National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for desulfurization systems electrostatic

  1. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M.; Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T.; Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  3. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  4. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  5. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Fatimah, Hayyiratul E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Wilfred, Cecilia E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  6. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  7. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  8. Electrostatically Embedded Many-Body Expansion for Large Systems, with Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    Electrostatically Embedded Many-Body Expansion for Large Systems, with Applications to Water present electrostatically embedded two-body and three-body expansions for calculating the energies of molecular clusters. The system is divided into fragments, and dimers or trimers of fragments are calculated

  9. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  11. Mechanistic understanding of microbial desulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abín-Fuentes, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The increasing global levels of sulfur content in crude oil have motivated the development of alternate desulfurization technologies. Microbial desulfurization or biodesulfurization (BDS) has gained interest due to the ...

  12. Scrubber strategy: the how and why of flue gas desulfurization. [Analysis of 20 US scrubbing systems in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baviello, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this report, INFORM provides facts that will help the non-technical decisionmakers in the US understand a technology that can significantly reduce the polluting effects of burning coal. Those decisionmakers include legislators, regulators and utility executives, public interest groups, concerned community organizations and environmentalists who have been involved in the debate over the broader use of our most abundant fossil fuel - coal. The use of this resource, especially in large industrial and utility plants, has created widespread and intense public controversy. For the past four years INFORM has turned its research capabilities to defining cleaner and more economical ways of using US coal supplies. We have focused on finding out what cleaning coal and using flue gas desulfurization systems (called scrubbers) can contribute to reducing the polluting effects of burning coal in utility plants. All in all, both scrubbers and coal cleaning offer exciting and important possibilities for putting more coal to work in generating power in this country more economically and still meeting critical air quality standards that have been set to protect public health. The need for accurate and clear information concerning these technologies is evident: 80% of the sulfur dioxide emissions in the US now come from utility power plant operations, and over 140 existing oil-fired power plants are candidates for conversion to coal use. We hope that this documentation of the technologies of scrubber systems along with INFORM's companion study of coal cleaning, may help government and business planners and concerned citizens chart intelligent future courses and set realistic goals for meeting our energy needs in an environmentally sound manner.

  13. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  14. On the potential energy in an electrostatically bound two-body system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Wilhelm; B. N. Dwivedi

    2014-08-30

    The potential energy problem in an electrostatically bound two-body system is studied in the framework of a recently proposed impact model of the electrostatic force and in analogy to the potential energy in a gravitationally bound system. The physical processes are described that result in the variation of the potential energy as a function of the distance between the charged bodies. The energy is extracted from distributions of hypothetical interaction entities modified by the charged bodies.

  15. Effects of Solvent Mediated Interactions on Electrolytes and Related Electrostatic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Solvent Mediated Interactions on Electrolytes and Related Electrostatic Systems Thesis. The first issue is concerned with discrete polar solvents such as water. The main objective is to study the consequences of solvent discreteness, as opposed to a continuous dielectric medium. Ion-ion interactions

  16. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01

    in a setting that would be similar to a full scale plan+. Results from +he batch sys+ m were excellent, with as much as 98. 6% of the sulfur removed at 1089 K. The product recovery was abou+ 68%; the remainder of the coal had been gasified... OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Sulfur Removal Using a Fixed Bed Reactor Sulfur Removal Using a Batch Fluidized Bed Reactor . . 9 Continuous Fluidized Bed Reactor Systems for Desulfurization of Coal Clean Coke Process IGT Process...

  17. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, Hector M. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  18. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

    1995-10-17

    A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

  19. Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quimby, J.M.; Kumar, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to investigate the removal of SO[sub x] and particulate matter from direct coal fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation was to be accomplished through a bench scale testing and evaluation program for SO[sub x] removal and the innovative particulate collection concept of particulate growth through electrostatic agglomeration followed by high efficiency mechanical collection. The process goal was to achieve control better than that required by 1979 New Source Performance Standards. During Phase I, the designs of the combustor and gas cleanup apparatus were successfully completed. Hot gas cleanup was designed to be accomplished at temperature levels between 1800[degrees] and 2500[degrees]F at pressures up to 15 atmospheres. The combustor gas flow rate could be varied between 0.2--0.5 pounds per second. The electrostatic agglomerator residence time could be varied between 0.25 to 3 seconds. In Phase II, all components were fabricated, and erected successfully. Test data from shakedown testing was obtained. Unpredictable difficulties in pilot plant erection and shakedown consumed more budget resources than was estimated and as a consequence DOE, METC, decided ft was best to complete the contract at the end of Phase II. Parameters studied in shakedown testing revealed that high-temperature high pressure electrostatics offers an alternative to barrier filtration in hot gas cleanup but more research is needed in successful system integration between the combustor and electrostatic agglomerator.

  20. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  1. Systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grisham, Larry R

    2013-12-17

    The present invention provides systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators. Advantageously, the systems and methods of the present invention improve the practically obtainable performance of these electrostatic accelerators by addressing, among other things, voltage holding problems and conditioning issues. The problems and issues are addressed by flowing electric currents along these accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields that envelope the accelerator electrodes and their support structures, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of the accelerator electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the surrounding electric field. In various applications, this magnetic insulation must only produce modest gains in voltage holding capability to represent a significant achievement.

  2. Quantitative assessment of electrostatic embedding in Density Functional Theory calculations of biomolecular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattebert, J; Law, R J; Bennion, B; Lau, E Y; Schwegler, E; Lightstone, F C

    2009-04-24

    We evaluate the accuracy of density functional theory quantum calculations of biomolecular subsystems using a simple electrostatic embedding scheme. Our scheme is based on dividing the system of interest into a primary and secondary subsystem. A finite difference discretization of the Kohn-Sham equations is used for the primary subsystem, while its electrostatic environment is modeled with a simple one-electron potential. Force-field atomic partial charges are used to generate smeared Gaussian charge densities and to model the secondary subsystem. We illustrate the utility of this approach with calculations of truncated dipeptide chains. We analyze quantitatively the accuracy of this approach by calculating atomic forces and comparing results with fullQMcalculations. The impact of the choice made in terminating dangling bonds at the frontier of the QM region is also investigated.

  3. Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quimby, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this contract is to investigate the removal of So{sub x} and particulate matter from direct coal-fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation will be accomplished through a bench-scale testing and evaluation program employing sorbent mixed with a coal-water slurry for So{sub x} removal, and an innovative particulate control concept. The particulate control device utilizes electrostatic agglomeration followed by a high efficiency mechanical collector (cyclone). The process goal is to achieve particulate collection efficiency better than that required by the 1979 new source performance standards. An additional goal is to demonstrate 70% So{sub x} removal efficiency. This research project is now in the second of a 3 phase (Phase II) project. Phase II is to fabricate the combustor and particulate control devices and install the system at a test facility located at Research-Cottrell's, KVB Western Laboratory, Santa Ana, CA. There are three functional categories, or tasks which are to be completed in sequence. These tasks are itemized as follows: Design, procurement, and installation; Shakedown and startup; Reporting. Attempts to validate the concept of electrostatic agglomeration were not possible in the shakedown program before budget constraints halted the program. What was learned was that electrostatic precipitation is feasible in the temperature range of 1600--1800{degrees}F and at pressures above 10 atmospheres.

  4. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  6. Diesel Desulfurization Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Posters 2005deerrohrbach.pdf More Documents & Publications Desulfurization Fuel Filter NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications Investigation of the...

  7. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Canfield, OH); Farthing, George A. (Washington Township, OH)

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  11. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  12. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  13. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

    2004-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break-through point at 5.0 ppmw sulfur level is 0.35 mg-S/g-A. The spent A-5 can be regenerated by using H2 gas at a flowing rate of 40-50 ml/min, 500 C, and ambient pressure. Adsorption desulfurization of model diesel fuels over metal-sulfide-based adsorbents (A-6-1 and A-6-2) has been conducted at different temperatures to examine the capacity and selectivity of the adsorbents. A regeneration method for the spent metal-sulfide-based adsorbents has been developed. The spent A-6-1 can be easily regenerated by washing the spent adsorbent with a polar solvent followed by heating the adsorbent bed to remove the remainder solvent. Almost all adsorption capacity of the fresh A-6-1 can be recovered after the regeneration. On the other hand, a MCM-41-supported HDS catalyst was developed for deep desulfurization of the refractory sulfur compounds. The results show that the developed MCM-41-supported catalyst demonstrates consistently higher activity for the HDS of the refractory dibenzothiophenic sulfur compounds than the commercial catalyst. On the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel is confirmed and improved further.

  14. Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration). Draft final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quimby, J.M.; Kumar, K.S.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this contract was to investigate the removal of SO{sub x} and particulate matter from direct coal fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation was to be accomplished through a bench scale testing and evaluation program for SO{sub x} removal and the innovative particulate collection concept of particulate growth through electrostatic agglomeration followed by high efficiency mechanical collection. The process goal was to achieve control better than that required by 1979 New Source Performance Standards. During Phase I, the designs of the combustor and gas cleanup apparatus were successfully completed. Hot gas cleanup was designed to be accomplished at temperature levels between 1800{degrees} and 2500{degrees}F at pressures up to 15 atmospheres. The combustor gas flow rate could be varied between 0.2--0.5 pounds per second. The electrostatic agglomerator residence time could be varied between 0.25 to 3 seconds. In Phase II, all components were fabricated, and erected successfully. Test data from shakedown testing was obtained. Unpredictable difficulties in pilot plant erection and shakedown consumed more budget resources than was estimated and as a consequence DOE, METC, decided ft was best to complete the contract at the end of Phase II. Parameters studied in shakedown testing revealed that high-temperature high pressure electrostatics offers an alternative to barrier filtration in hot gas cleanup but more research is needed in successful system integration between the combustor and electrostatic agglomerator.

  15. Continuous Operation of Spray-Dried Zinc Based Sorbent in a Hot Gas Desulfurization Process Consisting of a Transport Desulfurizer and a Fluidized Regenerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, C-K.; Jo, S-H.; Jin, G-T.; Son, J-E.; Han, M-H.; Ryu, C-K.

    2002-09-19

    We see the sorbent reaction performance in a HGD process consisting of a transport desulfurizer and a fluidized regenerator in this study. We have obtained the solid hold-up and solid circulation rate necessary to reach the target desulfurization efficiency. A major obstacle for fluidized- or transport bed sorbent developments is sorbent durability withstanding attrition. Continuous operation only makes similar conditions of real processes such as rapid temperature swing, chemical transformations between sulfidation and regeneration, stresses induced by fluidization and continuous particle circulation between two reactors. Therefore, an integrated system of transport desulfurizer and bubbling regenerator is operated continuously more than 150 hours to see system reliability, sorbent reaction characteristics, sorbent morphology before and after test.

  16. Supercritical Water desulfurization of crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kida, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical Water (SCW) desulfurization was investigated for both model sulfur compounds and Arab Heavy crude. In part 1, the reactions of alkyl sulfides in SCW were studied. During hexyl sulfide decomposition in SCW, ...

  17. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  18. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the ...

  19. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with prospective refineries led to the conclusion that there were not likely prospects for the licensing of the CED process.

  20. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  1. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, David R. (Lexington, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  2. The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, R.L.; O'Leary, T.J.; Shirk, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process removes sulfur dioxide from a flue by cold water scrubbing. Sulfur dioxide is significantly more soluable in cold water (35/sup 0/F to 60/sup 0/F) than in warm water (100/sup 0/F). Sulfur dioxide reacts in water similarly as carbon dioxide reacts in water, in that both gasses are released from the water as the temperature of the water increases. The researchers at the Gonzaga University developed this process from the observations and techniques used in studying the acid and aldehyde concentrations in flue gasses with varying of fuel to air ratios. The apparatus was fixed to a stationary engine and a gas/oil fired boiler. The flue gas was cooled to the dew point temperature of the air entering the combustion chamber on the pre-air heater. The system is described in two parts: the energies required for cooling in the scrubbing section and the energies required in the treatment section. The cold flue gas is utilized in cooling the scrubber section.

  3. Electrostatic monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry (Cumbria, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Cumbria, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Cumbria, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for more simply measuring alpha and/or beta emissions arising from items or locations. The technique uses indirect monitoring of the emissions by detecting ions generated by the emissions, the ions being attracted electrostatically to electrodes for discharge of collection. The apparatus and method employ a chamber which is sealed around the item or location during monitoring with no air being drawn into or expelled from the chamber during the monitoring process. A simplified structure and operations arises as a result, but without impairing the efficiency and accuracy of the detection technique.

  4. Excitation, detection, and electrostatic manipulation of terahertz-frequency range plasmons in a two-dimensional electron system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jingbo; Wood, Christopher D; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Cunningham, John E

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit blocks its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally defined nanostructures, however. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz-frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures.

  5. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  6. Desulfurization of Natural Gas for Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, David A.

    Desulfurization of Natural Gas for Fuel Cells Problem Presenter Emma Campbell, Bloom Energy Report as feedstock for fuel cells. This manuscript is really a collection of reports from teams in the group working (enumerated in the preface). #12;Model Formulation; Asymptotics 1 Section 1: Introduction Fuel cells use

  7. Biobriefcase electrostatic aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Christian, Allen T. (Madison, WI); Bailey, Christopher G. (Pleasanton, CA); Willis, Ladona (Manteca, CA); Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-03-17

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air comprising a receiving surface, a liquid input that directs liquid to the receiving surface and produces a liquid surface, an air input that directs the air so that the air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface, and an electrostatic contact connected to the liquid that imparts an electric charge to the liquid. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid by the air with particles entrained in the air impacting the liquid surface. Collection efficiency is improved by the electrostatic contact electrically charging the liquid. The effects of impaction and adhesion due to electrically charging the liquid allows a unique combination in a particle capture medium that has a low fluid consumption rate while maintaining high efficiency.

  8. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal by electron-transfer process with K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dipu Borah [Pragjyotika J College, Titabar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2006-02-01

    The desulfurization reaction involving direct electron transfer from potassium ferrocyanide, K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}), successfully removed organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal. The temperature variation of desulfurization revealed that increase of temperature enhanced the level of sulfur removal. Moreover, the desulfurization reaction was found to be dependent on the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}). Gradual increase in the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration the variation was not significant. The removal of organic sulfur from unoxidized coal slightly increased with reduced particle size. Desulfurization from oxidized coals (prepared by aerial oxidation) revealed a higher level of sulfur removal in comparison to unoxidized coal. Highest desulfurization of 36.4 wt % was obtained at 90{sup o}C and 0.1 M concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) in the 100-mesh size oxidized coal prepared at 200{sup o}C. Model sulfur compound study revealed that aliphatic types of sulfur compounds are primarily responsible for desulfurization. Because of higher stability, thiophene and condensed thiophene-type of compounds perhaps remained unaffected by the electron-transfer agent. Infrared study revealed the formation of oxidized sulfur compounds (sulfoxide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, etc.) in the oxidized coals. The desulfurization reaction in different systems is well-represented by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Application of the transition state theory indicated that the desulfurization reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat (endothermic reaction) and is nonspontaneous in nature. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  10. Improving Desulfurization to Enable Fuel Cell Utilization of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell CHP ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Improving Desulfurization to Enable Fuel Cell Utilization of Digester Gases Introduction With their clean...

  11. Communications to the Editor Room-Temperature Desulfurization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    difficult to remove in the hydroprocessing of crude oil.3 In homogeneous models, orga- nometallic nickel produced upon sulfur extrusion, leaving pertinent mechanistic information relevant to the desulfurization

  12. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony AprilCOAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony Wrathalla promising agent in coal-liquid desulfurization, assuming

  13. Philippine refiner completes diesel desulfurization project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candido, S.S.; Crisostomo, E.V.

    1997-01-27

    In anticipation of tightening sulfur specifications on diesel fuel, Petron Corp. built a new 18,000 b/sd gas oil desulfurization unit (GODU) at its refinery in Bataan, Philippines. The GODU gives Petron sufficient diesel oil desulfurization capacity to meet demand for lower-sulfur diesel in the country. The project places the refinery in a pacesetter position to comply with the Philippine government`s moves to reduce air pollution, especially in urban centers, by reducing the sulfur specification for diesel to 0.5 wt% in 1996 from 0.7 wt% at the start of the project. Performance tests and initial operations of the unit have revealed a desulfurization efficiency of 91% vs. a guaranteed efficiency of 90%. A feed sulfur content of 1.33 wt% is reduced to 0.12 wt% at normal operating conditions. Operating difficulties during start-up were minimized through use of a detailed prestartup check conducted during the early stages of construction work.

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROSTATIC MEMS WITH TAILORED DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelesko, John

    of electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. Key words. MEMS, microelectromechanical system, exact shooting, semilinear. The advent of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has revolutionized numerous branches of scienceMATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROSTATIC MEMS WITH TAILORED DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES JOHN A. PELESKO

  15. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  16. Electrostatics and packing in biomolecules : accounting for conformational change in protein folding and binding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caravella, Justin Andrew, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    The role of electrostatics and packing in protein folding and molecular association was assessed in different biomolecular systems. A continuum electrostatic model was applied to long-range electrostatic effects in the ...

  17. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  18. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D. (Washington, PA); Atimtay, Aysel T. (Cankaya, TR)

    1993-01-01

    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  19. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  20. ELECTROSTATICALLY-ACTUATED RECONFIGURABLE ELASTOMER MICROFLUIDICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maharbiz, Michel

    ELECTROSTATICALLY-ACTUATED RECONFIGURABLE ELASTOMER MICROFLUIDICS Meng-Ping Chang1 , and Michel M a user-programmable reconfigurable elastomer microfluidic system which employs electrostatic actuation of water-filled elastomer microfluidic channels. Device actuation was achieved by applying 5 MHz, 15-20 V

  1. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  2. Desulfurization of hot fuel with Z-Sorb III sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, W.M.; O`Donnell, J.J.; Katta, S.; Grindley, T.; Delzer, G.; Khare, G.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate regenerable sorbents for potential use in desulfurization of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) fuel gas in a fixed bed operating at temperatures of 900--1200{degree}F (482--649{degree}C) and pressures up to 300--400 psia (2068--2758 kPa). Important evaluation criteria are adequate sulfur absorption capacity, physical and chemical durability, and complete regenerability. The experimental tests were conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in their high pressure bench-scale hot gas desulfurization unit, which contains a 2 in (5.1 cm) ID reactor system. Like zinc ferrite and zinc titanate, Z-Sorb III is also a zinc oxide-based sorbent supported on a proprietary matrix designed to provide stability and prolong the sorbent life. The test program was divided into four phases. Phase I was essentially a screening or feasibility study and consisted of a relatively short series of complete sulfidation-regeneration cycles. Phase II was a longer term multi-cycle test designed to demonstrate durability and regenerability of the sorbent. Parametric tests of sulfidation variables were done in Phase III. The major variables investigated were gas velocity (0.5--2.0 fps) (0.15--0.61 mps) and absorption temperature (900--1100{degree}F) (482--593{degree}C). Work continued on regeneration techniques during this phase with the purpose of identifying the most cost-effective method for the commercial reactor. Phase IV of the test program was included to examine the effects, if any, of small quantities of HCl in the feed gas. A total of seven cycles were completed. The test program ended with a single sulfidation at the same conditions run during Phase I. This permitted a direct comparison of a relatively fresh sorbent with one that had been subjected to a wide variety of test conditions over an extended period of time.

  3. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  4. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  5. Multiple Solutions in Electrostatic MEMS J.A. Pelesko*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelesko, John

    Multiple Solutions in Electrostatic MEMS J.A. Pelesko* * Georgia Institute of Technology, School is the principle phe- nomena limiting the design of nearly every electrostat- ically actuated MEMS device for the system. Here a generalized model of a small aspect ratio electrostatically actuated MEMS device

  6. Integrated low emission cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines (electrostatic agglomeration). Project quarterly report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quimby, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this contract is to investigate the removal of SO{sub x} and particulate matter from direct coal-fired combustion gas streams at high temperature and high pressure conditions. This investigation will be accomplished through a bench-scale testing and evaluation program employing sorbent mixed with a coal-water slurry for SO{sub x} removal, and an innovative particulate control concept. The particulate control device utilizes electrostatic agglomeration followed by a high efficiency mechanical collector (cyclone). The process goal is to achieve particulate collection efficiency better than that required by the 1979 new source performance standards. An additional goal is to demonstrate 70% SO{sub x} removal efficiency. This research project is now in the second of a 3 phase (Phase II) project. Phase II is to fabricate the combustor and particulate control devices and install the system at a test facility located at Research-Cottrell`s, KVB Western Laboratory, Santa Ana, CA. There are three functional categories, or tasks which are to be completed in sequence. These tasks are itemized as follows: Design, procurement, and installation; Shakedown and startup; Reporting. Attempts to validate the concept of electrostatic agglomeration were not possible in the shakedown program before budget constraints halted the program. What was learned was that electrostatic precipitation is feasible in the temperature range of 1600--1800{degrees}F and at pressures above 10 atmospheres.

  7. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01

    in Coal Sulfur Removal From Coal By Pyrolysis EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experimental Apparatus Experimental Procedure Analyses of the Products RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Temperature Effect Upon Desulfurization Pressure Effect Upon Desulfurization... . Treatment Composition Effect Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of' Air V1 V111 ix 10 15 20 24 31 31 35 39 43 45 49 52 53 V11 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) PAGE Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of Steam and Air . . 53 Sulfur Removal...

  8. DropBot: An open-source digital microfluidic control system with precise control of electrostatic driving force and instantaneous drop velocity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fobel, Ryan; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 ; Fobel, Christian; Wheeler, Aaron R.; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6

    2013-05-13

    We introduce DropBot: an open-source instrument for digital microfluidics (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dropbot). DropBot features two key functionalities for digital microfluidics: (1) real-time monitoring of instantaneous drop velocity (which we propose is a proxy for resistive forces), and (2) application of constant electrostatic driving forces through compensation for amplifier-loading and device capacitance. We anticipate that this system will enhance insight into failure modes and lead to new strategies for improved device reliability, and will be useful for the growing number of users who are adopting digital microfluidics for automated, miniaturized laboratory operation.

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John G. Verkade

    2001-11-01

    Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia at -33 C, although the yield of biphenyl was only about 20 to 30%. On the other hand, benzothiophene gave a high yield of 2-ethylthiophenol under these conditions. Although our superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N, which is now commercially available, is a more effective desulfurizing agent for a variety of organophosphorus compounds than PPh{sub 3} or its acyclic analogue P(NMe){sub 3}, it does not desulfurize benzothiophene or dibenzothiophene.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  11. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  12. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  13. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  14. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  15. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  16. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  17. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  19. Combine hydrotreating, desulfurization and etherification for pollution reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.R. [CDTECH, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    CDTECH has been developing and licensing products for the refinery and petrochemical industries. The main focus has been on etherification and hydrogenation using catalytic distillation. These processes have been important for reformulated gasoline. This paper discusses the development and successful application of such processes to reduce air pollution and the hydrogenation of alkenes and desulfurization of gasoline and heavier fuels.

  20. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  2. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  3. Non-autonomous saddle-node bifurcation in a canonical electrostatic MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Cristina M.

    Non-autonomous saddle-node bifurcation in a canonical electrostatic MEMS Alexander Gutiérrez of electrostatically actuated micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) by means of classical topological techniques like of electrostatically actuated micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) which has become canonical in the related

  4. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  5. Process for demetallizing and desulfurizing heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Hogan, R.J.; Combs, D.M.; Kukes, S.G.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a process for producing a synthetic crude oil of improved properties by desulfurizing, denitrogenating and demetallizing a heavy crude oil feed stock. The feed stock being a crude oil having an average boiling point at least as high as 500{degrees} F., an API gravity at 60{degrees} F. of less than 20, and containing at least about 1 weight percent sulfur.

  6. Partial Differential Equations of Electrostatic MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    Partial Differential Equations of Electrostatic MEMS by Yujin Guo B.Sc., China Three Gorges) The University of British Columbia July 2007 c Yujin Guo 2007 #12;Abstract Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS their initial development in the 1980s, MEMS has revolutionized numerous branches of science and industry

  7. Bile Salt-Induced Vesicle-to-Micelle Transition in Catanionic Surfactant Systems: Steric and Electrostatic Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Bile Salt-Induced Vesicle-to-Micelle Transition in Catanionic Surfactant Systems: Steric in catanionic surfactant systems by the addition of two kinds of bile salts, sodium cholate (SC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC). It was found that steric interaction between the bile salt and catanionic surfactant plays

  8. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  9. Geometric nonlinear analysis of microbeam under electrostatic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murgude, Nikhil C.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the behavior of a microbeam subjected to electrostatic loading. Two devices, namely, a tungsten microtweezer and a clamped-clamped beam which is part of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), are used as the vehicles...

  10. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2001-09-01

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt % of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100 % of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt %. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of {approx}0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed.

  11. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  12. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM); Seager, Carleton H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate 11, created y micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate 13. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face 15 (patterned silicon plate's surface) and the silicon wafer 17 it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands 19 that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face 15. The islands 19 may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face 15 and wafer 17 contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands 19 are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face 15, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands 19, together with at least one hole 12 bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas.

  13. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

    1996-12-10

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

  14. Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilly, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

  15. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  16. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  17. Continuum Electrostatics in Cell Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. John Gagliardi

    2010-02-06

    Recent experiments revealing possible nanoscale electrostatic interactions in force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted speculation regarding possible models for interactions between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charge on C-termini near the plus ends of microtubules. A clear picture of how kinetochores establish and maintain a dynamic coupling to microtubules for force generation during the complex motions of mitosis remains elusive. The current paradigm of molecular cell biology requires that specific molecules, or molecular geometries, for force generation be identified. However, it is possible to account for mitotic motions within a classical electrostatics approach in terms of experimentally known cellular electric charge interacting over nanometer distances. These charges are modeled as bound surface and volume continuum charge distributions. Electrostatic consequences of intracellular pH changes during mitosis may provide a master clock for the events of mitosis.

  18. Electrostatic interactions in critical solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Bier; Andrea Gambassi; Martin Oettel; S. Dietrich

    2011-04-29

    The subtle interplay between critical phenomena and electrostatics is investigated by considering the effective force acting on two parallel walls confining a near-critical binary liquid mixture with added salt. The ion-solvent coupling can turn a non-critical repulsive electrostatic force into an attractive one upon approaching the critical point. However, the effective force is eventually dominated by the critical Casimir effect, the universal properties of which are not altered by the presence of salt. This observation allows a consistent interpretation of recent experimental data.

