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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Gypsum Dewatering Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Gypsum Dewatering Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system. This report will assist the plant maintenance personnel in improving the reliability and reducing the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

2

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Absorber Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Absorber Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system and will help to improve the reliability of and reduce the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

3

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Reagent Preparation Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Reagent Preparation Area provides the fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on this system and will help improve the reliability and reduce the maintenance costs for this area of their scrubber system.

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Wastewater Treatment and Gypsum Handling Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Maintenance Guide: Wastewater Treatment and Gypsum Handling Area provides fossil plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on these systems. This guide will assist plant maintenance personnel in improving the reliability and reducing the maintenance costs for these areas of their scrubber system.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Leaching Assessment of Fly Ash, Flue Gas Desulfurization Filter Cake, and Fixated Scrubber Solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The by-products of coal combustion (for example, fly ash and flue gas desulfurization filter cake) are an important environmental concern due to potential leaching of trace constituents and the large volume of residues produced. About 40% of these by-products may be utilized as raw materials outside of the energy sector; the remaining 60% of the coal combustion products (CCPs) are disposed of as waste. At Plant 14090, the subject of this report, fly ash and scrubber sludge are blended with quicklime ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

6

Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization State of the Art Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intent of this report is to provide a summary of state-of-the-art dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, including circulating dry scrubbers (CDS), spray dryer absorbers (SDA), and the Alstom Novel Integrated Desulfurization (NID) technology. These can all be considered “semi-dry” technologies, as the flue gas is cooled and humidified as part of each of these processes. This report also discusses a completely dry FGD technology, dry sorbent injection (DSI), which is ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

FGDExpert Demonstration at NIPSCO Schahfer Unit 17: Oxidation Reduction Potential Effects on Scrubber Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been shown to remove soluble oxidized mercury (Hg), as well as selenium (Se), from flue gas. However, one phenomenon that has been observed, but not well characterized, is the re-emission of oxidized Hg captured in the FGD scrubber as elemental Hg. Several studies have shown that oxidation reduction potential (ORP) influences the re-emission of Hg from FGD scrubbers. Other studies have demonstrated that ORP influences the speciation of Se in the scrubber ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

HYDROFLUORIC ACID SCRUBBER SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Each year over a million gallons of water are used to scrub hydrogen fluoride (HP) vapors from waste off-gas streams. Use of other potential scrubber solutions such as potassium hydroxide (KOH), aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN), and monobasic aluminum nitrate (monoban) would result in significant volume reductions. A laboratory study was initiated to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of these scrubber solutions to sorb HF, (2) determine if unexpected reactions occurred at flowsheet conditions, and (3) determine the consequences of deviation from flowsheet conditions. Caustic or aluminum scrubber solutions remove hydrogen fluoride from off-gas streams. Solids which appear with aluminum could be avoided by heating the scrubber solution.

PANESKO JV; MERRITT HD

2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

9

Spray type wet scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A spray type wet scrubber includes a plurality of spray nozzles installed in parallel banks across the path of gas stream within the scrubber body, and partition walls held upright in grating fashion to divide the path of gas stream into a plurality of passages, each of which accommodates one of the spray nozzles.

Atsukawa, M.; Tatani, A.

1978-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

10

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater Characterization and Management: 2007 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tightened air regulations on acid-gas-forming emissions are leading more electric utilities to install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, typically wet scrubbers. However, there are challenges associated with such decisions in terms of utility wastewater management. Volatile metals, such as selenium and mercury, are better captured in wet scrubber systems than in electrostatic precipitators and may be present at higher concentrations in utility wastewater systems. This report is designed to help pow...

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

Guidelines for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Water Sampling and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are being installed on coal-fired power plants in response to federal and state air pollution regulations limiting sulfur dioxide emissions. FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous waste stream that contains metals adsorbed from flue gas. At the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is reviewing, and may tighten, water discharge limits on trace metals. Collection of accurate data on the trace metal composition of FGD water discharges is therefore esse...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

12

Trace Metals Determination in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. While effective for this purpose, wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water has proven to be a very difficult matrix to analyze a...

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

13

Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project  

SciTech Connect

The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fluid Placement of Fixated Scrubber Sludge in Abandoned Deep Mines To Abate Surface Subsidence and Reduce Acid Mine Drainage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the field-scale demonstration of a novel use of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber by-product in mine reclamation at Indianapolis Power & Light Company's (IP&L) Petersburg Generating Station. The report addresses the use of a fixated FGD scrubber by-product to reduce surface subsidence of abandoned deep coal mines and to act as a control for acid mine drainage.

1997-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

15

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing volumes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum will become available for agricultural use as more utilities install forced oxidation scrubbers and the wallboard market for the resulting gypsum becomes saturated. This interim report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to develop a national research network to gain data and experience to support the beneficial uses of FGD products, especially FGD gypsum, in agriculture and other land applications.

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

16

Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

SciTech Connect

According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

Vivak Malhotra

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

Vivak M. Malhotra

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Stabilization of Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge for Application in Marine Environments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Flue Gas Desulfurization sludge (FGD, CaSO4·2H2O, CaSO3·1/2H2O) is a waste by-product produced when sorbent slurry is passed through wet scrubbers. FGD contains higher concentrations of… (more)

Kour, Tej

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

EPRI Environmental Control Technology Center: FGD Wet Scrubber Performance At High Flue Gas Velocities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the impact of operating a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber system at high flue gas velocities up to 20ft/sec (6.1 m/sec). It includes results for countercurrent spray, tray, and packing designs a variety of nozzle types. The report also describes the effect of adding dibasic acid and the impact of operation of state-of-the-art mist elimination systems. These results will be useful for planning compliance with SO2 emission regulations whether a new system is planned or addition...

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

20

Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke ... " Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke Beyond 1600'C" by Christopher A. Paul of Great Lakes ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

been expensive to simulate. Performance results were sufficiently promising to justify a commercial-scale test under the CCT program. A flowsheet of the Recovery Scrubber(tm) is...

22

Demonstration Test of Iron Addition to a Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Absorber to Enhance Mercury Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the findings from a full-scale demonstration test of the effects on trace elements of adding iron to a forced oxidation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Three specific effects were evaluated: lowering mercury emissions to the atmosphere; lowering the concentration of soluble or sub-micron-sized mercury particles in FGD purge water, which could improve removal of mercury in FGD purge water treatment; and lowering the concentration of selenate in FGD purge water, which could i...

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1985-2010 (Megawatts) Year Coal Petroleum and Natural Gas Total 1 Particulate Collectors Cooling Towers Flue Gas Desulfurization (Scrubbers) Total 2 Particulate Collectors Cooling...

24

Desulfurization mixture and process for desulfurizing pig iron  

SciTech Connect

Process and composition for desulfurizing pig iron in which the desulfurization agent consists essentially of calcium carbide, a gas-evolving component and fluorspar; the advantage of the process and composition is that it reduces dust pollution and danger of flaming in the handling of the slag after the desulfurization of pig iron.

Freissmuth, A.; Gmohling, W.; Rock, H.

1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with Collision/Reaction Cell Technology for Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastew aters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater is produced by pollution control equipment used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. Wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals that have been adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water is a very difficult matrix ...

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

27

Ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air pollution control equipment manufacturers are continually developing sophisticated systems designed to dramatically reduce plant emissions. One such system, the ionizing wet scrubber (IWS), has demonstrated outstanding air pollution control characteristics while meeting the challenge of energy efficiency. The IWS system removes fine solid and liquid particulate down to 0.05 micron at high collection efficiencies and low energy comsumption. It also simultaneously removes noxious, corrosive and odor-bearing gases from flue gas streams as well as coarse particulate matter above 1 micron in diameter. Due to its simplified design and low pressure drop, operating energy costs of the IWS are only a fraction of those for alternative air pollution control equipment. Pressure drop through a single-stage IWS is only 0.5 to 1.5 in. Water (125 to 374 pa) column and is controlled primarily by pressure drop through the wet scrubber section. Total system energy usage is approximately 2.0-2.5 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min (0.7-0.9 kw/m/sup 3//min) for a single-stage IWS and 4.0-5.0 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min for a two-stage installation. These energy requirements represent a significant savings as opposed to other air pollution control systems such as Venturi scrubbers.

Sheppard, S.V.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many of the operating flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems throughout the world, materials corrosion leads to considerable costs and downtime. Utilities are often required to maintain, repair, replace, and/or upgrade existing materials to combat corrosion issues. This document provides the results of a recent EPRI survey that examined the various types of corrosion and materials damage in FGD systems.

2005-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

29

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," " 1985-2010 (Megawatts)" "Year","Coal",,,,"Petroleum and Natural Gas",,,,"Total 1" ,,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2" ,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization" ,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)"

30

Coal desulfurization with sodium hypochlorite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wet desulfurization of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Illinois No. 6 coal were conducted with sodium hypochlorite in the laboratory. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was… (more)

Li, Wei, M.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

33

SUPPORTING CALCULATIONS FOR SUBMERGED BED SCRUBBER CONDENSATE DISPOSAL PRECONCEPTUAL STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Pre conceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

PAJUNEN AL; TEDESCHI AR

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

34

Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study  

SciTech Connect

This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

35

The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

36

Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Pilot-plant technical assessment of wet flue gas desulfurization using limestone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed on a countercurrent pilot-scale packed scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The flow rate of the treated flue gas was around 300 Nm{sup 3}/h, so the pilot-plant capacity is one of the largest with respect to other published studies on a pilot-plant wet FGD. The tests were carried out at an SO{sub 2} inlet concentration of 2000 ppm by changing the recycle slurry pH to around 4.8 and the L/G ratio to between 7.5 and 15. Three types of limestone were tested, obtaining desulfurization efficiencies from 59 to 99%. We show the importance of choosing an appropriate limestone in order to get a better performance from the FGD plant. Thus, it is important to know the reactivity (on a laboratory scale) and the sorbent utilization (on a pilot-plant scale) in order to identify if a limestone is reactive enough and to compare it with another type. In addition, by using the transfer-unit concept, a function has been obtained for the desulfurization efficiency, using the L/G ratio and the recycle slurry pH as independent variables. The Ca/S molar ratio is related to these and to the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. This function, together with a simplified function of the operation variable cost, allows us to determine the pair (L/G ratio and pH) to achieve the desired SO{sub 2} removal with the minimum operation cost. Finally, the variable operation costs between packed towers and spray scrubbers have been compared, using as a basis the pilot packed tower and the industrial spray column at the Compostilla Power Station's FGD plant (in Leon, Spain).

