National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination battelle-cascade reverse

  1. CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis CycleCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/04/2010Location(s): Columbus, OhioOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  2. Chaos and simple determinism in reversed field pinch plasmas: Nonlinear analysis of numerical simulation and experimental data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, C.A.

    1993-09-01

    In this dissertation the possibility that chaos and simple determinism are governing the dynamics of reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas is investigated. To properly assess this possibility, data from both numerical simulations and experiment are analyzed. A large repertoire of nonlinear analysis techniques is used to identify low dimensional chaos in the data. These tools include phase portraits and Poincare sections, correlation dimension, the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and short term predictability. In addition, nonlinear noise reduction techniques are applied to the experimental data in an attempt to extract any underlying deterministic dynamics. Two model systems are used to simulate the plasma dynamics. These are the DEBS code, which models global RFP dynamics, and the dissipative trapped electron mode (DTEM) model, which models drift wave turbulence. Data from both simulations show strong indications of low dimensional chaos and simple determinism. Experimental date were obtained from the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP and consist of a wide array of both global and local diagnostic signals. None of the signals shows any indication of low dimensional chaos or low simple determinism. Moreover, most of the analysis tools indicate the experimental system is very high dimensional with properties similar to noise. Nonlinear noise reduction is unsuccessful at extracting an underlying deterministic system.

  3. The candidate sex-reversing DAX1 gene is autosomal in marsupials: Implications for the evolution of sex determination in mammals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pask, A.; Toder, R.; Wilcox, S.A. [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne (Australia)] [and others] [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne (Australia); and others

    1997-05-01

    The human X-linked DAX1 gene was cloned from the region of the short arm of the human X found in duplicate in sex-reversed X{sub dup}Y females. DAX1 is suggested to be required for ovarian differentiation and to play an important role in mammalian sex determination or differentiation pathways. Its proposed dose-dependent effect on sexual development suggests that DAX1 could represent an evolutionary link with an ancestral sex-determining mechanism that depended on the dosage of an X-linked gene. Furthermore, DAX1 could also represent the putative X-linked switch gene, which independently controls sexual dimorphisms in marsupial mammals in an X-dose-dependent manner. If DAX1 has a present role in marsupial sexual differentiation or had an ancestral role in mammalian sex determination, it would be expected to lie on the marsupial X chromosome, despite the autosomal localization of other human Xp genes. We therefore cloned and mapped the DAX1 gene in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). DAX1 was located on wallaby chromosome 5p near other human Xp genes, indicating that it was originally autosomal and that it is not involved in X-linked dose-dependent sex determination in an ancestral mammal nor in marsupial sexual differentiation. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  5. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  6. Combined application of normal and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to determining the group composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belous, E.F.; Lanin, S.N.; Nikitin, Yu.S.

    1995-01-01

    The quality and working characteristics of motor fuels essentially depend on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs). Therefore, the development of procedures for the group determination of aromatic hydrocarbons is an important and topical problem in the processing and quality control of petroleum products. The aim of this work was to improve the group separation and quantitative determination of monocyclic and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH and BAH) in light-end products.

  7. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Neste, Charles W.; Senesac, Lawrence R.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  8. Determination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances May 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  9. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  10. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  11. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian Eric

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  12. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  13. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  14. Reversible brazing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  15. OHA Case Reversed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A final determination was made by the Department of Energy Headquarters Appeal Panel to restore the individual's DOE access authorization.

  16. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  17. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  18. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2006-04-25

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  19. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2003-12-09

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  20. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  1. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    of 1 ) United States Patent 5,158,704 Fulton ,   et al. October 27, 1992 Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems

  2. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  3. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  4. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has...

  5. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak OhmicL-Mode Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy...

  6. Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The workshop was divided into two sessions-a PEM reversible fuel cell session and a reversible SOFC... critical issues, materials and systems barriers, and manufacturing issues ...

  7. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  8. Considerations for the use of the modified line reversal technique for gas temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkleman, B.C.

    1993-06-01

    Several areas related to the successful and accurate application of modified line reversal are discussed. Initially, generalized modified line reversal equations are developed. A review of basic line reversal theory is presented followed by development of correction factors for optical system effects. Image size and their effect on accurate determinations of spectral radiances is discussed. Temperature biases introduced by image vignetting is calculated. Measured image irradiances are given.

  9. Lower hybrid accessibility in a large, hot reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziubek, R.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Hokin, S.A.; Uchimoto, E.

    1995-11-01

    Accessibility and damping of the slow wave in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is investigated theoretically, using projected Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) plasma parameters. By numerically solving the hot plasma dispersion relation, regions of propagation are found and the possibility of mode conversion is analyzed. If the parallel index of refraction of the wave is chosen judiciously at the edge of the plasma, the slow wave is accessible to a target region located just inside the reversal surface without mode conversion. Landau damping is also optimized in this region. A representative fast electron population is then added in order to determine its effect on accessibility and damping. The presence of these electrons, whose parameters were estimated by extrapolation of Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) data, does not affect the accessibility of the wave. However, the initial phase velocity of the wave needs to be increased somewhat in order to maintain optimal damping in the target zone.

  10. Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Summary and presentations from the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop held April 19, ...

  11. Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy Everett Anderson NRELDOE Reversible Fuel Cell Workshop 19 April 2011 Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy ...

  12. Process of forming compounds using reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linehan, John C.; Fulton, John L.; Bean, Roger M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for producing a nanometer-sized metal compound. The process comprises forming a reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system comprising a polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. A first reactant comprising a multi-component, water-soluble metal compound is introduced into the polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. This first reactant can be introduced into the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system during formation thereof or subsequent to the formation of the reverse micelle or microemulsion system. The water-soluble metal compound is then reacted in the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system to form the nanometer-sized metal compound. The nanometer-sized metal compound is then precipitated from the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system.

  13. Reverse Osmosis Optimization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reverse Osmosis Optimization Reverse Osmosis Optimization Report assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. It provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. This report is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system

  14. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron

  15. Time Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-08-15

    Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups.

  16. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  17. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas Authors: Rice, J. E. ; Cziegler, I. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Duval, B. P. ; ...

  18. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their...

  19. Fuel cell system with coolant flow reversal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Method and apparatus for cooling electrochemical fuel cell system components. Periodic reversal of the direction of flow of cooling fluid through a fuel cell stack provides greater uniformity and cell operational temperatures. Flow direction through a recirculating coolant fluid circuit is reversed through a two position valve, without requiring modulation of the pumping component.

  20. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department ofmore » Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.]« less

  1. Rigid-rotor, field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conti, F. Giammanco, F.; Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., Via Giuntini 63, 56023 Navacchio ; Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Bolte, N.; Morehouse, M.; Qerushi, A.; Rahman, H. U.; Roche, T.; Slepchenkov, M.

    2014-02-15

    The radial profiles, n(r), B{sub z}(r), and E{sub r}(r), for a Flux-Coil (“inductively driven”), Field-Reversed Configuration (FC-FRC) are measured and compared to the predictions of the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM), which is an analytic, one-dimensional, time-independent, equilibrium description for the FRC. Injectors mounted on both ends of the confinement vessel provide a pre-fill plasma. Coaxial coils mounted outside the vacuum boundaries of the annular-confinement vessel accelerate the plasma and produce the FRC. The density profile is measured by laser interferometry, the magnetic-field profile using an in-situ probe array, and the electric-field profile using an in-situ, floating-probe array. Free parameters for each profile are measured, which also allow other intrinsic-plasma parameters to be determined, using computer-fit algorithms: null radius, radial thickness, plasma temperature, rotation frequencies, the latter of which are independently verified by spectroscopy. All radial profiles agree with the RRM predictions, for the experimental configuration, parameter regime, and specified-time interval studied here.

  2. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  3. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  4. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in...

  5. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or ... remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location ...

  6. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and H. Ohldag, "Direct imaging of asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased FeMnPd bilayers by x-ray photoemission electron microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 107203...

  7. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Ohldag, "Direct imaging of asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased FeMnPd bilayers by x-ray photoemission electron microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 107203 (2005...

  8. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  9. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  10. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  11. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  12. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  13. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny

  14. Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Dr. Robert J. Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mr. Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology YOU'RE INVITED  NREL WORKSHOP Reversible fuel cells operate like batteries and may be one solution to the problem of storing electricity generated by variable resources. This workshop will bring together subject matter experts and fuel cell developers to discuss the state-of- the-art and to draft a road

  15. Absence of correlation between Sry polymorphisms and XY sex reversal caused by the M.m. domesticus Y chromosome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, C.; Nagamine, C.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Vanderbilt Univ., School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Winkinig, H.; Weichenhan, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Zu Luebeck (Germany)] [Medizinische Universitaet Zu Luebeck (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Mus musculus domesticus Y chromosomes (Y{sup DOM} Chrs) vary in their ability to induce testes in the strain C57BL/6J. In severe cases, XY females develop (XY{sup DOM} sex reversal). To identify the molecular basis for the sex reversal, a 2.7-kb region of Sry, the testis-determining gene, was sequenced from Y{sup DOM} Chrs linked to normal testis determination, transient sex reversal, and severe sex reversal. Four mutations were identified. However, no correlation exists between these mutations and severity of XY{sup DOM} sex reversal. RT-PCR identified Sry transcripts in XY{sup DOM} sex-reversed fetal gonads at 11 d.p.c., the age when Sry is hypothesized to function. In addition, no correlation exists between XY{sup DOM} sex reversal and copy numbers of pSx1, a Y-repetitive sequence whose deletion is linked to XY sex reversal. We conclude that SRY protein variants, blockade of Sry transcription, and deletion of pSx1 sequences are not the underlying causes of XY{sup DOM} sex reversal. 63 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 3, 2016 Title: Reversible...

  17. Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry in Strained Graphene Title: Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry in Strained Graphene ...

  18. Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen ...

  19. Time-reversal symmetric hierarchy of fractional incompressible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time-reversal symmetric hierarchy of fractional incompressible liquids Title: Time-reversal symmetric hierarchy of fractional incompressible liquids Authors: Santos, Luiz ; ...

  20. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation ...

  1. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER ...

  2. Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in n -doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in n -doped BiH Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in n -doped ...

  3. Phenomenology of reverse-shock emission in the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japelj, J.; Kopa?, D.; Gomboc, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobayashi, S.; Harrison, R.; Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Guidorzi, C. [Physics Departments, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Melandri, A., E-mail: jure.japelj@fmf.uni-lj.si, E-mail: andreja.gomboc@fmf.uni-lj.si [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2014-04-20

    We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock (RS) emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse-shock signatures: 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424, and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse- and forward-shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray, and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time (<1 ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity, and ?-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse-shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late times (>10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse-shock component show a high magnetization parameter R {sub B} = ?{sub B,r}/?{sub B,f} ? 2-10{sup 4}. Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.

  4. New Limit on Time-Reversal Violation in Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumm, H. P.; Chupp, T. E.; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Garcia, A.; Jones, G. L.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Trull, C. A.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-02

    We report the results of an improved determination of the triple correlation DP{center_dot}(p{sub e}xp{sub v}) that can be used to limit possible time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons and constrain extensions to the standard model. Our result is D=[-0.96{+-}1.89(stat){+-}1.01(sys)]x10{sup -4}. The corresponding phase between g{sub A} and g{sub V} is {phi}{sub AV}=180.013 deg. {+-}0.028 deg. (68% confidence level). This result represents the most sensitive measurement of D in nuclear {beta} decay.

  5. Real space mapping of oxygen vacancy diffusion and electrochemical transformations by hysteretic current reversal curve measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Jesse, Stephen; Maksymovych, Petro; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni

    2014-06-10

    An excitation voltage biases an ionic conducting material sample over a nanoscale grid. The bias sweeps a modulated voltage with increasing maximal amplitudes. A current response is measured at grid locations. Current response reversal curves are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Reversal curves are averaged over the grid for each bias cycle and mapped over maximal bias amplitudes for each bias cycle. Average reversal curve areas are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Thresholds are determined for onset and ending of electrochemical activity. A predetermined number of bias sweeps may vary in frequency where each sweep has a constant number of cycles and reversal response curves may indicate ionic diffusion kinetics.

  6. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  7. Time reversal signal processing for communication.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.

    2011-09-01

    Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.

  8. Transport Physics in Reversed Shear Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinton, F.M.; Batha, S.H.; Beer, M.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Von Goeler, S.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Bush, C.E.