  19. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-10-10

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  20. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman (Irvine, CA); Binderbauer, Michl (Irvine, CA); Qerushi, Artan (Irvine, CA); Tahsiri, Hooshang (Irvine, CA)

    2008-10-21

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  1. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-03-21

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  2. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. [Rhodococcus erythropolis, Thiobacillus acidophilus, Thiobacillus novellus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA's of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  3. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. Eleventh quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-08-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA`s of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  4. IR laser ablative desulfurization of poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) Sardar M.A. Durani a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    IR laser ablative desulfurization of poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) Sardar M.A. Durani a , Ehsan E,* a Center for Applied Physical Sciences, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals similar to those in PPS. The PLAD of PPS thus represents a unique example of the desulfurization of S

  5. Two-stage regeneration of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-06-28

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in the potential of using a two-step process for regenerating the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. In the first regeneration step, a gas mixture consisting of 12 percent SO{sub 2}, 2 percent O{sub 2}, and 86 percent N{sub 2} is used to convert zinc and iron sulfides to their sulfate forms using a sorbent bed inlet temperature of about 850{degrees}F (454{degrees}C). For the second step, the temperature is raised to about 1400{degrees}F (760{degrees}C), and the sulfates are decomposed to oxides with the concurrent release of sulfur dioxide. The same gas composition used for first step is also used for the second step. The proposed technique would require no steam and also has the advantage of producing a regeneration gas rich in sulfur dioxide. In a commercial operation, recirculating regeneration gas would be supplemented with air as required to supply the necessary oxygen. A bleed stream from regeneration (concentrated SO{sub 2} gas in nitrogen) would constitute feed to sulfur recovery.

  6. Electrostatic Operation and Curvature Modeling for a MEMS Flexible Film Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrostatic Operation and Curvature Modeling for a MEMS Flexible Film Actuator B. Edmonds, Jr.1 Introduction and Motivation The electrostatic flexible film actuator, also known as an "Artificial Eyelid," is a unique MEMS (MicroElectronic Mechanical System) actuator fabricated from polyimide and thin metal films

  7. Electrostatic generator/motor configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2014-02-04

    Electrostatic generators/motors designs are provided that generally may include a first cylindrical stator centered about a longitudinal axis; a second cylindrical stator centered about the axis, a first cylindrical rotor centered about the axis and located between the first cylindrical stator and the second cylindrical stator. The first cylindrical stator, the second cylindrical stator and the first cylindrical rotor may be concentrically aligned. A magnetic field having field lines about parallel with the longitudinal axis is provided.

  8. Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Cicero, Daniel C. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown); Stiegel, Gary J.; Gupta, Raghubir P. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh); Turk, Brian S. (Research Triangle Institute)

    2001-11-06

    A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-land developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued-Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. This testing has demonstrated that during these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H2S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual at operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% and also remains constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration. A number of commercial tests involving RVS-1 have been either conducted or are planned in the near future. The RVS-1 sorbent has been tested by Epyx, Aspen Systems and McDermott Technology (MTI), Inc for desulfurization of syngas produced by reforming of hydrocarbon liquid feedstocks for fuel cell applications. The RVS-1 sorbent was selected by MTI over other candidate sorbents for demonstration testing in their 500-kW ship service fuel cell program. It was also possible to obtain sulfur levels in the ppbv range with the modified RVS-1 sorbent.

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  10. Dynamics of Electrostatic MEMS Actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yisong; Zhao, Le

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic actuators are simple but important switching devices for MEMS applications. Due to the difficulties associated with the electrostatic nonlinearity, precise mathematical description is often hard to obtain for the dynamics of these actuators. Here we present two sharp theorems concerning the dynamics of an undamped electrostatic actuator with one-degree of freedom, subject to linear and nonlinear elastic forces, respectively. We prove that both situations are characterized by the onset of one-stagnation-point periodic response below a well-defined pull-in voltage and a finite-time touch-down or collapse of the actuator above this pull-in voltage. In the linear-force situation, the stagnation level, pull-in voltage, and pull-in coordinate of the movable electrode may all be determined explicitly, following the recent work of Leus and Elata based on numerics. Furthermore, in the nonlinear-force situation, the stagnation level, pull-in voltage, and pull-in coordinate may be described completely in t...

  11. Designing and operating electrostatically driven microengines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; LaVigne, G.F.

    1998-02-01

    Microelectromechanical engines that convert the linear outputs from dual orthogonal electrostatic actuators to rotary motion were first developed in 1993. Referred to as microengines, these early devices demonstrated the potential of microelectromechanical technology, but, as expected from any first-of-its-kind device, were not yet optimized. Yield was relatively low, and the 10 micronewtons of force generated by the actuators was not always enough to ensure reliable operation. Since initial development, these engines have undergone a continuous series of significant improvements on three separate fronts: design, fabrication, and electrical activation. Although all three areas will be discussed, emphasis will be on aspects related to mechanical design and generation of the electrical waveforms used to drive these devices. Microtransmissions that dramatically increase torque will also be discussed. Electrostatically driven microengines can be operated at hundreds of thousands of revolutions per minute making large gear reduction ratios feasible; overall ratios of 3,000,000:1 have been successfully demonstrated. Today`s microengines have evolved into high endurance (one test device has seen over 7,000,000,000 revolutions), high yield, robust devices that have become the primary actuation source for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) at Sandia National Laboratories.

  12. Docking Unbound Proteins Using Shape Complementarity, Desolvation, and Electrostatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Zhiping

    Docking Unbound Proteins Using Shape Complementarity, Desolvation, and Electrostatics Rong Chen1 A comprehensive docking study was performed on 27 distinct protein-protein com- plexes. For 13 test systems space without any knowledge of the binding sites was performed for all proteins except nine antibodies

  13. High-Damping Energy-Harvesting Electrostatic CMOS Charger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    High-Damping Energy-Harvesting Electrostatic CMOS Charger Karl Peterson and Gabriel A. Rincón increases this force, which is what the energy-harvesting 0.35-µm CMOS charger proposed achieves with a 10-n in the system) a net gain of 8.8 nJ/Cycle at 16 V. I. POWERING WIRELESS MICROSENSORS Wireless microsensors add

  14. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  15. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

  16. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  17. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  18. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  19. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06

    The hybrid Zero Valent Iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment platform that has shown great potential in our previous bench-scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and other pollutants from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) wastewater...

  20. Computation of Electrostatic Properties of 3D MEMS Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Majumdar; S. Mukhopadhyay

    2006-04-05

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) normally have fixed or moving structures with cross-sections of the order of microns ($\\mu m$) and lengths of the order of tens or hundreds of microns. These structures are often plates or array of thin beams which, owing to their smallness, can be moved or deflected easily through the application of low voltages. Since electrostatic forces play a very major role in maneuvering these devices, a thorough understanding of the electrostatic properties of these structures is of critical importance, especially in the design phase of MEMS. In many cases, the electrostatic analysis of MEMS is carried out using boundary element method (BEM), while the structural analysis is carried out using finite element method (FEM). In this paper, we focus on accurate electrostatic analysis of MEMS using BEM. In particular, we consider the problem of computing the charge distribution and capacitance of thin conducting plates relevant to the numerical simulation of MEMS. The reason behind the accuracy of the solver is the fact that it uses closed-form analytic expressions that are valid seamlessly throughout the physical domain for computing the influence coefficients. Thus, it is possible to avoid one of the most serious approximations of the BEM, namely, the assumption that the effect of a charge distributed over a boundary element can be approximated by charge located at the centroid of the element. Comparison with other results available in the literature seems to indicate that the present results are more accurate than the existing ones.

  1. Frequency-dependent electrostatic actuation in microfluidic MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.

    2003-09-01

    Electrostatic actuators exhibit fast response times and are easily integrated into microsystems because they can be fabricated with standard IC micromachining processes and materials. Although electrostatic actuators have been used extensively in 'dry' MEMS, they have received less attention in microfluidic systems probably because of challenges such as electrolysis, anodization, and electrode polarization. Here we demonstrate that ac drive signals can be used to prevent electrode polarization, and thus enable electrostatic actuation in many liquids, at potentials low enough to avoid electrochemistry. We measure the frequency response of an interdigitated silicon comb-drive actuator in liquids spanning a decade of dielectric permittivities and four decades of conductivity, and present a simple theory that predicts the characteristic actuation frequency. The analysis demonstrates the importance of the native oxide on silicon actuator response, and suggests that the actuation frequency can be shifted by controlling the thickness of the oxide. For native silicon devices, actuation is predicted at frequencies less than 10 MHz, in electrolytes of ionic strength up to 100 mmol/L, and thus electrostatic actuation may be feasible in many bioMEMS and other microfluidic applications.

  2. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Fosco; F. C. Lombardo; F. D. Mazzitelli

    2012-04-23

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated to their shapes. Indeed, in the so called "proximity force approximation" the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contribution of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied to different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful to discuss the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes.

  3. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  4. Electrostatic generator/motor configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2012-09-11

    Electrostatic generators/motors designs are provided that include a stator fixedly connected to a first central support centered about a central axis. The stator elements are attached to the first central support. Similarly, a second stator is connected to a central support centered about the central axis, and the second stator has stator elements attached to the second central support. A rotor is located between the first stator and the second stator and includes an outer support, where the rotor is rotatably centered about the central axis, the rotor having elements in contact with the outer support, each rotor element having an extending rotor portion that extends radially from the outer support toward the axis of rotation.

  5. Electrostatic Transfor of Patterned Epitaxial Graphene from SiC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrostatic Transfor of Patterned Epitaxial Graphene from SiC (001) to Glass. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrostatic Transfor of Patterned Epitaxial Graphene...

  6. Electrostatic microvalves utilizing conductive nanoparticles for improved speed, lower power, and higher force actuation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Branson, Eric D.; Kenis, Paul J. A. (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Desai, Amit (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Schudel, Ben (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Givler, Richard C.; Tice, Josh (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Collord, Andrew; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Cook, Adam W.

    2009-09-01

    We have designed and built electrostatically actuated microvalves compatible with integration into a PDMS based microfluidic system. The key innovation for electrostatic actuation was the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into the PDMS valve membrane, allowing for electrostatic charging of the PDMS layer and subsequent discharging, while still allowing for significant distention of the valveseat for low voltage control of the system. Nanoparticles were applied to semi-cured PDMS using a stamp transfer method, and then cured fully to make the valve seats. DC actuation in air of these valves yielded operational voltages as low as 15V, by using a supporting structure above the valve seat that allowed sufficient restoring forces to be applied while not enhancing actuation forces to raise the valve actuation potential. Both actuate to open and actuate to close valves have been demonstrated, and integrated into a microfluidic platform, and demonstrated fluidic control using electrostatic valves.

  7. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements 30 (2006) 940948 Dual BIE approaches for modeling electrostatic MEMS problems with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yijun

    2006-01-01

    electrostatic MEMS problems with thin beams and accelerated by the fast multipole method Y.J. Liuà Department of electrostatic fields exterior to thin-beam structures as found in some micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS that the dual BIEs are very effective in solving MEMS problems with thin beams and the fast multipole BEM

  8. Electrostatic-plasma-wave energy flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amendt, P.; Rostoker, N.

    1984-01-01

    would reduce cross- field wave-energy convection since theor cross-field leakage of wave energy are ap- that thecomposition of electrostatic-wave-energy field degrees of

  9. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fosco, Cesar D.; Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche ; Lombardo, Fernando C.; IFIBA ; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2012-08-15

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

  10. ELECTROSTATIC MODELING OF THE JEFFERSON LABORATORY INVERTED CERAMIC GUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Evtushenko ,F.E. Hannon, C. Hernandez-Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) is currently developing a new 500kV DC electron gun for future use with the FEL. The design consists of two inverted ceramics which support a central cathode electrode. This layout allows for a load-lock system to be located behind the gun chamber. The electrostatic geometry of the gun has been designed to minimize surface electric field gradients and also to provide some transverse focusing to the electron beam during transit between the cathode and anode. This paper discusses the electrode design philosophy and presents the results of electrostatic simulations. The electric field information obtained through modeling was used with particle tracking codes to predict the effects on the electron beam.

  11. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  12. Energy conservation in electrostatic fabric filtration of industrial dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ariman, T.

    1981-12-01

    Conservation in energy consumption in industrial fabric filtration systems has become very important due to the substantial increase in energy costs. Recently, an external electric field was utilized in the industrial dust control by fabric filters with very promising initial results. A substantial decrease in the pressure drop and an increase in collection efficiency were observed. The detailed outcome of the experimental research program in electrostatic fabric filtration was presented. The results show that pressure drop decreases substantially with the increased electrostatic field strength for all relevant parameters. Furthermore, the data of the experimental program was utilized to develop a semi-empirical model for the determination of the pressure drop and to establish an Energy-Optimized Design Criteria.

  13. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  14. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2006-04-11

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  15. Characterization of electrostatically coupled microcantilevers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napoli, Mariateresa; Zhang, W H; Turner, K; Bamieh, B

    2005-01-01

    IEEE JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO.JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 2,JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 2,

  16. Characterization of electrostatically coupled microcantilevers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napoli, Mariateresa; Zhang, W H; Turner, K; Bamieh, B

    2005-01-01

    IEEE JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO.JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 2,where JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 14,

  17. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 8, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  19. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  20. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  1. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  2. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  3. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 7, April--June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  4. EPA reports advances in scrubber technology at Flue Gas Desulfurization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1982-07-01

    The overall message of the recent Symposium on Flue Gas Desulfurization was that the technology for sulfur dioxide scrubbing has matured enough for discussions to focus on future improvements rather than whether scrubbers work at all. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations will not change in the near future, however, unless there are changes in the Clean air Act to deal with acid rain, despite the improvements in performance data. The symposium covered reports on dual-alkali scrubbing, organic buffer additives, the probability that scrubber wastes will not be classified as hazardous, simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and continuous monitoring programs. 3 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  5. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  6. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  7. Electrostatic zipping actuators and their applications to MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2004-01-01

    Electrostatic actuation is the most common and well-developed method of generating motion on the micro scale. To overcome the challenge of providing both high force and large displacement, electrostatic zipping actuators ...

  8. Multipole Electrostatics in Hydration Free Energy Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Jay

    Multipole Electrostatics in Hydration Free Energy Calculations YUE SHI,1 CHUANJIE WU,2 JAY W: Hydration free energy (HFE) is generally used for evaluating molecular solubility, which is an important interactions. The effect of long-range correction to van der Waals interaction on the hydration free energies

  9. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A. A.; Dobrovolskiy, A. M.; Dunets, S. M.; Litovko, I. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.

    2012-02-15

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  10. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  11. Electrostatically Self-assembled Amphiplexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helmut H. Strey

    2011-02-15

    This research will focus on characterizing the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte-surfactant microemulsions (PSM) that were recently discovered in our lab and indentifing possible uses of their long-range ordered nanostructures towards bioseparation, oil-recovery and drug delivery systems. In addition, we are proposing strategies for synthesizing solid and long-range ordered materials with unit cells on the nanometer scale using polymerization and/or cross-linking to solidify the soft template.

  12. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  13. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  14. Klystron having electrostatic quadrupole focusing arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, Alfred W. (East Moriches, NY)

    1983-08-30

    A klystron includes a source for emitting at least one electron beam, and an accelerator for accelarating the beam in a given direction through a number of drift tube sections successively aligned relative to one another in the direction of the beam. A number of electrostatic quadrupole arrays are successively aligned relative to one another along at least one of the drift tube sections in the beam direction for focusing the electron beam. Each of the electrostatic quadrupole arrays forms a different quadrupole for each electron beam. Two or more electron beams can be maintained in parallel relationship by the quadrupole arrays, thereby enabling space charge limitations encountered with conventional single beam klystrons to be overcome.

  15. Klystron having electrostatic quadrupole focusing arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, A.W.

    1983-08-30

    A klystron includes a source for emitting at least one electron beam, and an accelerator for accelerating the beam in a given direction through a number of drift tube sections successively aligned relative to one another in the direction of the beam. A number of electrostatic quadrupole arrays are successively aligned relative to one another along at least one of the drift tube sections in the beam direction for focusing the electron beam. Each of the electrostatic quadrupole arrays forms a different quadrupole for each electron beam. Two or more electron beams can be maintained in parallel relationship by the quadrupole arrays, thereby enabling space charge limitations encountered with conventional single beam klystrons to be overcome. 4 figs.

  16. Centrifugally driven electrostatic instability in extragalactic jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Osmanov

    2008-01-29

    The stability problem of the rotation induced electrostatic wave in extragalactic jets is presented. Solving a set of equations describing dynamics of a relativistic plasma flow of AGN jets, an expression of the instability rate has been derived and analyzed for typical values of AGNs. The growth rate was studied versus the wave length and the inclination angle and it has been found that the instability process is much efficient with respect to the accretion disk evolution, indicating high efficiency of the instability.

  17. Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

  18. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Rockey, John M. (Westover, WV)

    1994-01-01

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  19. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  20. Control of the chaotic velocity dispersion of a cold electron beam interacting with electrostatic waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guido Ciraolo; Cristel Chandre; Ricardo Lima; Marco Pettini; Michel Vittot

    2006-07-31

    In this article we present an application of a method of control of Hamiltonian systems to the chaotic velocity diffusion of a cold electron beam interacting with electrostatic waves. We numerically show the efficiency and robustness of the additional small control term in restoring kinetic coherence of the injected electron beam.

  1. Mixtures of charged colloid and neutral polymer: Influence of electrostatic interactions on demixing and interfacial tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Matthias

    stability are consistent with observed behavior of protein-polysaccharide mixtures in food colloids. © 2005 phase behavior between colloidal suspensions and atomic systems, and the relative ease of tuning polymerMixtures of charged colloid and neutral polymer: Influence of electrostatic interactions

  2. Electrostatically-driven elastomer components for user-reconfigurable high density microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maharbiz, Michel

    Electrostatically-driven elastomer components for user-reconfigurable high density microfluidics microfluidic system intended for very large scale integration (VLSI) microfluidics. By adding thin film metal with standard PDMS microfluidics, has actuation voltages low enough to be driven by commercial CMOS IC's and can

  3. Free-energy functionals of the electrostatic potential for Poisson-Boltzmann theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vikram Jadhao; Francisco J. Solis; Monica Olvera de la Cruz

    2013-09-26

    In simulating charged systems, it is often useful to treat some ionic components of the system at the mean-field level and solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation to get their respective density profiles. The numerically intensive task of solving the PB equation at each step of the simulation can be bypassed using variational methods that treat the electrostatic potential as a dynamic variable. But such approaches require the access to a true free-energy functional; a functional that not only provides the correct solution of the PB equation upon extremization, it also evaluates to the true free energy of the system at its minimum. Moreover, the numerical efficiency of such procedures is further enhanced if the free-energy functional is local and is expressed in terms of the electrostatic potential. Existing PB functionals of the electrostatic potential, while possessing the local structure, are not free-energy functionals. We present a variational formulation with a local free-energy functional of the potential. In addition, we also construct a nonlocal free-energy functional of the electrostatic potential. These functionals are suited for employment in simulation schemes based on the ideas of dynamical optimization.

  4. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 4, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  5. The electrostatic charge generation characteristics of transformer oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James Rensselaer

    1990-01-01

    electrostatic discharge can pose a life threatening ;hazard. According to Eichel (I), three conditions must be met in order for an electrostatic discharge to cause an explosion in gases: l. An explosive gas mixture must be present. 2. An electric field... will be ineffective. Electrostatic charges on ungrounded conductors will distribute evenly over the entire surface. Charges on nonconductors will remain at the point where they were initially formed, even if the material is connected to a ground (2) . Static...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcoming Release of thePrograms: Center forFacebook TwitterElectrostatic

  7. Electrostatic discharge testing of electroexplosive devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hingorani, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing of electroexplosive devices has previously been regarded as single pulse, go/no-go testing, the emphasis being on the safety of the devices when exposed to human handling. For some components it has been found to be a destructive test; for others the test is performed 100% in production product-acceptance testing and is considered a nondestructive and nondegrading test if the component does not fire. Recent studies performed by R. J. Fisher at Sandia have resulted in a new model of the worst case human body electrostatic discharge that is more accurate than the model that is currently in use for testing electroexplosive components. In addition, recent requirements for no degradation or loss of reliability after multiple exposures (up to 100) have changed the go/no-go nature of the test. Several components have been tested to the new ESD model; results regarding both safety and reliability will be presented and discussed. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Electron Dynamics in a Beating Electrostatic Wave Magnetic Null Thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron dynamics in a beating-electrostatic-wave-powered magnetic null thruster are explored in orderElectron Dynamics in a Beating Electrostatic Wave Magnetic Null Thruster Matthew S. Feldman and Edgar Y. Choueiri Electric Propulsion and Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, 08544, USA

  9. ON NONLINEAR RESPONSE NEAR-HALF NATURAL FREQUENCY OF ELECTROSTATICALLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caruntu, Dumitru I. - Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Texas

    Dimensionless moment of inertia ` Beam length M Molar mass of gas P Air pressure Q Quality factor T TemperatureON NONLINEAR RESPONSE NEAR-HALF NATURAL FREQUENCY OF ELECTROSTATICALLY ACTUATED MICRORESONATORS near-half natural frequency. A ¯rst-order fringe correction of the electrostatic force, viscous damping

  10. Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo

    Electrostatic Free Energy and its Variations in Implicit Solvent Models Jianwei Che , Joachim. The unique set of such concentrations that minimize this free energy are given by the usual Boltzmann. The variation of the electrostatic free energy with respect to the location change of solute-solvent interfaces

  11. Electrostatic energy barriers from dielectric membranes upon approach of translocating DNA molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin Buyukdagli; T. Ala-Nissila

    2015-11-17

    We probe the electrostatic cost associated with the approach phase of DNA translocation events. Within an analytical theory at the Debye-Huckel level, we calculate the electrostatic free energy of a rigid DNA molecule interacting with a dielectric membrane. For carbon or silicon based low permittivity neutral membranes, the DNA molecule experiences a repulsive energy barrier between 10 kBT and 100 kBT. In the case of engineered membranes with high dielectric permittivity, the membrane surface attracts the DNA with an energy of the same magnitude. Both the repulsive and attractive interactions result from image-charge effects and their magnitude survive even for the thinnest graphene-based membranes of size d~6 A. For weakly charged membranes, the electrostatic free energy is always attractive at large separation distances but switches to repulsive close to the membrane surface. We also characterise the polymer length dependence of the interaction energy. For specific values of the membrane charge density, low permittivity membranes repel short polymers but attract long polymers. Our results can be used to control the strong electrostatic free energy of DNA-membrane interactions prior to translocation events by chemical engineering of the relevant system parameters.

  12. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-07-31

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-10-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  14. Continuum Electrostatic Energies of Macromolecules in Aqueous Solutions Marco Scarsi, Joannis Apostolakis, and Amedeo Caflisch*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Continuum Electrostatic Energies of Macromolecules in Aqueous Solutions Marco Scarsi, Joannis evaluation of electrostatic energies of macromolecules in aqueous solutions is useful for many problems for obtaining correct electrostatic energies of molecules in solution. In addition, it is demonstrated

  15. Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields in Bilayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed Jellal; Ilham Redouani; Hocine Bahlouli

    2014-11-14

    We compute the transmission probability through rectangular potential barriers and p-n junctions in the presence of a magnetic and electric fields in bilayer graphene taking into account the full four bands of the energy spectrum. For energy E higher than the interlayer coupling $\\gamma_1 (E>\\gamma_1)$ two propagation modes are available for transport giving rise to four possible ways for transmission and reflection probabilities. However, when the energy is less then the height of the barrier the Dirac fermions exhibits transmission resonances and only one mode of propagation is available. We study the effect of the interlayer electrostatic potential $\\delta$ and the different geometry parameters of the barrier on the transmission probability.

  16. Electrostatic Discharge testing of propellants and primers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, R.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of testing of selected propellants and primers to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) characteristic of the human body. It describes the tests and the fixturing built to accommodate loose material (propellants) and the packed energetic material of the primer. The results indicate that all powders passed and some primers, especially the electric primers, failed to pass established requirements which delineate insensitive energetic components. This report details the testing of components and materials to four ESD environments (Standard ESD, Severe ESD, Modified Standard ESD, and Modified Severe ESD). The purpose of this study was to collect data based on the customer requirements as defined in the Sandia Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Manual, Chapter 9, and to define static sensitive and insensitive propellants and primers.

  17. Implosion and explosion of electrostatic cylindrical and spherical shocks in asymmetric pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.

    2011-04-15

    Nonlinear electrostatic shock waves are studied in unmagnetized, dissipative pair-ion plasmas. The dissipation in the system is taken into account by considering the effect of kinematic viscosity of both positive and negative ions in plasmas. The system of fluid equations for asymmetric pair-ion plasma is reduced to Korteweg-deVries-Burgers equation in the limit of small amplitude perturbation. It is observed that the system under consideration admits rarefactive shocks. Keeping in view the practical applications, the nonlinear propagation of both the exploding and imploding shocks is investigated and the differences are expounded in detail. The present study may have relevance in the study of the formation of electrostatic shocks in laser-induced implosion devices, star formation, supernovae explosion, etc.

  18. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  20. Charge trapping by anionic quinones electrostatically bound to a highly charged cationic quinone-viologen polymer or a cationic poly(3-viologen-thiophene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hable, C.T.; Crooks, R.M.; Valentine, J.R.; Giasson, R.; Wrighton, M.S. )

    1993-06-03

    Charge associated with quinone reduction is trapped at low pH in systems composed of sulfonated anthraquinones electrostatically bound to a polymer derived from a monomer consisting of a quinone unit flanked by two viologen units. Each monomer repeat unit carries 6 equiv of positive charge which can be charge compensated by monosulfonated anthraquinone to yield a quinone-viologen ratio of nearly 7:2. At low pH, electrostatic binding is persistent, and the amount of trapped charge is 90% of the theoretical maximum. Some of the electrostatically bound quinine can be replaced with Fe(CN)[sub 6][sup 3[minus

  1. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  2. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-12-16

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  3. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2007-02-20

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  4. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-02-07

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  5. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

    1997-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  6. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  7. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  8. Electrostatic shape-shifting ion optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A.; Scott, Jill R.; Appelhans, Anthony D.

    2006-05-02

    Electrostatic shape-shifting ion optics includes an outer electrode that defines an interior region between first and second opposed open ends. A first inner electrode is positioned within the interior region of the outer electrode at about the first open end. A second inner electrode is positioned within the interior region of the outer electrode at about the second open end. A first end cap electrode is positioned at about a first open end of the first inner electrode so that the first end cap electrode substantially encloses the first open end of the first inner electrode. A second end cap electrode is positioned at about a second open end of the second inner electrode so that the second end cap electrode substantially encloses the second open end of the second inner electrode. A voltage source operatively connected to each of the electrodes applies voltage functions to each of the electrodes to produce an electric field within an interior space enclosed by the electrodes.