Ortiz, F.J.G.; Vidal, F.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Cortes, V.; Gimenez, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

Dismukes, E.B.

1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

39

Flue gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate derivatives of the entire IGTS8 BDS plasmid that will allow for its easy transfer and manipulation into a variety of hosts. To support this activity and to gain an understanding of additional genes that may potentially affect BDS activity, the nucleotide sequence of the entire complement of plasmids in IGTS8 is being determined. Lastly, we continue to develop genetic screens and selections for the discovery and improvement of the biodesulfurization genes and strains.

Scott Collins; David Nunn

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

42

Spray-dryer scrubbers for high-sulfur coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spray-dryer scrubbers for sulfur-dioxide removal from flue gases have been a developing technology for several years. Because spray-dryer scrubbers offer several potential advantages over wet scrubbing, they are attractive to the utility industry. Some of these advantages are: 1) a simpler waste-disposal problem, 2) higher energy efficiency, 3) lower water comsumption, 4) lower capital cost, 5) lower operating costs, 6) less exotic materials of construction, 7) simpler operation, and 8) ability to consume some plant waste water in the spray dryer. The paper provides a broad survey of the state of the art as it might be useful to electric utilitites using high-sulfur coal.

Henry, J.M.; Robards, R.F.; Wells, W.L.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

Optimization on Seawater Desulfurization Efficiency Based on LSSVM-GA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seawater flue gas Desulfurization (SFGD) was adopted in many coal-fired power plants of littoral for its low cost and high desulfurization efficiency. Operating Parameters would seriously affect SFGD efficiency, the desulfurization efficiency can be ... Keywords: SFGD, desulfurization efficiency, LSSVM, GA, optimization

Liu Ding-ping; Li Xiao-wei

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER  

SciTech Connect

Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was contracted by MET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the potential of a wet ESP for reducing SO{sub 3} emissions. The work consisted of pilot-scale tests using the EERC's slagging furnace system (SFS) to determine the effectiveness of a wet ESP to control SO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol emissions in conjunction with a dry ESP and MET's NH{sub 3}-based FGD. Because these compounds are in the form of fine particles, it is speculated that a relatively small, highly efficient wet ESP following the MET scrubber would remove these fine aerosol particles. The performance target for the wet ESP was a particulate mass collection efficiency of >90%; this level of performance would likely ensure a stack opacity of <10%.

Dennis L. Laudal

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control David Gabriel* and Marc A. Deshusses Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University required much larger reactor volumes than chemical scrubbers. We converted an existing full-scale chem

49

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has been conducted under the auspices of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with individual utilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, and universities. This report describes work conducted in northwestern New Mexico in 2008–2012 as part of that effort. Two separate ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.

Jung, Douglas; Wai, King

2000-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

Desulfurization with transition metal catalysts. Quarterly summary  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research is to develop desulfurizing transition metal catalysts, which are active in homogeneous media at moderate temperatures and pressures for the purification of coal-derived fuels and chemicals. To this end, the mechanism of action is being examined whereby newly identified nickel(0) complexes desulfurize organosulfur compounds in solution at 65 to 70/sup 0/C. The sulfur compounds under investigation are typical of those commonly encountered in coal-derived liquids and solids, such as thiophenes, sulfides and mercaptans. The following studies on the homogeneous, stoichiometric desulfurizing agent, bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene) nickel(0) ((COD)/sub 2/Ni), were continued: (a) activation of the agent by means of added mono-, bi-/sup 2/ and tri-dentate amines, either of the tertiary or primary amine type; (b) labeling studies designed to reveal the source of the hydrogen that replaces the sulfur in the desulfurization of dibenzothiophene; (c) comparison of the desulfurizing activity of (COD)/sub 2/Ni, both in the presence and in the absence of lithium aluminum hydride; and (d) testing for the role of any biphenylene intermediate in these desulfurizations. Results are reported.

Eisch, J J

1980-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

52

A BP neural network predictor model for desulfurizing molten iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desulfurization of molten iron is one of the stages of steel production process. A back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed to predict the operation parameters for desulfurization process in this paper. The primary objective ...

Zhijun Rong; Binbin Dan; Jiangang Yi

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

NONE

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

Method for desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

Kelland, D.R.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Plume Rise from Stacks with Scrubbers: A State-of-the-Art Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The state of the art of predicting plume rise from stacks with scrubbers is evaluated critically. The significant moisture content of the scrubbed plume upon exit leads to important thermodynamic effects during plume rise that are unaccounted for ...

Michael Schatzman; Anthony J. Policastro

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

Rambosek, John (Seattle, WA); Piddington, Chris S. (Seattle, WA); Kovacevich, Brian R. (Seattle, WA); Young, Kevin D. (Grand Forks, ND); Denome, Sylvia A. (Thompson, ND)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

58

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Effect of Water on Natural Gas Desulfurization by Adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... The Effect of Water on Natural Gas Desulfurization by Adsorption by Ambalavanan Jayaraman, Gokhan Alptekin, Margarita Dubovik, Robert ...

60

Development of a New Improved Dry Alumina Scrubber for Emission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This system uses a cooling tower, an in-duct initial adsorption process, and a fluidized bed and bag house for secondary and final adsorptive process, in order to ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a solid produced by wet FGD systems with forced air oxidation and is chemically similar to mined gypsum. These gypsums, used as beneficial agricultural amendments, were evaluated for their effects on earthworm populations and trace element concentrations in soils and earthworms at four field sites (Ohio, Indiana, Alabama, and Wisconsin). These sites are part of a network study on agricultural uses of FGD gypsum conducted at sites across the United States. ...

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

Flue Gas Desulfurization Equipment Issues Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As electric utilities enter a more competitive environment, every aspect of electric power generation is under scrutiny to determine where costs can be reduced. Because flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems represent significant capital, operating, and maintenance expenses for many coal-fired power plants, identification and implementation of cost reduction options are crucial. This report documents successful approaches for determining the cost-effectiveness of key FGD optimization strategies.

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover. 1 fig.

Bissett, L.A.; Strickland, L.D.

1990-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

64

Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

Fu, Yuan C. (Bethel Park, PA)

1977-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

66

Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improve NOx regeneration calibration developed in DECSE Phase I project to understand full potential of NOx adsorber catalyst over a range of operating temperatures. Develop and demonstrate a desulfurization process to restore NOx conversion efficiency lost to sulfur contamination. Investigate effect of desulfurization process on long-term performance of the NOx adsorber catalyst.

Tomazic, Dean

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

67

Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems are being advanced worldwide for generating electricity from coal due to their superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. Hot gas cleanup offers the potential for higher plant thermal efficiencies and lower cost. A key subsystem of hot-gas cleanup is hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable sorbents. Sorbents based on zinc oxide are currently the leading candidates and are being developed for moving- and fluidized- bed reactor applications. Zinc oxide sorbents can effectively reduce the H{sub 2}S in coal gas to around 10 ppm levels and can be regenerated for multicycle operation. However, all current first-generation leading sorbents undergo significant loss of reactivity with cycling, as much as 50% or greater loss in only 25-50 cycles. Stability of the hot-gas desulfurization sorbent over 100`s of cycles is essential for improved IGCC economics over conventional power plants. This project aims to develop hot-gas cleanup sorbents for relatively lower temperature applications, 343 to 538{degrees}C with emphasis on the temperature range from 400 to 500{degrees}. Recent economic evaluations have indicated that the thermal efficiency of IGCC systems increases rapidly with the temperature of hot-gas cleanup up to 350{degrees}C and then very slowly as the temperature is increased further. This suggests that the temperature severity of the hot-gas cleanup devices can be reduced without significant loss of thermal efficiency. The objective of this study is to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) to 538{degrees}C(1OOO{degrees}F) and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.; Turk, B.S.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer  

SciTech Connect

Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

Gasper-Galvin, Lee D. (Washington, PA); Atimtay, Aysel T. (Cankaya, TR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Hot gas desulfurization sorbent and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200{degrees} to about 1600{degrees}F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Atimtay, A.T.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

71

Hot gas desulfurization sorbent and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200[degrees] to about 1600[degrees]F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Atimtay, A.T.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

72

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Communications to the Editor Room-Temperature Desulfurization of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

difficult to remove in the hydroprocessing of crude oil.3 In homogeneous models, orga- nometallic nickel of polynuclear complexes in the desulfurization of various thiophenes,6 led us to prepare a dinuclear nickel

Jones, William D.

74

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this contract continues to be the demonstration of high fuel gas desulfurization of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization and particulate removal using a moving bed process with regenerable metal oxide sorbent. The fuel gas source for test operation is a fixed bed, air blown gasifier located at GE Corporate Research and Development in Schenectady, New York. The demonstration project also includes the design, construction, installation and test operation of a gas turbine simulator which includes a modified GE MS6000 type gas turbine combustor and a film cooled, first stage LM 6000 nozzle assembly. The hot gas cleanup (HGCU) system and the gas turbine simulator have been designed to operate with the full 8000 lb/hr fuel gas flow from the gasification of 1800 lb/hr of coal at 280 psig and 1000 to 1150 F. An advanced formulation of zinc ferrite as well as zinc titanate have been used as the regenerable metal oxide sorbents in testing to date. Demonstration of halogen removal as well as characterization of alkali and heavy metal concentrations in the fuel gas remain objectives, as well. Results are discussed.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this contract continues to be the demonstration of high fuel gas desulfurization of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization and particulate removal using a moving bed process with regenerable metal oxide sorbent. The fuel gas source for test operation is a fixed bed, air blown gasifier located at GE Corporate Research and Development in Schenectady, New York. The demonstration project also includes the design, construction, installation and test operation of a gas turbine simulator which includes a modified GE MS6000 type gas turbine combustor and a film cooled, first stage LM 6000 nozzle assembly. The hot gas cleanup (HGCU) system and the gas turbine simulator have been designed to operate with the full 8000 lb/hr fuel gas flow from the gasification of 1800 lb/hr of coal at 280 psig and 1000 to 1150 F. An advanced formulation of zinc ferrite as well as zinc titanate have been used as the regenerable metal oxide sorbents in testing to date. Demonstration of halogen removal as well as characterization of alkali and heavy metal concentrations in the fuel gas remain objectives, as well. Results are discussed.

Cook, C.S.; Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

High-sulfur Coal Desulfurization for Oxyfuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reclaim waste heat while delivering chilling Ammonia bottoming cycle with air-cooled condenser, could use a mixture organic working fluids to maximize conversion from waste heat...

77

CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with prospective refineries led to the conclusion that there were not likely prospects for the licensing of the CED process.