    1997-12-31

    Reversed magnetic shear is considered a good candidate for improving the tokamak concept because it has the potential to stabilize MHD instabilities and reduce particle and energy transport. With reduced transport the high pressure gradient would generate a strong off-axis bootstrap current and could sustain a hollow current density profile. Such a combination of favorable conditions could lead to an attractive steady-state tokamak configuration. Indeed, a new tokamak confinement regime with reversed magnetic shear has been observed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where the particle, momentum, and ion thermal diffusivities drop precipitously, by over an order of magnitude. The particle diffusivity drops to the neoclassical level and the ion thermal diffusivity drops to much less than the neoclassical value in the region with reversed shear. This enhanced reversed shear (ERS) confinement mode is characterized by an abrupt transition with a large rate of rise of the density in the reversed shear region during neutral beam injection, resulting in nearly a factor of three increase in the central density to 1.2 X 10(exp 20) cube m. At the same time the density fluctuation level in the reversed shear region dramatically decreases. The ion and electron temperatures, which are about 20 keV and 7 keV respectively, change little during the ERS mode. The transport and transition into and out of the ERS mode have been studied on TFTR with plasma currents in the range 0.9-2.2 MA, with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.7-4.6 T, and the radius of the q(r) minimum, q{sub min}, has been varied from r/a = 0.35 to 0.55. Toroidal field and co/counter neutral beam injection toroidal rotation variations have been used to elucidate the underlying physics of the transition mechanism and power threshold of the ERS mode.

  9. Forward and reverse characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paccagnella, A.; Ceschia, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Soncini, G.; Bellutti, P.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    pMOSFETs biased with V{sub gs} < V{sub gd} during Co{sup 60} {gamma} irradiation have shown substantial differences between the forward and reverse subthreshold characteristics, induced by a non-uniform charge distribution in the gate oxide. Correspondingly, modest differences have been observed in the over-threshold I-V characteristics. After irradiation, the forward subthreshold curves can shift at higher or lower gate voltages than the reverse ones. The former behavior has been observed in long-channel devices, in agreement with the classical MOS theory and numerical simulations. The latter result has been obtained in short-channel devices, and it has been correlated to a parasitic punch-through conduction mechanism.

  10. Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Al-Amri, M.; Davidovich, Luiz

    2010-11-15

    Entanglement of a system changes due to interactions with the environment. A typical type of interaction is amplitude damping. If we add a detector to monitor the environment and only select the no-damping outcome, this amplitude damping is modified into a weak measurement. Here we show that the entanglement change of a two-qubit state due to amplitude damping or weak measurement can be probabilistically reversed. For the amplitude-damping case, the entanglement partially recovers under most conditions. For the weak-measurement case, the recovery of the initial entangled state is exact. The reversal procedure involves another weak measurement, preceded and followed by bit flips applied to both qubits. We propose a linear optics scheme for the experimental demonstration of these procedures.

  11. Membranes for Reverse-Organic Air Separations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Membranes Use Reverse Separation to Reduce Pollutant Emissions: Many industrial applications need a process to separate pollutants known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air in order to protect the environment and save energy. One such application is the venting of vapor from underground storage tanks (UST) used in gasoline storage and dispensing. These vapors, which can build up and create high pressure within the UST, contribute to ground-level ozone and smog upon release.

  12. On the design of reversible QDCA systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Frank, Michael P. (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Ottavi, Marco; Frost-Murphy, Sarah E.

    2006-10-01

    This work is the first to describe how to go about designing a reversible QDCA system. The design space is substantial, and there are many questions that a designer needs to answer before beginning to design. This document begins to explicate the tradeoffs and assumptions that need to be made and offers a range of approaches as starting points and examples. This design guide is an effective tool for aiding designers in creating the best quality QDCA implementation for a system.

  13. Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands Activated by (C5Me5)2Yb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between ...

  14. Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Casey Brown, Versa Power Systems, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

  15. Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

  16. Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

  17. Magnetization reversal driven by a spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbiaa, R.

    2014-09-01

    Magnetization reversal of a magnetic free layer under spin transfer torque (STT) effect from a magnetic hard layer with a fixed magnetization direction and an oscillating layer is investigated. By including STT from the oscillating layer with in-plane anisotropy and orthogonal polarizer, magnetization-time dependence of free layer is determined. The results show that the frequency and amplitude of oscillations can be varied by adjusting the current density and magnetic properties. For an optimal oscillation frequency (f{sub opt}), a reduction of the switching time (t{sub 0}) of the free layer is observed. Both f{sub opt} and t{sub 0} increase with the anisotropy field of the free layer.

  18. Magnetization reversal assisted by half antivortex states in nanostructured circular cobalt disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara, A.; Aliev, F. G.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Prieto, J. L.; Huth, M.

    2014-11-03

    The half antivortex, a fundamental topological structure which determines magnetization reversal of submicron magnetic devices with domain walls, has been suggested also to play a crucial role in spin torque induced vortex core reversal in circular disks. Here, we report on magnetization reversal in circular disks with nanoholes through consecutive metastable states with half antivortices. In-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance and broadband susceptibility measurements accompanied by micromagnetic simulations reveal that cobalt (Co) disks with two and three linearly arranged nanoholes directed at 45° and 135° with respect to the external magnetic field show reproducible step-like changes in the anisotropic magnetoresistance and magnetic permeability due to transitions between different intermediate states mediated by vortices and half antivortices confined to the dot nanoholes and edges, respectively. Our findings are relevant for the development of multi-hole based spintronic and magnetic memory devices.

  19. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  20. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  1. Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

    2002-07-09

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments.

  2. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  3. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  4. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  5. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  6. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  7. High field strength following the Kauai R-N geomagnetic reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, H.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The paleomagnetism of superposed lava flows on Kauai, Hawaii shows that the ancient geomagnetic field was unusually strong following a reverse-to-normal polarity transition that occurred about 4 million years ago. Paleointensities were determined by a standard experimental procedure (Thelliers' method) that recreates the process of remanence acquisition in volcanic rocks. This experiment makes it possible to infer the strength of the geomagnetic field present with each lava flow formed, thus producing an accurate picture of the ancient field's behavior after the reversal. Samples from 10 volcanic units yielded virtual dipole moments (VDMs) ranging from 7.4 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] to 14.5 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] with an average of 11.1[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. This value is high in comparisons to the average VDM for the past 5 m.y., approximately 8.7[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. In contrast to the highly variable dipole moment observed following a 15 m.y. old reversal at Steen s Mountain, Oregon, the field following the Kauai transition was relatively steady. Surprisingly, the maximum dipole moments following the two reversals were nearly equal. This similarity hints that high field strength may be a systematic feature of the geodynamo immediately following a polarity reversal.

  8. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) amore » memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.« less

  9. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) a memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.

  10. Review of field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2011-07-15

    This review addresses field-reversed configurations (FRCs), which are compact-toroidal magnetic systems with little or no toroidal field and very high {beta} (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure). Although enthusiasm for the FRC has primarily been driven by its potential for an attractive fusion reactor, this review focuses on the physics rather than on technological or engineering aspects. Major advances in both theory and experiment have taken place since the previous comprehensive FRC review in 1988. Even so many questions remain. In particular, even though FRC experiments have exhibited remarkable stability, how well this extrapolates to larger systems remains unresolved. The review considers FRCs under familiar topical categories: equilibrium, global stability, self-organization, transport, formation, and sustainment.

  11. Digital reverse propagation in focusing Kerr media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-03-15

    Lenses allow the formation of clear images in homogeneous linear media. Holography is an alternative imaging method, but its use is limited to cases in which it provides an advantage, such as three-dimensional imaging. In nonlinear media, lenses no longer work. The light produces intensity-dependent aberrations. The reverse propagation method used in digital holography to form images from recorded holograms works even in Kerr media [M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).]. The principle has been experimentally demonstrated recently in defocusing media [C. Barsi, W.Wan, and J.W. Fleischer, Nat. Photonics 3, 211 (2009).]. Here, we report experimental results in focusing media.

  12. Dynamics and efficiency of magnetic vortex circulation reversal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamics and efficiency of magnetic vortex circulation reversal Not Available Temp HTML Storage 2: Urbnek, Michal; Uhl, Vojtch; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Kan, Jimmy J.; ...

  13. Reversible Aptamer-Au Plasmon Rulers for Secreted Single Molecules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Somin Eunice; Chen, Qian; Bhat, Ramray; Petkiewicz, Shayne; Smith, Jessica M.; Ferry, Vivian E.; Correia, Ana Luisa; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Bissell, Mina J.

    2015-06-03

    Plasmon rulers, consisting of pairs of gold nanoparticles, allow single-molecule analysis without photobleaching or blinking; however, current plasmon rulers are irreversible, restricting detection to only single events. Here, we present a reversible plasmon ruler, comprised of coupled gold nanoparticles linked by a single aptamer, capable of binding individual secreted molecules with high specificity. We show that the binding of target secreted molecules to the reversible plasmon ruler is characterized by single-molecule sensitivity, high specificity, and reversibility. Lastly, such reversible plasmon rulers should enable dynamic and adaptive live-cell measurement of secreted single molecules in their local microenvironment.

  14. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Presented ...

  15. Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Previous Next List Jihye Park, Dawei Feng, Shuai Yuan and Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int....

  16. A Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Discovery, ... was discovered in a metal-organic framework (MOF) PCN-526. During the phase ...

  17. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Daqiang Yuan , Khanh T. Pham , ...

  18. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation ...

  19. A Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Discovery, Mechanistic Studies, and Potential Applications Previous Next List Liu, Dahuan; Liu,...

  20. Materials and System Issues with Reversible SOFC | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells Workshop Summary Report Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Lessons Learned from SOFCSOEC Development...

  1. Reversible Electrocatalytic Production and Oxidation of Hydrogen at Low Overpotentials by a Functional Hydrogenase Mimic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Stuart E.; Yang, Jenny Y.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, Morris

    2012-03-26

    A new bis(diphosphine) nickel(II) complex, [Ni(PPh2NR2)2](BF4)2, 1, (R = CH2CH2OCH3) is described. A {Delta}G{sup o} of 0.84 kcal/mol{sup -1} for hydrogen addition for this complex was calculated from the experimentally determined equilibrium constant. This complex displays reversible electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen production and oxidation at low overpotentials, a characteristic most commonly associated with hydrogenase enzymes.

  2. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  3. Reversible piezomagnetoelectric switching in bulk polycrystalline ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, T. Bennett, J.; Brown, A. P.; Wines, T.; Bell, A. J.; Comyn, T. P.; Smith, R. I.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in materials offer tremendous advantages in device functionality enabling technologies including advanced electronic memory, combining electronic speed, and efficiency with magnetic robustness. However, low cost polycrystalline ME materials are excluded from most commercial applications, operating only at cryogenic temperatures, impractically large electric/magnetic fields, or with low ME coefficients (1-100 mV/cm Oe). Despite this, the technological potential of single compound ME coupling has continued to drive research into multiferroics over the last two decades. Here we show that by manipulating the large induced atomic strain within the polycrystalline, room temperature multiferroic compound 0.7BiFeO{sub 3}–0.3PbTiO{sub 3}, we can induce a reversible, piezoelectric strain controlled ME effect. Employing an in situ neutron diffraction experiment, we have demonstrated that this piezomagnetoelectric effect manifests with an applied electric field >8 kV/mm at the onset of piezoelectric strain, engineered in to the compound by crystallographic phase mixing. This produces a remarkable intrinsic ME coefficient of 1276 mV/cm Oe, due to a strain driven modification to the oxygen sub-lattice, inducing an increase in magnetic moment per Fe{sup 3+} ion of +0.142 μ{sub B}. This work provides a framework for investigations into strain engineered nanostructures to realize low-cost ME devices designed from the atoms up, as well as contributing to the deeper understanding of single phase ME coupling mechanisms.

  4. A high performance field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Garate, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Andow, R.; Aefsky, S.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ∼1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.

  5. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  6. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1993-05-04

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  7. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  8. Fusion proton diagnostic for the C-2 field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M. Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Garate, E.; Knapp, K.; Tkachev, A.

