), pp. 307≠314, 1996 Emergent Computation by Catalytic Reactions Wolfgang the idea behind the chemical computational metaphor and outline its relevance for nanotechnology. We set up within this context. The implications of this approach for nanotechnology, parallel computers based on mo

  2. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  3. Multiple Glycogen-binding Sites in Eukaryotic Glycogen Synthase Are Required for High Catalytic Efficiency toward Glycogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Chikwana, Vimbai M.; Contreras, Christopher J.; Davis, Keri D.; Wilson, Wayne A.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Roach, Peter J.; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med); (Des Moines U)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Glycogen synthase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycogen and has an essential role in glucose homeostasis. The three-dimensional structures of yeast glycogen synthase (Gsy2p) complexed with maltooctaose identified four conserved maltodextrin-binding sites distributed across the surface of the enzyme. Site-1 is positioned on the N-terminal domain, site-2 and site-3 are present on the C-terminal domain, and site-4 is located in an interdomain cleft adjacent to the active site. Mutation of these surface sites decreased glycogen binding and catalytic efficiency toward glycogen. Mutations within site-1 and site-2 reduced the V{sub max}/S{sub 0.5} for glycogen by 40- and 70-fold, respectively. Combined mutation of site-1 and site-2 decreased the V{sub max}/S{sub 0.5} for glycogen by >3000-fold. Consistent with the in vitro data, glycogen accumulation in glycogen synthase-deficient yeast cells ({Delta}gsy1-gsy2) transformed with the site-1, site-2, combined site-1/site-2, or site-4 mutant form of Gsy2p was decreased by up to 40-fold. In contrast to the glycogen results, the ability to utilize maltooctaose as an in vitro substrate was unaffected in the site-2 mutant, moderately affected in the site-1 mutant, and almost completely abolished in the site-4 mutant. These data show that the ability to utilize maltooctaose as a substrate can be independent of the ability to utilize glycogen. Our data support the hypothesis that site-1 and site-2 provide a 'toehold mechanism,' keeping glycogen synthase tightly associated with the glycogen particle, whereas site-4 is more closely associated with positioning of the nonreducing end during catalysis.

  4. Preventive overhaul time for power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmadi, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Rouhi, J. [Univ. of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fayyaz, A. [Mazandaran Power Co. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power transformers are the major piece of equipment in high-voltage substations. A considerable number of these transformers exist in Iran`s integrated network. Due to the climate diversity and improper usage, many of these transformers age rapidly, suffer failure and are taken out of service before half their useful life. At the present time the utility companies have no specific time-frame and plan for preventive overhaul. Detection of preventive overhaul time will increase the remaining life of transformers and improve the reliability of substations. An exact check of the remaining lifetime of transformers is not yet possible by available diagnostic techniques. In this paper, the authors present a method of identifying the right time for preventive overhaul in 63 kV power transformers. This method is developed based on 25 year transformer performance records in Northern Iran (subtropical climate) and with the utilization of studies done by electrical engineering communities world-wide.

  5. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  6. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  7. Fourier Transform Quantum State Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi; Agata M. Branczyk; Daniel F. V. James

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a technique for performing quantum state tomography of photonic polarization-encoded multi-qubit states. Our method uses a single rotating wave plate, a polarizing beam splitter and two photon-counting detectors per photon mode. As the wave plate rotates, the photon counters measure a pseudo-continuous signal which is then Fourier transformed. The density matrix of the state is reconstructed using the relationship between the Fourier coefficients of the signal and the Stokes' parameters that represent the state. The experimental complexity, i.e. different wave plate rotation frequencies, scales linearly with the number of qubits.

  8. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulence may bedieselsummerFactTransformations in Superionic

  9. Catalytic hydrogenation of an aromatic sulfonyl chloride into thiophenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouckout, Nicolas Julien

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to the facile oxidation by air into disulfides [3]. Many aliphatic thiols are important starting materials for the synthesis of crop- protection agents, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and polysulfides. They are also widely used as polymerization regulators... for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, pigments, rubber, plastics and metal finishing [3]. The current market volume for aromatic thiols was determined to be more than 10 million pounds per year [4]. Aromatic thiols are commonly synthesized...