James Boltz

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia at -33 C, although the yield of biphenyl was only about 20 to 30%. On the other hand, benzothiophene gave a high yield of 2-ethylthiophenol under these conditions. Although our superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N, which is now commercially available, is a more effective desulfurizing agent for a variety of organophosphorus compounds than PPh{sub 3} or its acyclic analogue P(NMe){sub 3}, it does not desulfurize benzothiophene or dibenzothiophene.

John G. Verkade

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evaluation of the Impact of Limestone on Gypsum Crystal Habit in Wet FGD Scrubbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the results of a laboratory program focused on determining what key limestone components are responsible for impacting wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct gypsum properties. Tests were conducted using several commercial limestone samples for which documented full-scale limestone forced oxidation wet FGD operating experience exists. These include limestone samples known to produce FGD gypsum with both ‘good’ and ‘poor’ crystallization ...

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

82

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, alkaline Ca-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum samples were carbonated to a varying extent. These materials ... Keywords: FGD gypsum, carbonation, carbon dioxide

Hongqi Wang; Ningning Sun; Rona J. Donahoe

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Investigation of Flue Gas Desulfurization Chemical Process Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An understanding of flue gas desulfurization process chemistry is crucial in troubleshooting problems in operating FGD systems. This report discusses a variety of problems and solutions associated with process chemistry for 25 different wet FGD systems, including lime/limestone and double alkali processes. Among the problems addressed are SO2 removal, mist eliminator scaling, poor solids dewatering, and water management.

1990-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article introduces a predictive capability for mercury (Hg) retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given Hg speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections show that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO{sub 2} absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO{sub 2} capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O{sub 2} levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO{sub 2} capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl{sub 2}, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO{sub 3} levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg{sub 0} but only for inlet O{sub 2} levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara [Niksa Energy Associates, Belmont, CA (US)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Stochastic Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break-through point at 5.0 ppmw sulfur level is 0.35 mg-S/g-A. The spent A-5 can be regenerated by using H2 gas at a flowing rate of 40-50 ml/min, 500 C, and ambient pressure. Adsorption desulfurization of model diesel fuels over metal-sulfide-based adsorbents (A-6-1 and A-6-2) has been conducted at different temperatures to examine the capacity and selectivity of the adsorbents. A regeneration method for the spent metal-sulfide-based adsorbents has been developed. The spent A-6-1 can be easily regenerated by washing the spent adsorbent with a polar solvent followed by heating the adsorbent bed to remove the remainder solvent. Almost all adsorption capacity of the fresh A-6-1 can be recovered after the regeneration. On the other hand, a MCM-41-supported HDS catalyst was developed for deep desulfurization of the refractory sulfur compounds. The results show that the developed MCM-41-supported catalyst demonstrates consistently higher activity for the HDS of the refractory dibenzothiophenic sulfur compounds than the commercial catalyst. On the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel is confirmed and improved further.

Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Desulfurization of Fisher-Tropsch synthesis gas in coal-to-gasoline pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, a coal-to-gasoline pilot plant was installed and operated successfully in China, and a dry desulfurization process was used in this plant. This paper presents an overview of the dry desulfurization process. It includes design and operation of the process, and a description of ST801, T305 adsorbents and TGH COS hydrolysis catalyst. In addition, the desulfurization process used in a planned demonstration plant scheduled for completion in 1991 is presented.

Shishao, T.; Ju, S.; Shenzhao, L.; Maoqian, M.; Hanxian, G. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (CN))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

2009 Update on Mercury Capture by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update presents results of four research and development projects focused on understanding and enhancing mercury emissions control associated with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The first project was directed at characterizing partitioning of elemental and oxidized mercury species in solid, liquid, and gas phases within process streams involved in an operating commercial system. The second project explored dewatering options with an objective of producing low-mercury-conten...

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Evaluation of Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. The trace element selenium is found in coal and can become concentrated in the wastewater from the FGD process. Some chemical forms, or species, of selenium are more resistant to removal by water treatment processes than others; thus, understanding the speciation of selenium is important to designing effective wastewater treatment systems. In additi...

2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

93

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on three tasks associated with the EPRI project, Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems. The first task is an investigation of the factors that influence and control the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at which a limestone forced oxidation FGD system operates. Both a literature review and a numerical analysis of full-scale wet FGD data were conducted. Results from this task are presented and discussed in Section 2 of the ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

96

Table 11.7 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Cooling Towers Flue Gas Desulfurization (Scrubbers) Total 2 1985 302,056 120,591 56,955 304,706 36,054 28,895 65 62,371 338,110 149,486 57,020 367,078

97

Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Spray tower: the workhorse of flue-gas desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently developed spray tower system for use in a utility flue gas desulfurization system is simple, durable, and capable of achieving very high sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies, possibly approaching 100%. The principles behind the design and operation of the spray tower are discussed. The quality of water used for washing, tower size limitations, construction materials liquid distribution, gas-inlet design, gas distribution, mass transfer, and operating characteristics are examined. Procedures to maintain the reliability and high performance of the spray tower are described. (5 diagrams, 5 photos, 12 references, 1 table)

Saleem, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Identification of Unknown Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. In a wet FGD system, circulating water must be periodically blown down and treated to remove solids and dissolved chemicals. Along with SO2, other substances in flue gas may dissolve in water, including selenium (Se). In addition to the common selenium species selenite and selenate, past research has identified selenium-containing species that...

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Floor Sweeper-Scrubbers: Demonstration of Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries and High-Power Charging in Commercial Warehouse Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric walk-behind and riding floor scrubbers are in widespread and growing use in the commercial and industrial building sectors. This demonstration indicates that the weight, bulk, and battery capacity of existing equipment could be significantly reduced in equipment used for certain "spot-cleaning" and other limited use duty-cycles. Further, results show that for sealed lead-acid batteries, recharge rates on the same order as discharge rates are sufficient for extending peak daily run-time to 200 pe...

2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

104

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

105

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed wetland treatment system are repositories for As, Hg, and Se and the bioavailability of these elements decreased after deposition, the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system contributed significantly to mitigation of risks to aquatic life from these elements.

John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

Tilly, Jean

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample. SEM analysis of the SAS sample could not be performed due to the presence of a significant concentration of Hg in the sample. (7) Essentially all the Na and the S in the off-gas samples were soluble in water. (8) The main soluble anion was NO{sub 3}{sup -} with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} being second. (9) In contrast to the results for the off-gas deposits analyzed in 2003, soluble compounds of fluoride and chloride were detected; however, their concentrations in the Quencher and SAS deposits were less than one weight percent. (10) The results suggest that the S is primarily in the deposits as the sulfate anion.

Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

109

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents  

SciTech Connect

One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

Ayala, R.E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Indiana Kingman Research Station (Corn and Soybeans)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that is created when sulfur dioxide is removed from the exhaust gases during the combustion of coal for energy production. Research on FGDG has been conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with individual utilities, the U.S. EPA, the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural ...

2013-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

111

A Review of Manufacturing Uses for Gypsum Produced by Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gypsum is widely used as a source material to manufacture products for building construction applications8212primarily wallboard, cement, and concrete8212and has a number of other commercial applications. The mineral is mined throughout the world (natural gypsum) and also is produced as a result of various industrial processes (synthetic gypsum). The largest source of synthetic gypsum used for manufacturing applications is flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, the product of wet flue gas desulfurization...

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

41 41 LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment January 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov Disclaimer 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

113

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project A DOE Assessment August 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

114

The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2H{sub 2}S {yields} 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O; Regeneration: 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 3O{sub 2} {yields} Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2SO{sub 2} The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

Unknown

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

K.C. Kwon

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

K.C. Kwon

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Kinetics of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents for transport reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, to understand effects of space time of reaction gas mixtures on initial reaction kinetics of the sorbent-hydrogen sulfide system, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 sorbent and AHI-1 was examined. These sorbents were obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbents in the form of 70 {micro}m particles are reacted with 1,000--4,000 ppm hydrogen sulfide at 450--600 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.03--0.09 s. The range of reaction duration is 4--14,400 s.

K.C. Kwon

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. In this report, the reactivity of AHI-5 was examined. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 70 {micro}m particles are reacted with 9000-18000 ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-500 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.071-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-10800 s.

K.C. Kwon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

Lizama, Hector M. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas desulfurization Sorbents.  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343 {degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a one-half inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel- gases. Screening criteria will include chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

1997-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

126

METC fluid-bed hot-gas desulfurization PDU  

SciTech Connect

METC is constructing an on-site, hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process development unit (PDU) to support the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power systems program. With industrial participation, this PDU will be used for the further development of fluid-bed and transport reactor HGD configurations. The fluid-bed absorber and regenerator in the PDU were designed to operate in a turbulent as well as a bubbling regime. In addition, when encouraging results from a small-scale transport reactor unit became known, the decision was made to incorporate transport reactor provisions on both the sulfidation and regeneration sides of the PDU. With completion of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, the preliminary process and equipment design, and the April groundbreaking to prepare the project site, the project is now proceeding at a faster, more visible pace. Equipment installation should be completed in about 2 years. This report describes the project.

Bissett, L.A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

128

SCALE-UP OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop advanced regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective was to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high sulfidation activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). Twenty sorbents were synthesized in this work. Details of the preparation technique and the formulations are proprietary, pending a patent application, thus no details regarding the technique are divulged in this report. Sulfidations were conducted with a simulated gas containing (vol %) 10 H{sub 2}, 15 CO, 5 CO{sub 2}, 0.4-1 H{sub 2}S, 15 H{sub 2}O, and balance N{sub 2} in the temperature range of 343-538 C. Regenerations were conducted at temperatures in the range of 400-600 C with air-N{sub 2} mixtures. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives were investigated that promote regeneration at lower temperatures. Characterization were performed for fresh, sulfided and regenerated sorbents.

K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; S.K. GANGWAL

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1. INTRODUCTIONsolutions for cooling. Substituting cooling towers,hybrid cooling towers, or dry coolers that provide warmer

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

REACTOR COOLING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

Quackenbush, C.F.

1959-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

133

Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH  

SciTech Connect

Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

Grindley, T.

1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

136

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 20 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually, and the quantity is expected to increase as utilities institute further controls to comply with Clean Air Act requirements. This report presents the results of the second phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications of these by-products.