    2014-11-15

    Measurements of the flux of fusion products from high temperature plasmas provide valuable insights into the ion energy distribution, as the fusion reaction rate is a very sensitive function of ion energy. In C-2, where field reversed configuration plasmas are formed by the collision of two compact toroids and partially sustained by high power neutral beam injection [M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010); M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)], measurements of DD fusion neutron flux are used to diagnose ion temperature and study fast ion confinement and dynamics. In this paper, we will describe the development of a new 3 MeV proton detector that will complement existing neutron detectors. The detector is a large area (50?cm{sup 2}), partially depleted, ion implanted silicon diode operated in a pulse counting regime. While the scintillator-based neutron detectors allow for high time resolution measurements (?100 kHz), they have no spatial or energy resolution. The proton detector will provide 10 cm spatial resolution, allowing us to determine if the axial distribution of fast ions is consistent with classical fast ion theory or whether anomalous scattering mechanisms are active. We will describe in detail the diagnostic design and present initial data from a neutral beam test chamber.

  9. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  10. Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Henry, J.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1993-04-03

    Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement has been improved by reduction of magnetic field errors with correction coils in the primary circuit and reduction of impurities using boronization; high densities have been achieved with hydrogen pellet injection. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5--7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occuring during strong MHD relaxation. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. Initial profile control experiments have begun using insertable biased probes and plasma guns. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer, 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.

  11. A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, J.L.

    1992-01-31

    Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube[reg sign] reverse osmosis (RO) module's performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

  12. A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, J.L.

    1992-01-31

    Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube{reg_sign} reverse osmosis (RO) module`s performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

  13. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m{sup 2} and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings.

  14. Magnetization reversal in TmCrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshii, Kenji

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► We observed two magnetization reversals in TmCrO{sub 3}. ► The reversal at 28 K is attributed to antiparallel coupling between Cr{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}. ► The other reversal originates from spin reorientation. ► Magnetocaloric effect is observed at the spin reorientation temperature. ► Characteristic magnetization switching is demonstrated. -- Abstract: The perovskite chromite TmCrO{sub 3} shows magnetization reversal at two temperatures. The reversal at ∼28 K is attributed to the antiparallel coupling between Tm{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} moments, while that at the lower temperature (∼6–7 K) is rooted in a rotation of the magnetic moments. Magnetocaloric measurements offer a relatively large entropy change (∼4–5 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}) at the lower temperature. The reversal at ∼28 K is accompanied by a sign change of an exchange-bias-like field. The absence of the training effect suggests that this behavior is rooted in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy. The existence of the two magnetization reversals offers the characteristic switching of magnetization. For example, the magnetization is flipped without changing the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  15. Three-dimensional time reversal communications in elastic media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ten Cate, James A.

    2016-02-23

    Our letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Also, the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated here in order to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location.

  16. DEFINING THE PLAYERS IN HIGHER-ORDER NETWORKS: PREDICTIVE MODELING FOR REVERSE ENGINEERING FUNCTIONAL INFLUENCE NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Costa, Michelle N.; Stevens, S.L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-01-20

    A difficult problem that is currently growing rapidly due to the sharp increase in the amount of high-throughput data available for many systems is that of determining useful and informative causative influence networks. These networks can be used to predict behavior given observation of a small number of components, predict behavior at a future time point, or identify components that are critical to the functioning of the system under particular conditions. In these endeavors incorporating observations of systems from a wide variety of viewpoints can be particularly beneficial, but has often been undertaken with the objective of inferring networks that are generally applicable. The focus of the current work is to integrate both general observations and measurements taken for a particular pathology, that of ischemic stroke, to provide improved ability to produce useful predictions of systems behavior. A number of hybrid approaches have recently been proposed for network generation in which the Gene Ontology is used to filter or enrich network links inferred from gene expression data through reverse engineering methods. These approaches have been shown to improve the biological plausibility of the inferred relationships determined, but still treat knowledge-based and machine-learning inferences as incommensurable inputs. In this paper, we explore how further improvements may be achieved through a full integration of network inference insights achieved through application of the Gene Ontology and reverse engineering methods with specific reference to the construction of dynamic models of transcriptional regulatory networks. We show that integrating two approaches to network construction, one based on reverse-engineering from conditional transcriptional data, one based on reverse-engineering from in situ hybridization data, and another based on functional associations derived from Gene Ontology, using probabilities can improve results of clustering as evaluated by a

  17. Effects of q -profile structures on intrinsic torque reversals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Effects of q -profile structures on intrinsic torque reversals Authors: Lu, Z. X. ; Wang, W. X. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Tynan, G. ; Ethier, S. ; Chen, J. ; Gao, C. ; Rice, J. E. ...

  18. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    millitesla (mT) to reverse the direction of a vortex core. ... and their possible application to data storage technologies. ... Is there a physical limit to how far this process can go? At ...

  19. Reversible CO Scavenging via Adsorbate-Dependent Spin State Transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible CO Scavenging via Adsorbate-Dependent Spin State Transitions in an Iron(II)-Triazolate Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Reed, Douglas A.; Xiao, Dianne J.; ...

  20. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors.

  1. Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 18, 2015, Research Highlights Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode Powder diffraction of oxyfluoridecathode with intercalated Mg and capacities of oxyfluorideand oxide cathodes Scientific Achievement Magnesium was reversibly intercalated at room temperature into an oxyfluoride cathode without the co-intercalation of electrolytes or protons and without the formation of unwanted side-products that commonly

  2. Real-time sub- Å ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Real-time sub- ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene Title: Real-time sub- ngstrom imaging of reversible and ...

  3. REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE IN A LiBH{sub 4}-C{sub 60} NANOCOMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teprovich, J.; Zidan, R.; Peters, B.; Wheeler, J.

    2013-08-06

    Reversible hydrogen storage in a LiBH{sub 4}:C{sub 60} nanocomposite (70:30 wt. %) synthesized by solvent-assisted mixing has been demonstrated. During the solvent-assisted mixing and nanocomposite formation, a chemical reaction occurs in which the C{sub 60} cages are significantly modified by polymerization as well as by hydrogenation (fullerane formation) in the presence of LiBH{sub 4}. We have determined that two distinct hydrogen desorption events are observed upon rehydrogenation of the material, which are attributed to the reversible formation of a fullerane (C{sub 60}H{sub x}) as well as a LiBH4 species. This system is unique in that the carbon species (C{sub 60}) actively participates in the hydrogen storage process which differs from the common practice of melt infiltration of high surface area carbon materials with LiBH{sub 4} (nanoconfinment effect). This nanocomposite demonstrated good reversible hydrogen storage properties as well as the ability to absorb hydrogen under mild conditions (pressures as low as 10 bar H{sub 2} or temperatures as low as 150?C). The nanocomposite was characterized by TGA-RGA, DSC, XRD, LDI-TOF-MS, FTIR, 1H NMR, and APPI MS.

  4. Reversal of the cosmic ray density gradient perpendicular to the ecliptic plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinson, D.B.; Kananen, H.

    1982-03-01

    Annual averages of the diurnal variation in cosmic ray intensity from neutron monitors in Deep River and Oulu and underground muon telescopes in Bolivia and at Embudo and Socorro, New Mexico, have been determined as a function of the sense of the interplantary magnetic field for the years 1965--1975. These data point to a cosmic ray density gradient, perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, pointing southward prior to 1969 and changing to a northward pointing gradient after the reversal of the sun's polar magnetic field in 1969--1971. This result supports numerical calculations for the prereversal and postreversal field configurations at intermediate and high cosmic ray rigidities.

  5. Implications of Scheduled ITC Reversion for RPS Compliance: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowder, Travis; Miller, John; O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny

    2015-09-14

    This poster presents DRAFT initial results of a forthcoming NREL analysis. The analysis investigates the impacts of the scheduled investment tax credit (ITC) reversion from 30 percent to 10 percent for certain solar photovoltaic projects. Specifically, it considers whether the reversion will result in increased use of alternative compliance payments (ACPs) in lieu of solar renewable energy credits (SRECs) for renewable portfolio standard (RPS) compliance. The analysis models the effect of a 10 percent ITC on power purchase agreement (PPA) prices for non-residential systems in the eight states with solar carve-outs and solar ACPs. Our preliminary results suggest that states will likely install sufficient capacity to meet long-term targets through SRECs rather than ACPs following the ITC reversion. However, the analysis shows that the ITC reversion could affect project economics such that capacity shortfalls in certain states could temporarily increase the use of ACPs. NREL anticipates publishing a full report of this analysis in fall 2015. credits (SRECs) for renewable portfolio standard (RPS) compliance. The analysis models the effect of a 10 percent ITC on power purchase agreement (PPA) prices for non-residential systems in the eight states with solar carve-outs and solar ACPs. Our preliminary results suggest that states will likely install sufficient capacity to meet long-term targets through SRECs rather than ACPs following the ITC reversion. However, the analysis shows that the ITC reversion could affect project economics such that capacity shortfalls in certain states could temporarily increase the use of ACPs. NREL anticipates publishing a full report of this analysis in fall 2015.

  6. E-print Network : Main View : Search Results for Title: "Reversible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible control of spin-polarized supercurrents in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions" Author: Banerjee AND Robinson...

  7. Energy current imaging method for time reversal in elastic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian E; Ulrich, Timothy J; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves A; Larmat, Carene; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert A; Griffa, Michele

    2009-01-01

    An energy current imaging method is presented for use in locating sources of wave energy during the back propagation stage of the time reversal process. During the back propagation phase of an ideal time reversal experiment, wave energy coalesces from all angles of incidence to recreate the source event; after the recreation, wave energy diverges in every direction. An energy current imaging method based on this convergence/divergence behavior has been developed. The energy current imaging method yields a smaller spatial distribution for source reconstruction than is possible with traditional energy imaging methods.

  8. In-situ Characterization of Highly Reversible Phase Transformation by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron X-ray Laue Microdiffraction In-situ Characterization of Highly Reversible Phase Transformation by Synchrotron X-ray Laue Microdiffraction In-situ Characterization of Highly Reversible Phase Transformation by Synchrotron X-ray Laue Microdiffraction Print Monday, 23 May 2016 09:50 In situ measurement of the orientation matrices for the austenite and martensite phases of the alloy Cu25Au30Zn45 across the interface was performed by synchrotron x-ray Laue microdiffraction at the ALS.

  9. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print Wednesday, 28 March 2007 00:00 In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to

  10. Modified polynomial function model for reversed field pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    A generalized analytic representation for the magnetic field and current density profiles in a reversed field pinch is proposed. These profiles have zero current density at the wall and finite plasma pressure. The profiles are characterized by two free parameters here taken to be the field reversal parameter (F) and pinch parameter ({Theta}). From the profiles, many useful quantities such as magnetic energy, beta, inductane, resistance and ohmic input power are calculated. These quantities provide a basis for analyzing experimental data and performing electrical circuit modeling of RFP discharges. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1987-01-01

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  12. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05

    A high power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  13. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1987-02-10

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime. 10 figs.

  14. Rotational stability of a long field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D. C. Steinhauer, L. C.

    2014-02-15

    Rotationally driven modes of long systems with dominantly axial magnetic field are considered. We apply the incompressible model and order axial wavenumber small. A recently developed gyro-viscous model is incorporated. A one-dimensional equilibrium is assumed, but radial profiles are arbitrary. The dominant toroidal (azimuthal) mode numbers ℓ=1 and ℓ=2 modes are examined for a variety of non-reversed (B) and reversed profiles. Previous results for both systems with rigid rotor equilibria are reproduced. New results are obtained by incorporation of finite axial wavenumber and by relaxing the assumption of rigid electron and ion rotation. It is shown that the frequently troublesome ℓ=2 field reversed configuration (FRC) mode is not strongly affected by ion kinetic effects (in contrast to non-reversed cases) and is likely stabilized experimentally only by finite length effects. It is also shown that the ℓ=1 wobble mode has a complicated behavior and is affected by a variety of configuration and profile effects. The rotationally driven ℓ=1 wobble is completely stabilized by strong rotational shear, which is anticipated to be active in high performance FRC experiments. Thus, observed wobble modes in these systems are likely not driven by rotation alone.

  15. Simulation studies of nucleation of ferroelectric polarization reversal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Winchester, Benjamin Michael

    2014-08-01

    Electric field-induced reversal of spontaneous polarization is the defining characteristic of a ferroelectric material, but the process(es) and mechanism(s) associated with the initial nucleation of reverse-polarity domains are poorly understood. This report describes studies carried out using phase field modeling of LiTaO3, a relatively simple prototype ferroelectric material, in order to explore the effects of either mechanical deformation or optically-induced free charges on nucleation and resulting domain configuration during field-induced polarization reversal. Conditions were selected to approximate as closely as feasible those of accompanying experimental work in order to provide not only support for the experimental work but also ensure that additional experimental validation of the simulations could be carried out in the future. Phase field simulations strongly support surface mechanical damage/deformation as effective for dramatically reducing the overall coercive field (Ec) via local field enhancements. Further, optically-nucleated polarization reversal appears to occur via stabilization of latent nuclei via the charge screening effects of free charges.