  10. The catalytic oxidation of propylene: investigation of catalyst activity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodham, John Frank

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of closely related olefins over a speoific oxide oatalyst. The efi'sets of the experimental vari. ables - contact times catalyst bed temperature and air-hydrocarbon ratio - on the reaotion prooess were determineds and various possible reaotion meohanisms... conversions of ethylene to aldehydes were obtained in the oxidation of ethylene. Bomewhat higher oonversions to aldehydes were obtained in the oxidation of butenes, Much of the later work of Dunlop (12) was performed oonourrently with the work descri'bed...

  11. Methanol Decomposition over Palladium Particles Supported on Silica: Role of Particle Size and Co-Feeding Carbon Dioxide on the Catalytic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokenek, Selma; Kuhn, John N. (USF)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Monodisperse palladium particles of six distinct and controlled sizes between 4-16 nm were synthesized in a one-pot polyol process by varying the molar ratios of the two palladium precursors used, which contained palladium in different oxidation states. This difference permitted size control by regulation of the nucleation rate because low oxidation state metals ions nucleate quickly relative to high oxidation state ions. After immobilization of the Pd particles on silica by mild sonication, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and applied toward catalytic methanol decomposition. This reaction was determined as structure sensitive with the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency) increasing with increasing particle size. Moreover, observed catalytic deactivation was linked to product (carbon monoxide) poisoning. Co-feeding carbon dioxide caused the activity and the amount of deactivation to decrease substantially. A reaction mechanism based on the formation of the {pi}-bond between carbon and oxygen as the rate-limiting step is in agreement with antipathetic structure sensitivity and product poisoning by carbon monoxide.

  12. A Transformational View of Cartography W. R. Tobler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Keith

    A Transformational View of Cartography W. R. Tobler ABSTRACT. Cartographic transformations aliases are between points, lines, and areas. Substantive transformations occur in map interpolation transformational grammars, as originally devised for linguistics.2, 4 A similar, though less ambitious, attempt

  13. Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic transformation? S. Chatterjee and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels contain a small quantity of carbon enriched retained austenite, which transforms into martensite during

  14. LOCAL FOURIER TRANSFORMS AND RIGIDITY FOR D-MODULES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloch, Spencer

    LOCAL FOURIER TRANSFORMS AND RIGIDITY FOR D. Local Fourier transforms, analogous to the `-adic local Fourier transforms [14], are constructed infinitesimal rigidity condition is satisfied. As in [12], the argument uses local Fourier transforms

  15. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

  16. Uranium transformations in static microcosms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, S. D.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Criddle, C.; Marsh, T. L.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; Ravel, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P. M.; Kemner, K. M.; Stanford Univ.; Michigan State Univ.; ORNL; BNL; EXAFS Analysis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elucidation of complex biogeochemical processes and their effects on speciation of U in the subsurface is critical for developing remediation strategies with an understanding of stability. We have developed static microcosms that are similar to bioreduction process studies in situ under laminar flow conditions or in sediment pores. Uranium L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis with depth in the microcosms indicated that transformation of U{sup VI} to U{sup IV} occurred by at least two distinct processes. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis indicated that initial U{sup VI} species associated with C- and P-containing ligands were transformed to U{sup IV} in the form of uraninite and U associated with Fe-bound ligands. Microbial community analysis identified putative Fe{sup III} and sulfate reducers at two different depths in the microcosms. The slow reduction of U{sup VI} to U{sup IV} may contribute the stability of U{sup IV} within microcosms at 11 months after a decrease in bioreducing conditions due to limited electron donors.

  17. The Mineralogic Transformation of Ferrihydrite Induced by Heterogeneou...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation of Ferrihydrite Induced by Heterogeneous Reaction with Bioreduced Anthraquinone Disulfonate (AQDS The Mineralogic Transformation of Ferrihydrite Induced by...