  9. Electrostatic AB-Ramjet Space Propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-08

    A new electrostatic ramjet space engine is proposed and analyzed. The upper atmosphere (85 -1000 km) is extremely dense in ions (millions per cubic cm). The interplanetary medium contains positive protons from the solar wind. A charged ball collects the ions (protons) from the surrounding area and a special electric engine accelerates the ions to achieve thrust or decelerates the ions to achieve drag. The thrust may have a magnitude of several Newtons. If the ions are decelerated, the engine produces a drag and generates electrical energy. The theory of the new engine is developed. It is shown that the proposed engine driven by a solar battery (or other energy source) can not only support satellites in their orbit for a very long time but can also work as a launcher of space apparatus. The latter capability includes launch to high orbit, to the Moon, to far space, or to the Earth atmosphere (as a return thruster for space apparatus or as a killer of space debris). The proposed ramjet is very useful in interplanetary trips to far planets because it can simultaneously produce thrust or drag and large electric energy using the solar wind. Two scenarios, launch into the upper Earth atmosphere and an interplanetary trip, are simulated and the results illustrate the excellent possibilities of the new concept.

  10. Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, James B

    1998-01-01

    parameter on the rate of coalescence. Using previously established procedures, the potential for enhancement of the electrostatic coalescence rate for oil/water emulsions of highly refined oils and different grades of crude oils was explored using a 2-L...

  11. Fast dynamic force computation for electrostatic and electromagnetic conductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koteeswaran, Prabhavathi

    2005-02-17

    -1 FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Computer Engineering FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  12. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  13. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    When the size of materials is comparable to the characteristic length scale of their physical properties, novel functionalities can emerge. For semiconductors, this is exemplified by the 'superlattice' concept of Esaki and Tsu, where the width of the repeated stacking of different semiconductors is comparable to the 'size' of the electrons, resulting in novel confined states now routinely used in opto-electronics. For metals, a good example is magnetic/non-magnetic multilayer films that are thinner than the spin-scattering length, from which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) emerged, used in the read heads of hard disk drives. For transition metal oxides, a similar research program is currently underway, broadly motivated by the vast array of physical properties that they host. This long-standing notion has been recently invigorated by the development of atomic-scale growth and probe techniques, which enables the study of complex oxide heterostructures approaching the precision idealized in Fig. 1(a). Taking the subset of oxides derived from the perovskite crystal structure, the close lattice match across many transition metal oxides presents the opportunity, in principle, to develop a 'universal' heteroepitaxial materials system. Hand-in-hand with the continual improvements in materials control, an increasingly relevant challenge is to understand the consequences of the electrostatic boundary conditions which arise in these structures. The essence of this issue can be seen in Fig. 1(b), where the charge sequence of the sublayer 'stacks' for various representative perovskites is shown in the ionic limit, in the (001) direction. To truly 'universally' incorporate different properties using different materials components, be it magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, etc., it is necessary to access and join different charge sequences, labelled here in analogy to the designations 'group IV, III-V, II-VI' for semiconductors. As we will review, interfaces between different families creates a host of electrostatic issues. They can be somewhat avoided if, as in many semiconductor heterostructures, only one family is used, with small perturbations (such as n-type or p-type doping) around them. However, for most transition metal oxides, this is greatly restrictive. For example, LaMnO{sub 3} and SrMnO{sub 3} are both insulators in part due to strong electron correlations, and only in their solid solution does 'colossal magnetoresistance' emerge in bulk. Similarly, the metallic superlattice shown in Fig. 1(c) can be considered a nanoscale deconstruction of (La,Sr)TiO{sub 3} to the insulating parent compounds. Therefore the aspiration to arbitrarily mix and match perovskite components requires a basic understanding of, and ultimately control over, these issues. In this context, here we present basic electrostatic features that arise in oxide heterostructures which vary the ionic charge stacking sequence. In close relation to the analysis of the stability of polar surfaces and semiconductor heterointerfaces, the variation of the dipole moment across a heterointerface plays a key role in determining its stability. Different self-consistent assignments of the unit cell are presented, allowing the polar discontinuity picture to be recast in terms of an equivalent local charge neutrality picture. The latter is helpful in providing a common framework with which to discuss electronic reconstructions, local-bonding considerations, crystalline defects, and lattice polarization on an equal footing, all of which are the subject of extensive current investigation.

  14. Fusion in a magnetically-shielded-grid inertial electrostatic confinement device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedditch, John; Khachan, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented that shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively-biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  15. Dynamic pull-in of parallel plate and torsional electrostatic MEMS actuators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Barbastathis, George (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA)

    2005-02-01

    An analysis of the dynamic characteristics of pull-in for parallel-plate and torsional electrostatic actuators is presented. Traditionally, the analysis for pull-in has been done using quasi-static assumptions. However, it was recently shown experimentally that a step input can cause a decrease in the voltage required for pull-in to occur. We propose an energy-based solution for the step voltage required for pull-in that predicts the experimentally observed decrease in the pull-in voltage. We then use similar energy techniques to explore pull-in due to an actuation signal that is modulated depending on the sign of the velocity of the plate (i.e., modulated at the instantaneous mechanical resonant frequency). For this type of actuation signal, significant reductions in the pull-in voltage can theoretically be achieved without changing the stiffness of the structure. This analysis is significant to both parallel-plate and torsional electrostatic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switching structures where a reduced operating voltage without sacrificing stiffness is desired, as well as electrostatic MEMS oscillators where pull-in due to dynamic effects needs to be avoided.

  16. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  17. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalan, V.

    1983-10-01

    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  18. Laboratory Measurements of Electrostatic Solitary Structures Generated by Beam Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefebvre, Bertrand; Chen, Li-Jen; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Vincena, Stephen; Kintner, Paul; Pickett, Jolene; Chiang, Franklin; Judy, Jack

    2010-09-10

    Electrostatic solitary structures are generated by injection of a suprathermal electron beam parallel to the magnetic field in a laboratory plasma. Electric microprobes with tips smaller than the Debye length ({lambda}{sub De}) enabled the measurement of positive potential pulses with half-widths 4 to 25{lambda}{sub De} and velocities 1 to 3 times the background electron thermal speed. Nonlinear wave packets of similar velocities and scales are also observed, indicating that the two descend from the same mode which is consistent with the electrostatic whistler mode and result from an instability likely to be driven by field-aligned currents.

  19. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  20. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Michael J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility.

  1. Chromatin Ionic Atmosphere Analyzed by a Mesoscale Electrostatic Hin Hark Gan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Tamar

    Chromatin Ionic Atmosphere Analyzed by a Mesoscale Electrostatic Approach Hin Hark Gan and Tamar an electrostatic model to handle multivalent ions and compute the ionic distribution around a mesoscale chromatin

  2. INVESTIGATION OF NEW MATERIALS AND DETECTORS USING THE ELECTROSTATIC ACCELERATOR AND NEUTRON GENERATOR BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    314 INVESTIGATION OF NEW MATERIALS AND DETECTORS USING THE ELECTROSTATIC ACCELERATOR AND NEUTRON, semiconductors) as well as for technical and applied investigations (new materials, nuclear detectors 1. Introduction Existing at PNPI low energy accelerators - a Van de Graaf electrostatic accelerator

  3. Electrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    nanoparticle show single electron tunneling coexisting with tunnel-barrier suppression. © 1997 AmericanElectrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes A. Bezryadina Received 4 June 1997; accepted for publication 8 July 1997 For molecular electronics, one needs the ability

  4. Electrostatic Potential in a Bent Piezoelectric Nanowire. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    was driven by ultrasonic wave, establishing the platform of producing usable power output for nanodevicesElectrostatic Potential in a Bent Piezoelectric Nanowire. The Fundamental Theory of Nanogenerator theory for calculating the piezoelectric potential distribution in a nanowire (NW) as pushed by a lateral

  5. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, A.W.

    1984-04-16

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow through the assembly.

  6. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, Alfred W. (East Moriches, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly.

  7. Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (scCO2). Herein we demonstrate that colloids may also be stabilized in CO2 the behavior of steric stabilization in compressed supercritical fluids1-3 including carbon dioxide,4

  8. INTERNAL ELECTROSTATIC TRANSDUCTION FOR BULK-MODE MEMS RESONATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    This paper demonstrates a new approach to electrostatic drive and detection of bulk acoustic resonators coupled into the fundamental bending mode. The approach was deemed inefficient because air-gap capacitive by filling the air-gaps with a low Young's modulus, high- dielectric material. A more practical approach

  9. Bipolar expansions and overlap corrections to the electrostatic interaction energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Vaman

    2015-06-10

    We use the multipole technique to derive four equivalent expressions for the bipolar expansion of the inverse distance, valid in all the regions of configuration space. Using the first-order perturbation theory, we calculate the overlap correction to the long-range electrostatic energy between two hydrogen atoms and between a hydrogen atom and a proton.

  10. Electrostatic Fluid Accelerator and Air Purifier The Second Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamishev, Alexander

    as air propulsion [1-3], solid-fluid boundary layer modification [4,5], cooling [6-13], electro interface [18,19]. In addition, ionic propulsion is achieved without moving mechanical parts, thus enabling1 Electrostatic Fluid Accelerator and Air Purifier ­ The Second Wind I.A. Krichtafovitch1 , V

  11. Shielded electrostatic probe for nonperturbing plasma measurements in Hall thrusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shielded electrostatic probe for nonperturbing plasma measurements in Hall thrusters D. Staack,a) Y a low secondary electron emission material, such as metal, shields the probe ceramic tube, is shown to function without producing such large perturbations. A segmentation of this shield further prevents probe

  12. An Electrostatic Interpretation of the Zeros of Paraorthogonal Polynomials on the Unit Circle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Simanek

    2015-01-22

    We show that if m is a probability measure with infinite support on the unit circle having no singular component and a differentiable weight, then the corresponding paraorthogonal polynomial P_n(z;B) solves an explicit second order linear differential equation. We also show that if T and B are distinct, then the pair {P_n(z;B),P_n(z;T)} solves an explicit first order linear system of differential equations. One can use these differential equations to deduce that the zeros of every paraorthogonal polynomial mark the locations of a set of particles that are in electrostatic equilibrium with respect to a particular external field.

  13. A New Four States High Deflection Low Actuation Voltage Electrostatic Mems Switch for RF Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robin, Renaud; Segueni, Karim; Millet, Olivier; Buchaillot, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new electrostatic MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical System) based on a single high reliability totally free flexible membrane. Using four electrodes, this structure enables four states which allowed large deflections (4$\\mu$m) with low actuation voltage (7,5V). This design presents also a good contact force and improve the restoring force of the structure. As an example of application, a Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) for 24GHz applications, based on this design, has been simulated.

  14. Study on plasma parameters and dust charging in an electrostatically plugged multicusp plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382 428 (India)

    2011-06-15

    The effect of the electrostatic confinement potential on the charging of dust grains and its relationship with the plasma parameters has been studied in an electrostatically plugged multicusp dusty plasma device. Electrostatic plugging is implemented by biasing the electrically isolated magnetic multicusp channel walls. The experimental results show that voltage applied to the channel walls can be a controlling parameter for dust charging.

  15. Evaluation of Models of Electrostatic Interactions in Proteins Alexandre V. Morozov, Tanja Kortemme, and David Baker*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morozov, Alexandre V.

    -protein complexes observed in nature must be low in free energy relative to alternative (not observed) conformations alternative models of electrostatic interactions in proteins by comparing the electrostatic free energies, and it is plausible (but not absolutely necessary) that the electrostatic free energies of experimentally observed

  16. Characterization of a plasma produced by pulsed arc using an electrostatic double probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, L.A.; Pulzara, A.O.; Devia, A.; Restrepo, E.

    2005-05-01

    In this work the determination of plasma parameters of a pulsed-arc discharge by using an electrostatic double probe is presented. The system to generate the plasma is composed mainly of a reaction chamber, where the electrodes of different materials (Ti, Zr, Al) were placed in order to identify the variation of the plasma parameters when the cathode material is changed. An automatic system has been implemented for acquiring data starting from the bias of a double electrostatic probe. This system allowed registering complete curves of current-voltage in relatively short times ({approx_equal}30 ms). The electron density n{sub e} and electron temperature T{sub e} can be extracted from the I-V characteristic curves obtained. The advantage of this technique is its facility to provide the whole quantity of 'in situ' information, which can be compared with the theoretical results using numeric methods for the I-V curves simulation. By means of a suitable fit this allowed the determination of the plasma parameters. The values obtained for T{sub e} were in the order of 1 eV and for n{sub e} of about 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. A significant variation for n{sub e} was not found.

  17. Dynamic analysis of an electrostatic energy harvesting system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Feifei

    2013-01-01

    Traditional small-scale vibration energy harvesters have typically low efficiency of energy harvesting from low frequency vibrations. Several recent studies have indicated that introduction of nonlinearity can significantly ...

  18. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were...

  19. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent)pressure in Ba ( Fe 1Report) |Application in

  20. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent)pressure in Ba ( Fe 1Report) |Application

  1. Electrostatic apparatus for measurement of microfracture strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Boer, Maarten (Albuquerque, NM); Bitsie, Fernando (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of materials testing apparatus has been invented. Particularly suited to the measurement of fracture and fatigue properties in the extremely strong materials encountered in microelectromechanical systems, material strains well in excess of 1% can be applied pseudostatically, dynamically, or repetitively by these testers. There are no other practical methods to determine these material properties routinely in a process environment, and few alternatives in any circumstances.

  2. Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.; Gupta, R.P.; Turk, B.S.

    2002-09-19

    A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-1 and developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued- Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. During these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H{sub 2}S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has demonstrated high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% which has been shown to remain constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. It was also possible to obtain sulfur levels in the parts per billion by volume range with the modified RVS-1 sorbent. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration.

  3. Inductive and Electrostatic Acceleration in Relativistic Jet-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC

    2005-07-13

    We report on the observation of rapid particle acceleration in numerical simulations of relativistic jet-plasma interactions and discuss the underlying mechanisms. The dynamics of a charge-neutral, narrow, electron-positron jet propagating through an unmagnetized electron-ion plasma was investigated using a three-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell computer code. The interaction excited magnetic filamentation as well as electrostatic (longitudinal) plasma instabilities. In some cases, the longitudinal electric fields generated inductively and electrostatically reached the cold plasma wave-breaking limit, and the longitudinal momentum of about half the positrons increased by 50% with a maximum gain exceeding a factor of two. The results are relevant to understanding the micro-physics at the interface region of an astrophysical jet with the interstellar plasma, for example, the edge of a wide jet or the jet-termination point.

  4. Electrostatic dispersion lenses and ion beam dispersion methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Appelhans, Anthony D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-12-28

    An EDL includes a case surface and at least one electrode surface. The EDL is configured to receive through the EDL a plurality of ion beams, to generate an electrostatic field between the one electrode surface and either the case surface or another electrode surface, and to increase the separation between the beams using the field. Other than an optional mid-plane intended to contain trajectories of the beams, the electrode surface or surfaces do not exhibit a plane of symmetry through which any beam received through the EDL must pass. In addition or in the alternative, the one electrode surface and either the case surface or the other electrode surface have geometries configured to shape the field to exhibit a less abrupt entrance and/or exit field transition in comparison to another electrostatic field shaped by two nested, one-quarter section, right cylindrical electrode surfaces with a constant gap width.

  5. Microturbulence in DIII-D tokamak pedestal. I. Electrostatic instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, D. P.; Holod, I.; Lin, Z.; Xiao, Y.

    2014-04-15

    Gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic driftwave instabilities in a tokamak edge have been carried out to study the turbulent transport in the pedestal of an H-mode plasma. The simulations use annulus geometry and focus on two radial regions of a DIII-D experiment: the pedestal top with a mild pressure gradient and the middle of the pedestal with a steep pressure gradient. A reactive trapped electron instability with a typical ballooning mode structure is excited by trapped electrons in the pedestal top. In the middle of the pedestal, the electrostatic instability exhibits an unusual mode structure, which peaks at the poloidal angle ?=±?/2. The simulations find that this unusual mode structure is due to the steep pressure gradients in the pedestal but not due to the particular DIII-D magnetic geometry. Realistic DIII-D geometry appears to have a stabilizing effect on the instability when compared to a simple circular tokamak geometry.

  6. Ion pump activity generates fluctuating electrostatic forces in biomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Loubet; M. A. Lomholt

    2011-09-19

    We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid membranes with proteins that actively pump ions across the membrane. We find that the activity leads to a fluctuating force distribution due to electrostatic interactions arising from variation in dielectric constant across the membrane. By applying a multipole expansion we find effects on both the tension and bending rigidity dominated parts of the membranes fluctuation spectrum. We discuss how our model compares with previous studies of force-multipole models.

  7. Deionization and desalination using electrostatic ion pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Schaldach, Charlene M.; O'Brien, Kevin C.; Cussler, Edward

    2013-06-11

    The present invention provides a new method and apparatus/system for purifying ionic solutions, such as, for example, desalinating water, using engineered charged surfaces to sorb ions from such solutions. Surface charge is applied externally, and is synchronized with oscillatory fluid movements between substantially parallel charged plates. Ions are held in place during fluid movement in one direction (because they are held in the electrical double layer), and released for transport during fluid movement in the opposite direction by removing the applied electric field. In this way the ions, such as salt, are "ratcheted" across the charged surface from the feed side to the concentrate side. The process itself is very simple and involves only pumps, charged surfaces, and manifolds for fluid collection.

  8. Deionization and desalination using electrostatic ion pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Haslam, Jeffery J. (Livermore, CA); Schaldach, Charlene M. (Pleasanton, CA); O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA); Cussler, Edward (Edina, MN)

    2011-07-19

    The present invention provides a new method and apparatus/system for purifying ionic solutions, such as, for example, desalinating water, using engineered charged surfaces to sorb ions from such solutions. Surface charge is applied externally, and is synchronized with oscillatory fluid movements between substantially parallel charged plates. Ions are held in place during fluid movement in one direction (because they are held in the electrical double layer), and released for transport during fluid movement in the opposite direction by removing the applied electric field. In this way the ions, such as salt, are "ratcheted" across the charged surface from the feed side to the concentrate side. The process itself is very simple and involves only pumps, charged surfaces, and manifolds for fluid collection.

  9. Electrostatic interactions in charged nanoslits within an explicit solvent theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin Buyukdagli

    2015-07-23

    Within a dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann theory including electrostatic correlations, we consider the effect of explicit solvent structure on solvent and ion partition confined to charged nanopores. We develop a relaxation scheme for the solution of this highly non-linear integro-differential equation for the electrostatic potential. The scheme is an extension of the approach previously introduced for simple planes (S. Buyukdagli and Ralf Blossey, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 234903 (2014)) to nanoslit geometry. We show that the reduced dielectric response of solvent molecules at the membrane walls gives rise to an electric field significantly stronger than the field of the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This peculiarity associated with non-local electrostatic interactions results in turn in an interfacial counterion adsorption layer absent in continuum theories. The observation of this enhanced counterion affinity in the very close vicinity of the interface may have important impacts on nanofludic transport through charged nanopores. Our results indicate the quantitative inaccuracy of solvent implicit nanofiltration theories in predicting the ionic selectivity of membrane nanopores.

  10. Electrostatic waves in carbon nanotubes with an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdikian, Alireza; Bagheri, Mehran

    2013-10-15

    Based on a linearized hydrodynamic model and within the quasi-static approximation, the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating through single-walled carbon nanotubes subject to an axial magnetic field is theoretically explored. In the classical limit, we obtain two main possible waves which in turn are divided into two branches, a low-frequency acoustical and a high-frequency optical plasmon branch. In the quantum case, we have found that the dispersion relation is substantially modified when the electron wavelength becomes large enough compared to the propagation wavelength of the electrostatic waves in the quantum plasma. We also show that the axial magnetic field manifest itself on the perturbed electron density through the quantum term and gives rise to the propagation of the electrostatic waves within the quantum plasma. As a result, the effect of the magnetic field is pronounced in the plasma dispersion relations in such a way that their curves approach to zero when the magnetic field is weak; and for the strong magnetic field, they asymptotically meet the constant lines.

  11. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  12. Investigation of the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample by flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample using flotation. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a coal sample containing high ash and sulfur contents. The effects of pH, solid concentration, collector amount and frother amount on the flotation were investigated separately in Mediterranean Sea water, Cermik thermal spring water, snow water and tap water. Flotation, results indicated that, when comparing the various water mediums, the following order for the ash content was obtained: snow water < Cermik thermal spring water < tap water < the Mediterranean Sea water. For the reduction of total sulfur, the following order was obtained: snow water > Cermik thermal spring water > Mediterranean Sea water > tap water. When snow water was used as a flotation medium, it was found that a concentrate containing 3.01% total sulfur and 27.64% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 57.06% was obtained from a feed containing 7.01% total sulfur and 4.1.17% ash.

  13. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  14. Longitudinal beam diagnostic from a distributed electrostatic pick-up in CERN's ELENA ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angoletta, M E; Federmann, S; Molendijk, J; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Secouet, P J; Søby, L; Pedersen, F; Timmins, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons coming from CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). Required longitudinal diagnostics include the intensity measurement for bunched and debunched beam and the measurement of Dp/p to assess the electron cooling performance. A novel method for the calculation of these parameters is proposed for ELENA, where signals from the twenty electrostatic Pick-Ups (PU) used for orbit measurements will be combined to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. This requires that the signals be digitally down-converted, rotated and summed so that the many electrostatic PUs will function as a single, distributed PU from the processing system viewpoint. This method includes some challenges and will not be used as the baseline longitudinal diagnostics for the initial ELENA operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware and digital signal processing involved, as well as of the challenges t...

  15. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Reynolds

    2004-10-29

    This is the Final Report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-flow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members conducted detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. The Membrane WESP was designed to be as similar as the metallic WESP in terms of collection area, air-flow, and electrical characteristics. Both units are two-field units. The membrane unit was installed during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 2003. Testing of the metallic unit was performed to create a baseline since the Mansfield plant had installed selective catalytic reduction equipment for NOx control and a sodium bisulfate injection system for SO3 control during the spring of 2003. Tests results on the metallic WESP were consistent with previous testing for PM2.5, SO3 mist and mercury. Testing on the membrane WESP demonstrated no adverse impact and equivalent removal efficiencies as that of the metallic WESP. Testing on both units was performed at 8,000 acfm and 15,000 acfm. Summary results are shown.

  16. Controlling interactions in supported bilayers from weak electrostatic repulsion to high osmotic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmerle, Arnaud; Charitat, Thierry; Lecuyer, Sigolène; Fragneto, Giovanna; Daillant, Jean; 10.1073/pnas.1211669109

    2013-01-01

    Understanding interactions between membranes requires measurements on well-controlled systems close to natural conditions, in which fluctuations play an important role. We have determined, by grazing incidence X-ray scattering, the interaction potential between two lipid bilayers, one adsorbed on a solid surface and the other floating close by. We find that interactions in this highly hydrated model system are two orders of magnitude softer than in previously reported work on multilayer stacks. This is attributed to the weak electrostatic repulsion due to the small fraction of ionized lipids in supported bilayers with a lower number of defects. Our data are consistent with the Poisson-Boltzmann theory, in the regime where repulsion is dominated by the entropy of counter ions. We also have unique access to very weak entropic repulsion potentials, which allowed us to discriminate between the various models proposed in the literature. We further demonstrate that the interaction potential between supported bilaye...

  17. Finite grid instability and spectral fidelity of the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C -K; Wang, Y; Meyers, M D; Yi, S; Albright, B J

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the Finite Grid Instability (FGI) is studied by resolving the dynamics in the 1D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model in spectral domain at the single particle level and at the collective motion level. The spectral fidelity of the PIC model is contrasted with the underlying physical system or the gridless model. The systematic spectral phase and amplitude errors from the charge deposition and field interpolation are quantified for common particle shapes used in the PIC models. It is shown through such analysis and in simulations that the lack of spectral fidelity relative to the physical system due to the existence of aliased spatial modes is the major cause of the FGI in the PIC model.

  18. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brombin, M., E-mail: matteo.brombin@igi.cnr.it; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-Enea sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)] [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-Enea sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Schiesko, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  19. Steric, Quantum, and Electrostatic Effects on S{sub N}2 Reaction Barriers in Gas Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shubin; Hu, Hao; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2010-05-13

    Biomolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions, S{sub N}2, are fundamental and commonplace in chemistry. It is the well-documented experimental finding in the literature that vicinal substitution with bulkier groups near the reaction center significantly slows the reaction due to steric hindrance, but theoretical understanding in the quantitative manner about factors dictating the S{sub N}2 reaction barrier height is still controversial. In this work, employing the new quantification approach that we recently proposed for the steric effect from the density functional theory framework, we investigate the relative contribution of three independent effects—steric, electrostatic, and quantum—to the S{sub N}2 barrier heights in gas phase for substituted methyl halide systems, R{sub 1}R{sub 2}R{sub 3}CX, reacting with the fluorine anion, where R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, and R{sub 3} denote substituting groups and X = F or Cl. We found that in accordance with the experimental finding, for these systems, the steric effect dominates the transition state barrier, contributing positively to barrier heights, but this contribution is largely compensated by the negative, stabilizing contribution from the quantum effect due to the exchange-correlation interactions. Moreover, we find that it is the component from the electrostatic effect that is linearly correlated with the S{sub N}2 barrier height for the systems investigated in the present study. In addition, we compared our approach with the conventional method of energy decomposition in density functional theory as well as examined the steric effect from the wave function theory for these systems via natural bond orbital analysis.

  20. Electrostatically tunable resonance frequency beam utilizing a stress-sensitive film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Davis, J. Kenneth (Kingston, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting particular frequencies of acoustic vibration utilize an electrostatically-tunable beam element having a stress-sensitive coating and means for providing electrostatic force to controllably deflect the beam element thereby changing its stiffness and its resonance frequency. It is then determined from the response of the electrostatically-tunable beam element to the acoustical vibration to which the beam is exposed whether or not a particular frequency or frequencies of acoustic vibration are detected.

  1. Confirmation of the Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lan-Yun Chang; Eiji ?sawa; Amanda S. Barnard

    2010-12-20

    A reliable explanation for the underlying mechanism responsible for the persistent aggregation and self-assembly of colloidal 5 nm diamond nanoparticles is critical to the development of nanodiamond-based technologies. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, validation has been hindered by the inherent difficulty associated with the identification and characterisation of the inter-particle interfaces. In this paper we present results of high resolution aberration corrected electron microscopy and complementary computer simulations to explicate the features involved, and confirm the electrostatic interaction mechanism as the most probable cause for the formation of agglutinates and agglomerates of primary particles.

  2. Confirmation of the Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Lan-Yun; Barnard, Amanda S

    2010-01-01

    A reliable explanation for the underlying mechanism responsible for the persistent aggregation and self-assembly of colloidal 5 nm diamond nanoparticles is critical to the development of nanodiamond-based technologies. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, validation has been hindered by the inherent difficulty associated with the identification and characterisation of the inter-particle interfaces. In this paper we present results of high resolution aberration corrected electron microscopy and complementary computer simulations to explicate the features involved, and confirm the electrostatic interaction mechanism as the most probable cause for the formation of agglutinates and agglomerates of primary particles.