1998-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

137

Reactivity of target compounds for chemical coal desulfurization. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to identify representative organosulfur compounds which are removed by known coal desulfurization reactions. Demineralized coals are solvent extracted and the extracts fractionated to concentrate organosulfur compounds for analysis by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. After sulfur compounds are characterized, the parent extracts are subjected to reactions previously shown to reduce the organic sulfur content of Illinois coals, fractionated and again analyzed for organosulfur content to determine if the identified compounds reacted during the chemical treatment. The original coal also will be subjected to chemical desulfurization, extraction, fractionation and analysis in order to correlate changes in organic sulfur content of the coal with reactions of specific sulfur compounds. These compounds can thus be reliably considered as target molecules for the next generation of desulfurization processes. Work during this quarter has shown that fractionation and chromatography of pyridine extracts to isolate suitable samples for GC/MS analysis, although time-consuming, appears to be better than direct toluene extraction in terms of providing a representative set of compounds for analysis. The toluene soluble fractions prepared by this route contain aromatic sulfur compounds and O, N, S-containing hetrocycles. A set of these compounds has been identified and their fate following desulfurization of the parent coal extracts is under investigation. Previously studied desulfurization reactions using the single electron transfer reagent, K/THF/naphthalene, and the reactive nickel boride reagent have been repeated and analyzed by GC/MS. SET and nickel boride reactions of the THF soluble portions of pyridine coal are currently in progress.

Buchanan, D.H.; Amin, M.; Cunningham, R.; Galyen, J.; Ho, K.K.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH){sub 2} content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH){sub 2} particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Contractors'been supported by the Solar Heating and Cooling Research andof Energy. 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

Jothimurugesan, K.

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Energy Basics: Evaporative Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

absorbent material. Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative...

142

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification  

SciTech Connect

This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling. From NIST Tech Beat: September 13, 2007. ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

144

Proceedings: Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Papers presented at EPRI's 1994 Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. Specific topics include cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid cooling systems.

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

145

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori [Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

OCCUPATIONAL COOLING TOWERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY COOLING TOWERS EMPLOYEE HEALTH B C D F E CHILDREN'S ELEVATORS MEDICAL SCHOOL

Crews, Stephen

147

Hybrid Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water consumption by power plants has become an increasingly contentious siting issue. In nearly all fossil-fired and nuclear plants, water for plant cooling is by far the greatest water requirement. Therefore, the use of water-conserving cooling systems such as dry or hybrid cooling is receiving increasing attention. This technology overview from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provides a brief introduction to hybrid cooling systems. As defined in the report, the term "hybrid cooling" refer...

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

148

Cooling Plant Optimization Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central cooling plants or district cooling systems account for 22 percent of energy costs for cooling commercial buildings. Improving the efficiency of central cooling plants will significantly impact peak demand and energy usage for both building owners and utilities. This guide identifies opportunities for optimizing a central cooling plant and provides a simplified optimization procedure. The guide focuses on plant optimization from the standpoint of minimizing energy costs and maximizing efficiencies...

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

149

Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products  

SciTech Connect

Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, OH (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Thermal Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment Processes for Zero Liquid Discharge Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a worldwide inventory of power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) blowdown treatment systems using thermal technologies to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) water management. The number of thermal treatment systems presently operating is very few, with the majority using chemical pretreatment followed by evaporation in a brine concentrator and crystallizer and finally dewatering of the residual salts. Of the operating thermal ZLD systems identified, six are located in Italy and o...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: North Dakota Sites 1 and 2 (Wheat)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum at two sites in North Dakota. This work was part of a national research network evaluating beneficial uses of FGD gypsum in agriculture. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of FGD gypsum applications on soil quality and on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields and seed quality. Three application rates of FGD gypsum were compared with s...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

152

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 3 Topical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers conducted field tests to evaluate the ability of a variety of materials to oxidize vapor-phase elemental mercury at a coal-fired power plant equipped with a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results, while confounded by measurement difficulties, showed that under bituminous coal flue gas conditions, two catalysts, Pd #1 and Carbon #6, continued to oxidize at least 85 percent of the inlet elemental mercury after three months.

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

154

Performance Evaluation of a Radial Deionization System for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s proposed effluent limitation guidelines for steam electric power generating units could affect not only how power plants use water but also how they discharge it. The revised guidelines propose discharge limits for selenium, mercury, arsenic, and nitrite/nitrate in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Final rule approval is expected by the middle of 2014. Additional regulation of these contaminants and other constituents may occur through ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Review of Agricultural and Other Land Application Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, especially FGD gypsum, is expected to increase substantially over the next ten to twenty years in response to clean air initiatives. There are a large number of agricultural and other land application uses of FGD products that have received previous research and development attention, but only in specific locations of the United States and under limited conditions of crops, climate and soil types. This report discusses current and potential futur...

2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

Evaluation of the NeuStream-S™ Flue Gas Desulfurization Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Harris Group Inc. (HGI) of Denver, Colorado, was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to monitor, evaluate, and prepare this report on a dual-alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process developed by Neumann Systems Group, Inc. (NSG). The process is being demonstrated in a nominal 20-MW demonstration plant, treating a slip stream of flue gas from the Colorado Springs Utilities 142-MW Drake Unit 7. HGI evaluated performance, operability, and readiness for scale-up of the process. Co...

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually in the United States -- a quantity that is expected to increase as utilities apply new controls to comply with Clean Air Act Amendments. This report presents results of the third and final phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications for these by-products.

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

158

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New sulfur dioxide removal technologies produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products that contain sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. The scarcity of landfill disposal sites for such flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has led to a long-term study on possible large-volume beneficial applications. To date, FGD by-products have been successfully used in agriculture, construction, and strip mine reclamation.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

159

Integrating desulfurization with CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical-looping combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC which maintain high reactivity and high-temperature stability even when sulfur contaminated fuels are used in CLC. Here, we propose a novel process scheme for in situ desulfurization of syngas with simultaneous CO{sub 2}-capture in chemical looping combustion by using these robust nanocomposite oxygen carriers simultaneously as sulfur-capture materials. We found that a nanocomposite Cu-BHA carrier can indeed strongly reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration in the fuel reactor effluent. However, during the process the support matrix is also sulfidized and takes part in the redox process of CLC. This results in SO{sub 2} production during the reduction of the oxygen carrier and thus limits the degree of desulfurization attainable with this kind of carrier. Nevertheless, the results suggest that simultaneous desulfurization and CO{sub 2} capture in CLC is feasible with Cu as oxygen carrier as long as appropriate carrier support materials are chosen, and could result in a novel, strongly intensified process for low-emission, high efficiency combustion of sulfur contaminated fuel streams.

Solunke, Rahul; Veser, Goetz

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Development of Advanced Environmental Control Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mercury, on the other hand, is more readily captured because it is soluble in the liquids typically present in flue gas desulfurization scrubbers. Successful ionization of...

162

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

163

Cooling System Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...size Flow restrictions Heat exchanger size and design All of these factors must be considered. Every component in the cooling

164

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these...

165

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

168

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substantial numbers of existing plants and buildings are found to depend solely upon Mechanical Cooling even though Natural Cooling techniques could be employed utilizing ambient air. Most of these facilities were constructed without Natural Cooling capability due to 'first cost' budget constraints when the cost and availability of energy were of little concern.

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

SOLERAS solar cooling project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In view of the increasing demand for cooling in both the United States and Saudi Arabia, solar cooling systems are being considered as serious alternatives to the energy intensive conventional systems, especially when confronted with rising fossil fuel costs. Saudi Arabia and the hot, southern regions of the United States, having abundant sunshine and high cooling demand, are obvious candidates for solar active cooling systems and passive cooling design. Solar active cooling has yet to be shown to be either technologically mature or economically feasible, but efforts have been, and are presently being made within the United States National Solar Cooling Program to develop reliable systems which can compete economically with conventional cooling systems. Currently, the program is funding research and development projects in the areas of absorption, Rankine, dessicant, and advanced technologies. Saudi Arabia has a long and successful tradition of building cooling using passive architectural designs. Combining these past achievements with a program of research and development in both active and passive solar cooling should permit an early economical introduction of entirely solar cooled buildings to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States.

Corcoleotes, G.; Williamson, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

172

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

173

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

174

The Fate of Mercury Absorbed in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are known to remove a percentage of the mercury in coal flue gases. This raises several questions about the fate of mercury removed by wet FGD systems: Does the absorbed mercury stay in the FGD liquor or does it leave with the byproduct solids? What happens to mercury in the FGD liquor and solid byproducts when they leave the FGD system? To address such questions, this report describes results from an EPRI project that involves field sample collection and labora...

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

175

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur removal will be mandatory for all power generation coal gas applications in order to comply with future environmental standards. Two promising technologies that are currently being optimized for coal-based power generation are the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and the gasifier/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems. Zinc ferrite is currently the leading candidate to serve as a sulfur removal agent in the IGCC systems. GE has developed a patented moving-bed coal gas desulfurization system that has been shown to achieve a reduction in complexity and cost in a simplified IGCC system relative to conventional IGCC configurations (Cook et al, 1988).

Ayala, R.E. (GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (USA)); Gal, E. (GE Environmental Systems, Lebanon, PA (USA)); Gangwal, S.K. (Research Triangle Institute, NC (USA)); Jain, S. (Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: Wisconsin Arlington Research Station Fields 295 and 27 (Alfalfa)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes field research in Wisconsin as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) Agricultural Network. The objective of this study, conducted during 2009-2010, was to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of FGDG as a soil amendment to improve alfalfa production. FGDG was compared to a commercially available gypsum product (C-GYP) widely sold in the U.S. Midwest and other areas. A study was established in two fields (Field 295 in 2009/2010 and Field 27 in 2010) at ...

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

177

Enhanced Control of Mercury by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems - Site 2 Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installation...

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

178

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network: North Dakota Sites 3, 4, and 5 (Canola)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a very pure form of gypsum that is a by-product from the combustion of coal for energy production. This report describes 2008-2009 work to evaluate potential beneficial agricultural uses of FGDG at three sites near Langdon, North Dakota. This work was part of a national research network evaluating beneficial uses of FGDG in agriculture, in this case, fertilization of dryland canola by FGDG. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine the influence of FGD...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

179

Gas turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF RIVER PROTECTION SUBMERGED BED SCRUBBER CONDENSATE DISPOSITION PROJECT - ABSTRACT # 13460  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

YANOCHO RM; CORCORAN C

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Energy Basics: Absorption Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption...

182

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

185

Process Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling-tower and its effect on plant operating efficiency and production. This paper will describe the value of working with a cooling tower specialist to establish the physical and thermal potential of an existing cooling tower. It also demonstrates that a repair and thermal upgrade project to improve efficiency will have a better than average return on investment.