  18. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 This...

  19. NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politis, Dimitris N; Thomakos, Dimitrios D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for VolatilityNoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility

  20. "NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS RESPONSE TO NON-STATIONARY EXCITATION USING THE WAVELET TRANSFORM"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SPANOS, POL D.

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project has been the development of techniques for estimating the power spectra of stochastic processes using wavelet transform, and the development of related techniques for determining the response of linear/nonlinear systems to excitations which are described via the wavelet transform. Both of the objectives have been achieved, and the research findings have been disseminated in papers in archival journals and technical conferences.

  1. Monodisperse metal nanoparticle catalysts on silica mesoporous supports: synthesis, characterizations, and catalytic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of high performance catalyst achieving near 100% product selectivity at maximum activity is one of the most important goals in the modern catalytic science research. To this end, the preparation of model catalysts whose catalytic performances can be predicted in a systematic and rational manner is of significant importance, which thereby allows understanding of the molecular ingredients affecting the catalytic performances. We have designed novel 3-dimensional (3D) high surface area model catalysts by the integration of colloidal metal nanoparticles and mesoporous silica supports. Monodisperse colloidal metal NPs with controllable size and shape were synthesized using dendrimers, polymers, or surfactants as the surface stabilizers. The size of Pt, and Rh nanoparticles can be varied from sub 1 nm to 15 nm, while the shape of Pt can be controlled to cube, cuboctahedron, and octahedron. The 3D model catalysts were generated by the incorporation of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica supports via two methods: capillary inclusion (CI) and nanoparticle encapsulation (NE). The former method relies on the sonication-induced inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica, whereas the latter is performed by the encapsulation of metal nanoparticles during the hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous silica. The 3D model catalysts were comprehensively characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. These catalysts were found to show structure sensitivity in hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The Pt NPs supported on mesoporous SBA-15 silica (Pt/SBA-15) displayed significant particle size sensitivity in ethane hydrogenolysis over the size range of 1-7 nm. The Pt/SBA-15 catalysts also exhibited particle size dependent product selectivity in cyclohexene hydrogenation, crotonaldehyde hydrogenation, and pyrrole hydrogenation. The Rh loaded SBA-15 silica catalyst showed structure sensitivity in CO oxidation reaction. In addition, Pt-mesoporous silica core-shell structured NPs (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}) were prepared, where the individual Pt NP is encapsulated by the mesoporous silica layer. The Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} catalysts showed promising catalytic activity in high temperature CO oxidation. The design of catalytic structures with tunable parameters by rational synthetic methods presents a major advance in the field of catalyst synthesis, which would lead to uncover the structure-function relationships in heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

  2. CX-008226: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 04/11/2012 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  3. CX-011133: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fractional Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and Catalytic Conversion into Hydrocarbons CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.15 Date: 08/29/2013 Location(s): Wisconsin Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  4. CX-012404: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advancing Coal Catalytic Gasification to Promote Optimum Syngas Production CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 41884 Location(s): UtahOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-012532: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Nanostructure Tailored Highly Active and Stable Electro-Catalytic Architecture on SOFC Cathodes CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 41836 Location(s): West VirginiaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. CX-011123: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fractionation and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/29/2013 Location(s): Oklahoma Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  7. CX-012251: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Hybrid Catalytic Route to Fuels from Biomass Syngas CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/29/2014 Location(s): Georgia, Illinois Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  8. CX-010919: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Catalytic Solvent for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/23/2013 Location(s): Kentucky Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. The Fourier Transform on Quantum Euclidean Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Coulembier

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study Fourier theory on quantum Euclidean space. A modified version of the general definition of the Fourier transform on a quantum space is used and its inverse is constructed. The Fourier transforms can be defined by their Bochner's relations and a new type of q-Hankel transforms using the first and second q-Bessel functions. The behavior of the Fourier transforms with respect to partial derivatives and multiplication with variables is studied. The Fourier transform acts between the two representation spaces for the harmonic oscillator on quantum Euclidean space. By using this property it is possible to define a Fourier transform on the entire Hilbert space of the harmonic oscillator, which is its own inverse and satisfies the Parseval theorem.