  3. Electrostatic Cooperativity of Hydroxyl Groups at Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boily, Jean F.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2009-09-24

    The O-H bond distribution of hydroxyl groups at the {110} goethite (R-FeOOH) surface was investigated by molecular dynamics. This distribution was strongly affected by electrostatic interactions with neighboring oxo and hydroxo groups. The effects of proton surface loading, simulated by emplacing two protons at different distances of separation, were diverse and generated several sets of O-H bond distributions. DFT calculations of a representative molecular cluster were also carried out to demonstrate the impact of these effects on the orientation of oxygen lone pairs in neighboring oxo groups. These effects should have strong repercussions on O-H stretching vibrations of metal oxide surfaces.h

  4. Nonlocal nonlinear electrostatic gyrofluid equations: A four-moment model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strintzi, D.; Scott, B.D.; Brizard, A.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Extending a previous single-temperature model, an electrostatic gyrofluid model that includes anisotropic temperatures (T{sub parallel}{ne}T{sub perpendicular}) and can treat general nonlinear situations is constructed. The model is based on a Lagrangian formulation of gyrofluid dynamics, which leads to an exact energy conservation law. Diamagnetic cancellations are inserted manually in such a way that energy conservation is preserved. Comparison with previous models shows a very good agreement for zero-Larmor-radius terms in the gyrofluid equations of motion.

  5. Electrostatic self-energy in static black holes with spherical symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    2000-06-28

    We determine the expression of the electrostatic self-energy for a point charge in the static black holes with spherical symmetry having suitable properties

  6. Very compact, high-stability electrostatic actuator featuring contact-free self-limiting displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator utilizes stationary and moveable electrodes, with the stationary electrodes being formed on a substrate and the moveable electrodes being supported above the substrate on a frame. The frame provides a rigid structure which allows the electrostatic actuator to be operated at high voltages (up to 190 Volts) to provide a relatively large actuation force compared to conventional electrostatic comb actuators which are much larger in size. For operation at its maximum displacement, the electrostatic actuator is relatively insensitive to the exact value of the applied voltage and provides a self-limiting displacement.

  7. Electrostatic spherically symmetric configurations in gravitating nonlinear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Alonso, J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, , USAUniversite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, E-33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    We perform a study of the gravitating electrostatic spherically symmetric (G-ESS) solutions of Einstein field equations minimally coupled to generalized nonlinear Abelian gauge models in three space dimensions. These models are defined by Lagrangian densities which are general functions of the gauge field invariants, restricted by some physical conditions of admissibility. They include the class of nonlinear electrodynamics supporting electrostatic spherically symmetric (ESS) nontopological soliton solutions in absence of gravity. We establish that the qualitative structure of the G-ESS solutions of admissible models is fully characterized by the asymptotic and central-field behaviors of their ESS solutions in flat space (or, equivalently, by the behavior of the Lagrangian densities in vacuum and on the point of the boundary of their domain of definition, where the second gauge invariant vanishes). The structure of these G-ESS configurations for admissible models supporting divergent-energy ESS solutions in flat space is qualitatively the same as in the Reissner-Nordstroem case. In contrast, the G-ESS configurations of the models supporting finite-energy ESS solutions in flat space exhibit new qualitative features, which are discussed in terms of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass, the charge, and the soliton energy. Most of the results concerning well-known models, such as the electrodynamics of Maxwell, Born-Infeld, and the Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian of QED, minimally coupled to gravitation, are shown to be corollaries of general statements of this analysis.

  8. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0?mm.

  9. Electrostatic rogue-waves in relativistically degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the modulational instability and the possibility of electrostatic rogue-wave propagations in a completely degenerate plasma with arbitrary degree of degeneracy, i.e., relativistically degenerate plasma, ranging from solid density to the astrophysical compact stars. The hydrodynamic approach along with the perturbation method is used to reduce the governing equations to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation from which the modulational instability, the growth rate of envelope excitations and the occurrence of rogue as well as super-rogue waves in the plasma, is evaluated. It is observed that the modulational instability in a fully degenerate plasma can be quite sensitive to the plasma number-density and the wavenumber of envelop excitations. It is further revealed that the relativistically degeneracy plasmas (R{sub 0}?>?1) are almost always modulationally unstable. It is found, however, that the highly energetic sharply localized electrostatic rogue as well as super-rogue waves can exist in the astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs and neutron star crusts. The later may provide a link to understand many physical processes in such stars and it may lead us to the origin of the random-localized intense short gamma-ray bursts, which “appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace” quite similar to oceanic rogue structures.

  10. EPRICON: Agentless flue gas conditioning for electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibbo, P.P. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Branchburg, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Achieving efficient particulate control in coal burning electric utility plants is becoming an increasingly difficult proposition, giver, the variety of regulatory, technical, operating and environmental pressures that exist in the US. For most powerplants, particulate control is achieved by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Under optimal conditions, modern ESPs are capable of achieving particulate removal efficiencies of 99.7 %. Unfortunately, optimal conditions are not always present. ESP`s are sensitive to flue gas conditions, and those conditions may change dramatically after a fuel switch or the installation of some types of emissions control technology upstream of the ESP. Gas conditioning has been shown to be an effective means of returning flue gas to the ``optimal`` conditions required for efficient ESP operation following a fuel switch to a low, or at least, lower sulfur coal. Borrowing technology common in conventional soap-making plants around the turn of the century, sulfur-burning SO3 gas conditioning has been the solution to may difficult fuels in electrostatic precipitators. Although it has contributed most to improved ESP performance after a fuel switch, conventional gas conditioning has significant drawbacks. In an effort to develop an alternative to conventional SO{sub 3} gas conditioning, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a research and development project that has produced an alternative and modem technology for flue gas conditioning, now called EPRICON, and licensed it to Research-Cottrell. This article describes the EPRICON process and its performance in pilot and demonstration plants.

  11. High-Voltage Terminal Test of Test Stand for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high-pressure vessel. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The results of the 300-kV high-voltage terminal tests are presented in this paper.

  12. Electrostatic models of electron-driven proton transfer across a lipid membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatoly Yu. Smirnov; Lev G. Mourokh; Franco Nori

    2010-11-29

    We present two models for electron-driven uphill proton transport across lipid membranes, with the electron energy converted to the proton gradient via the electrostatic interaction. In the first model, associated with the cytochrome c oxidase complex in the inner mitochondria membranes, the electrostatic coupling to the site occupied by an electron lowers the energy level of the proton-binding site, making the proton transfer possible. In the second model, roughly describing the redox loop in a nitrate respiration of E. coli bacteria, an electron displaces a proton from the negative side of the membrane to a shuttle, which subsequently diffuses across the membrane and unloads the proton to its positive side. We show that both models can be described by the same approach, which can be significantly simplified if the system is separated into several clusters, with strong Coulomb interaction inside each cluster and weak transfer couplings between them. We derive and solve the equations of motion for the electron and proton creation/annihilation operators, taking into account the appropriate Coulomb terms, tunnel couplings, and the interaction with the environment. For the second model, these equations of motion are solved jointly with a Langevin-type equation for the shuttle position. We obtain expressions for the electron and proton currents and determine their dependence on the electron and proton voltage build-ups, on-site charging energies, reorganization energies, temperature, and other system parameters. We show that the quantum yield in our models can be up to 100% and the power-conversion efficiency can reach 35%.

  13. Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

    1996-08-05

    A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

  14. Using high temperature baghouses to enhance desulfurization following economizer sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, G.; Keener, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    In order to explore the potential of using high temperature baghouses to enhance SO{sub 2} removal following upstream sorbent injection, an integrated two-stage reactor system has been built. It consists of an injection stage and a filtration stage. Distinct from one-stage fixed-bed reactors, sorbent particles in this system are initially converted under controlled injection conditions before entering the filtration reactor chamber. By the aid of the system, several unique features regarding the gas-solid reactions in the baghouse after economizer zone sorbent injection have been revealed. Results have shown that the appropriate usage of a high temperature baghouse may substantially enhance the performance of the process. The further SO{sub 2} removal in the baghouse is comprehensively affected by both the conditions in the injection zone and those in the baghouse.

  15. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 10, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. in comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide -- 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: Relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less; produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and is relatively simple to operate. The site for the LIFAC demonstration is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley 2 pulverized coal-fired power station (60 MW), located in Richmond, Indiana.

  16. Electrostatically focused addressable field emission array chips (AFEA's) for high-speed massively parallel maskless digital E-beam direct write lithography and scanning electron microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN); Baylor, Larry R. (Farragut, TN); Voelkl, Edgar (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, John C. (Clinton, TN); Wilgen, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-12-24

    Systems and methods are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A method of operating an addressable field-emission array, includes: generating a plurality of electron beams from a pluralitly of emitters that compose the addressable field-emission array; and focusing at least one of the plurality of electron beams with an on-chip electrostatic focusing stack. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

  17. Electrostatics in a Schwarzschild black hole pierced by a cosmic string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    1999-04-19

    We explicitly determine the expression of the electrostatic potential generated by a point charge at rest in the Schwarzschild black hole pierced by a cosmic string. We can then calculate the electrostatic self-energy. From this, we find again the upper entropy bound for a charged object by employing thermodynamics of the black hole.

  18. Using Multiconformation Continuum Electrostatics to Compare Chloride Binding Motifs in -Amylase,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunner, Marilyn

    Using Multiconformation Continuum Electrostatics to Compare Chloride Binding Motifs in -Amylase electrostatics (MCCE), we show that the changes of chloride binding to -amylase, human serum albumin (HSA) and Omp32 with pH, and of -amylase with mutation agree well with experimental data. The three proteins

  19. Electrostatic electron cyclotron waves generated by low-energy electron beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scudder, Jack

    Electrostatic electron cyclotron waves generated by low-energy electron beams J. D. Menietti, O the role of electron beams with E ] 1 keV in the generation of these waves. Observed plasma parameters. D. Scudder, J. S. Pickett, and D. A. Gurnett, Electrostatic electron cyclotron waves generated

  20. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 4, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler`s outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  1. An Extra Electrostatic Energy in Semiconductors and its Impact in Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    This work revisits the classical concept of electric energy and suggests that the common definition is likely to generate large errors when dealing with nanostructures. For instance, deriving the electrostatic energy in semiconductors using the traditional formula fails at giving the correct electrostatic force between capacitor plates and reveals the existence of an extra contribution to the standard electrostatic energy. This additional energy is found to proceed from the generation of space charge regions which are predicted when combining electrostatics laws with semiconductor statistics, such as for accumulation and inversion layers. On the contrary, no such energy exists when relying on electrostatics only, as for instance when adopting the so-called full depletion approximation. The same holds for charged or neutral insulators that are still consistent with the customary definition, but which are in fact singular cases. In semiconductors, this additional free energy can largely exceed the energy gained...

  2. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-01-27

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the ninth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station -- Long term testing and equipment decommissioning has been completed, A web cast/conference call was held to review data, and Preliminary preparation and review of data and test results for the final report. Technology Transfer -- A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them was a Program Status Report presented to NETL. Also, one paper was presented at Power-Gen and one at the Annual Coal Marketing Strategies Conference.

  3. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2002-10-18

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the eighth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field-testing phase of the project; and Baseline testing was completed during the quarter. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them was a paper published in the JAWMA. Also, two papers were presented at the Air Quality III Conference and one at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference.

  4. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager

    2002-08-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the seventh reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Brayton Point Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field testing phase of the project; Baseline testing was completed during the quarter and parametric testing was begun; and A paper summarizing the full-scale tests was written and submitted to A&WMA for presentation at the annual meeting in June 2002. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them are papers published in the A&WMA EM journal and Pollution Engineering. Also, information was provided to the EPA MACT Working Group and a paper was presented at the annual A&WMA meeting.

  5. Friction, impact, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Hall, G.F.

    1985-05-31

    Impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials (explosives and pyrotechnics) used or manufactured at Mound were tested by the ''one-shot'' method. The Bruceton statistical method was used to derive 50% initiation levels, and the results were compared. The materials tested include: PETN, HMX, Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX), CP, TATB, RX26BB, RX26BH, barium styphnate, LX-15, LX-16, Ti/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.65//KClO/sub 4/, Fe/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.75//B/CaCrO/sub 4/, Ti/B/CaCrO/sub 4/, B/CaCrO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//2B, TiH/sub 0.65//3B, 2Ti/B, TiH/sub 1.67//2B, Ti/2B, TiH/sub 1/67//3B, Ti/B, and Ti/3B. Some samples were investigated for aging effects, physical variables, and the effect of manufacturing paramters on sensitivities. The results show that in both friction and impact tests, CP and barium styphnate are the most sensitive; TiH/sub 1.65/KClO/sub 4/, LX-15, TATB and its related materials are the least sensitive; and other materials such as PETN and HMX are in the mid-range. In the electrostatic tests of Ti-based pyrotechnics, a decrease of sensitivity with increasing hydrogen concentration was observed. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. VOLUME 76, NUMBER 21 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 20 MAY 1996 Exact Solution of the Electrostatic Problem for a Single Electron Multijunction Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connell, Robert F.

    of the Electrostatic Problem for a Single Electron Multijunction Trap [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1839 (1995)] G. Y. Hu and R remark that " . . . there cannot be any real trapped electron . . . " for the system described in Ref. [1) for tunneling and escape are 221 and 29, respectively, which makes clear that the system in Ref. [1] does trap

  7. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  8. The polarized Debye sheath effect on Kadomtsev-Petviashvili electrostatic structures in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahmansouri, M.; Alinejad, H.

    2015-04-15

    We give a theoretical investigation on the dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with strong electrostatic interaction between dust grains in the presence of the polarization force (i.e., the force due to the polarized Debye sheath). Adopting a reductive perturbation method, we derived a three-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation that describes the evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic localized waves. The energy integral equation is used to study the existence domains of the localized structures. The analysis provides the localized structure existence region, in terms of the effects of strong interaction between the dust particles and polarization force.

  9. Pin-to-Pin Electrostatic Discharge Protection for Semiconductor Bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KING, TONY L.; TARBELL, WILLIAM W.

    2002-07-01

    The lack of protection for semiconductor bridges (SCBs) against human electrostatic discharge (ESD) presents an obstacle to widespread use of this device. The goal of this research is to protect SCB initiators against pin-to-pin ESD without affecting their performance. Two techniques were investigated. In the first, a parallel capacitor is used to attenuate high frequencies. The second uses a parallel zener diode to limit the voltage amplitude. Both the 1 {micro}F capacitor and the 14 V zener diode protected the SCBs from ESD. The capacitor provided the best protection. The protection circuits had no effect on the SCB's threshold voltage. The function time for the CP-loaded SCBs with capacitors was about 11 {micro}s when fired by a firing set charged to 40 V. The SCBs failed to function when protected by the 6 V and 8 V zeners. The 51 V zener did not provide adequate protection against ESD. The parallel capacitor succeeded in protecting SCB initiators against pin-to-pin ESD without affecting their performance. Additional experiments should be done on SCBs and actual detonators to further quantify the effectiveness of this technique. Methods for retrofitting existing SCB initiators and integrating capacitors into future devices should also be explored.

  10. Eulerian simulations of collisional effects on electrostatic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Perrone, Denise; Veltri, Pierluigi [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    The problem of collisions in a plasma is a wide subject with a huge historical literature. In fact, the description of realistic plasmas is a tough problem to attack, both from the theoretical and the numerical point of view. In this paper, a Eulerian time-splitting algorithm for the study of the propagation of electrostatic waves in collisional plasmas is presented. Collisions are modeled through one-dimensional operators of the Fokker-Planck type, both in linear and nonlinear forms. The accuracy of the numerical code is discussed by comparing the numerical results to the analytical predictions obtained in some limit cases when trying to evaluate the effects of collisions in the phenomenon of wave plasma echo and collisional dissipation of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal waves. Particular attention is devoted to the study of the nonlinear Dougherty collisional operator, recently used to describe the collisional dissipation of electron plasma waves in a pure electron plasma column [M. W. Anderson and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007)]. Finally, for the study of collisional plasmas, a recipe to set the simulation parameters in order to prevent the filamentation problem can be provided, by exploiting the property of velocity diffusion operators to smooth out small velocity scales.

  11. High precision electrostatic potential calculations for cylindrically symmetric lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, David Jr. [238 Marylyn Lane, Newark, Vermont 05871 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    A method is developed for a potential calculation within cylindrically symmetric electrostatic lenses using mesh relaxation techniques, and it is capable of considerably higher accuracies than currently available. The method involves (i) creating very high order algorithms (orders of 6, 8, and 10) for determining the potentials at points in the net using surrounding point values, (ii) eliminating the effect of the large errors caused by singular points, and (iii) reducing gradients in the high gradient regions of the geometry, thereby allowing the algorithms used in these regions to achieve greater precisions--(ii) and (iii) achieved by the use of telescopic multiregions. In addition, an algorithm for points one unit from a metal surface is developed, allowing general mesh point algorithms to be used in these situations, thereby taking advantage of the enhanced precision of the latter. A maximum error function dependent on a sixth order gradient of the potential is defined. With this the single point algorithmic errors are able to be viewed over the entire net. Finally, it is demonstrated that by utilizing the above concepts and procedures, the potential of a point in a reasonably high gradient region of a test geometry can realize a precision of less than 10{sup -10}.

  12. Molecular mechanics of cartilage : quantification of GAG electrostatic interactions via high-resolution force spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seog, Joonil, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Intermolecular repulsion forces between negatively charged glycosaminoglycan (CS-GAG) macromolecules are a major determinant of cartilage biomechanical properties. It is thought that the electrostatic component of the total ...

  13. Design of a hermetically sealed MEMS resonator with electrostatic actuation and capacitive third harmonic sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newton, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    A microscale beam resonator has been designed and fabricated for use as a modular pressure sensor for vacuum applications. The device dimensions have been optimized to provide measurable signals with low noise. Electrostatic ...

  14. Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation by Christopher F.1.1 Magnetic Mirrors and the Van Allen Belts........................... 10 1.1.2 The Loss Cone

  15. Finite-Element Modeling of Electrostatic Sensors for the Flow Measurement of Particles in Pneumatic Pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krabicka, J.; Yan, Y.

    2009-08-15

    Electrostatic sensors are used in certain industries for the flow measurement of pneumatically conveyed solids. However, despite various advances that have been made in recent years, relatively little information is known about the exact nature of the electrostatic charge induced onto the sensor electrode due to moving particles, which is dependent on electrode geometry, particle distribution, and particle velocity. This paper presents a novel approach to the study of the charge induced onto electrostatic sensors based on fitting a Lorentzian curve to the results of a finite-element model of the electrostatic sensor and pipeline. The modeling method is validated by comparing the modeling results of a nonintrusive circular electrode with an established analytical solution. The modeling results are used for in-depth analysis and informed design of a particular sensor configuration.

  16. 1920 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 61, NO. 6, JUNE 2014 On the Electrostatic Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for advanced semiconductor products. This demonstration of graphene's outstanding robustness against high Discharge Robustness of Graphene Hong Li, Member, IEEE, Christian C. Russ, Wei Liu, Member, IEEE, David study of electrostatic discharge (ESD) characterization of atomically thin graphene is reported

  17. Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, John Leslie

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents an initial investigation of using electrostatic coalescence as an alternative to conventional separation processes to purify used automotive crankcase oil. Specific emphasis of this study was the feasibility of this approach...

  18. Electrostatic Force Microscopy Characterization of Trioctylphosphine Oxide Self-assembled Monolayers on Graphite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    orientation of SAMs. The invention of the scanning probe microscope (SPM)12,13 has provided scientists resolution by SPM. Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM),16 a variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM),13 can

  19. Amperometric Glucose Biosensor by Means of Electrostatic Layer-by-layer Adsorption onto Electrospun Polyaniline Fibers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Young J.

    2010-07-14

    were formed and collected by electrospinning. Glucose oxidase was immobilized onto these fibers using an electrostatic layer-by-layer adsorption technique. In this method, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used as the counter ion source...

  20. Free electron laser with bunched relativistic electron beam and electrostatic longitudinal wiggler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepehri Javan, Nasser [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The system of the nonlinear nonstationary equations describing spatial-temporal dynamics of the amplitudes of an undulator radiation and a space charge wave of a relativistic electron beam in the resonator is obtained. The electrostatic longitudinal wiggler is considered. A bunch of the electron beam injects to the resonator, at the ends of which two mirrors are placed. After the interaction of electrons of bunch with radiation in the presence of wiggler and after amplifying electromagnetic pulse, a part of radiation is reflected back by semitransparent mirror. Then, it reaches to the initial of the system where the other mirror is placed. Synchronously, when the pulse is reflecting, the other electron bunch enters to the resonator and interacts with the pulse. This operation has simulated until saturation of growth of the electromagnetic pulse. The dynamics of the problem is simulated by the method of macro particles. The dynamics of pulse amplification, motion of the electrons, and spectra of output radiation in each stage are simulated.

  1. Fuel gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A method for removing sulfurous gases such as H.sub.2 S and COS from a fuel gas is disclosed wherein limestone particulates containing iron sulfide provide catalytic absorption of the H.sub.2 S and COS by the limestone. The method is effective at temperatures of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in particular.

  2. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  3. Development and application of LEESA (Low Energy Electrostatic Sensitivity Apparatus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, R.S. ); Wood, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    A precision Low Energy Electrostatic Sensitivity Apparatus (LEESA) was developed in the voltage range 0--3000 volts dc and was employed over a capacitance range of 25--50,000 pF on sensitive, very sensitive, and extremely sensitive pyrotechnic fuels and compositions. Zirconium powder, Zr/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnic, titanium powder, Ti/KClO{sub 4} and TiH{sub x}/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnics (x = 0.65, 1.65) and several other sensitive materials were evaluated. LEESA simulates casual human contact with potentially hazardous materials. In operation, a hand-held probe is applied to the sample to discharge the capacitance. As the probe approaches the sample, a spark jumps from the probe tip to the sample when the gap closes to the appropriate distance. This is analagous to a finger or a tool touching a sensitive material during which maneuver a spark jumps to the material. LEESA defines the probability of ignition over a voltage or energy range and is capable of thousands of trials on a test material in the span of a few hours. In addition to evaluating static sensitivity, the effect of electrode polarity, individual differences between operators, test method, humidity, sample size, particle size, capacitance, time constant RC, and voltage versus energy have been determined. The equipment is inexpensive and easy to build and use and is a low risk method because of the small quantities of sensitive material being tested at any one time. The accuracy and precision of the results surpasses that of methods currently in use. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jian; Sushko, Maria L.; Chen, Xilin; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Xingjiang; Sushko, P. V.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-02-28

    Lithium metal batteries are called the “holy grail” of energy storage systems. However, lithium dendrite growth in these batteries has prevented their practical applications in the last 40 years. Here we show a novel mechanism which can fundamentally change the dendritic morphology of lithium deposition. A low concentration of the second cations (including ions of cesium, rubidium, potassium, and strontium) exhibits an effective reduction potential lower than the standard reduction potential of lithium ions when the chemical activities of these second cations are much lower than that of lithium ions. During lithium deposition, these second cations will form a self-healing electrostatic shield around the initial tip of lithium whenever it is formed. This shield will repel the incoming lithium ions and force them to deposit in the smoother region of the anode so a dendrite-free film is obtained. This mechanism is effective on dendrite prevention in both lithium metal and lithium ion batteries. They may also prevent dendrite growth in other metal batteries and have transformational impact on the smooth deposition in general electrodeposition processes.

  5. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Jolene S.

    2012-10-31

    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers around Earth, which are affected by our Sun's activity. Understanding how these current layers are affected by the Sun provides insight into why radio communications are sometimes affected on Earth and how these layers help protect and facilitate our life on Earth.

  6. Nonlinear electrostatic excitations in magnetized dense plasmas with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.

    2013-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He{sup +}, He{sup ++}) and hydrogen (H{sup +}) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas.

  7. A Case Study of Truncated Electrostatics for Simulation of Polyelectrolyte Brushes on GPU Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Trung D; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey; Brown, W Michael

    2013-01-01

    Numerous issues have disrupted the trend for increasing computational performance with faster CPU clock frequencies. In order to exploit the potential performance of new computers, it is becoming increasingly desirable to re-evaluate computational physics methods and models with an eye towards towards approaches that allow for increased concurrency and data locality. The evaluation of long-range Coulombic interactions is a common bottleneck for molecular dynamics simulations. Enhanced truncation approaches have been proposed as an alternative method and are particularly well suited for many-core architectures and GPUs due to the inherent fine-grain parallelism that can be exploited. In this paper, we compare efficient truncation-based approximations to evaluation of electrostatic forces with the more traditional particle-particle particle-mesh (P3M) method for molecular dynamics simulation of polyelectrolyte brush layers. We show that with the use of GPU accelerators, large parallel simulations using P3M can be greater than 3 times faster due to a reduction in the mesh-size required. Alternatively, using a truncation-based scheme can improve performance even further. This approach can be up to 3.9 times faster than GPU-accelerated P3M for many polymer systems and results in accurate calculation of shear velocities and disjoining pressures for brush layers. For configurations with highly non-uniform charge distributions, however, we find that it is more efficient to use P3M; for these systems, computationally efficient parameterizations of the truncation-based approach do not produce accurate counterion density profiles or brush morphologies.

  8. On stochastic heating of electrons by intense laser radiation in the presence of electrostatic potential well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-10-15

    A simple model developed by Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)] for the study of synergistic effects of electrostatic potential well and laser radiation is extended for the case where electric field of the well is accelerating electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. It was found that in these cases, the rate of stochastic heating of energetic electrons remains virtually the same as in Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)], where electric field in electrostatic potential was slowing down electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. However, the heating of electrons with relatively low energy can be sensitive to the orientation of the electrostatic potential well with respect to the direction of the laser radiation propagation.

  9. Study on multiphase flow and mixing in semidry flue gas desulfurization with a multifluid alkaline spray generator using particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y.G.; Wang, D.F.; Zhang, M.C. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2009-06-15

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to measure the velocity fields of gas-droplet-solid multiphase flow in the experimental setup of a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with a multifluid alkaline spray generator. The flow structure, mixing characteristic, and interphase interaction of gas-droplet-solid multiphase flow were investigated both in the confined alkaline spray generator and in the duct bent pipe section. The results show that sorbent particles in the confined alkaline spray generator are entrained into the spray core zone by a high-speed spray jet and most of the sorbent particles can be effectively humidified by spray water fine droplets to form aqueous lime slurry droplets. Moreover, a minimum amount of air stream in the generator is necessary to achieve higher collision humidification efficiency between sorbent particles and spray water droplets and to prevent the possible deposition of fine droplets on the wall. The appropriate penetration length of the slurry droplets from the generator can make uniform mixing between the formed slurry droplets and main air stream in the duct bent pipe section, which is beneficial to improving sulfur dioxide removal efficiency and to preventing the deposition of droplets on the wall.