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

Steinfeld, G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

John J. Kilbane II

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Development of a hot-gas desulfurization system for IGCC applications  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are being advanced worldwide to produce electricity from coal because of their superior environmental performance, economics, and efficiency in comparison to conventional coal-based power plants. One key component of an advanced IGCC power plant is a hot-gas desulfurization system employing regenerable sorbents. To carry out hot-gas desulfurization in a fluidized-bed reactor, it is necessary that the sorbents have high attrition resistance, while still maintaining high chemical reactivity and sulfur absorption capacity. Also, efficient processes are needed for the treatment of SO{sub 2}-containing regeneration off-gas to produce environmentally benign waste or useful byproducts. A series of durable zinc titanate sorbents were formulated and tested in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor system. Reactive sorbents were developed with addition resistance comparable to fluid-bed cracking (FCC) catalysts used in petroleum refineries. In addition, progress continues on the development of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for converting SO{sub 2} in the regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Plans are under way to test these bench-scale systems at gasifier sites with coal gas. This paper describes the status and future plans for the demonstration of these technologies.

Gupta, R.; McMichael, W.J.; Gangwal, S.K. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Jain, S.C.; Dorchak, T.P. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Catalytic seawater flue gas desulfurization process: an experimental pilot plant study  

SciTech Connect

In previous articles by the authors on seawater S(IV) oxidation kinetics, a significant catalytic effect was demonstrated by means of a commercially available activated carbon. The aims of this study carried out at pilot plant scale were to assess the use of high-efficiency structured packing and to validate the positive results obtained previously in laboratory studies. A comparison between a packed tower and a spray column was made by maintaining the same desulfurization efficiency. A 47% reduction in seawater flow can be obtained with a packed tower. This option seems to be more economical, with a reduction in operation costs of least of 33%. With the appropriate activated carbon, it is possible to reach a greater oxidation rate at a low pH level than by operating conventionally at a high pH level without a catalyst. A preliminary technical and financial comparison between the advanced seawater desulfurization process (equipped with a packed tower and a catalytic oxidation plant) and the conventional process (spray tower and noncatalytic oxidation) was carried out. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

F. Vidal B.; P. Ollero; F.J. Gutierrez Ortiz; A. Villanueva [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-90PC90309, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has been directed to further develop an anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept that has been developed and tested on a limited scope for feasibility. From environmental as well as the economic viewpoints, it is necessary that the soluble sulfates of alkali metal sorbents be desulfurized (regenerated) and recycled to make regenerative flue gas desulfurization and MHD spent seed regeneration options more attractive. In order to achieve this, a low-temperature, low-cost desulfurization process to reactivate spent alkali metal sorbents is necessary. UTSI`s anion-exchange, resin-based concept uses the available technology and is believed to satisfy this requirement. In this DOE-sponsored project, UTSI, will perform the following investigations: Screening of commercially available resins; process variables study and improving resin performance; optimization of resin-regeneration step; evaluation of performance enhancers; development of Best-Process Schematic and related economics, and planning for proof-of-concept (POC) scale testing. The above activities have been grouped into five major tasks and the entire project is expected to take thirty-six months to complete.

Sheth, A.C.; Dharmapurikar, R.; Strevel, S.D.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Cool Storage Technology Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is a fact that avoiding load growth is cheaper than constructing new power plants. Cool storage technologies offer one method for strategically stemming the impact of future peak demand growth. This guide provides a comprehensive resource for understanding and evaluating cool storage technologies.

2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

195

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Twenty-one papers presented at a 2003 conference in Charleston, South Carolina discussed industrial experience and provided case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

197

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

198

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

200

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

202

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

207

Predict particle collection in spray towers  

SciTech Connect

Spray tower wet scrubbers are used for control of particulates (as well as gaseous pollutants). The author has found that in cocurrent spray scrubbers, the most important parameter in determining particle collection efficiency is inlet dust particle size, followed by (in decreasing order of importance) gas velocity, collector droplet size, liquid-to-gas ratio, and length of scrubber. In countercurrent scrubbers, the most important parameters are collector droplet size, liquid-to-gas ratio, length of scrubber, and gas velocity. Note that some of these factors are directly related to collection, and some are related indirectly. This article provides equations, based on theoretical considerations and empirical data, for predicting particle collection efficiencies. The parameter ranges covered are typical of those encountered in the practical operation of conventional spray towers that use a ``cool`` (or cooled) inlet gas stream, so the equations are applicable to many industrial spray tower systems. The results are limited based on the ranges of the parameters evaluated, and while it may be possible to extrapolate beyond that, this has not been verified. (The initial model was for a flue-gas desulfurization system at a large power station that requires both particulate removal and SO{sub 2} absorption.)

Hesketh, H.E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Advanced gasifier-desulfurizer process development for SNG (substitute natural gas) application. Final report, August 1987-December 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

KRW conducted investigations of calcium-promoted coal pyrolysis and gasification by means of bench-scale studies and an oxygen-blown PDU test. Results were used in a design study of a commercial KRW gasifier-desulfurizer, operating on Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and limestone for production of SNG. Bench-scale fluid-bed reactor studies were conducted with various fluidizing gases at temperatures and pressures of 1650 to 1950 F and 40 to 450 psig, with and without limestone, to give methane-yield and tar-yield data. The gasification kinetics studies of chars produced gave data which showed that limestone increases char reactivity and exerts a catalytic effect. Methane yields correlated exponentially to pressure. The bench-scale test results lead to an expectation that feeding some of the coal to the upper portion of the gasifier will increase methane yield and decrease oxygen consumption. In two PDU test-set points, expected operability and performance of the oxygen-blown gasifier-desulfurizer were confirmed. In Set Point 2, in-bed desulfurization efficiency was 88% and the product-gas higher heating value was 302 Btu/scf. The test results provided inputs to the design study of a KRW gasifier-desulfurizer island for production of 125 MM Btu/day of SNG. Results included a 4 to 6% improvement in feedstock inputs when compared to an earlier GRI-sponsored study. Methane yield decreased but the number of operating gasifier-desulfurizers remained at five. Equipment costs are expected to remain well within the previous + or - 25% cost estimate.

Blinn, M.B.; Cover, A.E.; Haldipur, G.B.; Datta, S.C.; Holmgren, J.D.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

210

Overview: Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

than earlier models. Dehumidifying heat pipes can help an air conditioner remove humidity and more efficiently cool the air. Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling cools a floor or...

211

LBNL's Novel Approach to Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems department, chilled water, cooling water tower, double exchanger cooling, dual heat exchanger, high tech and industrial systems group, inrow, lawrence berkeley national...

212

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

213

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin and Paul Berdahl SeptemberNTIS. 3. P. Berdahl and M. Martin, "The Resource for Radia-1978) p. 684. 4. M. Martin and P. Berdahl, "Description of a

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

216

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

217

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

218

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

219

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

222

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

WATER COOLED RETORT COVER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air purification system, called Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). Abatement of these waste products is a growing concern, not only for the industry, but the environment as well. It is possible to produce a gypsum brick unit that can meet the engineering properties required by the Americans Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standards by using these by-products. This can be accomplished at a cost less than the least expensive common fired clay brick that is used in construction operations. The gypsum brick can be manufactured using established methods that are currently in operation.

Berryman, Charles Wayne

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds, especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate. 2 figs.

Grindley, T.

1986-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Dept. of Chemical & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Rockey, John M. (Westover, WV)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

INTRODUCTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hot Exhaust Cooled Exhaust Water Recovery Oxygen Reformate Stream Steam Reformer SOFC Condenser CATHODE ANODE CO2 Scrubber Heat to Reformer Cathode Cooler Scrubber Cooler Oxygen...

233

Gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing.

Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units are large structures, Illustration 1. Big budget money and engineering time goes into gleaming stainless steel equipment and exotic process apparatus, the poor cooling tower is the ignored orphan of the system. Knowledgeable Engineers, however, are now looking into the function of the cooling tower, which is to produce colder water- and question the quality of water discharged from that simple appearing box. These cross-flow structures are quite large, ranging up to 60 feet tall with as many as 6 or more cells in a row. With cells up to 42 feet long so immense in aspect, with fans rotating, operators assume, just by appearances, that all is well, and usually pay no attention to the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower. The boxes look sturdy, but the function of the cooling tower is repeated ignored production of water as cold as possible.

Burger, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

236

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

237

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

238

Evaluation of the Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon and the Treatability of Mercury in Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulations for reducing the dissolved mercury (Hg) concentrations in wastewater discharged by electric generating power plants are becoming more stringent via federal regulatory limits proposed by the EPA and regulatory limits set by select states. Data obtained in a previous EPRI study conducted in 2009 suggested a potential negative impact of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iodide concentrations present in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater on mercury treatability (EPRI report 1019867). ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

239

Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, September 1987--January 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Corrosion in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems: Technical Root Cause Analysis of Internal Corrosion on Wet FGD Alloy Absorbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been or are being installed on most large coal-fired electric generating units in response to new regulatory emission requirements. Aggressive corrosion has been noted in some of these systems, presumably from the low pH, high chloride environments created in the FGD process. There exists a plethora of material systems (metallic, organic, plastics, coating, and so forth) available to construct these systems, but, because of cost, fabricabi...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

242

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

244

A pilot-scale Process Development Unit for transport and fluid-bed hot-gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has designed and is currently constructing an on-site, hot gas desulfurization (HGD) Process Development Unit (PDU). The PDU is designed to use regenerable solid metal oxide sorbents that absorb hydrogen sulfide from high-temperature, high-pressure simulated coal-gasification fuel gas that is generated by a METC designed syngas generator. The simulated coal gas is a mixture of partially combusted natural gas, water, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. PDU process conditions will be representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling. The PDU supports the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) mission at METC by providing a test bed for development of IGCC cleanup systems that offer low capital cost, operating costs, and costs of electricity. METC intends to develop additional industrial involvement opportunities as the project progresses towards operations. The primary objectives of the PDU are to (1) fill the gap between small-scale testing and large-scale demonstration projects by providing a cost effective test site for transport and fluid-bed desulfurization reactor and sorbent development, (2) demonstrate sorbent suitability over a wide range of parameters, and (3) generate significant information on process control for transport and fluidized bed based desulfurization. PDU data is expected to be used to optimize process performance by expanding the experience for larger scale demonstration projects such as Sierra Pacific Power Company`s Clean Coal Technology project.