  16. Single line reversing system capsular pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, P.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the 1800's the first Pneumatic Tube Systems sent a carrier vertically from one floor to another in a hospital using a foot-powered bellows. The carrier was returned to the starting point down the same tube using gravity. This was the first Single Line Reversing system. As the stations were moved apart horizontally the foot-powered bellows at both ends became ineffective and were replaced with a single blower or exhauster. The blower/exhauster ran continuously therefore a second line for returning carriers to the starting point, had to be installed - hence Twin Line systems. These systems were used for transporting mail, paperwork, medications, steel mill samples, parts, tools, medical lab samples, etc., in hospitals, stores and other businesses. Twin Line systems were very popular until about 1970 at which time installation labor and material costs became expensive and controls were becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive. These reasons plus new technology forced the return to Single Line Reversing technology. Back in the 1800's three ``people transporting'' subways were built. A fourth system was built under the Pentagon in the 1950's or 1960's. It is difficult to find information on this one. All are Single Line Reversing systems. The difference between a Single Line Reversing and a Twin Line system is exactly as the names imply. The principle of the operation of these systems is covered herein. The physics for these two kinds of systems is the same. The Single Line Reversing system is technically more complex but capital and operating expense is far less costly. These costs are discussed herein.

  17. Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

    1992-08-01

    Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

  18. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  19. Two-step polarization reversal in biased ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, John E. Ukritnukun, Supphatuch; Glaum, Julia; Cozzan, Clayton; Tutuncu, Goknur; Dosch, Chris; Andrieux, Jerome; Jo, Wook; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-06-14

    Polarization reversal in polycrystalline ferroelectrics is shown to occur via two distinct and sequential domain reorientation steps. This reorientation sequence, which cannot be readily discriminated in the overall sample polarization, is made apparent using time-resolved high-energy x-ray diffraction. Upon application of electric fields opposite to the initial poling direction, two unique and significantly different time constants are observed. The first (faster time constant) is shown to be derived by the release of a residual stress due to initial electrical biasing and the second (slower time constant) due to the redevelopment of residual stress during further domain wall motion. A modified domain reorientation model is given that accurately describes the domain volume fraction evolution during the reversal process.

  20. Fast chirality reversal of the magnetic vortex by electric current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, W. L. Liu, R. H.; Urazhdin, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Erokhin, S. G.; Berkov, D.

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of high-density information encoding in magnetic materials by topologically stable inhomogeneous magnetization configurations such as domain walls, skyrmions, and vortices has motivated intense research into mechanisms enabling their control and detection. While the uniform magnetization states can be efficiently controlled by electric current using magnetic multilayer structures, this approach has proven much more difficult to implement for inhomogeneous states. Here, we report direct observation of fast reversal of magnetic vortex by electric current in a simple planar structure based on a bilayer of spin Hall material Pt with a single microscopic ferromagnetic disk contacted by asymmetric electrodes. The reversal is enabled by a combination of the chiral Oersted field and spin current generated by the nonuniform current distribution in Pt. Our results provide a route for the efficient control of inhomogeneous magnetization configurations by electric current.

  1. Reversible and irreversible ion migration processes in lead halide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    perovskites for photovoltaics | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Reversible and irreversible ion migration processes in lead halide perovskites for photovoltaics March 9, 2016 at 4:30 PM/36-462 Eric Hoke Stanford University, Draper Laboratory hoke-eric Lead hybrid perovskites are a promising family of photovoltaic absorber materials that have achieved power conversion efficiencies of over 20%. Lead halide perovskites are ionic materials with a low lattice energy which are unusual properties

  2. Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Inorganic Nonaqueous Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research April 8, 2015, Research Highlights Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping in Inorganic Nonaqueous Electrolytes MgCl+ Desolvation Diagram Scientific Achievement The chemical species at the Mg-anode surface in the presence of Magnesium Aluminum-Chloro complex (MACC) electrolyte were identified. While solvent molecules (THF and DME) are loosely bound at the Mg(0001) surface, the

  3. Cooling by Time Reversal of Atomic Matter Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-02-01

    We propose an experimental scheme which allows us to realized approximate time reversal of matter waves for ultracold atoms in the regime of quantum chaos. We show that a significant fraction of the atoms return back to their original state, being at the same time cooled down by several orders of magnitude. We give a theoretical description of this effect supported by extensive numerical simulations. The proposed scheme can be implemented with existing experimental setups.

  4. Advanced Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Hui Xu (PI) Giner Inc Newton, MA This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Catalyst Work Group Meeting June 8, 2015 2 Barriers Addressed * Activity (catalyst; MEA) * Durability (catalyst; MEA) * Cost (catalyst; MEA) Technical Targets * Design and develop ORR/OER bi-functional oxide catalysts * Integrate ORR/OER bifunctional oxide catalysts and alkaline membranes to

  5. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  6. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  7. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  8. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  9. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  10. Corrosion/erosion pipe inspection using reverse geometry radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, R.D.

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of corrosion in piping was studied using the Digiray Reverse Geometry X-ray{reg_sign} (RGX{reg_sign}) imaging system during a series of field tests. Sponsored by Shell, Exxon and Mobil oil companies, these were recently carried out at the Shell Martinez refinery facility. Results of the field tests as well as other RGX radiographs taken in the laboratory by Digiray will be described in this report.

  11. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  12. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  13. Reversible geling co-polymer and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna

    2005-12-27

    The present invention is a thereapeutic agent carrier having a thermally reversible gel or geling copolymer that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth-]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum geling molecular weight cutoff and a therapeutic agent.

  14. Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology Presented by: Casey Brown 19 April 2011 Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights Reserved Versa Power Systems * Versa Power Systems is a developer of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) * Privately held company headquartered in Littleton, Colorado, United States * SOFC development facility in Calgary, Alberta, Canada * Activities in both stationary and mobile SOFC development Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights

  15. Dynamic processes in field-reversed-configuration compact toroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rej, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this lecture, the dynamic processes involved in field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation, translation, and compression will be reviewed. Though the FRC is related to the field-reversed mirror concept, the formation method used in most experiments is a variant of the field-reversed THETA-pinch. Formation of the FRC eqilibrium occurs rapidly, usually in less than 20 ..mu..s. The formation sequence consists of several coupled processes: preionization; radial implosion and compression; magnetic field line closure; axial contraction; equilibrium formation. Recent experiments and theory have led to a significantly improved understanding of these processes; however, the experimental method still relies on a somewhat empirical approach which involves the optimization of initial preionization plasma parameters and symmetry. New improvements in FRC formation methods include the use of lower voltages which extrapolate better to larger devices. The axial translation of compact toroid plasmas offers an attractive engineering convenience in a fusion reactor. FRC translation has been demonstrated in several experiments worldwide, and these plasmas are found to be robust, moving at speeds up to the Alfven velocity over distances of up to 16 m, with no degradation in the confinement. Compact toroids are ideal for magnetic compression. Translated FRCs have been compressed and heated by imploding liners. Upcoming experiments will rely on external flux compression to heat a translater FRC at 1-GW power levels. 39 refs.

  16. Zero-flux planes, flux reversals and diffusion paths in ternary and quaternary diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayananda, M.A.

    1986-05-23

    During isothermal multicomponent diffusion, interdiffusion fluxes of individual components can go to zero at zero-flux planes (ZFP) and exhibit flux reversals from one side to the other of such planes. Interdiffusion fluxes as well as the locations and compositions of ZFPs for components are determined directly from the concentration profiles of diffusion couples without the need for prior knowledge of interdiffusion coefficients. The development and identification of ZFPs is reviewed with the aid of single phase and two-phase diffusion couples investigated in the Cu-Ni-Zn system at 775/sup 0/C. ZFP locations in the diffusion zone nearly correspond to sections where the activity of a component is the same as its activity in either of the terminal alloys of a couple. Path slopes at ZFPs are uniquely dictated by the atomic mobility and thermodynamic data for the components. Discontinuous flux reversals for the components can also occur at interfaces in multiphase couples. Identification of ZFPs is also presented for diffusion in the Cu-Ni-Zn-Mn quaternary system. Analytical representation of diffusion paths for both ternary and quaternary diffusion couples is presented with the aid of characteristic path parameters.

  17. A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures ...

  18. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  19. Time-reversal symmetry breaking and the field theory of quantum chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, B.D. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Agam, O. [NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)] [NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Andreev, A.V. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the quantum statistical properties of systems which are chaotic in their classical limit can be expressed in terms of an effective field theory. Within this description, spectral properties are determined by low energy relaxation modes of the classical evolution operator. It is in the interaction of these modes that quantum interference effects are encoded. In this paper we review this general approach and discuss how the theory is modified to account for time-reversal symmetry breaking. To keep our discussion general, we will also briefly describe how the theory is modified by the presence of an additional discrete symmetry such as inversion. Throughout, parallels are drawn between quantum chaotic systems and the properties of weakly disordered conductors. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L

    2014-01-01

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  1. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic reversal of bi-conical Ni nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biziere, N.; Lassalle Ballier, R.; Viret, M.

    2011-09-15

    Template synthesis in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes has been used to grow hour glass shaped nickel nanowires with a constriction in the range of tens of nanometers at the center. Anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements have been performed on a single nanowire to follow magnetization reversal of the structure. The results are explained via 3D micromagnetic simulations showing the appearance of a complex vortex state close to the constriction whose propagation depends on the angle between the cone axis and the applied field. The interest of this original growth process for spintronics is discussed.

  3. Perturbative transport studies in the reversed-field pinch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perturbative transport studies in the reversed-field pinch This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 1342 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/45/11/015) Download details: IP Address: 128.104.166.233 The article was downloaded on 11/10/2010 at 22:09 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About

  4. Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H. H.; Wang, Z. X.; Wang, X. Q. [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configurations is numerically investigated by using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in slab geometry. To explore different dynamic processes in locked modes, three equilibrium states are adopted. Stable, marginal, and unstable current profiles for double tearing modes are designed by varying the current intensity between two resonant surfaces separated by a certain distance. Further, the dynamic characteristics of locked modes in the three RMS states are identified, and the relevant physics mechanisms are elucidated. The scaling behavior of critical perturbation value with initial plasma velocity is numerically obtained, which obeys previously established relevant analytical theory in the viscoresistive regime.

  5. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    38 Please note that terms and conditions apply. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 104006 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/55/10/104006) Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience | International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Fusion Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 104006 (8pp) doi:10.1088/0029-5515/55/10/104006 Overview of results from the MST

  6. Reverse logistics network for municipal solid waste management: The inclusion of waste pickers as a Brazilian legal requirement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferri, Giovane Lopes; Diniz Chaves, Gisele de Lorena; Ribeiro, Glaydston Mattos

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We propose a reverse logistics network for MSW involving waste pickers. • A generic facility location mathematical model was validated in a Brazilian city. • The results enable to predict the capacity for screening and storage centres (SSC). • We minimise the costs for transporting MSW with screening and storage centres. • The use of SSC can be a potential source of revenue and a better use of MSW. - Abstract: This study proposes a reverse logistics network involved in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to solve the challenge of economically managing these wastes considering the recent legal requirements of the Brazilian Waste Management Policy. The feasibility of the allocation of MSW material recovery facilities (MRF) as intermediate points between the generators of these wastes and the options for reuse and disposal was evaluated, as well as the participation of associations and cooperatives of waste pickers. This network was mathematically modelled and validated through a scenario analysis of the municipality of São Mateus, which makes the location model more complete and applicable in practice. The mathematical model allows the determination of the number of facilities required for the reverse logistics network, their location, capacities, and product flows between these facilities. The fixed costs of installation and operation of the proposed MRF were balanced with the reduction of transport costs, allowing the inclusion of waste pickers to the reverse logistics network. The main contribution of this study lies in the proposition of a reverse logistics network for MSW simultaneously involving legal, environmental, economic and social criteria, which is a very complex goal. This study can guide practices in other countries that have realities similar to those in Brazil of accelerated urbanisation without adequate planning for solid waste management, added to the strong presence of waste pickers that, through the

  7. Reverse licensing: international technology transfer to the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharokhi, M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation, theoretically and empirically, focuses on US licensees as the recipient of foreign technology, and investigates characteristics of licensees, licenses, and licensed technology. The viability of reverse licensing, as an international growth strategy, is evaluated from the standpoint of two groups of firms. The first consists of thousands of small and medium sized US manufacturing firms, with few products and virtually no R and D expenditures. Without R and D, new technology and stiff international competition, they are forced into bankruptcies despite their extreme importance in the economy (48% of private workforce, 42% of sales, and 38% of GNP). The second group consists of thousands of small and medium sized firms overseas, with a relatively good supply of technology (i.e., patents) and anxious to exploit the US market but lack required resources for FDI. Technology licensing is, perhaps, the only viable option available to them. Reverse licensing provides both groups with a mechanism for their growth, survival, and prosperity. Many US firms have utilized this strategy for many years (i.e, 118 in Ohio) for tapping foreign sources including Soviet bloc technology.