  10. Computational modeling of electrostatic charge and fields produced by hypervelocity impact

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crawford, David A.

    2015-05-19

    Following prior experimental evidence of electrostatic charge separation, electric and magnetic fields produced by hypervelocity impact, we have developed a model of electrostatic charge separation based on plasma sheath theory and implemented it into the CTH shock physics code. Preliminary assessment of the model shows good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the model and prior experiments at least in the hypervelocity regime for the porous carbonate material tested. The model agrees with the scaling analysis of experimental data performed in the prior work, suggesting that electric charge separation and the resulting electric and magnetic fields can be a substantial effectmore »at larger scales, higher impact velocities, or both.« less

  11. Multipolar expansion of the electrostatic interaction between charged colloids at interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Dominguez; D. Frydel; M. Oettel

    2007-10-23

    The general form of the electrostatic potential around an arbitrarily charged colloid at an interface between a dielectric and a screening phase (such as air and water, respectively) is analyzed in terms of a multipole expansion. The leading term is isotropic in the interfacial plane and varies with $d^{-3}$ where $d$ is the in--plane distance from the colloid. The electrostatic interaction potential between two arbitrarily charged colloids is likewise isotropic and $\\propto d^{-3}$, corresponding to the dipole--dipole interaction first found for point charges at water interfaces. Anisotropic interaction terms arise only for higher powers $d^{-n}$ with $n \\ge 4$.

  12. Simulating the FTICR-MS Signal of a Decaying Beryllium-7 Ion Plasma in a 2D Electrostatic PIC Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Simulating the FTICR-MS Signal of a Decaying Beryllium-7 Ion Plasma in a 2D Electrostatic PIC Code the FTICR-MS Signal of a Decaying Beryllium-7 Ion Plasma in a 2D Electrostatic PIC Code Michael Takeshi Nakata Department of Physics and Astronomy Doctor of Philosophy Beryllium-7 (Be-7) only decays

  13. Boundary shape identification in twodimensional electrostatic problems using SQUIDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of conduc­ tors using superconducting quantum interference devices ( SQUIDs ). A measurement system. SQUIDs ( superconducting quantum interference devices ) have the potential to detect material defects

  14. Infrared probe of electrostatic doping in novel materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    magnetic semiconductors, low-dimensional systems (graphene),graphene is a semi-metal or zero-gap semiconductor. The E-k

  15. A Six-Phase Multilevel Inverter for MEMS Electrostatic Induction Micromotors Timothy C. Neugebauer David J. Perreault Jeffrey H. Lang Carol Livermore Stephen D. Umans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    electric machines through microfabrication techniques is becoming a reality. Applications to fabricate integrated circuits. Rotating electrical machines implemented through microfabrication techniques electronics for microfabricated electrostatic induction machines. The electrostatic, or electric, induction

  16. Electrostatic Energy Harvester and Li-Ion Charger Circuit for Micro-Scale Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    of the available technologies [7]. Mobile and outdoors applications, for instance, are more likely to vibrateElectrostatic Energy Harvester and Li-Ion Charger Circuit for Micro-Scale Applications Erick O-cycle operation, smart power-aware net- work architectures, and batteries with improved energy density, the stored

  17. Toward Accurate Potentials for Condensed-Phase Chemical Reactions: Electrostatically Embedded Multi-Configuration Molecular Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    . However, the high computational cost of quantum mechanical (QM) calculations prevents carrying out QM the computational cost of the QM calculation, we* have developed a new method called electrostatically embedded in aqueous solution calculated by the EE-MCMM method. The minimum free energy path is shown as a dashed curve

  18. Entropy bound of a charged object and electrostatic self-energy in black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    1999-11-30

    Without pretending to any rigour, we find a general expression of the electrostatic self-energy in static black holes with spherical symmetry. We determine the entropy bound of a charged object by assuming the existence of thermodynamics for these black holes. By combining these two results, we show that the entropy bound does not depend on the considered black hole.

  19. Electrostatic self-force in a static weak gravitational field with cylindrical symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Boisseau; C. Charmousis; B. Linet

    1996-03-04

    We determine the electrostatic self-force at rest in an arbitrary static metric with cylindrical symmetry in the linear approximation in the Newtonian constant. In linearised Einstein theory, we express it in terms of the components of the energy-momentum tensor.

  20. The radio waves and thermal electrostatic noise spectroscopy (SORBET) experiment on BEPICOLOMBO/MMO/PWI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    The radio waves and thermal electrostatic noise spectroscopy (SORBET) experiment on BEPICOLOMBO spectrometer designed for the radio and Plasma Waves Instrument onboard BepiColombo/Mercury Magnetospheric noise spectroscopy; Radio and plasma waves; Spacecraft instrumentation; BepiColombo/MMO 0273-1177/$30 Ó

  1. ANALYSIS OF NONLOCAL ELECTROSTATIC EFFECTS IN CHIRAL SMECTIC C LIQUID CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are cholesteric. On the other hand, B2 phases of bent-core molecule liquid crystals are mostly non-chiral and haveANALYSIS OF NONLOCAL ELECTROSTATIC EFFECTS IN CHIRAL SMECTIC C LIQUID CRYSTALS By Jinhae Park and M SMECTIC C LIQUID CRYSTALS JINHAE PARK AND M. CARME CALDERER Abstract. We present modeling and analysis

  2. Investigation of the Radio Frequency Characteristics of CMOS Electrostatic Discharge Protection Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    1 Investigation of the Radio Frequency Characteristics of CMOS Electrostatic Discharge Protection in logic levels. This paper presents a theoretical, numerical and experimental investigation of the radio microwave pulses cause state errors and unstable operating conditions in the circuit. In some devices

  3. Charge-transfer electrostatic model of compositional order in perovskite alloys Zhigang Wu and Henry Krakauer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Charge-transfer electrostatic model of compositional order in perovskite alloys Zhigang Wu transfer that is shown to account for the observed B-site ordering in Pb-based perovskite alloys. The model the long-range compositional order of both Pb- and Ba-based complex A(BB B )O3 perovskite alloys

  4. Design considerations for electrostatic microvalves with applications in poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    (dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidics Amit V. Desai,a Joshua D. Tice,a Christopher A. Apblettbc and Paul J. A. Kenis*a Received 19th of integrated microfluidic chips for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we present an analytical model to guide the design of electrostatic microvalves that can be integrated into microfluidic chips using

  5. Improving Particle Confinement in Inertial Electrostatic Fusion for Spacecraft Power and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving Particle Confinement in Inertial Electrostatic Fusion for Spacecraft Power and Propulsion;2 (This page intentionally left blank) #12;3 Abstract Improving Particle Confinement in Inertial reactors like ITER and inertial confinement reactors like NIF) require very large and heavy structures

  6. Observations of electrostatic solitary waves associated with reconnection by Geotail and Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    waves in collisionless reconnection and their possible generation mechanisms is provided. Ó 2005 COSPARObservations of electrostatic solitary waves associated with reconnection by Geotail and Cluster X, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan c Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University

  7. Anomalous self-generated electrostatic fields in nanosecond laser-plasma interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skupin, Stefan

    Anomalous self-generated electrostatic fields in nanosecond laser-plasma interaction L. Lancia,1 565-0871, Japan 6 Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 1-Université by proton radiography. Using a current three-dimensional wave propagation code equipped with nonlinear

  8. Modeling the patterned two-dimensional electron gas: Electrostatics John H. Davies and Ivan A. Larkin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, John H.

    Modeling the patterned two-dimensional electron gas: Electrostatics John H. Davies and Ivan A. V. Sukhorukov Institute of Problems of Microelectronics Technology, Academy of Science of Russia, Chernogolovka, Moscow district, Russia, 142432 (Dated: February 21, 2005) Abstract We present analytical

  9. Electrostatic Structures in Space Plasmas: Properties of Two-dimensional Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Electrostatic Structures in Space Plasmas: Properties of Two-dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene without background B #12;Electron dynamics with uniform ion background #12;Solutions with only energy, it actually has less total energy than that of a Maxwellian plasma. Difference in total energy between

  10. Electrostatic Structures in Space Plasmas: Properties of Two-dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Electrostatic Structures in Space Plasmas: Properties of Two-dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene theoretical description of some of these structures is the concept of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes of their properties, including its energy content, temperature and velocity distribution, and stability. This work

  11. Efficient Evaluation of Binding Free Energy Using Continuum Electrostatics Danzhi Huang and Amedeo Caflisch*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Efficient Evaluation of Binding Free Energy Using Continuum Electrostatics Solvation Danzhi Huang of the absolute free energy of binding. A predictive accuracy of about 1.0 kcal/mol is obtained for 13 and 29 into proteins of known structure require fast and accurate methods for the evaluation of binding free energies.1

  12. Yukawa-field approximation of electrostatic free energy and dielectric boundary force This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo

    Yukawa-field approximation of electrostatic free energy and dielectric boundary force This article.1088/0951-7715/24/11/011 Yukawa-field approximation of electrostatic free energy and dielectric boundary force Hsiao-Bing Cheng1. The electrostatic free energy determines the dielectric boundary force that in turn influences crucially

  13. www.postersession.com Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion for Spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and inertial confinement fusion. Both of these approaches show promise for future sources of energy low in the foreseeable future. Consequently, we are investigating a very low-mass alternative type and useful source of energy for both Earth-based and space-based power systems. This hypothetical

  14. Results from electrostatic calibrations for measuring the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Q.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Lombardo, F. C.; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Onofrio, R.

    2010-05-15

    We report on measurements performed on an apparatus aimed to study the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane configuration. The electrostatic calibrations evidence anomalous behaviors in the dependence of the electrostatic force and the minimizing potential upon distance. We discuss analogies and differences of these anomalies with respect to those already observed in the sphere-plane configuration. At the smallest explored distances we observe frequency shifts of non-Coulombian nature preventing the measurement of the Casimir force in the same range. We also report on measurements performed in the parallel-plane configuration, showing that the dependence on distance of the minimizing potential, if present at all, is milder than in the sphere-plane or cylinder-plane geometries. General considerations on the interplay between the distance-dependent minimizing potential and the precision of Casimir force measurements in the range relevant to detect the thermal corrections for all geometries are finally reported.

  15. Driven diffusion against electrostatic or effective energy barrier across Alpha-Hemolysin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansalone, Patrizio; Rondoni, Lamberto; Cecconi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the translocation of a charged particle across an Alpha-Hemolysin (aHL) pore in the framework of a driven diffusion over an extended energy barrier generated by the electrical charges of the aHL. A one-dimensional electrostatic potential is extracted from the full 3D solution of the Poisson's equation. We characterize the particle transport under the action of a constant forcing by studying the statistics of the translocation time. We derive an analytical expression of translocation time average that compares well with the results from Brownian dynamic simulations of driven particles over the electrostatic potential. Moreover, we show that the translocation time distributions can be perfectly described by a simple theory which replaces the true barrier by an equivalent structureless square barrier. Remarkably our approach maintains its accuracy also for low-applied voltage regimes where the usual inverse-Gaussian approximation fails. Finally we discuss how the comparison between the simulated time ...

  16. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE-BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Reynolds

    2003-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane--Based Upflow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members will conduct detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. Test results performed on the existing metallic WESP during November of 2002 showed consistent results with previous test results. Average collection efficiency of 89% on SO{sub 3} mist was achieved. Additionally, removal efficiencies of 62% were achieved at very high velocity, greater than 15 ft./sec.

  17. The mechanical design and dynamic testing of the IBEX-H1 electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design, fabrication and dynamic testing of an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument. The functional and environmental requirements combined with limited spacecraft accommodations, resulted in complex component geometries, unique material selections, and difficult fabrication processes. The challenging aspects of the mechanical design and several of the more difficult production processes are discussed. In addition, the successes, failures, and lessons learned from acoustic and random vibration testing of a full-scale prototype instrument are presented.

  18. Department 8450 electrical overstress, EOS, and electrostatic discharge, ESD, damage control handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tockey, R.J.

    1989-04-01

    This Handbook prescribes requirements and procedures to be used when electrical overstress/electrostatic discharge vulnerable product is being handled, packaged, and/or processed. All employees of department 8450 are required to: (1) observe the requirements and procedures when involved in pertinent, in-house activities, and (2) insure that vulnerable material, for which 8450 is responsible, is not exposed to possibly damaging environments when it is in the hands of others. 4 figs.

  19. Electrostatic Bender Fields, Optics, Aberrations, with Application to the Proton EDM Ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baartman, R

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic bender optics are derived up to second order (third order in fields and the Hamiltonian) and applied to the proposed EDM proton ring. The results for linear optics agree with those already presented by V.\\ Lebedev (Nov.\\ 18, 2013). Second order optics is not sensitive to the shape of the fringe fields and formulas are given. It is shown that the proposed electrode shape that linearizes the vertical electric field is no advantage to this order.

  20. Brownian dynamics simulations of ions channels: A general treatment of electrostatic reaction fields for molecular pores of arbitrary geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Wonpil; Roux, Benoî t

    2001-01-01

    A general method has been developed to include the electrostatic reaction field in Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of ions diffusing through complex molecular channels of arbitrary geometry. Assuming that the solvent ...

  1. Rotational motion based, electrostatic power source and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Michael D. (Churchville, NY)

    2007-05-01

    A power system includes a member with two or more sections and at least one pair of electrodes. Each of the two or more sections has a stored static charge. Each of the pair of electrodes is spaced from and on substantially opposing sides of the member from the other electrode and is at least partially in alignment with the other electode. At least one of the member and the at least one pair of electrodes is moveable with respect to the other. When at least one of the sections is at least partially between the pair of electrodes, the at least one of the sections has the stored static electric charge closer to one of the pair of electrodes. When at least one of the other sections is at least partially between the pair of electrodes, the other section has the stored static electric charge closer to the other one of the pair of electrodes.

  2. Tailored Ink For Piston-Driven Electrostatic Liquid Drop Modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Raymond W. (Mississauga, CA); Breton, Marcel P. (Mississauga, CA); Bedford, Christine E. (Toronto, CA); Carreira, Leonard M. (Penfield, NY); Gooray, Arthur M. (Penfield, NY); Roller, George J. (Penfield, NY); Zavadil, Kevin (Benalillo, NM); Galambos, Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Crowley, Joseph (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2005-04-19

    The present invention relates to an ink composition including water, a solvent, a solvent-soluble dye, and a surfactant, where the ink exhibits a stable liquid microemulsion phase at a first temperature and a second temperature higher than the first temperature and has a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60, and methods of making such ink compositions. The present invention also relates to a method of making an ink composition for use in a microelectromechanical system-based fluid ejector. The method involves providing a solution or dispersion including a dye or a pigment and adding to the solution or dispersion an additive which includes a material that enhances dielectric permittivity and/or reduces conductivity under conditions effective to produce an ink composition having a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60.

  3. Coarse-grained electrostatic interactions of coronene: Towards the crystalline phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Heinemann; Karol Palczynski; Joachim Dzubiella; Sabine H. L. Klapp

    2015-06-05

    In this article we present and compare two different, coarse-grained approaches to model electrostatic interactions of anisotropic organic molecules, specifically coronene. Our study is an extension of previous work [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214110 (2014)] where we proposed, based on a systematic coarse-graining procedure starting from the atomistic level, an anisotropic effective (Gay-Berne-like) potential capable of describing van-der-Waals contributions to the interaction energy. To take into account electrostatics, we introduce, first, a linear quadrupole moment along the symmetry axis of the coronene disk. The second approach takes into account the fact that the partial charges within the molecules are distributed in a ring-like fashion. We then reparametrize the effective Gay-Berne-like potential such that it matches, at short distances, the ring-ring potential. To investigate the validity of these two approaches, we perform many-particle Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, focusing on the crystalline phase (karpatite) where electrostatic interaction effects are expected to be particularly relevant. Specifically, we investigate various structural parameters as well as the melting transition. We find that the second approach yields consistent results with those from experiments despite the fact that the underlying potential decays with the wrong distance dependence at large molecule separations. Our strategy can be transferred to a broader class of molecules, such as benzene or hexabenzocoronene.

  4. Biosensors Fabricated through Electrostatic Assembly of Enzymes/Polyelectrolyte Hybrid Layers on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun

    2006-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as new class of nanomaterials that is receiving considerable interest because of their unique structure, mechanical, and electronic properties. One promising application of CNTs is to fabricate highly sensitive chemo/biosensors.1-4 For construction of these CNT-based sensors, the CNTs first have to be modified with some molecules specific to the interests. Generally, covalent binding, affinity, and electrostatic interaction have been utilized for the modification of CNTs. Among them, the electrostatic method is attractive due to its simplicity and high efficiency. In present work, we have developed highly sensitively amperometric biosensors for glucose, choline, organophosphate pesticide (OPP) and nerve agents (NAs) based on electrostatically assembling enzymes on the surface of CNTs. All these biosensors were fabricated by immobilization of enzymes on the negatively charged CNTs surface through alternately assembling a cationic poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) layer and an enzyme layer. Using this layer-by-layer (LBL) technique, a bioactive nanocomposite film was fabricated on the electrode surface. Owing to the electrocatalytic effect of CNTs, an amplified electrochemical signal was achieved, which leads to low detections limits for glucose, choline, and OPP and NAs.

  5. Web servers and services for electrostatics calculations with APBS and PDB2PQR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unni, Samir; Huang, Yong; Hanson, Robert M.; Tobias, Malcolm; Krishnan, Sriram; Li, Wilfred; Nielsen, Jens E.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-04-02

    APBS and PDB2PQR are widely utilized free software packages for biomolecular electrostatics calculations. Using the Opal toolkit, we have developed a web services framework for these software packages that enables the use of APBS and PDB2PQR by users who do not have local access to the necessary amount of computational capabilities. This not only increases accessibility of the software to a wider range of scientists, educators, and students but it also increases the availability of electrostatics calculations on portable computing platforms. Users can access this new functionality in two ways. First, an Opal-enabled version of APBS is provided in current distributions, available freely on the web. Second, we have extended the PDB2PQR web server to provide an interface for the setup, execution, and visualization electrostatics potentials as calculated by APBS. This web interface also uses the Opal framework which ensures the scalability needed to support the large APBS user community. Both of these resources are available from the APBS/PDB2PQR website: http://www.poissonboltzmann.org/.

  6. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    There is a primary need to increase the utilization of Illinois coal resources by developing new methods of converting the coal into electricity by highly efficient and environmentally acceptable systems. New coal gasification processes are now being developed that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency in either an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system or a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Both of-these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as-sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCI) in the coal gas. This project investigates the effect of HCI, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by HCI, both in adsorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences Of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes.

  7. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, D.P.

    1998-08-01

    The last six cycles of a 25-cycle sorbent durability test were completed, final installation of the flame photometric detector was accomplished, and fifteen tests whose aim was to determine the minimum prebreakthrough H{sub 2}S concentration over reduced CeO{sub 2} were performed. There was little, if any, evidence of sorbent deterioration in the durability test. During the durability test the author confirmed that, when using pre-reduced sorbent and a clean system, the prebreakthrough H{sub 2}S concentration was less than 100 ppmv, the detection limit of the thermal conductivity detector (TCD). Consequently, a more sensitive flame photometric detector (FPD) which permitted measurements of H{sub 2}S concentrations of 1 ppmv or less was installed. The FPD and TCD were connected in parallel so that, when desired, the entire H{sub 2}S breakthrough curve could be measured. Most of the quarter was devoted to conducting reduction-sulfidation tests to determine the minimum prebreakthrough H{sub 2}S concentrations which could be achieved using prereduced CeO{sub 2}. Fifteen runs involving variations in reduction-sulfidation temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration in the feed gas, and feed gas volumetric flow rate were completed. In all tests the prebreakthrough H{sub 2}S concentration was less than 10 ppmv, and in many of the tests the H{sub 2}S concentration was equal to or less than 1 ppmv for an extended time period.

  8. Protein Viability on Au Nanoparticles during an Electrospray and Electrostatic-Force-Directed Assembly Process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua; Yu, Kehan; Chen, Junhong

    2010-01-01

    We study the protein viability on Au nanoparticles during an electrospray and electrostatic-force-directed assembly process, through which Au nanoparticle-antibody conjugates are assembled onto the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to fabricate carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) biosensors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and field-effect transistor (FET) measurements have been used to investigate the antibody activity after the nanoparticle assembly. Upon the introduction of matching antigens, the colored reaction from the ELISA and the change in the electrical characteristic of the CNTFET device confirm that the antibody activity is preserved during the assembly process.

  9. Electrostatic interactions in the presence of surface charge regulation: exact results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Maggs; R. Podgornik

    2014-10-01

    We study the problem of charge regulation and its effects on electrostatic interactions between dissociable charge groups immersed in a univalent electrolyte, within a family of one dimensional exactly solvable models. We consider the case of both charge regulated plates, but also the interaction of pairs of finite size dielectric "particles". Using the transfer matrix formalism we are able to determine the disjoining pressure as well as the correlations between the charge and the dipole moments of the objects as a function of their separation and electrolyte concentration

  10. Onsager's symmetry relation and the residual parallel Reynolds stress in a magnetized plasma with electrostatic turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Yang, E-mail: yangzustc@gmail.com; Wang, Shaojie [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-09-15

    The physics of the residual parallel Reynolds stress in a rotating plasma with electrostatic turbulence is explicitly identified by using the transport formulation of the gyrokinetic turbulence. It is clarified that the residual stress consists of four terms, among which are the cross terms due to the pressure gradient and the temperature gradient and the terms related to the turbulent acceleration impulse and the turbulent heating rate. The last two terms are identified for the first time, and are shown to cause analogous residual term in the heat flux. Meanwhile, the transport matrix reveals diffusion in the phase space. The transport matrix is demonstrated to satisfy the Onsager's symmetry relation.

  11. Phase-mixing of electrostatic modes in a cold magnetized electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-08-15

    In a fluid description, we study space-time evolution of electrostatic oscillations in a cold magnetized electron-positron plasma. Nonlinear results up to third order, obtained by employing a simple perturbation technique, indicate phase-mixing and thus breaking of excited oscillations, and provide an expression for the phase-mixing time. It is shown that an increase in the strength of ambient magnetic field results in an increase in the phase-mixing time. The results of our investigation will be of relevance to astrophysical environments as well as laboratory experiments.

  12. Validation of a model for Radon-induced background processes in electrostatic spectrometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wandkowsky, N; Fränkle, F M; Glück, F; Groh, S; Mertens, S

    2013-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment investigating tritium beta-decay close to the endpoint with unprecedented precision has stringent requirements on the background level of less than 10^(-2) counts per second. Electron emission during the alpha-decay of Rn-219 and Rn-220 atoms in the electrostatic spectrometers of KATRIN is a serious source of background exceeding this limit. In this paper we compare extensive simulations of Rn-induced background to specific measurements with the KATRIN pre-spectrometer to fully characterize the observed Rn-background rates and signatures and determine generic Rn emanation rates from the pre-spectrometer bulk material and its vacuum components.

  13. Notes on orbit and spin tracking in an electrostatic storage ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mane, S R

    2015-01-01

    Two documents have recently been posted on the arXiv describing a numerical integration algorithm: "symplectic orbit/spin tracking code for all-electric storage rings" [1] and some computational results therefrom [2]. This note comments critically on some of the claims in [1] and [2]. In particular, it is not clear that the orbit tracking algorithm described in [1] is really symplectic. Specifically, for electrostatic beamline elements, the so-called "zero length elements," which are treated as position dependent kicks in the formalism in [1], are in fact {\\em not} symplectic.

  14. Chopping of Near- and Mid-Infrared Radiation Using a Curled Electrostatic MEMS Actuator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dausch, David; Goodwin, Scott; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Andresen, B. F. and Fulop, G. F.

    2003-04-01

    An electrostatic MEMS actuator known as the ''Artificial Eyelid'' can be used as a micromechanical chopper for IR detectors. The actuator structure consists of a curled polymer/metal film stack which is microfabricated and released from an IR transparent substrate. These flexible film actuators can act as IR choppers, providing transmission of radiation to the sensor elements when open (curled) and reflection when closed (uncurled). Arrays of actuators were fabricated on ITO-coated glass substrates and ranged in size from 4 x 4 mm to 7.5 x 15 mm with individual elements ranging from 250 to 500 microns on a side.

  15. Bicoherence in electrostatic turbulence driven by high magnetohydrodynamic activity in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos Lima, G. Z. dos; Guimaraes-Filho, Z. O.; Caldas, I. L.; Nascimento, I. C.; Kuznetsov, Yu. K. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66316, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista, A. M. [Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84032-900 Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil); Lopes, S. R.; Viana, R. L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    During some discharges in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien [R. M. O. Galvao et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1181 (2001)] high magnetohydrodynamic activity may appear with a peaked frequency spectrum. Whenever this peak occurs, the ambient broadband electrostatic turbulence is remarkably modified, synchronizing into the dominant magnetic fluctuation frequency and presenting high bicoherence in the whole plasma edge with a maximum bicoherence inside the plasma. A phenomenological model is introduced to investigate this driven turbulence bicoherence, consisting of nonlinearly coupled phase-randomized drift modes with time-periodic external driving at the dominant magnetic fluctuation frequency. The bicoherence spectrum of this model can mimic features of the experimental results.

  16. Design and Fabrication of a Micro Electrostatic Vibration-to-Electricity Energy Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Yi; Chu, Yu-Shan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a micro electrostatic vibration-toelectricity energy converter. For the 3.3 V supply voltage and 1cm2 chip area constraints, optimal design parameters were found from theoretical calculation and Simulink simulation. In the current design, the output power is 200 $\\mu$W/cm2 for the optimal load of 8 M\\Omega. The device was fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Mechanical and electrical measurements were conducted. Residual particles caused shortage of the variable capacitor and the output power could not be measured. Device design and fabrication processes are being refined.

  17. Electrostatic and affinity enhancements of protein partitioning in two-phase aqueous micellar systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Hei Ning Henry

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was motivated by the practical need to develop a scalable and cost-effective separation method for low-cost, high-volume protein products. This unmet challenge can potentially be addressed by extraction in ...

  18. THE NONLINEAR AND NONLOCAL LINK BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC ALFVÉNIC AND MICROSCOPIC ELECTROSTATIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentini, F.; Vecchio, A.; Donato, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.; Briand, C.; Bougeret, J.

    2014-06-10

    The local heating of the solar-wind gas during its expansion represents one of the most intriguing problems in space plasma physics and is at present the subject of a relevant scientific effort. The possible mechanisms that could account for local heat production in the interplanetary medium are most likely related to the turbulent character of the solar-wind plasma. Nowadays, many observational and numerical analyses are devoted to the identification of fluctuation channels along which energy is carried from large to short wavelengths during the development of the turbulent cascade; these fluctuation channels establish the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this Letter, by means of a quantitative comparison between in situ measurements in the solar wind from the STEREO spacecraft and numerical results from kinetic simulations, we identify an electrostatic channel of fluctuations that develops along the turbulent cascade in a direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field. This channel appears to be efficient in transferring the energy from large Alfvénic to short electrostatic acoustic-like scales up to a range of wavelengths where it can finally be turned into heat, even when the electron to proton temperature ratio is of the order of unity.