McMillian, M.H.; Bissett, L.A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling (TABS) with a cooling tower providing chilled waterevaporative cooling (cooling tower) for radiant ceiling slabradiant cooling with a cooling tower providing chilled water

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

247

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Five solar cooling projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The jointly funded $100 million five-year international agreement (SOLERAS) between Saudi Arabia and the United States was undertaken to promote the development of solar energy technologies of interest to both nations. Five engineering field tests of active solar cooling systems funded under the SOLERAS agreement for installation and operation in the U.S. southwest are described.

Davis, R.E.; Williamson, J.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!

Smith, M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary ...

Peter Tikuisis; Randall J. Osczevski

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Recycle/reuse of boiler chemical cleaning wastes in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler chemical cleaning wastes (BCCW) are generated by the periodic waterside cleaning of utility boilers to remove metallic deposits from boiler tube surfaces. Depending on boiler metallurgy, BCCW generally contain high concentrations of iron and copper or both, as well as other heavy metals such as chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc. BCCW treatment and disposal methods include precipitation, coponding in an ash pond, evaporation in the fireside of an operating boiler (for organic solvents), and contracted off-site disposal. Depending on the type of BCCW chemical treatment methods achieve varying degrees of success. BCCW which contain organic chelating agents can be especially difficult to treat to national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) limits (1 mg/L for both iron and copper) with conventional lime precipitation.Research is being done to evaluate different BCCW treatment and disposal methods. One waste management option under consideration is reuse of BCCW in utility wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. To investigate this option, a series of laboratory tests were performed in which five different types of BCCW were added to the reaction tank of EPRI's bench-scale wet limestone FGD system. This paper presents the results and conclusions from this study.

Stohs, M.; Owens, D.R. (Radian Corp. (US)); Micheletti, W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 13, October 1993--December 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Dec 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.{close_quotes} The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the thirteenth Technical Progress Report covering the period October 1, 1993 through the end of December 1993. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in Aug 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING SYSTEM AS A TOTAL ... and evaluation studies on active and passive fire protection ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

255

AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

1958-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

256

Temperature and cooling management in computing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

72 5.1.2 Memory thermal and cooling model . . . . . . . . 75Energy, Thermal and Cooling Management . . . . . . . .Conclusion . . Chapter 4 Thermal and Cooling Management in

Ayoub, Raid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling (direct or indirect), or various liquid cooled solutions. In addition to weather data, the Green Grid organization has developed a free cooling map tool to aid in...

258

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Cooling your home naturally  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

SCINTILLATION DETECTOR COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A well logging apparatus for irradiating earth formations with neutrons and recording the gamma rays emitted therefrom is designed which hss a scintillation decay time of less than 3 x 10/sup -8/ sec and hence may be used with more intense neutron sources. The scintillation crystal is an unactivated NaI crystal maintained at liquid N/sub 2/ temperature. The apparatus with the cooling system is described in detail. (D.L.C.)

George, W.D.; Jones, S.B.; Yule, H.P.

1962-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art chemistry programs help to ensure the continued operation of open cooling water systems while mitigating corrosion and fouling mechanisms. This document, Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline, prepared by a committee of industry experts, reflects field and laboratory data on corrosion and fouling issues of open cooling systems.BackgroundService Water System Chemical Addition Guideline (Electric Power Research Institute ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

262

Proceedings: Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affect availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Twenty-two papers presented at the 1997 Cooling Tower Technology Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

263

Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware  

SciTech Connect

Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled, top entry loop nuclear fission reactors. It comprises: a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant; a passive cooling system; and a secondary passive cooling system.

Boardman, C.E.; Hunsbedt, A.; Hui, M.M.

1992-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

265

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixtures derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, J.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with four cooling fans of different designs available on thedesign, installation, and use, the performance of cooling fans

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Advanced Cooling Options for Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative power plant cooling systems exist that offer significant opportunity for reducing the amount of water used in power plant cooling. These systems include direct dry cooling using air-cooled condensers, indirect dry cooling using air-cooled heat exchangers paired with water-cooled surface condensers, and a variety of hybrid systems incorporating both dry and wet cooling elements. The water savings afforded by the use of these systems, however, comes at a price in the form of more expensive ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cooling thermal storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article gives some overall guidelines for successful operation of cooling thermal storage installations. Electric utilities use rates and other incentives to encourage thermal storage, which not only reduces their system peaks but also transfers a portion of their load from expensive daytime inefficient peaking plants to less expensive nighttime base load high efficiency coal and nuclear plants. There are hundreds of thermal storage installations around the country. Some of these are very successful; others have failed to achieve all of their predicted benefits because application considerations were not properly addressed.

Gatley, D.P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Superconducting magnet cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

Vander Arend, Peter C. (Center Valley, PA); Fowler, William B. (St. Charles, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Cooling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

Mayes, James C. (Sugar Land, TX)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

273

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

A NOVEL VAPOR-PHASE PROCESS FOR DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF NAPHTHA/DIESEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tier 2 regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a substantial reduction in the sulfur content of gasoline. Similar regulations have been enacted for the sulfur level in on-road diesel and recently off-road diesel. The removal of this sulfur with existing and installed technology faces technical and economic challenges. These challenges created the opportunity for new emerging technologies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with subcontract support from Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., (KBR) used this opportunity to develop RTI's transport reactor naphtha desulfurization (TReND) process. Starting with a simple conceptual process design and some laboratory results that showed promise, RTI initiated an accelerated research program for sorbent development, process development, and marketing and commercialization. Sorbent development has resulted in the identification of an active and attrition resistant sorbent that has been prepared in commercial equipment in 100 lb batches. Process development has demonstrated both the sulfur removal performance and regeneration potential of this sorbent. Process development has scaled up testing from small laboratory to pilot plant transport reactor testing. Testing in the transport reactor pilot plant has demonstrated the attrition resistance, selective sulfur removal activity, and regeneration activity of this sorbent material. Marketing and commercialization activities have shown with the existing information that the process has significant capital and operating cost benefits over existing and other emerging technologies. The market assessment and analysis provided valuable feedback about the testing and performance requirements for the technical development program. This market analysis also provided a list of potential candidates for hosting a demonstration unit. Although the narrow window of opportunity generated by the new sulfur regulations and the conservative nature of the refining industry slowed progress of the demonstration unit, negotiations with potential partners are proceeding for commercialization of this process.

B.S. Turk; R.P. Gupta; S.K. Gangwal

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 12, July--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.{close_quotes} The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The three project phases are: (1) Design; (2A) Long Lead Procurement; (2B) Construction; and (3) Operations. The design phase began on August 8, 1990 and was scheduled to last six months. Phase 2A, long lead procurement, overlaps the design phase and was expected to require about four months to complete. The construction phase was then to continue for another seven months, while the operations phase was scheduled to last about twenty-six months. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the twelfth Technical Progress Report covering the period July 1, 1993 through the end of September 1993. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Fifth Quarterly Report documents progress in pellet testing via thermogravimetric analysis of pellet formulation FORM4-A of a manganese ore/alumina combination. This formulation, described more fully in the Quarterly Technical Progress Report of October 15, 1993, consists of manganese carbonate combined with alundum. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration; however, a minor problem has arisen during the regeneration cycle in that sulfur tends to form and plug the exit tube during the early stage of regeneration. This problem is about to be overcome by increasing the flow rate of air during the regeneration cycle resulting in more oxidizing conditions and hence less tendency for sulfide sulfur (S{sup =}) to oxidize to the intermediate elemental form (S{sup o}) rather than to 4-valent (S{sup +4}).

Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Spray Cooling Enhancement of Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dry cooling of power plants may be an attractive alternative to wet cooling, particularly where water conservation and environmental protection pose critical siting issues. However, dry cooling technology may be unable to maintain design plant output during the hottest periods of the year, which are often periods of peak system demand. This study—cosponsored by EPRI, the California Energy Commission, and Crockett Cogeneration Co.—evaluated the use of a low-pressure spray enhancement system to...

2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

279

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a passive cooling system. It is for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors having a pool of liquid metal coolant with the heat generating fissionable fuel core substantially immersed in the pool of liquid metal coolant. The passive cooling system including a combination of spaced apart side-by-side partitions in generally concentric arrangement and providing for intermediate fluid circulation and heat transfer therebetween.

Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

280

Emergency core cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

SIMULATING THE COOLING FLOW OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We carry out high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of a cool core cluster, resolving the flow from Mpc scales down to pc scales. We do not (yet) include any active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating, focusing instead on cooling in order to understand how gas reaches the supermassive black hole at the center of the cluster. We find that, as the gas cools, the cluster develops a very flat temperature profile, undergoing a cooling catastrophe only in the central 10-100 pc of the cluster. Outside of this region, the flow is smooth, with no local cooling instabilities, and naturally produces very little low-temperature gas (below a few keV), in agreement with observations. The gas cooling in the center of the cluster rapidly forms a thin accretion disk. The amount of cold gas produced at the very center grows rapidly until a reasonable estimate of the resulting AGN heating rate (assuming even a moderate accretion efficiency) would overwhelm cooling. We argue that this naturally produces a thermostat which links the cooling of gas out to 100 kpc with the cold gas accretion in the central 100 pc, potentially closing the loop between cooling and heating. Isotropic heat conduction does not affect the result significantly, but we show that including the potential well of the brightest cluster galaxy is necessary to obtain the correct result. Also, we found that the outcome is sensitive to resolution, requiring very high mass resolution to correctly reproduce the small transition radius.

Li Yuan; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Pupin Physics Laboratories, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Beam cooling: Principles and achievements  

SciTech Connect

After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

2003-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

285

Variable area fuel cell cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Muon Cooling R&D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International efforts are under way to design and test a muon ionization cooling channel. The present R&D program is described, and future plans outlined.

Steve Geer

2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published 112011 Conference Location Seattle, WA Call Number LBNL-5128E Abstract Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and...

288

Influence of Cooling on Distortion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 11   Factors that influence the cooling intensity of liquid quenchants...the vapor pressure is, the more difficult the

289

Laser Cooling of Trapped Ions.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... period, so it can be assumed to give an in- stantaneous impulse to the ... In sympathetic laser cooling, two different ion species are loaded into a trap. ...