  8. Semi-Implicit Reversible Algorithms for Rigid Body Rotational Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nukala, Phani K; Shelton Jr, William Allison

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents two semi-implicit algorithms based on splitting methodology for rigid body rotational dynamics. The first algorithm is a variation of partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) methodology that can be formulated as a splitting method. The second algorithm is akin to a multiple time stepping scheme and is based on modified Crouch-Grossman (MCG) methodology, which can also be expressed as a splitting algorithm. These algorithms are second-order accurate and time-reversible; however, they are not Poisson integrators, i.e., non-symplectic. These algorithms conserve some of the first integrals of motion, but some others are not conserved; however, the fluctuations in these invariants are bounded over exponentially long time intervals. These algorithms exhibit excellent long-term behavior because of their reversibility property and their (approximate) Poisson structure preserving property. The numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithms exhibit superior performance compared to some of the currently well known algorithms such as the Simo-Wong algorithm, Newmark algorithm, discrete Moser-Veselov algorithm, Lewis-Simo algorithm, and the LIEMID[EA] algorithm.

  9. Time reversal invariance - a test in free neutron decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lising, Laura J.

    1999-05-18

    Time reversal invariance violation plays only a small role in the Standard Model, and the existence of a T-violating effect above the predicted level would be an indication of new physics. A sensitive probe of this symmetry in the weak interaction is the measurement of the T-violating ''D''-correlation in the decay of free neutrons. The triple-correlation D{sigma}{sub n}{center_dot}p{sub e} x p{sub v} involves three kinematic variables, the neutron spin, electron momentu, and neutrino (or proton) momentum, and changes sign under time reversal. This experiment detects the decay products of a polarized cold neutron beam with an octagonal array of scintillation and solid-state detectors. Data from first run at NIST's Cold Neutron Research Facility give a D-coefficient of -0.1 {+-} 1.3(stat.) {+-} 0.7(syst) x 10{sup -3}. This measurement has the greatest bearing on extensions to the Standard model that incorporate leptoquarks, although exotic fermion and lift-right symmetric models also allow a D as large as the present limit.

  10. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  11. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-03-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha ({alpha}) and gross beta ({beta}) activity, uranium isotopes {sup 233/234}U and {sup 238}U, plutonium {sup 239/240}Pu, and americium {sup 241}Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns ({mu}) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross {alpha} was essentially removed 100%, and gross {beta} was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150{mu} were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of {sup 239/240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species.

  12. Statistical Stability and Time-Reversal Imgaing in Random Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J; Borcea, L; Papanicolaou, G; Tsogka, C

    2002-02-05

    Localization of targets imbedded in a heterogeneous background medium is a common problem in seismic, ultrasonic, and electromagnetic imaging problems. The best imaging techniques make direct use of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the array response matrix, as recent work on time-reversal acoustics has shown. Of the various imaging functionals studied, one that is representative of a preferred class is a time-domain generalization of MUSIC (MUltiple Signal Classification), which is a well-known linear subspace method normally applied only in the frequency domain. Since statistical stability is not characteristic of the frequency domain, a transform back to the time domain after first diagonalizing the array data in the frequency domain takes optimum advantage of both the time-domain stability and the frequency-domain orthogonality of the relevant eigenfunctions.

  13. Adiabatic model and design of a translating field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intrator, T. P.; Siemon, R. E.; Sieck, P. E.

    2008-04-15

    We apply an adiabatic evolution model to predict the behavior of a field reversed configuration (FRC) during decompression and translation, as well as during boundary compression. Semi-empirical scaling laws, which were developed and benchmarked primarily for collisionless FRCs, are expected to remain valid even for the collisional regime of FRX-L experiment. We use this approach to outline the design implications for FRX-L, the high density translated FRC experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A conical theta coil is used to accelerate the FRC to the largest practical velocity so it can enter a mirror bounded compression region, where it must be a suitable target for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) implosion. FRX-L provides the physics basis for the integrated MTF plasma compression experiment at the Shiva-Star pulsed power facility at Kirtland Air Force Research Laboratory, where the FRC will be compressed inside a flux conserving cylindrical shell.

  14. Reducing collective quantum state rotation errors with reversible dephasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Kevin C.; Norcia, Matthew A.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Bohnet, Justin G.; Thompson, James K.

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21?dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of 2.110{sup 5} laser cooled and trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.

  15. Anomalous transport theory for the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, P.W.; Hegna, C.C; Sovinec, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Physically motivated transport models with predictive capabilities and significance beyond the reversed field pinch (RFP) are presented. It is shown that the ambipolar constrained electron heat loss observed in MST can be quantitatively modeled by taking account of the clumping in parallel streaming electrons and the resultant self-consistent interaction with collective modes; that the discrete dynamo process is a relaxation oscillation whose dependence on the tearing instability and profile relaxation physics leads to amplitude and period scaling predictions consistent with experiment; that the Lundquist number scaling in relaxed plasmas driven by magnetic turbulence has a weak S{sup {minus}1/4} scaling; and that radial E{times}B shear flow can lead to large reductions in the edge particle flux with little change in the heat flux, as observed in the RFP and tokamak. 24 refs.

  16. Amplification and reversal of Knudsen force by thermoelectric heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, William J.; Wada, Mizuki; Strongrich, Andrew D.; Cofer, Anthony; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2014-12-09

    We show that the Knudsen thermal force generated by a thermally-induced flow over a heated beam near a colder wall could be amplified significantly by thermoelectric heating. Bidirectional actuation is achieved by switching the polarity of the thermoelectric device bias voltage. The measurements of the resulting thermal forces at different rarefaction regimes, realized by changing geometry and gas pressure, are done using torsional microbalance. The repulsive or attractive forces between a thermoelectrically heated or cooled plate and a substrate are shown to be up to an order of magnitude larger than for previously studied configurations and heating methods due to favorable coupling of two thermal gradients. The amplification and reversal of the Knudsen force is confirmed by numerical solution of the Boltzmann-ESBGK kinetic model equation. Because of the favorable scaling with decreasing system size, the Knudsen force with thermoelectric heating offers a novel actuation and sensing mechanism for nano/microsystems.

  17. Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

  18. CX-008729: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reverse Osmosis System Removal CX(s) Applied: B1.26 Date: 06/25/2012 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Idaho Operations Office

  19. CX-012038: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deepwater Reverse-Circulation Primary Cementing CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/17/2014 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. CX-008307: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deepwater Reverse-Circulation Primary Cementing CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/25/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  1. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operation with Low Degradation | Department of Energy for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 petri_versa%20_power_kickoff.pdf (3.53 MB) More Documents & Publications Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Progress on the

  2. Magnetization reversal induced by in-plane current in Ta/CoFeB...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    current are accordance with those for magnetization reversal by spin transfer torque originated from the spin Hall effect in the Ta layer. Authors: Zhang, C. 1 ;...

  3. Strong and Reversible Binding of Carbon Dioxide in a Green Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strong and Reversible Binding of Carbon Dioxide in a Green Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jeremiah J. Gassensmith, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Ronald A. Smaldone, Ross S. ...

  4. Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobility? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater Mobility? AgencyCompany Organization:...

  5. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and ...

  6. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation

  7. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable

  8. Principal physics of rotating magnetic-field current drive of field reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Guo, H.Y.; Miller, K.E.; Milroy, R.D.

    2006-01-15

    After extensive experimentation on the Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment rotating magnetic-field (RMF)-driven field reversed configuration (FRC) device [A. L. Hoffman et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 41, 92 (2002)], the principal physics of RMF formation and sustainment of standard prolate FRCs inside a flux conserver is reasonably well understood. If the RMF magnitude B{sub {omega}} at a given frequency {omega} is high enough compared to other experimental parameters, it will drive the outer electrons of a plasma column into near synchronous rotation, allowing the RMF to penetrate into the plasma. If the resultant azimuthal current is strong enough to reverse an initial axial bias field B{sub o} a FRC will be formed. A balance between the RMF applied torque and electron-ion friction will determine the peak plasma density n{sub m}{proportional_to}B{sub {omega}}/{eta}{sup 1/2}{omega}{sup 1/2}r{sub s}, where r{sub s} is the FRC separatrix radius and {eta} is an effective weighted plasma resistivity. The plasma total temperature T{sub t} is free to be any value allowed by power balance as long as the ratio of FRC diamagnetic current, I{sup '}{sub dia}{approx_equal}2B{sub e}/{mu}{sub o}, is less than the maximum possible synchronous current, I{sup '}{sub sync}=e{omega}r{sub s}{sup 2}/2. The RMF will self-consistently penetrate a distance {delta}{sup *} governed by the ratio {zeta}=I{sup '}{sub dia}/I{sup '}{sub sync}. Since the FRC is a diamagnetic entity, its peak pressure p{sub m}=n{sub m}kT{sub t} determines its external magnetic field B{sub e}{approx_equal}(2{mu}{sub o}p{sub m}){sup 1/2}. Higher FRC currents, magnetic fields, and poloidal fluxes can thus be obtained, with the same RMF parameters, simply by raising the plasma temperature. Higher temperatures have also been noted to reduce the effective plasma resistivity, so that these higher currents can be supported with surprisingly little increase in absorbed RMF power.

  9. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study: Scoping phase report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The TITAN research program is a multi-institutional effort to determine the potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion concept as a compact, high-power-density, and ''attractive'' fusion energy system from economic (cost of electricity, COE), environmental, and operational viewpoints. In particular, a high neutron wall loading design (18 MW/m/sup 2/) has been chosen as the reference case in order to quantify the issue of engineering practicality, to determine the physics requirements and plasma operating mode, to assess significant benefits of compact systems, and to illuminate the main drawbacks. The program has been divided into two phases, each roughly one year in length: the Scoping Phase and the Design Phase. During the scoping phase, the TITAN design team has defined the parameter space for a high mass power density (MPD) RFP reactor, and explored a variety of approaches to the design of major subsystems. Two major design approaches consistent with high MPD and low COE, the lithium-vanadium blanket design and aqueous loop-in-pool design, have been selected for more detailed engineering evaluation in the design phase. The program has retained a balance in its approach to investigating high MPD systems. On the one hand, parametric investigations of both subsystems and overall system performance are carried out. On the other hand, more detailed analysis and engineering design and integration are performed, appropriate to determining the technical feasibility of the high MPD approach to RFP fusion reactors. This report describes the work of the scoping phase activities of the TITAN program. A synopsis of the principal technical findings and a brief description of the TITAN multiple-design approach is given. The individual chapters on Plasma Physics and Engineering, Parameter Systems Studies, Divertor, Reactor Engineering, and Fusion Power Core Engineering have been cataloged separately.

  10. Turbulent transport in the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, T.D.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Zita, E.J.

    1991-11-01

    Measurements of edge turbulence and the associated transport are ongoing in the Madison Symmetric Torus (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.52 m) reversed-field pinch using magnetic and electrostatic probes. Magnetic fluctuations are dominated by m = 1 and n {approximately} 2R/a tearing modes. Particle losses induced by magnetic field fluctuations have been found to be ambipolar (<{tilde J}{sub parallel}{tilde B}{sub r}> = O). Electrostatic fluctuations are broadband and turbulent, with mode widths {delta}m {approximately} 3--7 and {delta}n {approximately}70--150. Particle, parallel current, and energy transport arising from coherent motion with the fluctuating {tilde E}xB drift has been measured. Particle transport via this channel is comparable to the total particle loss from MST. Energy transport (from <{tilde P}{tilde E}{sub phi}>/B{sub o}) due to electrostatic fluctuations is relatively small, and parallel current transport (from <{tilde J}{sub parallel}{tilde E}{sub chi}>/B{sub o}) may be small as well.