  19. Nonlinear Screening and Effective Electrostatic Interactions in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. R. Denton

    2004-05-06

    A nonlinear response theory is developed and applied to electrostatic interactions between spherical macroions, screened by surrounding microions, in charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions. The theory describes leading-order nonlinear response of the microions (counterions, salt ions) to the electrostatic potential of the macroions and predicts microion-induced effective many-body interactions between macroions. A linear response approximation [Phys. Rev. E 62, 3855 (2000)] yields an effective pair potential of screened-Coulomb (Yukawa) form, as well as a one-body volume energy, which contributes to the free energy. Nonlinear response generates effective many-body interactions and essential corrections to both the effective pair potential and the volume energy. By adopting a random-phase approximation (RPA) for the response functions, and thus neglecting microion correlations, practical expressions are derived for the effective pair and triplet potentials and for the volume energy. Nonlinear screening is found to weaken repulsive pair interactions, induce attractive triplet interactions, and modify the volume energy. Numerical results for monovalent microions are in good agreement with available ab initio simulation data and demonstrate that nonlinear effects grow with increasing macroion charge and concentration and with decreasing salt concentration. In the dilute limit of zero macroion concentration, leading-order nonlinear corrections vanish. Finally, it is shown that nonlinear response theory, when combined with the RPA, is formally equivalent to the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory and that the linear response approximation corresponds, within integral-equation theory, to a linearized hypernetted-chain closure.

  20. Process for desulfurizing petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2014-06-10

    A process for upgrading an oil feedstock includes reacting the oil feedstock with a quantity of an alkali metal, wherein the reaction produces solid materials and liquid materials. The solid materials are separated from the liquid materials. The solid materials may be washed and heat treated by heating the materials to a temperature above 400.degree. C. The heat treating occurs in an atmosphere that has low oxygen and water content. Once heat treated, the solid materials are added to a solution comprising a polar solvent, where sulfide, hydrogen sulfide or polysulfide anions dissolve. The solution comprising polar solvent is then added to an electrolytic cell, which during operation, produces alkali metal and sulfur.

  1. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    10%. These two properties can be used to classify coals forsulfur in the coal to be burned. Other properties, such as

  2. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  3. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1 is similar to Unit 2, except that Unit 1 has no SCR for NOx control. Four sampling tests were performed on both units in January 2005; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the economizer outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process samples for material balances were collected with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the SCR increased the oxidation of the mercury at the air heater outlet. At the exit of the air heater, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized and particulate forms on the unit equipped with an SCR compared to the unit without an SCR (97.4% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the scrubber. Total mercury removal averaged 97% on the unit with the SCR, and 87% on the unit without the SCR. The average mercury mass balance closure was 84% on Unit 1 and 103% on Unit 2.

  4. How and why electrostatic charge of combustible nanoparticles can radically change the mechanism and rate of their oxidation in humid atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatically charged aerosol nanoparticles strongly attract surrounding polar gas molecules due to a charge-dipole interaction. In humid air, the substantial electrostatic attraction and acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles by accelerated water vapor molecules rather than non-polar oxygen molecules. In particular, electrostatic acceleration, acquired by surrounding water vapour molecules at a distance of their mean free path from the minimally charged iron metal nanoparticle can increase an oxidative activity of these polar molecules with respect to the nanoparticle by a factor of one million. Intense electrostatic hydration of charged metal nanoparticles converts the nanoparticle's oxide based shells into the hydroxide based electrolyte shells, transforming these nanoparticles into metal/air core-shell nanobatteries, periodically short-circuited by intra-particl...

  5. Effect of Dielectric Properties of Ceramic-Solvent Interface on the Binding of Protein to Oxide Ceramics: a Non Local Electrostatic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, A I; Namavar, F

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the non-local electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends non-monotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate dielectric constant below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (...

  6. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  7. A particle-in-cell approach to obliquely propagating electrostatic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, Etienne J. [Space Commercial Services Holdings (SCSH) Group, Somerset West (South Africa); School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); South African National Space Agency (SANSA), Space Science, Hermanus (South Africa); Collier, Andrew B. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Exegetic Analytics, Durban (South Africa); Maharaj, Shimul K. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA), Space Science, Hermanus (South Africa)

    2014-09-15

    The electron-acoustic and beam-driven modes associated with electron beams have previously been identified and studied numerically. These modes are associated with Broadband Electrostatic Noise found in the Earth's auroral and polar cusp regions. Using a 1-D spatial Particle-in-Cell simulation, the electron-acoustic instability is studied for a magnetized plasma, which includes cool ions, cool electrons and a hot, drifting electron beam. Both the weakly and strongly magnetized regimes with varying wave propagation angle, ?, with respect to the magnetic field are studied. The amplitude and frequency of the electron-acoustic mode are found to decrease with increasing ?. The amplitude of the electron-acoustic mode is found to significantly grow at intermediate wavenumber ranges. It reaches a saturation level at the point, where a plateau forms in the hot electron velocity distribution after which the amplitude of the electron-acoustic mode decays.

  8. Electrostatic potential variation on the flux surface and its impact on impurity transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García-Regaña, J M; Turkin, Y; Kleiber, R; Helander, P; Maaßberg, H; Alonso, J A; Velasco, J L

    2015-01-01

    The particle transport of impurities in magnetically confined plasmas under some conditions does not find, neither quantitatively nor qualitatively, a satisfactory theory-based explanation. This compromise the successful realization of thermo-nuclear fusion for energy production since its accumulation is known to be one of the causes that leads to the plasma breakdown. In standard reactor-relevant conditions this accumulation is in most stellarators intrinsic to the lack of toroidal symmetry, that leads to the neoclassical electric field to point radially inwards. This statement, that the standard theory allows to formulate, has been contradicted by some experiments that showed weaker or no accumulation under such conditions \\cite{Ida_pop_16_056111_2009, Yoshinuma_nf_49_062002_2009}. The charge state of the impurities makes its transport more sensitive to the electric fields. Thus, the short length scale turbulent electrostatic potential or its long wave-length variation on the flux surface $\\Phi_{1}$ -- that...

  9. Potential structure of discharge plasma inside liquid directly measured by an electrostatic probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qiang; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro; CREST Matsuda, Naoki

    2013-06-17

    Potential structures of a discharge plasma inside a liquid are investigated by an electrostatic probe measurement. The time evolution of radial profiles of the floating potential for the plasma inside liquid reveals that the dominant negative charges in the plasma are the negative ion species such as OH{sup -} and O{sub 2}{sup -} rather than electrons. In addition, a positive potential gradient exists at the plasma-liquid interface due to the presence of an electrical double layer which is caused by the separation of low-mass positive ion of H{sup +} and high-mass negative ions of OH{sup -} and O{sub 2}{sup -} near the plasma-liquid interface.

  10. Research and Development of Compact Neutron Sources based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Kai; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Nagasaki, Kazunobu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Fujimoto, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Tomoya; Kajiwara, Taiju [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Shiroya, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2009-03-10

    Recent progress is described in the research and development of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device. Use of a water-cooling jacket with non-uniform thickness shows promising success for landmine detection application, such as effective channeling of neutron flux toward the target and a very stable dc yield in excess of 10{sup 7} D-D neutrons/sec. Addition of an ion source to the conventional glow-discharge-driven IECF enhances the converging deuterium ion energy distribution by allowing a lower operating gas pressure. Improvement in normalized neutron yield, which corresponds to the fusion cross-section averaged over the device radius, by a factor often has been observed.

  11. Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murali, S. Krupakar [Lawrenceville Plasma Physics, 128 Lincoln Blvd., Middlesex, New Jersey 08846 (United States); Emmert, G. A.; Santarius, J. F.; Kulcinski, G. L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the cathode. Experimentally, the grid temperature decreases as the chamber pressure increases; numerical simulations suggest that this is caused by the reduction of the hot ion current to the cathode as the pressure increases for constant power supply current. Such an understanding further supports the conclusion that the asymmetric heating of the cathode can be decreased by homogenizing the ion flow around the cathode.

  12. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)] [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  13. Stability of electrostatic modes in a levitated dipole Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of magnetized planets and neutron stars. The use of a dipole magnetic field generated by a levitated ring exceed the magnetic pressure, i.e., 1, and excellent confinement properties. By levitating the dipoleStability of electrostatic modes in a levitated dipole J. Kesner Plasma Fusion Center

  14. Redox-linked protonation state changes in cytochrome bc1 identified by PoissonBoltzmann electrostatics calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ullmann, G. Matthias

    titration calculations have been performed for completely reduced and completely oxidised cytochrome bc1 of CoQ oxidation. The Rieske iron­ sulphur cluster could be shown to undergo redox-linked protonation protein; Cardiolipin; Rieske iron­sulphur cluster; Poisson­Boltzmann electrostatics calculation 1

  15. Upgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development for Omega, Z and the NIF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    diagnostics. In addition, in situ measurements of the on-target beam profile, made with a CCD camera, are usedUpgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development accelerators Phys. Plasmas 19, 023107 (2012) Microgan electron cyclotron resonance ion source in a Van de

  16. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Cyclopropanations. The Identification of a New Class of Iminium Catalyst Based upon Directed Electrostatic Activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    and 100 therapeutic agents, the cyclopropane motif has long been established as a valuable platform to extend this olefin-activation platform to the production of three-membered carbocyclic rings in this electrostatic activation. Within this mechanistic framework, we rationalized that 2-car- boxylic acid

  17. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-08-15

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L?L?+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i?L?+i?, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function ?{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility ?{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for ?{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub ?}=?/k?V{sub e} where ? is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub ?}?V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for ?{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact ?{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general ?{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub ?}/V{sub e}?3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions are calculated for a range of parameters using the exact expressions for the rates; electrostatic decay is found to have the larger growth rate over the whole range of parameters, consistent with previous approximate calculations.

  18. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Angled Fiber Suspension for Electrostatic Actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Bryan Edward

    2011-01-01

    DEMA). Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2:3,instability. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 12:in ca- pacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  19. The Electrostatic Component of the Disjoining Pressure and the Pore Creation Rate in Electroporation Models and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasilkoski, Zlatko

    2008-01-01

    Under externally applied electric fields, lipid membranes tend to permeate and change their electrical resistance by the combined processes of pore creation and pore evolution (expansion or contraction). This study is focused on the pore creation process, represented by an empirical expression currently used in the electroporation (EP) models, for which an alternative theoretically based expression was provided. The choice of this expression was motivated by the role the DLVO's (disjoining) pressures may play in the process of EP. The electrostatic energy effects on each sides of a lipid membrane were evaluated in terms of the electrostatic component of the disjoining pressure. Thus the pore creation energy considerations in the current EP models, associated with the necessity of an idealized non conducting circular pre-pore were avoided. As a result, a new expression for the onset of the electroporation was proposed. It was found that this new theoretically determined expression is in good agreement with the...

  20. High-Power Electrostatic Discharges in PETN: Threshold and Scaling Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, W; McCarrick, J F; Hodgin, R L; Phillips, D F

    2010-03-05

    There is a considerable set of data establishing the safety of PETN-based detonators that are insulted by electrostatic discharge (ESD) from a human body. However, the subject of ESD safety has garnered renewed interest because of the sparse data on high-power, low-impedance discharges that result when the source is a metallic object such as a tool. Experiments on as-built components, using pin-to-cap fault circuits through PETN-based detonators, showed significant evidence of a power dependence but with a very broad energy threshold and some uncertainty in the breakdown path. We have performed a series of experiments using a well-defined arc discharge path and a well-characterized source that is capable of independent variation of energy and power. Studies include threshold variation with power, arc length, powder surface area, and surface vs. bulk discharge paths. We find that an energy threshold variation with power does not appear to exist in the tested range of fractions to tens of MW, and that there are many subtleties to proper energy and power bookkeeping. We also present some test results for PBX 9407.

  1. Spin orbit splitting of the photon induced Fano resonance in an oscillating graphene electrostatic barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, R.; Sinha, C.

    2014-04-07

    We investigate theoretically the effect of a time dependent oscillating potential on the transport property of the Dirac Fermion through a monolayer graphene electrostatic barrier under the influence of the Rashba spin orbit interaction. The time dependent problem is solved in the frame work of the non-perturbative Floquet approach. It is noted that the dynamic condition of the barrier may be controlled by tuning the Rashba parameter. Introduction of the spin orbit interaction causes splitting of the Fano resonance (FR), a characteristic feature in photon assisted tunneling. The separation between the spin split FR's gives an indirect measure of the fine structure of the quasi-hole bound state inside the barrier. The present findings on the Rashba splitting of the FR and its external control by tuning the oscillating field parameters might have potential for applications in spintronic devices, especially in the spin field effect transistors. The spin polarization of different Floquet sidebands is found to be quite sensitive to the spin-pseudospin interaction.

  2. Cross-sectional electrostatic force microscopy of thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballif, C.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2001-01-15

    In a recent work, we showed that atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique to image cross sections of polycrystalline thin films. In this work, we apply a modification of AFM, namely, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), to investigate the electronic properties of cleaved II--VI and multijunction thin-film solar cells. We cleave the devices in such a way that they are still working with their nominal photovoltaic efficiencies and can be polarized for the measurements. This allows us to differentiate between surface effects (work function and surface band bending) and bulk device properties. In the case of polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass solar cells, we find a drop of the EFM signal in the area of the CdTe/CdS interface ({+-}50 nm). This drop varies in amplitude and sign according to the applied external bias and is compatible with an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction model, thereby invalidating the possibility of a deeply buried n-p CdTe homojunction. In the case of a triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge device, we observe a variation of the EFM signal linked to both the material work-function differences and to the voltage bias applied to the cell. We attempt a qualitative explanation of the results and discuss the implications and difficulties of the EFM technique for the study of such thin-film devices.

  3. Amperometric Choline Biosensor Fabricated through Electrostatic Assembly of Bienzyme/Polyelectrolyte Hybrid Layers on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-03-01

    We report a flow injection amperometric choline biosensors based on the electrostatic assembly of an enzyme of choline oxidase (ChO) and a bi-enzyme of ChO and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. These choline biosensors were fabricated by immobilization of enzymes on the negatively charged MWCNT surface through alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallydiimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and an enzyme layer. Using this layer-by-layer assembling approach, bioactive nanocomposite film of a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/HRP/PDDA/CNT (ChO/HRP/CNT) and a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/ CNT (ChO/ CNT) were fabricated on GC surface, respectively. Owning to the electrocatalytic effect of carbon nanotubes, the measurement of faradic responses resulting from enzymatic reactions has been realized at low potential with acceptable sensitivity. It is found the ChO/HRP/CNT biosensor is more sensitive than the ChO/CNT one. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of biosensors, e.g. applied potential, flow rate, etc. were optimized and potential interference was examined. The response time for this choline biosensor is fast (less than a few seconds). The linear range of detection for the choline biosensor is from 5 x 10-5 to 5 x 10-3 M and the detection limit is determined to be about 1.0 x 10-5 M.

  4. Electrostatic wave structures in a magnetized superthermal plasma with two-temperature electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahmansouri, M.; Alinejad, H.

    2013-08-15

    The linear and nonlinear excitation of arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves in a magnetized plasma comprising two-temperature electrons and cold ions are studied. The oblique propagation properties of two possible modes (in the linear regime) are investigated. It is found that the electron superthermality reduces the phase velocities of both modes, whereas obliqueness leads to an increase in the separation between two modes. In the nonlinear regime, an energy-like equation describes the evolution of IA solitary waves in the present model. The combined effects of the electron superthermality, magnitude of magnetic field, obliqueness and electron population are incorporated in the study of the existence domain of solitary waves and the soliton characteristics. It is shown that the small values of the hot electron population shift the permitted interval of Mach number to the lower values. Both compressive and rarefactive solitary structures are found to exist in the presence of two temperature electrons. The present investigation contributes to the physics of electrostatic wave structures in Saturn's magnetosphere in which two temperature electrons with kappa distribution exist.

  5. Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Zhang, Jian; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Yaohui; Blake, Thomas A.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-02-27

    Lithium (Li) dendrite formation is one of the critical challenges for rechargeable Li metal batteries. The traditional method to suppress Li dendrites by using high-quality solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films cannot effectively solve this problem. Recently, we proposed a novel self-healing electrostatic shield (SHES) mechanism to change the Li deposition behavior. The SHES mechanism forces Li to be deposited in the region away from protuberant tips by using non-Li cations as additives that preferentially accumulate but not deposit on the active sites of Li electrode. In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of cesium cation (Cs+) as the typical non-Li cation suitable for the SHES mechanism was further investigated in detail to reveal its effects on preventing Li dendrites and interactions with Li electrode. It is found that typical adsorption behavior instead of chemical reaction is observed. The existence of Cs+ cation in the electrolyte does not change the components and structure of the Li surface film and this is consistent with the projection of the SHES mechanism. Various factors affecting the effectiveness of SHES mechanism are also discussed. The morphologies of Li films deposited is smooth and uniform during the repeated deposition-stripping cycles and at various current densities (from 0.1 to 1.0 mA cm-2) by adding just a small amount (0.05 M) of Cs+-additive in the electrolyte.

  6. Study of fusion regimes in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using the new eclipse disk diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murali, S. Krupakar; Cipiti, B.B.; Santarius, J.F.; Kulcinski, G.L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    New diagnostics are required to understand the physics operation of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device. In an attempt to understand the fusion source regimes within the IEC device, a new diagnostic called the eclipse disk has been introduced. This diagnostic was used to exploit the byproduct protons' energy difference between the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium--an isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (D-{sup 3}He) reactions to study the contributions of the protons generated from various source regimes. These source regimes are divided into five categories namely: converged core, embedded, beam background, volume, and wall-surface sources. The eclipse disk diagnostic has provided the first confirmed evidence that D-{sup 3}He reactions are predominantly embedded reactions. It has been observed that at the present operating power levels (6-10 kW) most of the D-D reactions occur in the volume of the chamber caused by the charge exchanged neutrals, and the converged core contribution is significant only for D-D reactions. Since the branching ratio for the proton and neutron generation in a D-D fusion reaction is {approx}50%, it is inferred that the proton to neutron count ratio is a better parameter to monitor than either proton or neutron counts measured alone while studying the source regimes. This parameter may also be used for studying the potential wells within the cathode grid.

  7. Particle-in-cell simulations of velocity scattering of an anisotropic electron beam by electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, X. R., E-mail: xrfu@lanl.gov; Cowee, M. M.; Winske, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Liu, K. [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)] [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Peter Gary, S. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)] [Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The velocity space scattering of an anisotropic electron beam (T{sub ?b}/T{sub ?b}>1) flowing along a background magnetic field B{sub 0} through a cold plasma is investigated using both linear theory and 2D particle-in-cell simulations. Here, ? and ? represent the directions perpendicular and parallel to B{sub 0}, respectively. In this scenario, we find that two primary instabilities contribute to the scattering in electron pitch angle: an electrostatic electron beam instability and a predominantly parallel-propagating electromagnetic whistler anisotropy instability. Our results show that at relative beam densities n{sub b}/n{sub e}?0.05 and beam temperature anisotropies T{sub b?}/T{sub b?}?25, the electrostatic beam instability grows much faster than the whistler instabilities for a reasonably fast hot beam. The enhanced fluctuating fields from the beam instability scatter the beam electrons, slowing their average speed and increasing their parallel temperature, thereby increasing their pitch angles. In an inhomogeneous magnetic field, such as the geomagnetic field, this could result in beam electrons scattered out of the loss cone. After saturation of the electrostatic instability, the parallel-propagating whistler anisotropy instability shows appreciable growth, provided that the beam density and late-time anisotropy are sufficiently large. Although the whistler anisotropy instability acts to pitch-angle scatter the electrons, reducing perpendicular energy in favor of parallel energy, these changes are weak compared to the pitch-angle increases resulting from the deceleration of the beam due to the electrostatic instability.

  8. Multivalent ion effects on electrostatic stability of virus-like nano-shells Leili Javidpour, Anze Losdorfer Bozi, Ali Naji, and Rudolf Podgornik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Multivalent ion effects on electrostatic stability of virus-like nano-shells Leili Javidpour, Anze Anze Losdorfer Bozic,2 Ali Naji,1,3,a) and Rudolf Podgornik2,4,5 1 School of Physics, Institute

  9. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  10. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in the flue gas; this was true for all SCR catalyst types and sources. Although chlorine has been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas, coal chlorine was not a statistically significant factor affecting mercury speciation at the economizer exit or at the air heater exit. The only statistically significant factors were the coal ash CaO content and the fly ash carbon content; the fraction of mercury in the elemental form at the economizer exit was positively correlated with both factors. In a direct comparison at four SCR-equipped units vs. similar units at the same sites without SCR (or with the SCR bypassed), the elemental mercury fractions (measured at the ESP outlet) were lower, and the coal-to-stack mercury removals were higher, when the SCR was present and operating. The average coal-to-stack mercury removal at the four units without an operating SCR was 72%, whereas the average removal at the same sites with operating SCRs was 88%. The unit mercury mass balance (a gauge of the overall quality of the tests) at all of the units ranged from 81% to 113%, which were within our QA/QC criterion of 80-120%.

  11. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Angled Fiber Suspension for Electrostatic Actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Bryan Edward

    2011-01-01

    Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2:3, 1993. [59]Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 12:656–671,ca- pacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Sensors

  12. Apparatus and method for improving electrostatic precipitator performance by plasma reactor conversion of SO.sub.2 to SO.sub.3

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Hann-Sheng (Darien, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process that utilize a low temperature nonequilibrium plasma reactor, for improving the particulate removal efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are disclosed. A portion of the flue gas, that contains a low level of SO.sub.2 O.sub.2 H.sub.2 O, and particulate matter, is passed through a low temperature plasma reactor, which defines a plasma volume, thereby oxidizing a portion of the SO.sub.2 present in the flue gas into SO.sub.3. An SO.sub.2 rich flue gas is thereby generated. The SO.sub.3 rich flue gas is then returned to the primary flow of the flue gas in the exhaust treatment system prior to the ESP. This allows the SO.sub.3 to react with water to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 that is in turn is absorbed by fly ash in the gas stream in order to improve the removal efficiency of the EPS.

  13. Computer Simulations of charged systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Holm; K. Kremer

    2002-03-26

    In this brief contribution to the Proceedings of the NATO-ASI on ``Electrostatic Effects in Soft Matter and Biophysics'', which took place in Les Houches from Oct. 1-13, 2000, we summarize in short aspects of the simulations methods to study charged systems. After describing some basics of Monte Carlo and Molecular dynamics techniques, we describe a few methods to compute long range interactions in periodic systems. After a brief detour to mean-field models, we describe our results obtained for flexible polyelectrolytes in good and bad solvents. We follow with a description of the inhomogeneity of the counterion distribution around finite chains, and continue then with infinitely long, rodlike systems. The last part is devoted to the phenomenon of overcharging for colloidal particles and its explanation in terms of simple electrostatic arguments.

  14. Filter systems for IGCC applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevan, S.; Gieger, R.; Sobel, N.; Johnson, D.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify metallic filter medium to be utilized in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle process (IGCC). In IGCC processes utilizing high efficiency desulfurizing technology, the traditional corrosion attack, sulfidation, is minimized so that metallic filters are viable alternatives over ceramic filters. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station is being developed to demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle technology. The Pall Gas Solid Separation (GSS) System is a self cleaning filtration system designed to remove virtually all particulate matter from gas streams. The heart of the system is the filter medium used to collect the particles on the filter surface. The medium`s filtration efficiency, uniformity, permeability, voids volume, and surface characteristics are all important to establishing a permeable permanent cake. In-house laboratory blowback tests, using representative full scale system particulate, were used to confirm the medium selection for this project. Test elements constructed from six alloys were supplied for exposure tests: PSS 310SC (modified 310S alloy); PSS 310SC heat treated; PSS 310SC-high Cr; PSS 310SC-high Cr heat treated; PSS Hastelloy X; and PSS Hastelloy X heat treated.

  15. Development of a Low Cost 3-10kW Tubular SOFC Power System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    desulfurizer Collaborations - EFESO Program Enviromentally Friendly Energy from Solid Oxide fuel cell Italian government program granted to Ariston thermal group and 15 partners...

  16. ISQ derivation ("derivation in SI units") of a formula for the electrostatic field ionization rate-constant for a hydrogenic atom in its ground electronic state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard G. Forbes

    2015-07-01

    Technical applications using electrostatic field ionization (ESFI) need a formula for the rate-constant K_e for the free-space ESFI of a hydrogenic atom in its ground electronic state. This formula must indicate the dependence on ionization energy I. Existing formulae were derived using atomic units. However, many scientists work with ESFI as an important technical process, but are not familiar with the Gaussian or atomic units systems. In the 1970s, the present International System of Quantities (ISQ), which includes the equations behind SI units, was designated as the main system for university teaching and the communication of scientific equations. 40 years on, ISQ derivations of ESFI rate-constant formulae are still not easily found, but are now needed. This tutorial paper gives a detailed ISQ derivation of a formula for K_e. The derivation is closely modelled on the Landau and Lifshitz (LL) approach used in their 1958 work (in atomic units) on hydrogen atom ESFI. The ISQ derivation confirms that, for hydrogenic atoms, ionization energy appears in the pre-exponential as I^(5/2), and defines a universal "field ionization constant". It also shows how the ISQ formula relates to the Gurney and Condon "attempt frequency" form for tunnelling rate-constants, and an ISQ formula is given for the motive energy in the related JWKB integral. The ISQ derivation uses a motive-energy transformation analogous to a transformation used by LL. The need for this transformation in ESFI theory raises questions as to the correctness of theoretical treatments of field electron emission from non-planar emitters, which do not make this transformation.