  10. Nonlinear Transformation Group of CAR Fermion Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitsuo Abe; Katsunori Kawamura

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on our previous work on the recursive fermion system in the Cuntz algebra, it is shown that a nonlinear transformation group of the CAR fermion algebra is induced from a $U(2^p)$ action on the Cuntz algebra ${\\cal O}_{2^p}$ with an arbitrary positive integer $p$. In general, these nonlinear transformations are expressed in terms of finite polynomials in generators. Some Bogoliubov transformations are involved as special cases.

  11. Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians and similarity transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco M. FernŠndez

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that similarity (or equivalent) transformations enable one to construct non-Hermitian operators with real spectrum. In this way we can also prove and generalize the results obtained by other authors by means of a gauge-like transformation and its generalization. Such similarity transformations also reveal the connection with pseudo-Hermiticity in a simple and straightforward way. In addition to it we consider the positive and negative eigenvalues of a three-parameter non-Hermitian oscillator.

  12. Catalytic Hydrolytic Cleavage and Oxy-Cleavage of Lignin Linkages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Guanguang; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, new strategies involving organic bases were evaluated to depolymerize lignin to reduced molecular fragments in aqueous medium. NaOH as an inorganic base was also investigated as a reference. Full nature lignin samples are used for the study. As research tools to unravel the complexity of the macro lignin structure and bulky molecular size under this study, size exclusion chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometric analysis, typically used for protein characterizations, were used to follow the progress of lignin depolymerisation by measuring the molecular weight distribution of the products and determining the key molecular fingerprints, respectively. The results show that sodium phenoxide and guanidine carbonate are effective catalysts for lignin depolymerization. It is observed that there exists a synergism between H2O2 and the organic base, which is strongest with guanidine carbonate.

  13. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  14. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Miller, Michael A. (San Antonio, TX)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  15. Monitoring the health of power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Hagman, W.H.; Lesieutre, B.C.; Boyd, M.J.; Warren, E.P.; Chou, H.P.; Tabors, R.D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reviews MIT`s model-based system which offers adaptive, intelligent surveillance of transformers, and summons attention to anomalous operation through paging devices. Failures of large power transformers are problematic for four reasons. Generally, large transformers are situated so that failures present operational problems to the system. In addition, large power transformers are encased in tanks of flammable and environmentally hazardous fluid. Failures are often accompanied by fire and/or spillage of this fluid. This presents hazards to people, other equipment and property, and the local environment. Finally, large power transformers are costly devices. There is a clear incentive for utilities to keep track of the health of their power transformers. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has developed an adaptive, intelligent, monitoring system for large power transformers. Four large transformers on the Boston Edison system are under continuous surveillance by this system, which can summon attention to anomalous operation through paging devices. The monitoring system offers two advantages over more traditional (not adaptive) methods of tracking transformer operation.

  16. An index 2F2 hypergeometric transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zouhair Mouayn

    2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a new one-parameter family of index hypergeometric transforms associated with the relativistic pseudoharmonic oscillator by using coherent states analysis.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Transformational Solutions for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. water supply and demand and explored potential "transformational" solutions from the perspectives of technology and policy (or both) and discussed ... Last Updated: October...

  18. Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This video is a great resource for teachers, demonstrating how transformers work. It includes experiments and demos that can be shared with students.

  19. Displacements and Transformations in Caribbean Cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurer, Bill

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Transformations in Caribbean Cultures. LIZABETHdefine a "global Caribbean" (p. 3) characterized bythe authors consider the Caribbean as a problematic more

  20. agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation: Topics by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that allows to specify binary relations on graphs Drewes, Frank 51 Constructors transformers Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Proc. AGTIVE'99,...