  11. Transport and equilibrium in field-reversed mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    Two plasma models relevant to compact torus research have been developed to study transport and equilibrium in field reversed mirrors. In the first model for small Larmor radius and large collision frequency, the plasma is described as an adiabatic hydromagnetic fluid. In the second model for large Larmor radius and small collision frequency, a kinetic theory description has been developed. Various aspects of the two models have been studied in five computer codes ADB, AV, NEO, OHK, RES. The ADB code computes two dimensional equilibrium and one dimensional transport in a flux coordinate. The AV code calculates orbit average integrals in a harmonic oscillator potential. The NEO code follows particle trajectories in a Hill's vortex magnetic field to study stochasticity, invariants of the motion, and orbit average formulas. The OHK code displays analytic psi(r), B/sub Z/(r), phi(r), E/sub r/(r) formulas developed for the kinetic theory description. The RES code calculates resonance curves to consider overlap regions relevant to stochastic orbit behavior.

  12. Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhauer, Loren

    2014-08-15

    An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibrium reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local β (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.

  13. Multichannel optical diagnostic system for field-reversed configuration plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Gota, Hiroshi; Fujino, Toshiyuki; Okada, Masanori; Asai, Tomohiko; Fujimoto, Kayoko; Ohkuma, Yasunori; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2004-12-01

    A constructed diagnostic system consisting of a 60-channel set of optical detectors with flexible viewing configurations is realized to investigate three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) motions and the internal structure of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The system can detect radiation from the plasma in the wavelength range of 420-820 nm. Optical filters are used to select the wavelength ranges required in the experiment. The sensitivities of all the optical detectors are calibrated using radiation from the FRC plasma at a quiescent phase. Radiation profiles measured by orthogonal viewing configuration of the detectors are shown at three toroidal cross sections. From these profiles, the time evolution of the three-dimensional MHD motion of the plasma is depicted. The radiation profile measured by a one-dimensional viewing configuration yields not only an electron density profile inside the separatrix but also the width of an edge-layer plasma. A bright halo around the edge-layer plasma is observed using a Balmer-{alpha} line filter. The orthogonal viewing configuration can also be used to analyze the internal structure of the FRC. The deviated position of the major axis is estimated from the comparison between the measured radiation profiles and the nonconcentric density profile based on the rigid rotor profile model.

  14. Advances in the numerical modeling of field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belova, Elena V.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki

    2006-05-15

    The field-reversed configuration (FRC) is a compact torus with little or no toroidal magnetic field. A theoretical understanding of the observed FRC equilibrium and stability properties presents significant challenges due to the high plasma beta, plasma flows, large ion gyroradius, and the stochasticity of the particle orbits. Advanced numerical simulations are generally required to describe and understand the detailed behavior of FRC plasmas. Results of such simulations are presented in this paper. It is shown that 3D nonlinear hybrid simulations using the HYM code [E. V. Belova et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4996 (2000)] reproduce all major experimentally observed stability properties of elongated (theta-pinch-formed) FRCs. Namely, the scaling of the growth rate of the n=1 tilt mode with the S*/E parameter (S* is the FRC kinetic parameter, E is elongation, and n is toroidal mode number), the nonlinear saturation of the tilt mode, ion toroidal spin-up, and the growth of the n=2 rotational mode have been demonstrated and studied in detail. The HYM code has also been used to study stability properties of FRCs formed by the counterhelicity spheromak merging method. A new stability regime has been found for FRCs with elongation E{approx}1, which requires a close-fitting conducting shell and energetic beam ion stabilization.

  15. Two-fluid physics and field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakim, A.; Shumlak, U.

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, algorithms for the solution of two-fluid plasma equations are presented and applied to the study of field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The two-fluid model is more general than the often used magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The model takes into account electron inertia, charge separation, and the full electromagnetic field equations, and it allows for separate electron and ion motion. The algorithm presented is the high-resolution wave propagation scheme. The wave propagation method is based on solutions to the Riemann problem at cell interfaces. Operator splitting is used to incorporate the Lorentz and electromagnetic source terms. The algorithms are benchmarked against the Geospace Environmental Modeling Reconnection Challenge problem. Equilibrium of FRC is studied. It is shown that starting from a MHD equilibrium produces a relaxed two-fluid equilibrium with strong flows at the FRC edges due to diamagnetic drift. The azimuthal electron flow causes lower-hybrid drift instabilities (LHDI), which can be captured if the ion gyroradius is well resolved. The LHDI is known to be a possible source of anomalous resistivity in many plasma configurations. LHDI simulations are performed in slab geometries and are compared to recent experimental results.

  16. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  17. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Parra, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  18. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment (i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems). In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development.

  19. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1981-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  20. Characterization of nanostructured zirconia prepared by hydrolysis and reverse micelle synthesis by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Li, X.; Littrell, K.; Seifert, S.; Csencsits, R.; Loong, C.

    1999-12-07

    Low temperature techniques such as hydrolysis and reverse micelle syntheses provide the opportunity to determine the relationship between the structural properties and preparation conditions of zirconia powders as well as to tailor their physicochemical properties. The authors have performed small-angle neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) experiments to study the nucleation and organization of zirconia nanoparticles via different preparation routes. First, the formation of reverse micelles in individual and mixed solutions of (ZrOCl{sub 2}+D{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}OH+H{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3} systems at water/AOT molar ratio of 20 was characterized. Second, the aggregation of zirconia gels obtained from the reaction of the reverse micelle solutions after heat treatments was studied. Third, the nanostructure of zirconia powders prepared by the reverse micelle method is compared with the corresponding powders prepared by hydrolysis after different heat treatments.

  1. Some Results Bearing on the Value of Improvements of Membranes for Reverse Osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamont, A

    2006-03-08

    This analysis evaluates the potential economic benefits that could result from the improvements in the permeability of membranes for reverse osmosis. The discussion provides a simple model of the operation of a reverse osmosis plant. It examines the change in the operation that might result from improvements in the membrane and computes the cost of water as a function of the membrane permeability.

  2. Radiative reverse shock laser experiments relevant to accretion processes in cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Sweeney, R.; Grosskopf, M.; Klein, S.; Gillespie, R.; Keiter, P. A.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.

    2013-05-15

    We discuss the production of radiative reverse shocks in experiments at the Omega-60 laser facility. The ability of this high-intensity laser to impart large energy densities on micron-thin foils makes it feasible to create supersonic plasma flows. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires a sufficiently fast flow (∼100 km/s) of a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable shocked layers. The reverse shock forms in the flow once it is impeded. This paper presents the first radiographic data of normal incidence, reverse shockwaves. These experiments are primarily motivated by the contribution of radiative reverse shock waves to the evolving dynamics of the cataclysmic variable (CV) system in which they reside. We show similarity properties to suggest that the experimental production of radiative reserve shocks in the laboratory may be scalable to such astrophysical systems.

  3. Electric Dipole Moments in Radioactive Nuclei, Tests of Time Reversal Symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auerbach, N.

    2010-11-24

    The research of radioactive nuclei opens new possibilities to study fundamental symmetries, such as time reversal and reflection symmetry. Such nuclei often provide conditions to check in an optimal way certain symmetries and the violation of such symmetries. We will discuss the possibility of obtaining improved limits on violation of time reversal symmetry using pear shaped radioactive nuclei. An effective method to test time reversal invariance in the non-strange sector is to measure parity and time reversal violating (T-P-odd) electromagnetic moments, (such as the static electric dipole moment). Parity and time reversal violating components in the nuclear force may produce P-T-odd moments in nuclei which in turn induce such moments in atoms. We will discuss the possibility that in some reflection asymmetric, heavy nuclei (which are radioactive) these moments are enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Present and future experiments, which will test this idea, will be mentioned.

  4. Petrogenesis of the reversely-zoned Turtle pluton, southeastern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Few plutons with a reversed geometry of a felsic rim and mafic core have been described in the geologic literature. The Turtle pluton of S.E. California is an intrusion composed of a granitic rim and granodioritic core and common microgranitoid enclaves. Field observations, mineral textures and chemistries, major and trace element geochemistry, and isotopic variability support a petrogenetic model of in situ, concomitant, magma mixing and fractional crystallization of rhyolitic magma progressively mixed with an increasing volume of andesitic magma, all without chemical contribution from entrained basaltic enclaves. Hornblende geobarometry indicates the Turtle pluton crystallized at about 3.5 kb. A crystallization sequence of biotite before hornblende (and lack of pyroxenes) suggests the initial granitic magma contained less than 4 wt% H{sub 2}O at temperatures less than 780C. U-Pb, Pb-Pb, Rb-Sr and oxygen isotope studies indicate the terrane intruded by the Turtle pluton is 1.8 Ga, that the Turtle pluton crystallized at 130 Ma, that the Target Granite and garnet aplites are about 100 Ma, and that these intrusions were derived from different sources. Models based on isotopic data suggest the rhyolitic end member magma of the Turtle pluton was derived from mafic igneous rocks, and was not derived from sampled Proterozoic country rocks. Similarity of common Sr and Pb isotopic ratios of these rocks to other Mesozoic intrusions in the Colorado River Region suggest the Turtle pluton and Target Granite have affinities like rocks to the east, including the Whipple Mountains and plutons of western Arizona. P-T-t history of the southern Turtle Mountains implies uplift well into the upper crust by Late Cretaceous time so that the heating and deformation events of the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary observed in flanking ranges did not affect the study area.

  5. The Role of Axisymmetric Reconnection Events in JET Discharges with Extreme Shear Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.C. Stratton; J.A. Breslau; R.V. Budny; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; H.R. Strauss; L.E. Zakharov; B. Alper; V. Drozdov; N.C. Hawkes; S. Reyes-Cortes; and Contributors to the EFDA-JET Work Programme

    2001-12-03

    Injection of Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive into the current ramp-up phase of Joint European Torus (JET) discharges can produce extremely reversed q-profiles characterized by a core region of very small or zero current density (within Motional Stark Effect diagnostic measurement errors) and q(subscript min) > 1. T(subscript e)-profiles show sawtooth-like collapses and the presence of an internal transport barrier. Accurate equilibrium reconstructions of these discharges are obtained using the ESC code, which was recently extended to allow equilibrium reconstructions in which a free boundary solver determines the plasma boundary and a fixed boundary solver provides the magnetic geometry and current density profile. The core current density does not appear to go negative, although current diffusion calculations indicate that sufficient non-inductive current drive to cause this is present. This is explained by nonlinear resistive MHD simulations in toroidal geometry which predict that these discharges undergo n=0 reconnection events (axisymmetric sawteeth) that redistribute the current to hold the core current density near zero.

  6. Novel Fouling-Reducing Coatings for Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration, and Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benny Freeman

    2008-08-31

    Polymeric membranes could potentially be the most flexible and viable long-term strategy for treatment of produced water from oil and gas production. However, widespread use of membranes, including reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, for produced water purification is hindered due to fouling caused by the impurities present in the water. Fouling of RO membranes is likely caused by surface properties including roughness, hydrophilicity, and charge, so surface modification is the most widely considered approach to improve the fouling properties of current RO membranes. This project focuses on two main approaches to surface modification: coating and grafting. Hydrophilic coating and grafting materials based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are applied to commercial RO membranes manufactured by Dow FilmTec and GE. Crossflow filtration experiments are used to determine the fouling resistance of modified membranes, and compare their performance to that of unmodified commercial RO membranes. Grafting and coating are shown to be two alternative methods of producing modified membranes with improved fouling resistance.

  7. Reversible Dehydration Behavior Reveals Coordinatively Unsaturated Metal Sites in Microporous Aluminum Phosphonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnibrugh, Tiffany L.; Bakhmutov, Vladimir I.; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-10-01

    Incorporation of the same ligand into three different aluminum phenylenediphosphonates (Al(H2O)(O3PC6H4PO3H) (1), Al-4(H2O)(2)(O3PC6H4PO3)(3) (2), and Al-4(H2O)(4)(O3PC6H4PO3)(2.84)(OH)(0.64) (3)) was accomplished by varying the synthetic conditions. The compounds have different sorption properties; however, all exhibit reversible dehydration behavior. The structures of the hydrated and dehydrated phases were determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 2 and 3 were found to be microporous, while compound 1 was found to be nonporous. The stability of the dehydrated phase and the resulting porosity was found to be influenced by the change in the structure upon loss of water.