  17. Collaborative research: Dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves and their effects on current layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-04-18

    The project has accomplished the following achievements including the goals outlined in the original proposal. Generation and measurements of Debye-scale electron holes in laboratory: We have generated by beam injections electron solitary waves in the LAPD experiments. The measurements were made possible by the fabrication of the state-of-the-art microprobes at UCLA to measure Debye-scale electric fields [Chiang et al., 2011]. We obtained a result that challenged the state of knowledge about electron hole generation. We found that the electron holes were not due to two-stream instability, but generated by a current-driven instability that also generated whistler-mode waves [Lefebvre et al., 2011, 2010b]. Most of the grant supported a young research scientist Bertrand Lefebvre who led the dissemination of the laboratory experimental results. In addition to two publications, our work relevant to the laboratory experiments on electron holes has resulted in 7 invited talks [Chen, 2007, 2009; Pickett et al., 2009a; Lefebvre et al., 2010a; Pickett et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011c, b] (including those given by the co-I Jolene Pickett) and 2 contributed talks [Lefebvre et al., 2009b, a]. Discovery of elecctron phase-space-hole structure in the reconnection electron layer: Our theoretical analyses and simulations under this project led to the discovery of an inversion electric field layer whose phase-space signature is an electron hole within the electron diffusion layer in 2D anti-parallel reconnection [Chen et al., 2011a]. We carried out particle tracing studies to understand the electron orbits that result in the phase-space hole structure. Most importantly, we showed that the current density in the electron layer is limited in collisionless reconnection with negligible guide field by the cyclotron turning of meandering electrons. Comparison of electrostatic solitary waves in current layers observed by Cluster and in LAPD: We compared the ESWs observed in a supersubstorm by the Cluster spacecraft and those measured in LAPD. One of the similarities in the characteristics of ESWs observed in space and in LAPD is that the time duration tends to be approximately the inverse of the electron plasma frequency [Pickett et al., 2009b]. Discovery of suprathermal electron bursts inside a series of magnetic islands: Our effort in examining the roles of ESWs in reconnection current layers resulted in the serendipitous discovery that was published in Nature Physics. In earth’s magnetosphere, we observed through the measurements from the four Cluster spacecraft, a series of magnetic islands and suprathermal electron bursts within the islands. The islands were identified to be effectively acceleration sites for electrons [Chen et al., 2008, 2009].

  18. Detection of Percolating Paths in PMMA/CB Segregated Network Composites Using Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ou, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gupta, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Parker, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gerhardt, Dr. Rosario [Georgia Institute of Technology; Seal, Katyayani [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Composite specimens possessing polyhedral segregated network microstructures require a very small amount of nanosize filler, <1 vol %, to reach percolation because percolation occurs by accumulation of the fillers along the edges of the deformed polymer matrix particles. In this paper, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) were used to confirm the location of the nanosize fillers and the corresponding percolating paths in polymethyl methacrylate/carbon black composites. The EFM and C-AFM images revealed that the polyhedral polymer particles were coated with filler, primarily on the edges as predicted by the geometric models provided.

  19. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  20. Electrostatic Potential of a Point Charge in a Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Maya

    2013-01-01

    We consider the Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m spacetime in isotropic coordinates and the electrostatic field of an electric point charge placed outside its surface of inversion. We treat the static electric point charge as a linear perturbation on the Brans-Dicke Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m background. We develop a method based upon the Copson method to convert the governing Maxwell equation on the electrostatic potential generated by the static electric point charge into a solvable linear second order ordinary differential equation. We obtain a closed form fundamental solution of the curved space Laplace equation arising from the background metric, which is shown to be regular everywhere except at the point charge and its image point inside the surface of inversion. We also develop a method that demonstrates that the solution does not contain any other charge that may creep into the region that lies beyond the surface of inversion and which is not covered by the isotropic coordinates. The Brans-Dicke Reissne...

  1. Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

    2006-08-15

    In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

  2. Effect of particles attachment to multi-sized dust grains present in electrostatic sheaths of discharge plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaham, B.; Tahraoui, A. Chekour, S.; Benlemdjaldi, D.

    2014-12-15

    The loss of electrons and ions due to their attachment to a Gauss-distributed sizes of dust grains present in electrostatic sheaths of discharge plasmas is investigated. A uni-dimensional, unmagnetized, and stationary multi-fluid model is proposed. Forces acting on the dust grain along with its charge are self-consistently calculated, within the limits of the orbit motion limited model. The dynamic analysis of dust grains shows that the contribution of the neutral drag force in the net force acting on the dust grain is negligible, whereas the contribution of the gravity force is found considerable only for micrometer particles. The dust grains trapping is only possible when the electrostatic force is balanced by the ion drag and the gravity forces. This trapping occurs for a limited radius interval of micrometer dust grains, which is around the most probable dust grain radius. The effect of electron temperature and ion density at the sheath edge is also discussed. It is shown that the attachment of particles reduces considerably the sheath thickness and induces dust grain deceleration. The increase of the lower limit as well as the upper limit of the dust radius reduces also the sheath thickness.

  3. Characterization of fundamental catalytic properties of MoS2/WS2 nanotubes and nanoclusters for desulfurization catalysis - a surface temperature study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Burghaus

    2012-07-05

    The prior project consisted of two main project lines. First, characterization of novel nanomaterials for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) applications. Second, studying more traditional model systems for HDS such as vapor-deposited silica-supported Mo and MoSx clusters. In the first subproject, we studied WS2 and MoS2 fullerene-like nanoparticles as well as WS2 nanotubes. Thiophene (C4H4S) was used as the probe molecule. Interestingly, metallic and sulfur-like adsorption sites could be identified on the silica-supported fullerene-particles system. Similar structures are seen for the traditional system (vapor-deposited clusters). Thus, this may be a kinetics fingerprint feature of modern HDS model systems. In addition, kinetics data allowed characterization of the different adsorption sites for thiophene on and inside WS2 nanotube bundles. The latter is a unique feature of nanotubes that has not been reported before for any inorganic nanotube system; however, examples are known for carbon nanotubes, including prior work of the PI. Although HDS has been studied for decades, utilizing nanotubes as nanosized HDS reactors has never been tried before, as far as we know. This is of interest from a fundamental perspective. Unfortunately, the HDS activity of the nanocatalysts at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions was close to the detection limit of our techniques. Therefore, we propose to run experiments at ambient pressure on related nanopowder samples as part of the renewal application utilizing a now-available GC (gas chromatograph) setup. In addition, Ni and Co doped nanocatalyts are proposed for study. These dopants will boost the catalytic activity. In the second subproject of the prior grant, we studied HDS-related chemistry on more traditional supported cluster catalysts. Mo clusters supported by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on silica have been characterized. Two reaction pathways are evident when adsorbing thiophene on Mo and MoSx clusters: molecular adsorption and dissociation. PVD Mo clusters turned out to be very reactive toward thiophene bond activation. Sulfur and carbon residuals form, which poison the catalyst and sulfide the Mo clusters. Sulfided silica-supported MoSx samples are not reactive toward thiophene bond activation. In addition to S and C deposits, H2, H2S, and small organic molecules were detected in the gas phase. Catalyst reactivation procedures, including O2 and atomic hydrogen treatments, have been tested. Cluster size effects have been seen: thiophene adsorbs molecularly with larger binding energies on smaller clusters. However, larger clusters have smaller activation energy for C4H4S bond activation than smaller clusters. The latter is consistent with early catalysis studies. Kinetics and dynamics parameters have been determined quantitatively. We spent a significant amount of time on upgrades of our equipment. A 2nd-hand refurbished X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) has been integrated into the existing molecular beam scattering system and is already operational (supported by the DoE supplemental grant available in October 2009). We also added a time of flight (TOF) system to the beam scattering apparatus and improved on the accessible impact energy range (new nozzle heater and gas mixing manifold) for the beam scattering experiments. In addition, a GC-based powder atmospheric flow reactor for studies on powder samples is now operational. Furthermore, a 2nd UHV kinetics system has been upgraded as well. In summary, mostly single crystal systems have so far been considered in basic science studies about HDS. Industrial catalysts, however, can be better approximated with the supported cluster systems that we studied in this project. Furthermore, an entirely new class of HDS systems, namely fullerene-like particles and inorganic nanotubes, has been included. Studying new materials and systems has the potential to impact science and technology. The systems investigated are closely related to energy and environmental-related surface science/catalysis. This prior project, conducted at NDSU by a sma

  4. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  5. Babel of Units. The Evolution of Units Systems in Classical Electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carron, Neal

    2015-01-01

    We recount the history of development of units systems in electrodynamics, and fully derive how each system is constructed. Done for Electromagnetic (emu), Electrostatic (esu), Gaussian, a variant-Gaussian, Heaviside-Lorentz, and SI systems. The article fills in large gaps in standard textbook treatments of units.

  6. Improved lifetimes and synchronization behavior in multi-grid inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, Thomas John, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    A high output power source is required for fast, manned exploration of the solar system, especially the outer planets. Travel times measured in months, not years, will require high power, lightweight nuclear systems. The ...

  7. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  8. Extended Poisson-Boltzmann descriptions of the electrostatic double layer: implications for charged particles at interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derek Frydel; Martin Oettel

    2012-11-12

    The work reviews on a general level various modified Poisson-Boltzmann equations and demonstrates their use on the specific system of charged particles at an interface. This system is special, first, because it exhibits the long-range interactions on account of an air-water interface, and two, because the strength of these interactions depends on the structure of a double-layer. Thus, this system is particularly sensitive to the type of the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation used.

  9. Using 50-mm electrostatic membrane deformable mirror in astronomical adaptive optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    achievable modulation of the local radius of curvature of the mirror is ±25 m. Simulations of the AO system with 37 electrodes (hereafter DM-37) is used in the AO system at McMath-Pierce solar telescope2 telescope.4 A larger number of actuators is needed, so we select a DM with 79 electrodes and 50-mm membrane

  10. Electrostatically charged spraying of a plant-an industrial and environmental flow problem (choice of flow process, design of device, dispersion in the environment, and impaction on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    Electrostatically charged spraying of a plant-an industrial and environmental flow problem (choice of flow process, design of device, dispersion in the environment, and impaction on the plant surface). wwwReviews Inc. All rights reserved INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS J. C. R. Hunt Department

  11. Effects of obliqueness and strong electrostatic interaction on linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahmansouri, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156- 8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156- 8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh)

    2014-03-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma is theoretically investigated. The normal mode analysis (reductive perturbation method) is employed to investigate the role of ambient/external magnetic field, obliqueness, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature in modifying the properties of linear (nonlinear) dust-acoustic waves propagating in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The effective electrostatic dust-temperature, which arises from strong electrostatic interactions among highly charged dust, is considered as a dynamical variable. The linear dispersion relation (describing the linear propagation characteristics) for the obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves is derived and analyzed. On the other hand, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the nonlinear propagation of the dust-acoustic waves (particularly, propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves) is derived and solved. It is shown that the combined effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the ambient/external magnetic field, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature significantly modify the basic properties of linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves. The results of this work are compared with those observed by some laboratory experiments.

  12. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, B.; Kane, R.J.; Wong, R.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Moore, T.L.

    1981-10-05

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.

  13. 1044 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 Resonant Pull-In Condition in Parallel-Plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    MICROELECTROMECHANICAL systems (MEMS) based on the electrostatic parallel-plate actuation princi- ple are seemingly1044 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 Resonant Pull are a common way of actuating microelectromechanical systems, both statically and dynamically. In the static

  14. Colloidal Systems with Attractive Interactions: Evaluation of Scattering Data Using the Generalized Indirect Fourier Transformation Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyss, Hans

    stabilized dense silica suspensions, which are destabilized by ionic strength or pH shift initiated by an in. This system consists of electrostatically stabilized silica spheres in aqueous suspension. AggregationColloidal Systems with Attractive Interactions: Evaluation of Scattering Data Using the Generalized

  15. Chimera order in spin systems Rajeev Singh, Subinay Dasgupta and Sitabhra Sinha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Sitabhra

    OFFPRINT Chimera order in spin systems Rajeev Singh, Subinay Dasgupta and Sitabhra Sinha EPL, 95 of electrostatic particle­particle interactions in dielectrophoresis, adapted from N Aubry and P Singh 2006 EPL 74.1209/0295-5075/95/10004 Chimera order in spin systems Rajeev Singh1 , Subinay Dasgupta2 and Sitabhra Sinha1(a) 1 The Institute

  16. Energy enhancement and chaos control in microelectromechanical systems Kwangho Park,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Ying-Cheng

    For a resonator in an electrostatic microelectromechanical system MEMS , nonlinear coupling between appliedEnergy enhancement and chaos control in microelectromechanical systems Kwangho Park,1 Qingfei Chen MEMS resonators, and propose a control strategy to convert chaos into periodic motions with enhanced

  17. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Shen, Ming-shing (Rocky Point, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  18. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  20. Desulfurization Fuel Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deerrohrbach.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel...

  1. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, Daniel E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Loomis, Guy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mullen, Carlan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Scott, Donald W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Feldman, Edgar M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meyer, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  2. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

    1993-04-20

    A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  3. KPFM and PFM of Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Brian [University College, Dublin; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Surface potentials and electrostatic interactions in biological systems are a key element of cellular regulation and interaction. Examples include cardiac and muscular activity, voltage-gated ion channels, protein folding and assembly, and electroactive cells and electrotransduction. The coupling between electrical, mechanical, and chemical signals and responses in cellular systems necessitates the development of tools capable of measuring the distribution of charged species, surface potentials, and mechanical responses to applied electrical stimuli and vice versa, ultimately under physiological conditions. In this chapter, applications of voltage-modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods including Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) to biological systems are discussed. KPFM is a force-sensitive non-contact or intermittent-contact mode AFM technique that allows electrostatic interactions and surface potentials to be addressed. Beyond long-range electrostatic interactions, the application of bias can lead to a mechanical response, e.g., due to linear piezoelectric coupling in polar biopolymers or via more complex electrotransduction and redox pathways in other biosystems. The use and development of PFM, based on direct electromechanical detection, to biological systems will also be addressed. The similarities and limitations of measuring surface potentials and electromechanical coupling in solution will be outlined.

  4. The geometric factor of electrostatic plasma analyzers: A case study from the Fast Plasma Investigation for the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collinson, Glyn A.; Dorelli, John C.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pollock, Craig; Mariano, Al; Shappirio, Mark D.; Adrian, Mark L.; Avanov, Levon A.; Lewis, Gethyn R.; Kataria, Dhiren O.; Bedington, Robert; Owen, Christopher J.; Walsh, Andrew P.; Arridge, Chris S.; Gliese, Ulrik; Barrie, Alexander C.; Tucker, Corey

    2012-03-15

    We report our findings comparing the geometric factor (GF) as determined from simulations and laboratory measurements of the new Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as part of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. Particle simulations are increasingly playing an essential role in the design and calibration of electrostatic analyzers, facilitating the identification and mitigation of the many sources of systematic error present in laboratory calibration. While equations for laboratory measurement of the GF have been described in the literature, these are not directly applicable to simulation since the two are carried out under substantially different assumptions and conditions, making direct comparison very challenging. Starting from first principles, we derive generalized expressions for the determination of the GF in simulation and laboratory, and discuss how we have estimated errors in both cases. Finally, we apply these equations to the new DES instrument and show that the results agree within errors. Thus we show that the techniques presented here will produce consistent results between laboratory and simulation, and present the first description of the performance of the new DES instrument in the literature.

  5. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Poral, Matthew D.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  6. Simulation and optimization of a 10 A electron gun with electrostatic compression for the electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.; Beebe, E. N.; Raparia, D.

    2013-03-15

    Increasing the current density of the electron beam in the ion trap of the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) in BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility would confer several essential benefits. They include increasing the ions' charge states, and therefore, the ions' energy out of the Booster for NASA applications, reducing the influx of residual ions in the ion trap, lowering the average power load on the electron collector, and possibly also reducing the emittance of the extracted ion beam. Here, we discuss our findings from a computer simulation of an electron gun with electrostatic compression for electron current up to 10 A that can deliver a high-current-density electron beam for EBIS. The magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap is formed with a magnetic shield surrounding the gun electrodes and the residual magnetic field on the cathode is (5 Division-Sign 6) Gs. It was demonstrated that for optimized gun geometry within the electron beam current range of (0.5 Division-Sign 10) A the amplitude of radial beam oscillations can be maintained close to 4% of the beam radius by adjusting the injection magnetic field generated by a separate magnetic coil. Simulating the performance of the gun by varying geometrical parameters indicated that the original gun model is close to optimum and the requirements to the precision of positioning the gun elements can be easily met with conventional technology.

  7. Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) Waves and their Interactions Driven by the Ponderomotive Force of Crossing Laser Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedros Afeyan; K. Won; V. Savchenko; T. Johnston; A. Ghizzo; P. Bertrand

    2012-10-30

    We have found, using 1D periodic Vlasov-Poisson simulations, new nonlinear, nonstationary, stable, long lived, coherent structures in phase space, called kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) waves. Ponderomotively driven for a short period of time, at a particular frequency and wavenumber, well inside the band gap that was thought to exist between electron plasma and electron acoustic wave frequencies, KEEN waves are seen to self-consistently form, and persist for thousands of plasma periods. KEEN waves are comprised of 4 or more significant phase-locked harmonic modes which persist only when driven sufficiently strongly. They also merge when two or more at different frequencies are driven sequentially. However, the final stable KEEN state that emerges is highly sensitive to their relative order of excitation. KEEN waves also interact quite strongly with electron plasma waves (EPW) especially when their harmonics are close to being resonant with the EPW frequency at the same k. The common assumption that whenever sufficiently large amplitude coherent laser energy is present in an unmagnetized plasma, EPWs and IAWs are the only waves with which the electromagnetic energy can interact coherently may require reconsideration.

  8. Theory of Space Magnetic Sail Some Common Mistakes and Electrostatic MagSail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-05

    The first reports on the "Space Magnetic Sail" concept appeared more 30 years ago. During the period since some hundreds of research and scientific works have been published, including hundreds of research report by professors at major famous universities. The author herein shows that all these works related to Space Magnetic Sail concept are technically incorrect because their authors did not take into consideration that solar wind impinging a MagSail magnetic field creates a particle magnetic field opposed to the MagSail field. In the incorrect works, the particle magnetic field is hundreds times stronger than a MagSail magnetic field That means all the laborious and costly computations in revealed in such technology discussions are useless: the impractical findings on sail thrust (drag), time of flight within the Solar System and speed of interstellar trips are essentially worthless working data! The author reveals the correct equations for any estimated performance of a Magnetic Sail as well as a new type of Magnetic Sail (without a matter ring).

  9. Design, maintenance extend FGD system slurry valve life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMay, B. [St. John`s River Power Park, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Willyard, B. [Grand River Dam Authority, Chouteau, OK (United States); Polasek, S. [Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, TX (United States); Clarkson, C.W. [Clarkson Co., Sparks, NV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This article describes how power plants in Florida, Oklahoma and Texas adopted improved maintenance techniques and sought better design criteria to gain greater slurry valve reliability. Slurry valves, a vital part of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, are critical to a power plant`s ability to meet or exceed acid rain emission requirements. The performance and reliability of these valves can significantly affect unit operation and load capacity. For example, slurry valves installed on the suction and discharge ends of scrubber tower pumps are a main point of isolation. When these valves malfunction, the scrubber tower must be shut down. Problems with valves that control the feed system and reaction tank alter slurry pH and density, and also affect unit load. In addition, a single valve that serves dual-pumping systems from the slurry storage tank to the reaction tank can cause a system outage. Because of their key role in system operation, specific maintenance approaches were developed at several power plants to improve slurry valve reliability and run times.

  10. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  11. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. ); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. ); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  12. Tier 2 Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Thornton, M.; Orban, J.; Slone, E.

    2006-05-01

    Investigates the emission control system performance and system desulfurization effects on regulated and unregulated emissions in a light-duty diesel engine.

  13. Electrostatics of moving plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2013-07-15

    The stability of charge distribution over the surface of a conducting body in moving plasma is analyzed. Using a finite-width plate streamlined by a cold neutralized electron flow as an example, it is shown that an electrically neutral body can be unstable against the development of spontaneous polarization. The plasma parameters at which such instability takes place, as well as the frequency and growth rate of the fundamental mode of instability, are determined.

  14. Micro Actuators Electrostatic actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    is superior to the alloy CuZnAl. ·Most of SMA materials used in micro devices are TiNi (Nitinol). (IV) Work

  15. Electrostatic screening by semiconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krcmar, Maja

    1998-01-01

    distributions. We determine the sluice screening length for the screening of a charged surface defect, and the interaction energy between two charged surface defects. We find the spatial scales over which dielectric and metallic properties of the semiconductors...

  16. Anomalous momentum and energy transfer rates for electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in downward auroral-current regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasperse, John R.; Basu, Bamandas; Lund, Eric J.; Grossbard, Neil

    2010-06-15

    Recently, a new multimoment fluid theory was developed for inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma in the guiding-center and gyrotropic approximation that includes the effect of electrostatic, turbulent, wave-particle interactions (see Jasperse et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 (2006); ibid.13, 112902 (2006)]). In the present paper, which is intended as a sequel, it is concluded from FAST satellite data that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence that appears is due to the operation of an electron, bump-on-tail-driven ion-cyclotron instability for downward currents in the long-range potential region of the Earth's magnetosphere. Approximate closed-form expressions for the anomalous momentum and energy transfer rates for the ion-cyclotron turbulence are obtained. The turbulent, inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized, multimoment fluid theory given above, in the limit of a turbulent, homogeneous, uniformly magnetized, quasisteady plasma, yields the well-known formula for the anomalous resistivity given by Gary and Paul [Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 1097 (1971)] and Tange and Ichimaru [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1437 (1974)].

  17. Status and Directions in Electroseparations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsouris, Costas

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation, a summary of research conducted in the area of electroseparations at the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. Fields-driven processes, including (1) phase equilibria modification by electric fields and (2) magnetically seeded separations, as well as transport-enhancement processes by electric fields,including (1) surface area generation and (2) electroconvection, are discussed.It is shown that electric fields can change the concentration of the vapor phase during the distillation of a binary mixture, which may have applications in separations by distillation that consume significant amounts of energy. It is also shown that addition of colloidal seed particles of high magnetic susceptibility to a suspension of non-magnetic particles and subsequent flocculation between seed and non-magnetic particles form paramagnetic flocs that can be removed by high- gradient magnetic filtration. Inverse electrostatic spraying, which is the spraying of a non-conductive fluid (such as air) into a conductive fluid (such as water), is introduced and compared with normal electrostatic spraying, which is the spraying of conductive fluid into a non-conductive fluid. Applications of normal electrostatic spraying, including the development of a bioreactor for oil desulfurization, and inverse electrostatic spraying, including ozonation of an aqueous system, are discussed. It is also shown that electroconvection, caused by electric fields,may result in simultaneous pumping, spraying, and mixing of fluids. In summary,new phenomena caused by electric fields are introduced and their potential applications in electroseparations are discussed.

  18. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. and Johnson-Matthey 2004deerli.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Desulfurization Fuel Filter...

  20. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  1. A solid oxide fuel cell power system: 1992--1993 field operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veyo, S.E.; Kusunoki, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Kaneko, S.; Yokoyama, H.

    1994-05-01

    Westinghouse has deployed fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems in order to obtain useful customer feedback. Recently, Westinghouse has deployed 20 kW class natural gas fueled SOFC generator modules integrated into two 25 kW SOFC systems, the first with The UTILITIES, a Japanese consortium. The UTILITIES 25 kW SOFC system is the focus of this paper. The unit was shipped to the Rokko Island Test Center for Advanced Energy Systems (near Kobe, Japan) operated by Kansai Electric Power Co.; testing was initiated February 1992. Module A operated for 2601 hours at an ave output 16.6 kW dc; final shutdown was induced by current stability problems with dissipator (restart not possible because of damaged cells). Module B operated for 1579 hours at ave output 17.8 kWdc. The unit was damaged by operation at excessively high fuel utilization > 91%. It was rebuilt and returned to Rokko Island. This module B2 operated for 1843 hours on PNG; shutdown was cuased by air supply failure. After a new blower and motor were installed July 1993, the system was restarted August 5, 1993 and operated continuously until November 10, 1993, when an automatic shutdown was induced as part of a MITI licensing inspection. After restart, the unit passed 6000 hours of operation on desulfurized PNG on January 25, 1994. Westinghouse`s future plans are outlined.

  2. Poisson-Boltzmann model for protein-surface electrostatic interactions and grid-convergence study using the PyGBe code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between surfaces and proteins occur in many vital processes and are crucial in biotechnology: the ability to control specific interactions is essential in fields like biomaterials, biomedical implants and biosensors. In the latter case, biosensor sensitivity hinges on ligand proteins adsorbing on bioactive surfaces with a favorable orientation, exposing reaction sites to target molecules. Protein adsorption, being a free-energy-driven process, is difficult to study experimentally. This paper develops and evaluates a computational model to study electrostatic interactions of proteins and charged nanosurfaces, via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. We extended the implicit-solvent model used in the open-source code PyGBe to include surfaces of imposed charge or potential. This code solves the boundary integral formulation of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, discretized with surface elements. PyGBe has at its core a treecode-accelerated Krylov iterative solver, resulting in O(N log N) scaling, with furt...

  3. In Situ Electrostatic Separation of Ambient PM2.5 into Source-Specific Fractions During Collection in a FRM Sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naresh Shah; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-07-31

    Coal combustion is generally viewed as a major source of PM2.5 emissions into the atmosphere. For some time, toxicologists have been asking for an exposure environment enriched with the coal combustion source specific PM{sub 2.5} to conduct meaningful exposure studies to better understand the mechanisms of the adverse health effects of coal combustion specific PM2.5 in the ambient environment. There are several unique characteristics of primary PM generated from coal combustion. In this research project, an attempt has been made to exploit some of the unique properties of PM generated from coal fired power plants to preferentially separate them out from the rest of the primary and secondary PM in the ambient environment. An existing FRM sampler used for monitoring amount of PM{sub 2.5} in the ambient air is modified to incorporate an electrostatic field. A DC corona charging device is also installed at the ambient air inlet to impart positive or negative charge to the PM. Visual Basic software has been written to simulate the lateral movement of PM as it passes through the electrostatic separator under varying operating conditions. The PM samples collected on polycarbonate filters under varying operating conditions were extensively observed for clustering and/or separation of PM in the direction parallel to the electric field. No systematic PM separation was observed under any of the operating conditions. A solution to overcome this kind of turbulence caused remixing has been offered. However, due to major programmatic changes in the DOE UCR program, there are no venues available to further pursue this research.

  4. Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    can be oxidized to Hg2+ and/or bound on fly ash as Hgp. Hg2+ is soluble in water and is readily captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment. Hgp can be collected together

  5. Theoretical crystallography with the Advanced Visualization System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, C.R.; Thornton, E.N.; Nicholas, J.B.; Jones, D.R.; Hess, A.C.

    1993-05-01

    Space is an Application Visualization System (AVS) graphics module designed for crystallographic and molecular research. The program can handle molecules, two-dimensional periodic systems, and three-dimensional periodic systems, all referred to in the paper as models. Using several methods, the user can select atoms, groups of atoms, or entire molecules. Selections can be moved, copied, deleted, and merged. An important feature of Space is the crystallography component. The program allows the user to generate the unit cell from the asymmetric unit, manipulate the unit cell, and replicate it in three dimensions. Space includes the Buerger reduction algorithm which determines the asymmetric unit and the space group of highest symmetry of an input unit cell. Space also allows the user to display planes in the lattice based on Miller indices, and to cleave the crystal to expose the surface. The user can display important precalculated volumetric data in Space, such as electron densities and electrostatic surfaces. With a variety of methods, Space can compute the electrostatic potential of any chemical system based on input point charges.