2002-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Theory of Semiconductor Laser Cooling .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order… (more)

Rupper, Greg

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Thermally activated miniaturized cooling system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comprehensive study of a miniaturized thermally activated cooling system was conducted. This study represents the first work to conceptualize, design, fabricate and successfully test… (more)

Determan, Matthew Delos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H. (Powell, TN), Wereszczak, Andrew A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN); Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

1958-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

294

Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

298

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Keeping cool in the job  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Describes cooling garments used at nuclear plants to keep workers cooler for longer periods of time, safeguard health, boost efficiency, and elevate morale. Examines 2 cooling concepts tested by EPRI in laboratory and field conditions: using circulating liquids for cooling (represented by 2 commercially available personal cooling systems); and using frozen water for cooling (represented by 2 prototype garments recently developed by EPRI). Explains that pipes and pressure vessels inside nuclear power plants give off significant amounts of waste heat, with temperatures reaching up to 55C (131F)-not very comfortable for maintenance workers who are swathed in radiation protection gear and doing repair work. Finds that the frozen-water concept may considerably extend working time in the power plant. Concludes that the right research can overcome heat, humidity, and close quarters which conspire to make maintenance work in power plants a tough task.

Lihach, N.; O'Brien, J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil  

SciTech Connect

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

302

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

303

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

Jalan, V.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-land developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued-Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. This testing has demonstrated that during these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H2S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual at operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% and also remains constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration. A number of commercial tests involving RVS-1 have been either conducted or are planned in the near future. The RVS-1 sorbent has been tested by Epyx, Aspen Systems and McDermott Technology (MTI), Inc for desulfurization of syngas produced by reforming of hydrocarbon liquid feedstocks for fuel cell applications. The RVS-1 sorbent was selected by MTI over other candidate sorbents for demonstration testing in their 500-kW ship service fuel cell program. It was also possible to obtain sulfur levels in the ppbv range with the modified RVS-1 sorbent.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Cicero, Daniel C. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown); Stiegel, Gary J.; Gupta, Raghubir P. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh); Turk, Brian S. (Research Triangle Institute)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

306

Predictive pre-cooling control for low lift radiant cooling using building thermal mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low lift cooling systems (LLCS) hold the potential for significant energy savings relative to conventional cooling systems. An LLCS is a cooling system which leverages existing HVAC technologies to provide low energy cooling ...

Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

308

Stochastic cooling in muon colliders  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to {approximately}10{sup 3} for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW.

Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

l U CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING* M.Wahlig,be capable of operating solar heating and cooling systemsand now transferred to ERDA, on solar heating and cooling of

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin)output is the body cooling effect [5]. Thermal manikins withThermal manikins can be used to measure the fan cooling

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the cooling effect measured with the thermal manikin andThe mea- sured cooling effect with the thermal manikin isby a thermal manikin to quantify the cooling effects of air

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

MUCOOL: Ionization Cooling R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory MUCOOL Muon Ionization Cooling R&D Welcome to the muon ionization cooling experimental R&D page. The MuCool collaboration has been formed to pursue the development of a...

313

Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade  

SciTech Connect

A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

314

Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

Underkoffler, V.S.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Task 4.7 - diesel fuel desulfurization. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reductions in the maximum permissible sulfur content of diesel fuel to less than 0.05 wt% will require deep desulfurization to meet these standards. In some refineries, a new hydrogenation catalyst may be required for diesel fuel production. The work very briefly described in this document is on the use of hydrotalcite-supported molybdenum sulfide in the catalysis of ethanol. The catalyst reaction was highly selective for 1-butanol, providing a very clean reaction. Since the catalysis contains the MoS{sub 2} needed for the dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps, the reaction can be performed at lower temperatures and higher selectivity. The catalyst was very stable and not destroyed by the water produced in the reaction.

Olson, E.S.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Economic Evaluation of Alternative Cooling Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water use and conservation at electric power plants are becoming increasingly important siting issues. At most plants, the requirement for condensing exhaust steam from the steam turbine, generically known as power plant cooling, is the major use of water. Alternative cooling systems exist, including once-through cooling, wet-recirculating cooling, dry cooling, and hybrid (or wet/dry cooling), some of which offer significant opportunity for water conservation. These water savings normally, but perhaps no...

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

319

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Cooling Water Intake Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The types of cooling water systems to be evaluated are: Wet Cooling Tower - The condenser is cooled with water recirculated to a mechanical draft cooling tower. Because there...

320

Thermally Activated Cooling: A Regional Approach for Estimating Building Adoption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed Generation, Absorption Cooling, Space Cooling,use heat to drive an absorption cooling cycle, and the heatlargest drivers for absorption cooling technology adoption

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid soils limit the growth of aluminum-(Al) sensitive crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Management of acid subsoils can be difficult due to physical and economic constraints. Field experiments were conducted at two locations to evaluate the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted that used 0, 5, and 10 Mg ha-1 of gypsum only. Field studies were concluded 41 and 45 months after treatment application at the two locations. No effect of material on alfalfa yield or tissue mineral concentration was observed. Also, rate did not affect yield. However, there were differences in plant tissue mineral concentration in several harvests that were related to rate. Soil was sampled periodically to 120 cm and indicated movement of Ca and S into the soil profile to depths of 60 and 120 cm, respectively. Subsoil pHH2O and pHCaCl2 were not affected by treatment. Extractable and exchangeable Al were not reduced by movement of Ca and S into the soil. In the glasshouse study, alfalfa yields and root growth were not affected by gypsum rate. As gypsum rate increased, plant tissue S increased, but K and Mg decreased. Alfalfa roots did not grow below 60 cm, even though there was indication of material movement to 90 cm in the soil. Although sulfur moved to 75 cm, no effect on soil Al was observed. Leachate collected from the bottoms of columns indicated that soil cations were leached as a result of gypsum application. Gypsum and the flue gas desulfurization by-product did not significantly affect the acid soils used in these studies or improve alfalfa growth.

Chessman, Dennis John

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Intermediates formed during supercritical desulfurization of coal: Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1987 to June 30, 1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Last month, data was presented on a series of eight runs performed in the two liter reactor system under different reaction conditions, utilizing an Illinois No. 6 coal. The coal and solvent charges were held constant at 200 g each for all runs, and reaction time was one hour at a reaction temperature of 350/sup 0/C. Four of the runs utilized coal that had been treated with nitric acid solution, employing the ASTM procedure for sulfur forms analysis to remove the pyritic sulfur prior to reaction with alcohol. Both methanol and ethanol were utilized, and the effect of potassium hydroxide addition in an amount equal to 5% of the coal charged was also evaluated. Table 2 from last quarter's report is included here as Table 1 for convenient reference; it summarizes the processing conditions employed, desulfurization attained, and material balance information for the series of eight runs. The main objective of this series of runs was to permit a comparison to be made of the fluid phase composition between the various treatments employed; maximum desulfurization was not possible due to the current lower pressure limitation of the two liter reactor. Chromatographic analyses of the sulfur compounds present in the fluid phase samples taken during the course of the reactions are presented in Figures 1 through 8. All samples were collected at temperatures above supercritical. Vertical lines indicate the time during which the reaction temperature of 350/sup 0/C was maintained. The left vertical line denotes the end of the preheating time period, whereas the right one indicates the last data point completed before the final venting was performed. Relatively little fluid was removed from the reactor by sampling during the main reaction period. 8 figs., 1 tab.

Muchmore, C.B.; Chen, Juh W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Cool roofs could save money, save planet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool roofs could save money, save planet Title Cool roofs could save money, save planet Publication Type Broadcast Year of Publication 2009 Authors Akbari, Hashem, and Arthur H....

324

Temperature and cooling management in computing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

78 5.2 Combined Energy, Thermal and CoolingOne reason for thermal and energy variations betweenWe propose a combined energy, thermal and cooling management

Ayoub, Raid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Vehicle Cooling Systems - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and ... The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a ...

326

Cooling Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in

327

Multi-Photon Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... used traditional cooling beams at 852 nm in the x-y plane, but replaced the usual two beams along z with lasers at 795 nm. This laser only couples ...

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

328

Success Stories: Cool Color Roofs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

instead of absorbing, solar heat. So the question for scientists interested in increasing energy efficiency is, can one make a roof that is both cool and dark? Hashem Akbari, Paul...

329

Convective Cooling of Lightning Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report experimental data which trace the time development of electric discharge channels in air and which demonstrate the turbulent cooling of such channels. These data provide qualitative confirmation of the model proposed and used by Hill, ...

J. M. Picone; J. P. Boris; J. R. Greig; M. Raleigh; R. F. Fernsler

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips  

SciTech Connect

A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed.

Miller, M.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

331

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and...

332

Advance in MEIC cooling studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Absorption Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial...

334

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water returning from the cooling tower, greater chemical product volume can be condensed and less energy is required to run compressors. This paper will discuss two case histories and the rapid cost-effective savings thereby accruing through retrofit.

Burger, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Quantum limit of photothermal cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

De Liberato, Simone; Nori, Franco

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

337

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

338

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

340

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

342

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

343

Oriented spray-assisted cooling tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus useful for heat exchange by evaporative cooling when employed in conjunction with a conventional cooling tower. The arrangement includes a header pipe which is used to divert a portion of the water in the cooling tower supply conduit up stream of the cooling tower to a multiplicity of vertical pipes and spray nozzles which are evenly spaced external to the cooling tower so as to produce a uniform spray pattern oriented toward the central axis of the cooling tower and thereby induce an air flow into the cooling tower which is greater than otherwise achieved. By spraying the water to be cooled towards the cooling tower in a region external to the cooling tower in a manner such that the spray falls just short of the cooling tower basin, the spray does not interfere with the operation of the cooling tower, proper, and the-maximum increase in air velocity is achieved just above the cooling tower basin where it is most effective. The sprayed water lands on a concrete or asphalt apron which extends from the header pipe to the cooling tower basin and is gently sloped towards the cooling tower basin such that the sprayed water drains into the basin. By diverting a portion of the water to be cooled to a multiplicity of sprays external to the cooling tower, thermal performance is improved. 4 figs.

Bowman, C.F.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

344

Selenium Removal by Iron Cementation from a Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater in a Continuous Flow System-- a Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update describes work funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and performed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) at a coal-fired power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal (identified in this report as Plant E). This work was based on encouraging results obtained during previous EPRI-funded work on flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatability testing by MSE, which focused on selenium removal from a variety of FGD wastewater sources. The results from th...