  8. Target characterization using decomposition of the time-reversal operator: electromagnetic scattering from small ellipsoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2006-05-18

    Decomposition of the time-reversal operator for an array, or equivalently the singular value decomposition of the multistatic response matrix, has been used to improve imaging and localization of targets in complicated media. Typically, each singular value is associated with one scatterer even though it has been shown in several cases that a single scatterer can generate several singular values. In earlier papers Chambers and Berryman [1, 2] showed that a small spherical scatterer can generate up to six singular values depending on the array geometry and sphere composition. It was shown that the existence and characteristics of multiple singular values for each scatterer can, in principle, be used to determine certain properties of the scatterers, e.g. conducting or non-conducting material. In this paper, we extend this analysis to non-spherical targets and show how orientation information about the target may be obtained from the spectrum of singular values. The general properties of the decomposition for small non-spherical dielectric (and possibly conductive) targets in an electromagnetic field are derived and detailed results are obtained for the specific cases of non-magnetic and perfectly conducting needles and disks. It is shown that scatterer orientation can be estimated by tracking the singular values of a linear array as it is rotated around its midpoint.

  9. Field reversing magnetotail current sheets: earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    This dissertation examines the field reversing magnetotail current sheets at the earth, Venus, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner. In the near earth study a new analysis technique is developed to calculate the detailed current density distributions within the cross tail current sheet for the first time. This technique removes the effects of a variable sheet velocity by inverting intersatellite timings between the co-orbiting satellites ISEE-1 and -2. Case studies of three relatively geomagnetically quiet crossings are made; sheet thicknesses and peak current densities are approx.1-5 x 10/sup 4/ km and approx.5-50 nA/m/sup 2/. Current density distributions reveal a high density central region, lower density shoulders, and considerable fine structure throughout. In the Venus study another new analysis technique is developed to reconstruct the average tail configuration from a correlation between field magnitude and draping angle in a large statistical data set. In the comet study, high resolution magnetic field and plasma electron data from the ICE traversal of Giacobini-Zinner are combined for the first time to determine the tail/current sheet geometry and calculate certain important but unmeasured local ion and upstream properties. Pressure balance across the tail gives ion temperatures and betas of approx.1.2 x 10/sup 5/ K and approx.40 in the center of the current sheet to approx.1 x 10/sup 6/ K and approx.3 in the outer lobes. Axial stress balance shows that the velocity shear upstream near the nucleus is >6 (approx.1 at ICE), and that a region of strongly enhanced mass loading (ion source rate approx.24 times that upstream from lobes) exists upstream from the current sheet. The integrated downtail mass flux is approx.2.6 x 10/sup 26/ H/sub 2/O+/sec, which is only approx.1% of the independently determined total cometary efflux. 79 refs., 37 figs.

  10. CX-012598: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replace ETP Reverse Osmosis (RO) Cooling Towers (CTWs) and Add a Chemical Addition System CX(s) Applied: B1.5Date: 41827 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  11. CX-012029: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deepwater Reverse-Circulation Primary Cementing CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 04/21/2014 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  12. CX-003107: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Harvard Medical School, Wyss Institute - Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel CellCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 06/02/2010Location(s): MassachusettsOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  13. CX-008313: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deepwater Reverse-Circulation Primary Cementing CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 04/24/2012 Location(s): Texas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. A new reversal mode in exchange coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic disks: distorted viscous vortex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, Aïda; Agramunt-Puig, Sebastià; del Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; López-Barbera, José Francisco; Buchanan, Kristen S.; Hoffmann, Axel; Sánchez, Alvar; et al

    2015-04-28

    Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpectedmore » asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. These results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.« less

  15. Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0kumta.pdf (1.9 MB) More Documents & Publications Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nanoscale ...

  16. Magnetization reversal in CoPt(111) hard/soft bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandrakis, V.; Niarchos, D.; Wolff, M.

    2009-03-15

    The magnetization reversal in magnetron sputtered CoPt(111) hard/soft bilayers has been studied by polarized neutron reflectometry and magnetization measurements. The stability of the hard layer is tuned by the heat-treatment conditions which are used to crystallize the chemically ordered, high anisotropy, L{sub 1}0 phase. All the samples show the same features in their first order reversal curves but the lateral domain size during the magnetization reversal of the soft layer differs. In samples with strong intergrain coupling it exceeds the coherence length of the neutron beam, resulting in spin-flip scattering. In contrast, the hard layer reversal occurs through the reorientation in small domains.

  17. Reversal of the Upper Critical Field Anisotropy and Spin-Locked...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spin-Locked Superconductivity in K2Cr3As3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversal of the Upper Critical Field Anisotropy and Spin-Locked Superconductivity in K2Cr3As3 ...

  18. A new reversal mode in exchange coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic disks: distorted viscous vortex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Ye, Li; Varea, Aïda; Agramunt-Puig, Sebastià; del Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; López-Barbera, José Francisco; Buchanan, Kristen S.; Hoffmann, Axel; Sánchez, Alvar; Sort, Jordi; Liu, Kai; Nogués, Josep

    2015-04-28

    Magnetic vortices have generated intense interest in recent years due to their unique reversal mechanisms, fascinating topological properties, and exciting potential applications. In addition, the exchange coupling of magnetic vortices to antiferromagnets has also been shown to lead to a range of novel phenomena and functionalities. Here we report a new magnetization reversal mode of magnetic vortices in exchange coupled Ir20Mn80/Fe20Ni80 microdots: distorted viscous vortex reversal. In contrast to the previously known or proposed reversal modes, the vortex is distorted close to the interface and viscously dragged due to the uncompensated spins of a thin antiferromagnet, which leads to unexpected asymmetries in the annihilation and nucleation fields. These results provide a deeper understanding of the physics of exchange coupled vortices and may also have important implications for applications involving exchange coupled nanostructures.

  19. Colorado - C.R.S. 36-1-136 - Rights of Way Granted - Reversion...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Colorado - C.R.S. 36-1-136 - Rights of Way Granted - ReversionLegal Abstract This section covers the...

  20. Experimental and numerical study of mixed convection with flow reversal in coaxial double-duct heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mare, Thierry; Voicu, Ionut; Miriel, Jacques [Laboratoire de Genie Civil et de Genie Mecanique (LGCGM), INSA de Rennes, IUT Saint Malo, 35043 Rennes (France); Galanis, Nicolas [Faculte de genie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Sow, Ousmane [Laboratoire d'Energie Appliquee, Ecole superieure Polytechnique, Dakar (Senegal)

    2008-04-15

    Velocity vectors in a vertical coaxial double-duct heat exchanger for parallel ascending flow of water under conditions of laminar mixed convection have been determined experimentally using the particle image velocimetry technique. The measured velocity distributions for large annular flow rates, resulting in an essentially isothermal environment for the stream in the inner tube, are in very good agreement with corresponding numerical predictions. For flow rates of the same order of magnitude in the inner tube and the annulus, and corresponding temperature differences of about 20 C, experimental observations show that flow reversal occurs simultaneously in both streams over large axial distances for both heating and cooling of the flow in the inner tube. (author)

  1. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-01-25

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In this report, we report our application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Based on our ultrafiltration experiments with apple juice, we conclude that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. Thus, flow reversal

  2. Fullrmc, A Rigid Body Reverse Monte Carlo Modeling Package Enabled With

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Machine Learning And Artificial Intelligence - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research January 22, 2016, Research Highlights Fullrmc, A Rigid Body Reverse Monte Carlo Modeling Package Enabled With Machine Learning And Artificial Intelligence Liquid Sulfur. Sx≤8 molecules recognized and built upon modelling Scientific Achievement Novel approach to reverse modelling atomic and molecular systems from a set of experimental data and constraints. New fitting concepts such as 'Group',

  3. High Temperature Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures High Temperature Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps3_memc_posbic.pdf (498.72 KB) More Documents & Publications US & Japan TG 4 Activities of QA Forum Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules US TG 4 Activities of QA Forum

  4. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinobe, J.R.; Gebresenbet, G.; Niwagaba, C.B.; Vinnerås, B.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  5. Flux Enhancement in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Fouling and It's Minimization by Flow Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-08-04

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Three feed solutions (Bovine serum albumin (BSA), apple juice and citrus fruit pectin) were studied in crossflow membrane filtration. These solutes are well-known in membrane filtration for their fouling and concentration polarization potentials. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using each of the feed solutes show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and

  6. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-06-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In our previous report, we reported our work on UF of BSA. In this report, we report our continuing application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using pectin in apple juice as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the

  7. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  8. Reversible Hydrogen Storage Materials – Structure, Chemistry, and Electronic Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Ian M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-06-21

    To understand the processes involved in the uptake and release of hydrogen from candidate light-weight metal hydride storage systems, a combination of materials characterization techniques and first principle calculation methods have been employed. In addition to conventional microstructural characterization in the transmission electron microscope, which provides projected information about the through thickness microstructure, electron tomography methods were employed to determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of catalyst species for select systems both before and after dehydrogenation. Catalyst species identification as well as compositional analysis of the storage material before and after hydrogen charging and discharging was performed using a combination of energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS. The characterization effort was coupled with first-principles, electronic-structure and thermodynamic techniques to predict and assess meta-stable and stable phases, reaction pathways, and thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. Systems studied included:NaAlH4, CaH2/CaB6 and Ca(BH4)2, MgH2/MgB2, Ni-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, TiH2-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, LiBH4, Aluminum-based systems and Aluminum

  9. Superelasticity by reversible variant reorientation in a Ni-Mn-Ga microwire with bamboo grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zheng, P.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Mullner, P.; Dunand, D. C.

    2015-08-26

    The link between microstructure and mechanical properties is investigated for a superelastic Ni–Mn–Ga microwire with 226 μm diameter, created by solidification via the Taylor method. The wire, which consists of bamboo grains with tetragonal martensite matrix and coarse γ precipitates, exhibits fully reversible superelastic behavior up to 4% tensile strain. Upon multiple tensile load–unload cycles, reproducible stress fluctuations of ~3 MPa are measured on the loading superelastic stress plateau of ~50 MPa. During cycles at various temperatures spanning -70 to 55 °C, the plateau stress decreases from 58 to 48 MPa near linearly with increasing temperature. Based on in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, we conclude that this superelastic behavior is due to reversible martensite variants reorientation (i.e., reversible twinning) with lattice rotation of ~13°. The reproducible stress plateau fluctuations are assigned to reversible twinning at well-defined locations along the wire. The strain recovery during unloading is attributed to reverse twinning, driven by the internal stress generated on loading between the elastic γ precipitates and the twinning martensite matrix. Lastly, the temperature dependence of the twining stress on loading is related to the change in tetragonality of the martensite, as measured by X-ray diffraction.

  10. Superelasticity by reversible variant reorientation in a Ni-Mn-Ga microwire with bamboo grains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zheng, P.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Mullner, P.; Dunand, D. C.

    2015-08-26

    The link between microstructure and mechanical properties is investigated for a superelastic Ni–Mn–Ga microwire with 226 μm diameter, created by solidification via the Taylor method. The wire, which consists of bamboo grains with tetragonal martensite matrix and coarse γ precipitates, exhibits fully reversible superelastic behavior up to 4% tensile strain. Upon multiple tensile load–unload cycles, reproducible stress fluctuations of ~3 MPa are measured on the loading superelastic stress plateau of ~50 MPa. During cycles at various temperatures spanning -70 to 55 °C, the plateau stress decreases from 58 to 48 MPa near linearly with increasing temperature. Based on in situmore » synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements, we conclude that this superelastic behavior is due to reversible martensite variants reorientation (i.e., reversible twinning) with lattice rotation of ~13°. The reproducible stress plateau fluctuations are assigned to reversible twinning at well-defined locations along the wire. The strain recovery during unloading is attributed to reverse twinning, driven by the internal stress generated on loading between the elastic γ precipitates and the twinning martensite matrix. Lastly, the temperature dependence of the twining stress on loading is related to the change in tetragonality of the martensite, as measured by X-ray diffraction.« less

  11. Intrinsic torque reversals induced by magnetic shear effects on the turbulence spectrum in tokamak plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z. X.; Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G.; Ethier, S.; Gao, C.; Rice, J.