  6. ELECTROSTATIC (LANGMUIR) PROBE MEASUREMENTS IN RF DRIVEN He, N2, BCl3, AND BCl3/N2 PLASMAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Bogdan Amaru

    2008-08-01

    of GaAs with nitrogen addition. The system was validated in both helium and nitrogen plasmas. Probe measurements showed that as the nitrogen concentration in BCl3/N2 plasmas increased, the average electron energy actually decreased (5.52 eV @ 0% N2, 4...

  7. Theoretical analysis of aqueous solutions of mixed strong electrolytes by a smaller-ion shell electrostatic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraenkel, Dan, E-mail: dfraenkel@eltronresearch.com [Eltron Research and Development Inc., 4600 Nautilus Court South, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)] [Eltron Research and Development Inc., 4600 Nautilus Court South, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    In spite of the great importance of mixed electrolytes in science and technology, no compelling theoretical explanation has been offered yet for the thermodynamic behavior of such systems, such as their deviation from ideality and the variation of their excess functions with ionic composition and concentration. Using the newly introduced Smaller-ion Shell treatment – an extension of the Debye–Hückel theory to ions of dissimilar size (hence DH–SiS) – simple analytic mathematical expressions can be derived for the mean and single-ion activity coefficients of binary electrolyte components of ternary ionic systems. Such expressions are based on modifying the parallel DH–SiS equations for pure binary ionic systems, by adding to the three ion-size parameters – a (of counterions), b{sub +} (of positive coions), and b{sub ?} (of negative coions) – a fourth parameter. For the (+ + ?) system, this is “b{sub ++},” the contact distance between non-coion cations. b{sub ++} is derived from fits with experiment and, like the other b’s, is constant at varying ion concentration and combination. Four case studies are presented: (1) HCl–NaCl–H{sub 2}O, (2) HCl–NH{sub 4}Cl–H{sub 2}O, (3) (0.01 M HX)–MX–H{sub 2}O with X = Cl, Br, and with M = Li, Na, K, Cs, and (4) HCl–MCl{sub n}–H{sub 2}O with n = 2, M = Sr, Ba; and n = 3, M = Al, Ce. In all cases, theory is fully consistent with experiment when using a of the measured binary electrolyte as the sole fitting parameter. DH–SiS is thus shown to explain known “mysteries” in the behavior of ternary electrolytes, including Harned rule, and to adequately predict the pH of acid solutions in which ionized salts are present at different concentrations.

  8. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.

  9. Experimental test of whether electrostatically charged micro-organisms and their spores contribute to the onset of arcs across vacuum gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L. R.; Halle, A. von; Carpe, A. F.; Gilton, K. R.; Rossi, Guy; Stevenson, T. N.

    2013-12-15

    Recently it was proposed [L. R. Grisham et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between conducting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which then become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. This note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maximum operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each case preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance.

  10. Experimental Test Of Whether Electrostatically Charged Micro-organisms And Their Spores Contribute To The Onset Of Arcs Across Vacuum Gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-24

    Recently it was proposed [L.R. Grisham, A. vonHalle, A.F. Carpe, Guy Rossi, K.R. Gilton, E.D. McBride, E.P. Gilson, A. Stepanov, T.N. Stevenson, Physics of Plasma 19 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between condu cting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which tnen become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. The note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maxium operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance

  11. A new class of high force, low-voltage, compliant actuation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RODGERS,M. STEVEN; KOTA,SRIDHAR; HETRICK,JOEL; LI,ZHE; JENSEN,BRIAN D.; KRYGOWSKI,THOMAS W.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; BURG,MICHAEL STANLEY

    2000-04-10

    Although many actuators employing electrostatic comb drives have been demonstrated in a laboratory environment, widespread acceptance in mass produced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) may be limited due to issues associated with low drive force, large real estate demands, high operating voltages, and reliability concerns due to stiction. On the other hand, comb drives require very low drive currents, offer predictable response, and are highly compatible with the fabrication technology. The expand the application space and facilitate the widespread deployment of self-actuated MEMS, a new class of advanced actuation systems has been developed that maintains the highly desirable aspects of existing components, while significantly diminishing the issues that could impede large scale acceptance. In this paper, the authors will present low-voltage electrostatic actuators that offer a dramatic increase in force over conventional comb drive designs. In addition, these actuators consume only a small fraction of the chip area previously used, yielding significant gains in power density. To increase the stroke length of these novel electrostatic actuators, the authors have developed highly efficient compliant stroke amplifiers. The coupling of compact, high-force actuators with fully compliant displacement multipliers sets a new paradigm for highly integrated microelectromechanical systems.

  12. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  13. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore »FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  14. Case history of liner veneer instability , B. Queen2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 13, No. 1, 36­46 1. INTRODUCTION The General James M. Gavin Power Plant is owned by American Electric construction. The landfill was being developed for final disposal of flue gas desulfurization by Act amendments of 1990, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system was installed on each generating unit

  15. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems: Technical progress report No. 16, July-September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barcikowski, G.F.; Borio, R.W.; Bozzuto, C.R.; Burr, D.H.; Cellilli, L.; Fox, J.D.; Gibbons, T.B.; Hargrove, M.J.; Jukkola, G.D.; King, A.M.

    1996-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Under Task 7--Component development and optimization, the CeraMem filter testing was completed. Due to an unacceptably high flue gas draft loss, which will not be resolved in the POCTF timeframe, a decision was made to change the design of the flue gas cleaning system from Hot SNO{sub x}{sup {trademark}} to an advanced dry scrubber called New Integrated Desulfurization (NID). However, it is recognized that the CeraMem filter still has the potential to be viable in pulverized coal systems. In Task 8-- Preliminary POCTF design, integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle as well as the balance of plant design were completed. Licensing activities continued. A NID system was substituted for the SNO{sub x} Hot Process.

  16. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  17. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  18. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

  19. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  1. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C. (Arvada, CO); Blandon, Antonio E. (Thornton, CO); Hepworth, Malcolm T. (Edina, MN)

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  2. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  3. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  4. Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Improving Desulfurization to Enable Fuel Cell Utilization of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    gas. Barriers * Demonstrating the effectiveness of the sorbent under varying real-world biogas conditions * Scaling up production of the sorbent to a commercial scale * Providing...

  6. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Their in combination with fly-ash aromatics such as benzo-(are also poorly known. Fly ash containing benzo-(a)-pyrenesand coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfur in the

  7. Flue Gas Desulfurization Market Research Report 2018 | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that have the ability to reduce compliance costs. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) used at coal-fired electric plants has a theoretically uncertain impact on pollution emissions....

  8. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

  9. Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sectorfor $1.14 Per1-E WholesaleDurable

  10. Coarsening in granular systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Baldassarri; Andrea Puglisi; Alessandro Sarracino

    2015-04-28

    We review a few representative examples of granular experiments or models where phase separation, accompanied by domain coarsening, is a relevant phenomenon. We first elucidate the intrinsic non-equilibrium, or athermal, nature of granular media. Thereafter, dilute systems, the so-called "granular gases" are discussed: idealized kinetic models, such as the gas of inelastic hard spheres in the cooling regime, are the optimal playground to study the slow growth of correlated structures, e.g. shear patterns, vortices and clusters. In fluidized experiments, liquid-gas or solid-gas separations have been observed. In the case of monolayers of particles, phase coexistence and coarsening appear in several different setups, with mechanical or electrostatic energy input. Phenomenological models describe, even quantitatively, several experimental measures, both for the coarsening dynamics and for the dynamic transition between different granular phases. The origin of the underlying bistability is in general related to negative compressibility from granular hydrodynamics computations, even if the understanding of the mechanism is far from complete. A relevant problem, with important industrial applications, is related to the demixing or segregation of mixtures, for instance in rotating tumblers or on horizontally vibrated plates. Finally, the problem of compaction of highly dense granular materials, which has many important applications, is usually described in terms of coarsening dynamics: there, bubbles of mis-aligned grains evaporate, allowing the coalescence of optimally arranged islands and a progressive reduction of total occupied volume.

  11. Electrostatic charging of jumping droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    With the broad interest in and development of superhydrophobic surfaces for self-cleaning, condensation heat transfer enhancement and anti-icing applications, more detailed insights on droplet interactions on these surfaces ...

  12. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-05-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  13. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-10-04

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The coprecipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fourth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to completing, installing and starting up the pilot unit, completing laboratory runs to size catalysts, and procuring catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  14. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-07-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period April 1, 2003 through June 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the seventh full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit, conducting catalyst activity measurements, installing sonic horns for on-line catalyst cleaning, and installing the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek site. CPS began installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter. Laboratory efforts were conducted to support catalyst selection for that second pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  15. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-07-17

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the third full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to constructing the pilot unit and conducting laboratory runs to help size catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts.

  16. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-01-21

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  17. Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, <2 ms and large bandwidth, 1 Hz up to 1 kHz). In addition, the system has been specifically designed to be integrated with other instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

  18. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  19. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-02-22

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the first full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to project initiation and planning. There is no significant technical progress to report for the current period.

  20. Combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control using ferrous{center_dot}EDTA and a secondary additive in a lime-based aqueous scrubber system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Livengood, C.D.; Harkness, J.B.L.

    1991-12-01

    Integration of NO{sub x} control into existing flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems addresses site-specific control requirements while minimizing retrofit difficulties. Argonne has studied the use of the metal-chelate additives, such as ferrous{center_dot}EDTA in various wet FGD chemistries, to promote combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing. A major process problem is oxidation of the iron to the ferric species, leading to a significant decrease in NO{sub x}-removal capability. Argonne discovered a class of organic compounds that, when used with ferrous{center_dot}EDTA in a sodium carbonate chemistry, could maintain high levels of NO{sub x} removal. However, those antioxidant/reducing agents are not effective in a lime-based chemistry, and a broader investigation of antioxidants was initiated. This paper discusses results of that investigation, which found a practical antioxidant/reducing agent capable of maintaining NO{sub x} removals of about 50% (compared with about 15% without the agent) in a lime-based FGD chemistry with FE(II){center_dot}EDTA. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Combined SO sub 2 /NO sub x control using ferrouster dot EDTA and a secondary additive in a lime-based aqueous scrubber system. [Sodium ascorbate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Livengood, C.D.; Harkness, J.B.L.

    1991-01-01

    Integration of NO{sub x} control into existing flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems addresses site-specific control requirements while minimizing retrofit difficulties. Argonne has studied the use of the metal-chelate additives, such as ferrous{center dot}EDTA in various wet FGD chemistries, to promote combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing. A major process problem is oxidation of the iron to the ferric species, leading to a significant decrease in NO{sub x}-removal capability. Argonne discovered a class of organic compounds that, when used with ferrous{center dot}EDTA in a sodium carbonate chemistry, could maintain high levels of NO{sub x} removal. However, those antioxidant/reducing agents are not effective in a lime-based chemistry, and a broader investigation of antioxidants was initiated. This paper discusses results of that investigation, which found a practical antioxidant/reducing agent capable of maintaining NO{sub x} removals of about 50% (compared with about 15% without the agent) in a lime-based FGD chemistry with FE(II){center dot}EDTA. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Achieving large stable vertical displacement in surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Erik R. (Erik Robertson), 1974-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes electrostatic actuation techniques and mechanical design features for realizing large planar analog vertical travel in an electrostatically actuated diffractive mid-infrared optical device, which is ...

  3. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

  4. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1984-11-29

    A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

  5. Beam energy tracking system on Optima XEx high energy ion implanter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu; Wu Xiangyang; Geary, Cindy; Deluca, James [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Dr, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    The Axcelis Optima XEx high energy implanter is an RF linac-based implanter with 12 RF resonators for beam acceleration. Even though each acceleration field is an alternating, sinusoidal RF field, the well known phase-focusing principle produces a beam with a sharp quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum. A magnetic energy filter after the linac further attenuates the low energy continuum in the energy spectrum often associated with RF acceleration. The final beam energy is a function of the phase and amplitude of the 12 resonators in the linac. When tuning a beam, the magnetic energy filter is set to the desired energy, and each linac parameter is tuned to maximize the transmission through the filter. Once a beam is set up, all the parameters are stored in a recipe, which can be easily tuned and has proven to be quite repeatable. The magnetic field setting of the energy filter selects the beam energy from the RF Linac accelerator, and in-situ verification of beam energy in addition to the magnetic energy filter setting has long been desired. An independent energy tracking system was developed for this purpose, using the existing electrostatic beam scanner as a deflector to construct an in-situ electrostatic energy analyzer. This paper will describe the system and performance of the beam energy tracking system.

  6. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; H. Liao; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-11-01

    Table 1 shows that the systems efficiency, coal (HHV) to power, is 35%. Table 2 summarizes the auxiliary power consumption within the plant. Thermoflex was used to simulate the power block and Aspen Plus the balance of plant. The overall block flow diagram is presented in Figure A1.3-1 and the key unit process flow diagrams are shown in subsequent figures. Stream data are given in Table A1.3-1. Equipment function specifications are provided in Tables A1.3-2 through 17. The overall plant scheme consists of a cryogenic air separation unit supplying 95% purity O{sub 2} to GE type high pressure (HP) total quench gasifiers. The raw gas after scrubbing is treated in a sour shift unit to react the CO with H{sub 2}O to form H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The gas is further treated to remove Hg in a sulfided activated carbon bed. The syngas is desulfurized and decarbonized in a Selexol acid gas removal unit and the decarbonized syngas after humidification and preheat is fired in GE 7H type steam cooled gas turbines. Intermediate pressure (IP) N{sub 2} from the ASU is also supplied to the combustors of the gas turbines as additional diluent for NOx control. A portion of the air required by the ASU is extracted from the gas turbines. The plant consists of the following major process units: (1) Air Separation Unit (ASU); (2) Gasification Unit; (3) CO Shift/Low Temperature Gas Cooling (LTGC) Unit; (4) Acid Gas Removal Unit (AGR) Unit; (5) Fuel Gas Humidification Unit; (6) Carbon Dioxide Compression/Dehydration Unit; (7) Claus Sulfur Recovery/Tail Gas Treating Unit (SRU/TGTU); and (8) Power Block.

  7. OUTSTANDING SYMPOSIUM PAPER Articles in this section are based on presentations that were selected by MRS Meeting Symposium Organizers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiqu

    or for transportation systems. New processes and sorbents for sulfur removal are need- ed, therefore, in petroleum refining and for fuel cell applica- tions. Several deep desulfurization adsorbents using mixed oxides

  8. Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    polluting sulfur compounds are removed during the hydroprocessing of crude oil. Unrefined petroleum contains of a hydrogen acceptor, the thiophene was desulfurized (eq 2).4 Also, in the heterogeneous CoMo system it has

  9. A Microelectromechanical High-Density Energy Storage/Rapid Release System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, Jim J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Sam L.

    1999-07-21

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  10. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with less toxic ash pond water, and replanted due to low survival rates from the first planting the previous summer. The goals of the TVA-EPRI-DOE collaboration include building a better understanding of the chemical transformations that trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in a passive treatment system, and to evaluate the performance of a large-scale replicated passive treatment system to provide additional design criteria and economic factors.

  11. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, [mu]-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  12. Three-dimensional superintegrable systems in a static electromagnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonella Marchesiello; Libor Snobl; Pavel Winternitz

    2015-07-16

    We consider a charged particle moving in a static electromagnetic field described by the vector potential $\\vec A(\\vec x)$ and the electrostatic potential $V(\\vec x)$. We study the conditions on the structure of the integrals of motion of the first and second order in momenta, in particular how they are influenced by the gauge invariance of the problem. Next, we concentrate on the three possibilities for integrability arising from the first order integrals corresponding to three nonequivalent subalgebras of the Euclidean algebra, namely $(P_1,P_2)$, $(L_3,P_3)$ and $(L_1,L_2,L_3)$. For these cases we look for additional independent integrals of first or second order in the momenta. These would make the system superintegrable (minimally or maximally). We study their quantum spectra and classical equations of motion. In some cases nonpolynomial integrals of motion occur and ensure maximal superintegrability.

  13. Studies of Protein Interactions and Knowledge-Based Drug Design: (A) The Electrostatic Nature of Recognition Between HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop and Coreceptors CCR5/CXCR4, (B) Complement System Inhibition by Compstatin Family Peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López de Victoria Suárez, Aliana

    2012-01-01

    RMSF plots reveal that the GPG region, a highly conservedgreen denotes the conserved GPG motif at the tip of the

  14. Library System Library System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

  15. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-31

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems'', during the time-period January 1 through March 31, 2006. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Generation Company LP, the Southern Company, and Duke Energy. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified catalyst materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months or longer at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests are being conducted periodically at each site to confirm the ability to scrub the catalytically oxidized mercury at high efficiency. This is the ninth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts primarily consisted of operating the catalyst pilot units at the TXU Generation Company LP's Monticello Steam Electric Station and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates. Two catalyst activity measurement trips were made to Plant Yates during the quarter. This Technical Progress Report presents catalyst activity results from the oxidation catalyst pilot unit at Plant Yates and discusses the status of the pilot unit at Monticello.

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 51, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 49 A Six-Phase Multilevel Inverter for MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    , Member, IEEE Abstract--The construction of miniaturized rotating electric machines through. Rotating electrical machines implemented through microfabrication techniques are becoming practical [1- fabricated electrostatic induction machines. The electrostatic, or electric, induction machine is the dual

  17. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

  18. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the eighth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit at the GRE Coal Creek site with all four catalysts in service and sonic horns installed for on-line catalyst cleaning. During the quarter, a catalyst activity measurement trip and mercury SCEM relative accuracy tests were completed, and catalyst pressure drop was closely monitored with the sonic horns in operation. CPS completed the installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter, and the four catalysts to be tested in that unit were ordered. The pilot unit was started up with two of the four catalysts in service late in August, and initial catalyst activity results were measured in late September. The other two catalysts will not become available for testing until sometime in October. This technical progress report details these efforts at both sites.

  19. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-26

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the second full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to pilot unit design and conducting laboratory runs to help select candidate catalysts. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts. A Test Plan for the upcoming pilot-scale evaluations was also prepared and submitted to NETL for review and comment. Since this document was already submitted under separate cover, this information is not repeated here.

  20. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  1. Electrostatics and the Laboratory on a Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Thomas B.

    Library of Congress (~9M), the National Library of France (~5M), & ALL OTHER PRINTED MATTER on ~3 sq of Science · National Science Foundation (USA) · Center for Future Health (Univ. of Rochester) · National National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA) · G. Fuhr & T. Schnelle, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (GERMANY) · P

  2. Electrostatic-plasma-wave energy flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amendt, P.; Rostoker, N.

    1984-01-01

    would reduce cross- field wave-energy convection since theor cross-field leakage of wave energy are ap- that thefeature of cross-field wave-energy transport, previous con-

  3. Electrostatic vibration-to-electric energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mur Miranda, José Oscar, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Ultra-Low-Power electronics can perform useful functions with power levels as low as 170 nW. This makes them amenable to powering from ambient sources such as vibration. In this case, they can become autonomous. Motivated ...

  4. Probe Measurements of Electrostatic Fluctuations in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Division of Plasma Physics Savannah, GA November 15-19, 2004 #12;2EO_APS_DPP_11-04 Introduction The first physics experiments were conducted on the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX). Two campaigns have been run leading to maximum beta #12;3EO_APS_DPP_11-04 The Big Picture * Image and Figure by D. Garnier. Updated

  5. Apparatus and method for measuring electrostatic polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahn, Erwin L. (Berkeley, CA); Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Sloater, Tycho (Urbana, IL); Hilbert, Claude (Austin, TX); Heaney, Michael B. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the electric properties of solid matter which provides data for determining the polarizability of the electron distributions contained therein is disclosed. A sample of the solid to be studied is placed between the plates of a capacitor where it acts as a dielectric. The sample is excited by the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with an atomic species contained in the sample. The voltage induced across the capacitor is then measured as a function of time with the aid of a high Q circuit tuned to a frequency related to the frequency of the applied electromagnetic energy.

  6. Probe Measurements of Electrostatic Fluctuations in LDX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -axis ­ Motor positioning controlled with PLC · VERTICAL PROBES: ­ -pos: one - two meters off mid-plane ­ -pos density. Density(cm-3 ) 0.00118 0.0000 PlasmaFlux (Tesla/sec) 1010 109 #12;7 Electric Fluctuations

  7. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Xiaogan (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  8. Electrostatic interactions between peptides and the molecular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  9. Electrostatic Neutralization - A Key to Accurate & Repeatable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deerchase.pdf More Documents & Publications Real-Time...

  10. Electrostatic Graphene Loudspeaker - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic Structure and Magnetism inElectronicTechniqueAdvanced

  11. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  12. Neural Network Based Intelligent Sootblowing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Rhode

    2005-04-01

    Cost effective generation of electricity is vital to the economic growth and stability of this nation. To accomplish this goal a balanced portfolio of fuel sources must be maintained and established which not only addresses the cost of conversion of these energy sources to electricity, but also does so in an efficient and environmentally sound manner. Conversion of coal as an energy source to produce steam for a variety of systems has been a cornerstone of modern industry. However, the use of coal in combustion systems has traditionally produced unacceptable levels of gaseous and particulate emissions, albeit that recent combustion, removal and mitigation techniques have drastically reduced these levels. With the combustion of coal there is always the formation and deposition of ash and slag within the boilers. This adversely affects the rate at which heat is transferred to the working fluid, which in the case of electric generators is water/steam. The fouling of the boiler leads to poor efficiencies due to the fact that heat which could normally be transferred to the working fluid remains in the flue gas stream and exits to the environment without beneficial use. This loss in efficiency translates to higher consumption of fuel for equivalent levels of electric generation; hence more gaseous emissions are also produced. Another less obvious problem exists with fouling of various sections of the boiler creating intense peak temperatures within and around the combustion zone. Total nitrogen oxides (NOx) generation is primarily a function of both ''fuel'' and ''thermal'' NOx production. Fuel NOx which generally comprises 20%-40% of the total NOx generated is predominantly influenced by the levels of oxygen present, while thermal NOx which comprises the balance is a function of temperature. As the fouling of the boiler increases and the rate of heat transfer decreases, peak temperatures increase as does the thermal NOx production. Due to the composition of coal, particulate matter is also a by-product of coal combustion. Modern day utility boilers are usually fitted with electrostatic precipitators to aid in the collection of particulate matter. Although extremely efficient, these devices are sensitive to rapid changes in inlet mass concentration as well as total mass loading. Traditionally, utility boilers are equipped with devices known as sootblowers, which use, steam, water or air to dislodge and clean the surfaces within the boiler and are operated based upon established rule or operator's judgment. Poor sootblowing regimes can influence particulate mass loading to the electrostatic precipitators. The project applied a neural network intelligent sootblowing system in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instruments to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler slagging/fouling. This optimization process targeted reduction of NOx of 30%, improved efficiency of 2% and a reduction in opacity of 5%. The neural network system proved to be a non-invasive system which can readily be adapted to virtually any utility boiler. Specific conclusions from this neural network application are listed below. These conclusions should be used in conjunction with the specific details provided in the technical discussions of this report to develop a thorough understanding of the process.

  13. Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems** Rustem F. Ismagilov* Keywords: analytical methods · enzymes · microfluidics · microreactors · protein structures Microfluidic systems use networks of channels thinner than a human hair to manipulate nanoliter volumes of re- agents. The goal of microfluidics

  14. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  15. Percolation in a nanotube-polymer system and its lumped-circuit modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Vaia, Richard A [ORNL; Arlen, Michael Jeffrey [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electrical properties of composites composed of polyurethane polymer and multi-walled nanotubes are reported. Samples with different nanotube volume fractions are prepared, and an impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 10 mHz to 10 MHz is used to characterize the properties of the samples. It is observed that the resistivity of the mixture can be varied widely, from {approx}10 M{Omega}m to {approx}1 {Omega}m, just by slightly altering the volume fraction of nanotubes. A lumped-circuit model illustrated that the micro-scale morphology between nanotube-clusters influences the resistive relaxation in the composite system. The investigations show that the presented binary mixture has a potential to be utilized in conductive electrical components (flexible electrodes), electromagnetic shielding, and electrostatic and field grading materials for electronic and high voltage insulation technologies.

  16. ICENES `91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, {mu}-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  17. Efficient tunable switch from slow light to fast light in quantum opto-electromechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akram, M Javed; Saif, Farhan

    2015-01-01

    The control of slow and fast light propagation, in the probe transmission in a single experiment, is a challenging task. This type of control can only be achieved through highly nonlinear interactions and additional interfering pathway(s), which is therefore seldom reported. Here, we devise a scheme in which slow light, and a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved in the probe transmission based on a hybrid setup, which is composed of an optical cavity with two charged nano mechanical resonators (MRs). The two MRs are electrostatically coupled via tunable Coulomb coupling strength ($g_{c}$) making a quantum opto-electromechanical system (QOEMS). The parameter $g_{c}$ that couples the two MRs can be switched on and off by controlling the bias voltages on the MRs, and acts as a tunable switch that allows the propagation of transmitted probe field as slow light ($g_{c} \

  18. Efficient tunable switch from slow light to fast light in quantum opto-electromechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Javed Akram; Khalid Naseer; Farhan Saif

    2015-03-05

    The control of slow and fast light propagation, in the probe transmission in a single experiment, is a challenging task. This type of control can only be achieved through highly nonlinear interactions and additional interfering pathway(s), which is therefore seldom reported. Here, we devise a scheme in which slow light, and a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved in the probe transmission based on a hybrid setup, which is composed of an optical cavity with two charged nano mechanical resonators (MRs). The two MRs are electrostatically coupled via tunable Coulomb coupling strength ($g_{c}$) making a quantum opto-electromechanical system (QOEMS). The parameter $g_{c}$ that couples the two MRs can be switched on and off by controlling the bias voltages on the MRs, and acts as a tunable switch that allows the propagation of transmitted probe field as slow light ($g_{c} \

  19. Simulation of Charged Systems in Heterogeneous Dielectric Media via a True Energy Functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vikram Jadhao; Francisco J. Solis; Monica Olvera de la Cruz

    2013-09-26

    For charged systems in heterogeneous dielectric media, a key obstacle for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is the need to solve the Poisson equation in the media. This obstacle can be bypassed using MD methods that treat the local polarization charge density as a dynamic variable, but such approaches require access to a true free energy functional; one that evaluates to the equilibrium electrostatic energy at its minimum. In this letter, we derive the needed functional. As an application, we develop a Car-Parrinello MD method for the simulation of free charges present near a spherical emulsion droplet separating two immiscible liquids with different dielectric constants. Our results show the presence of non-monotonic ionic profiles in the dielectric with lower dielectric constant.

  20. Titration Microcalorimetry Study: Interaction of Drug and Ionic Microgel System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Y.

    Doxorubicin (DOX) and Pluronic-PAA interaction was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DOX/polymer interaction is governed primarily by electrostatic interaction. The uptake of DOX results in the ...