    2015-05-04

    We report that intrinsic torque, which can be generated by turbulent stresses, can induce toroidal rotation in a tokamak plasma at rest without direct momentum injection. Reversals in intrinsic torque have been inferred from the observation of toroidal velocity changes in recent lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments. Here we focus on understanding the cause of LHCD-induced intrinsic torque reversal using gyrokinetic simulations and theoretical analyses. A new mechanism for the intrinsic torque reversal linked to magnetic shear (sˆ) effects on the turbulence spectrum is identified. This reversal is a consequence of the ballooning structure at weak sˆ . Basedmore » on realistic profiles from the Alcator C-Mod LHCD experiments, simulations demonstrate that the intrinsic torque reverses for weak sˆ discharges and that the value of sˆ crit is consistent with the experimental results sˆ expcrit [Rice et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 125003 (2013)]. In conclusion, the consideration of this intrinsic torque feature in our work is important for the understanding of rotation profile generation at weak and its consequent impact on macro-instability stabilization and micro-turbulence reduction, which is crucial for ITER. It is also relevant to internal transport barrier formation at negative or weakly positive sˆ .« less

  12. Theoretical, numerical and experimental investigation of centrifugal pumps in reverse operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derakhshan, Shahram; Nourbakhsh, Ahmad

    2008-09-15

    When a pump works as a turbine, its hydraulic behavior will be changed. Several methods have been developed to predict the best efficiency of pumps running as turbines but their results are not in good coincidence with experimental data for all pumps. Therefore, study and investigation of hydraulic behavior of pumps in reverse operation can be useful. In this study, the best efficiency point of an industrial centrifugal pump running as turbine was achieved using a theoretical analysis. This method tries to estimate hydraulic components of reverse (turbine) mode using direct (pump) mode. In the next step, the pump was simulated in direct and reverse modes by computational fluid dynamics. 3D full Navier-Stokes equations were solved using FineTurbo V.7 flow solver. Using numerical results, complete characteristic curves of the pump in direct and reverse modes were obtained. For experimental verification of theoretical and numerical results, the pump was tested as a turbine in a test rig. All required parameters were measured to achieve complete characteristic curves of the reverse pump. The theoretical and numerical results were compared with experimental data and some other methods. (author)

  13. Lower hybrid accessibility in a large, hot reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziubek, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that driving a current in the outer radius of an RPF suppresses sawtooth activity and increases particle and energy confinement times. One candidate for a form of steady state current drive is the slow wave at the lower hybrid frequency. Here, the accessibility of such a wave in an RFP plasma is investigated theoretically, with focus on the RFX machine of Padua, Italy. To drive current, the slow wave with frequency between 1.0--1.5 GHz is considered where optimal Landau damping is desired at r/a {approximately} 0.7. By numerically determining the values of the wave`s perpendicular index of refraction which satisfy the hot plasma dispersion relation, regions of propagation and evanescence can be found. The path of the wave can then be traced over a contour map of these regions so that accessibility can be clearly seen. The possibility of mode conversion events can be ascertained by plotting the values of the perpendicular index of refraction for the fast and slow wave and observing convergence points. To locate regions of maximum Landau damping, a technique developed by Stix was adapted for use with the slow wave in an RFP plasma. Results show that the slow wave is accessible to the target region without mode conversion so long as the value of the parallel index of refraction is correctly chosen at the edge of the plasma. Landau damping can also be optimized with this method. In an RFP, 2--20% of the electron population consists of fast electrons. Because this species alters the total electron distribution function and raises the effective temperature in the outer regions of the plasma, its presence is expected to shift the location of ideal Landau damping.

  14. Surveillance for Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viruses using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meagher, Robert J.; Ball, Cameron Scott; Langevin, Stanley A.; Fang, Ying; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Coffey, Lark L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, collection of mosquitoes and testing for vector-borne viruses is a key surveillance activity that directly influences the vector control efforts of public health agencies, including determining when and where to apply insecticides. Vector control districts in California routinely monitor for three human pathogenic viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) offers highly sensitive and specific detection of these three viruses in a single multiplex reaction, but this technique requires costly, specialized equipment that is generally only available in centralized publicmore » health laboratories. We report the use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to detect WNV, WEEV, and SLEV RNA extracted from pooled mosquito samples collected in California, including novel primer sets for specific detection of WEEV and SLEV, targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) gene of WEEV and the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of SLEV. Our WEEV and SLEV RT-LAMP primers allowed detection of <0.1 PFU/reaction of their respective targets in <30 minutes, and exhibited high specificity without cross reactivity when tested against a panel of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Furthermore, the SLEV primers do not cross-react with WNV, despite both viruses being closely related members of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex. The SLEV and WEEV primers can also be combined in a single RT-LAMP reaction, with discrimination between amplicons by melt curve analysis. Although RT-qPCR is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than RT-LAMP for all three targets, the RT-LAMP technique is less instrumentally intensive than RT-qPCR and provides a more cost-effective method of vector-borne virus surveillance.« less

  15. Multi-channel time-reversal receivers for multi and 1-bit implementations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V.; Chambers, David H.; Guidry, Brian L.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Robbins, Christopher L.

    2008-12-09

    A communication system for transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprising digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. In one embodiment a transmitter is adapted to transmit the signal, a multiplicity of receivers are adapted to receive the signal, a digitizer digitizes the signal, and a time-reversal signal processor is adapted to time-reverse the digitized signal. An embodiment of the present invention includes multi bit implementations. Another embodiment of the present invention includes 1-bit implementations. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a multiplicity of receivers used in the step of transmitting the signal through the channel medium.

  16. Ultra-fast magnetic vortex core reversal by a local field pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rückriem, R.; Albrecht, M.; Schrefl, T.

    2014-02-03

    Magnetic vortex core reversal of a 20-nm-thick permalloy disk with a diameter of 100 nm was studied by micromagnetic simulations. By applying a global out-of-plane magnetic field pulse, it turned out that the final core polarity is very sensitive to pulse width and amplitude, which makes it hard to control. The reason for this phenomenon is the excitation of radial spin waves, which dominate the reversal process. The excitation of spin waves can be strongly suppressed by applying a local field pulse within a small area at the core center. With this approach, ultra-short reversal times of about 15 ps were achieved, which are ten times faster compared to a global pulse.

  17. The elimination of the reverse circulation in thermosiphon solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prapas, D.E.; Sotiropoulos, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Thermosiphon solar water heaters (TSWH), employing either closed or open collector loops, are widely used today to cover a substantial part of the hot water needs, mostly in residential small scale applications. Their cost is lower in comparison to pumped systems, because no pumps, controls etc. are required. However, the storage tank has to be mounted above the collector in order to promote the thermosiphon flow; this could be a serious drawback in some applications. An undesirable characteristic of TSWH is the reverse circulation (RC) of the working liquid when the temperature of the collector is lower than that of the storage tank. The causes of reverse circulation in thermosyphon solar water heaters, the geometry of the systems, and the affects of nocturnal radiative cooling of the collector are discussed. A means of interconnecting collector and tank to drastically reduce reverse circulation is presented.

  18. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Huntington, C. M.; Kaczala, D. N.; Klein, S.; Sweeney, R.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Villette, B.; Plewa, T. E-mail: rpdrake@umich.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the hydrodynamic and radiative properties of a reverse shock relevant to a cataclysmic variable system. A reverse shock is a shock wave that develops when a freely flowing, supersonic plasma is impeded. In our experiments, performed on the Omega Laser Facility, a laser pulse is used to accelerate plasma ejecta into a vacuum. This flow is directed into an Al plate in front of which a shock forms in the rebounding plasma. The plasma flow is moving fast enough that it is shocked to high enough temperatures that radiative cooling affects the shock structure. These are the first experiments to produce a radiative reverse shock wave.

  19. Simulation of oscillating field current drive on the reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harned, D.S.; Schnack, D.D.; Strauss, H.R.; Nebel, R.A.

    1988-07-01

    Oscillating field current drive on the reversed-field pinch is simulated by using a three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in conjunction with a one-dimensional hyper-resistive model. When input from the three-dimensional model is used for fluctuating fields in the hyper-resistive equations, the two models are found to give similar relaxed profiles. Comparisons are made with experiments on the Los Alamos National Laboratory ZT-40M reversed-field pinch device (Nucl. Fusion 25, 1321 (1985)). Simulation results indicate that the oscillation period must be much less than the resistive decay time, but should not be much less than the hyper-resistive relaxation time, in order to maintain reversal without a steady-state driving field.

  20. Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    An, Yuehuei H.; Mironov, Vladimir A.; Gutowska, Anna

    2000-01-01

    A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

  1. Preliminary observations on Quaternary reverse faulting along the southern front of the Northern Range of Trinidad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltran, C. , Caracus )

    1993-02-01

    Several geomorphological evidences of Quaternary reverse faulting are observed along the southern front of the Northern Range in Trinidad between Port-of-Spain and Matura Point. Such a mountain front is associated to a reverse fault system showing an imbricated pattern southward. In the north, the system is limited by a structural feature showing an important vertical component. Southward this system progressively changes to low angle faults. This geometry is corroborated by seismic profiling in the continent shelf. The active faulting evidences consist in lateral drainage offsets, fault trenches, sag-ponds, triangular facets, and saddles. Some quaternary terraces show fault scarps and tilting. We postulate that these reverse fault systems as Arima Fault instead of El Pilar fault as it is not actually connected to the San Sebestian-El Pilar right-lateral slip system, due to the southward prolongation of the southern limit of the Caribbean Plate through the fault system of Los Bajos-El Soldado.

  2. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  3. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2002-03-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a well-studied model solute in membrane filtration known for its fouling and concentration polarization capabilities. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using BSA solution as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and operating transmembrane pressure.

  4. NEPA Determination Complete

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has determined that this proposed project is a major Federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. To comply with the National Environmental Policy Act ...

  5. Lower-hybrid poloidal current drive for fluctuation reduction in a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchimoto, E.; Cekic, M.; Harvey, R.W.; Litwin, C.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Sovinec, C.R.

    1994-06-01

    Current drive using the lower-hybrid slow wave is shown to be a promising candidate for improving confinement properties of a reversed field pinch (RFP). Ray-tracing calculations indicate that the wave will make a few poloidal turns while spiraling radially into a target zone inside the reversal layer. The poloidal antenna wavelength of the lower hybrid wave can be chosen so that efficient parallel current drive will occur mostly in the poloidal direction in this outer region. Three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computation demonstrates that an additive poloidal current in this region will reduce the magnetic fluctuations and magnetic stochasticity.

  6. Turbulent transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch* T. D. Rempel,+ A. F. Almagri, S. Assadi, D. J. Den Hartog, S. A. Hokin, S. C. Prager, J. S. Sarff, W. Shen, K. L. Sidikman, C. W. Spragins, J. C. Sprott, M. R. Stoneking, and E. J. Zita University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53 706 (Received 22 November 1991; accepted 20 February 1992) Measurements of edge turbulence and the associated transport are ongoing in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch [Fusion

  7. Time-reversal focusing of an expanding soliton gas in disordered replicas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratalocchi, A.; Armaroli, A.; Trillo, S.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate the properties of time reversibility of a soliton gas, originating from a dispersive regularization of a shock wave, as it propagates in a strongly disordered environment. An original approach combining information measures and spin glass theory shows that time-reversal focusing occurs for different replicas of the disorder in forward and backward propagation, provided the disorder varies on a length scale much shorter than the width of the soliton constituents. The analysis is performed by starting from a new class of reflectionless potentials, which describe the most general form of an expanding soliton gas of the defocusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  8. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, Andr

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  9. Magnetization Reversal Process of Single Crystal α-Fe Containing a Nonmagnetic Particle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Ben; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Li, Qiu-Lin; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-25

    The magnetization reversal process and hysteresis loops in a single crystal α-iron with nonmagnetic particles are simulated in this work based on the Landau-Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The evolutions of the magnetic domain morphology are studied, and our analyses show that the magnetization reversal process is affected by the interaction between the moving domain wall and the existing nonmagnetic particles. This interaction strongly depends on the size of the particles, and it is found that particles with a particular size contribute the most to magnetic hardening.

  10. MHD computation of feedback of resistive-shell instabilities in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zita, E.J.; Prager, S.C.; Ho, Y.L.; Schnack, D.D

    1992-05-01

    MHD computation demonstrates that feedback can sustain reversal and reduce loop voltage in resistive-shell reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. Edge feedback on {approximately}2R/a tearing modes resonant near axis is found to restore plasma parameters to nearly their levels with a close-fitting conducting shell. When original dynamo modes are stabilized, neighboring tearing modes grow to maintain the RFP dynamo more efficiently. This suggests that experimentally observed limits on RFP pulselengths to the order of the shell time can be overcome by applying feedback to a few helical modes.