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

345

Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this project, simulated gasifier-product streams were contacted with the zinc titanate desulfurization sorbent in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 538 to 750 {degree}C (1000 to 1382 {degree}F). The first set of experiments involved treating a medium-Btu fuel gas (simulating that of a ``Texaco`` oxygen-blown, entrained-bed gasifier) containing 1.4 percent H{sub 2}S and HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 1500 ppmv. The second experimental set evaluated hot-gas desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas (simulating the product of the ``U-Gas`` air-blown gasifier), with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppmv. These operating conditions were typical of the gas-treatment requirements of gasifiers fueled by Illinois basin coals containing up to 0.6 percent chlorine. The results of the experiments at 538 and 650 {degree}C at all the HCl concentrations revealed no deleterious effects on the capability of the sorbent to remove H{sub 2}S from the fuel gas mixtures. In most cases, the presence of the HCl significantly enhanced the desulfurization reaction rate. Some zinc loss, however, was encountered in certain situations at 750 {degree}C when low-steam operating conditions were present. Also of interest, a portion of the incoming HCl was removed from the gas stream and was retained permanently by the sorbent. This behavior was examined in more detail in a limited set of experiments aimed at identifying ways to modify the sorbents composition so that the sorbent could act as a simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination agent in the hot-gas cleanup process.

O`Brien, W.S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gupta, R.P. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of Hybrid Zero-Valent Iron Water Treatment Technology: Removing Trace Metals from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In previous laboratory- and field bench-scale tests, the hybrid zero-valent iron (hZVI) process had been demonstrated capable of removing selenium, mercury, nitrates, and other pollutants from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. By incorporating zero-valent iron (ZVI) with magnetite and certain Fe(II) species, the hZVI technology creates a highly reactive mixture that can transform and immobilize various trace metals, oxyanions, and other impurities from aqueous streams. To further evaluate ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

347

Dry Cooling: Perspectives on Future Needs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total number of dry-cooled power plants in the United States has increased significantly in recent years. This is because nonutility generators are using dry-cooling systems to meet environmental protection and water conservation requirements. A survey shows that utility planners expect that dry cooling could become an important cooling-system option for new utility plants.

1991-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

348

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

349

Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas turbine engines are extensively used in the aviation and power generation industries. They are used as topping cycles in combined cycle power plants, or as stand alone power generation units. Gains in thermodynamic efficiency can be realized by increasing the turbine inlet temperatures. Since modern turbine inlet temperatures exceed the melting point of the constituent superalloys, it is necessary to provide an aggressive cooling system. Relatively cool air, ducted from the compressor of the engine is used to remove heat from the hot turbine blade. This air flows through passages in the hollow blade (internal cooling), and is also ejected onto the surface of the blade to form an insulating film (film cooling). Modern land-based gas turbine engines use high Reynolds number internal flow to cool their internal passages. The first part of this study focuses on experiments pertaining to passages with Reynolds numbers of up to 400,000. Common turbulator designs (45degree parallel sharp-edged and round-edged) ribs are studied. Older correlations are found to require corrections in order to be valid in the high Reynolds number parameter space. The effect of rotation on heat transfer in a typical three-pass serpentine channel is studied using a computational model with near-wall refinement. Results from this computational study indicate that the hub experiences abnormally high heat transfer under rotation. An experimental study is conducted at Buoyancy numbers similar to an actual engine on a wedge shaped model trailing edge, roughened with pin-fins and equipped with slot ejection. Results show an asymmetery between the leading and trailing surfaces due to rotation - a difference which is subdued due to the provision of pin-fins. Film cooling effectiveness is measured by the PSP mass transfer analogy technique in two different configurations: a flat plate and a typical high pressure turbine blade. Parameters studied include a step immediately upstream of a row of holes; the Strouhal number (quantifying rotor-stator interaction) and coolant to mainstream density ratio. Results show a deterioration in film cooling effectiveness with on increasing the Strouhal number. Using a coolant with a higher density results in higher film cooling effectiveness.

Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Personal cooling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air conditioning load, which is highly coincident with HL&P's system peak, provided a large market for cool storage technologies. Initial market research made it very clear that a special cool storage rate was required to successfully market the technology. Development of the rate required an integrated, multidepartment effort and extensive use of DSManager, an integrated resource planning model. An experimental version of the rate was initially implemented as part of the initial phase of the cool storage program. A permanent rate, incorporating lessons learned from the experimental rate, was then developed for the long term implementation of the program. The permanent rate went through a lengthy regulatory approval process which included intervention by a local natural gas distribution company. The end result is a very successful cool storage program with 52 projects and 31 megawatts of demand reduction in the first three and one-half years of program implementation.

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system. While our engineers are pretty well convinced of the importance of their sophisticated equipment, and rightly so, they take the cooling towers and the cold water returning from them for granted. Design Conditions are specified for the particular requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. After it is put on the line and the cold water temperature or volume becomes inadequate, they look to solutions other than the obvious. While all cooling towers are purchased to function at 100% of capability in accordance with the required Design Conditions, in actual on stream employment, the level of operation many times is lower, downwards to as much as 50% due to a variety of reasons: (1) The present service needed is now greater than the original requirements which the tower was purchased for; (2) 'Slippage' due to usage and perhaps deficient maintenance has reduced the performance of the tower over years of operation; (3) The installation could have been originally undersized due to the low bidder syndrome; and (4) New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower.

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

354

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat recovery and absorption cooling are selected in allself- generated and absorption cooling displaces a further

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

cooling | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing energy use. The term net zero is the platinum standard for green buildings, meaning the building in question does not take any more energy from the utility grid than it produces using renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal installations (and sometimes these renewable energy resources actually feed energy back to the utility grid).

356

Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 28, 1996 June 28, 1996 Number 13 Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE 2 University Close-Up: The University of Minnesota 6 Summer at Fermilab by Eric Berger, Office of Public Affairs As debate heats up among lawmakers on the fate of the nation's helium reserve, Fermilab researchers prepare for a long, cold summer. How cold? Minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit-the temperature of the liquid helium that cools the Tevatron's supercon- ducting magnets. Proposed congressional changes to the 1960 Helium Act, however, could ultimately affect Fermilab's vital cooling operation, which uses 13 million cubic feet of gaseous helium annually. Electric current travels through a supercon- ductor friction-free, like skaters on smooth ice, allowing physicists to run accelerators at higher f energies, while using far less electricity than

357

Thermal performance of cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Wet cooling towers are often used in HVAC applications to reject heat to the atmosphere. Heat rejection is accomplished within the tower by heat and mass transfer between hot water droplets and ambient air. These heat and mass transfer processes and the resulting coefficient of performance are often misunderstood and misinterpreted. To demystify these concepts, the heat and mass transfer exchange at the water droplet level are reviewed. This is followed by an analysis of an idealized spray-type tower to show how cooling tower performance is affected by fill height, water retention time, and air and water mass flow rates. Finally, the so-called coefficient of performance of cooling towers is examined.

Bernier, M.A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Quench cooling under reduced gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the quench cooling experiments performed with liquid O2 under different levels of gravity simulated with the magnetic gravity compensation. A copper disk is quenched from 270K to 90K. It is found that the cooling time in microgravity is very long in comparison with any other gravity level. This phenomenon is explained by the isolation effect of the gas surrounding the disk. The liquid subcooling is shown to drastically improuve the heat exchange thus reducing the cooling time (about 20 times). The effect of subcooling on the heat transfer is analyzed at different gravity levels. It is shown that such type of experiments cannot be used for the analysis of the critical heat flux (CHF) of the boiling crisis. The minimum heat flux (MHF) of boiling is analyzed instead.

Chatain, D; Nikolayev, V S; Beysens, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas or by solar systems. Comfort is achieved by reducing the moisture content of air by a solid or liquid desiccant and then reducing the temperature in an evaporative cooler (direct or indirect). Another system is one where the dehumidifier removes enough moisture to meet the latent portion of the load while the sensible portion is met by a vapor compression cooling system; desiccant regeneration is achieved by using the heat rejected from the condenser together with other thermal sources. At present, residential desiccant cooling systems are in actual operation but are more costly than vapor compression systems, resulting in relatively long payback periods. Component efficiencies need to be improved, particularly the efficiency of the dehumidifier.

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling tower pump suction basin was accomplished by diving into the basin using SCUBA gear. It was possible to see a build-up of debris on the pump suction basket strainers and on the floor of the sumps. Also, it was discovered that one of the four baskets had been installed incorrectly. Photographs of the basket strainers were taken to aid in describing their exact condition. With the aid of SCUBA it was possible to sufficiently clean the pump sumps so that costly downtime was avoided. Likewise, using this technique, steps were taken to greatly reduce the chance for further contamination of the circulating cooling water system.

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Lamination cooling system formation method  

SciTech Connect

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

362

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs July 2010 V. 1.2 Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Additional technical support provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Federal Energy Management Program. Authors: Bryan Urban and Kurt Roth, Ph.D. ii Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Why Use Cool Roofs .............................................................................................................. 3

363

Cooling assembly for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet.

Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Werth, John (Princeton, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Lamination cooling system formation method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

365

Quantum noise in photothermal cooling  

SciTech Connect

We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. We achieve this by developing a Langevin formalism for the motion of the cantilever, valid in the bad-cavity limit, which includes both photon absorption shot noise and the noise due to radiation pressure. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise-dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

De Liberato, Simone [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Lambert, Neill [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet.

367

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

368

Commercial Cool Storage Design Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This state-of-the-art handbook provides comprehensive guidance for designing ice and chilled-water storage systems for commercial buildings. HVAC engineers can take advantage of attractive rates and incentives offered by utilities to increase the market for cool storage systems.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Solar-powered cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

370

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils  

SciTech Connect

An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud  

SciTech Connect

A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Sexton, Brendan Francis (Simpsonville, SC); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Effect of H{sub 2}O on the desulfurization of simulated flue gas by an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect

Functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) have been demonstrated to absorb SO{sub 2} from mixed gases or simulated flue gases efficiently. However, after absorbing a large amount of SO{sub 2}, the viscosity of the ILs increases greatly, which might limit their eventual applications in large-scale desulfurization from mixed gases or flue gases. In this work, the effect of the presence of water in a simulated flue gas on the absorption of SO{sub 2} by a functionalized ionic liquid, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium lactate, has been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the presence of water in the simulated flue gas can decrease the viscosity of the IL greatly, and it has no effect on the absorptivity of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. The densities of the IL absorbing SO{sub 2} from the flue gas with or without water are also studied. They increase with the increase of the amount of SO{sub 2} absorbed from the flue gas in both cases.

Ren, S.H.; Hou, Y.C.; Wu, W.Z.; Chen, X.T.; Fan, J.L.; Zhang, J.W. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

Schrodt, J.T.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

380

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

°C °F Cooling Effect (?t eq ) °C °F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (CFE) °C/W °F/Wand B. Jones. 1983. Ceiling fans as extenders of the summer

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Experimental Study of Hybrid Cooled Heat Exchanger.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A test system for a hybrid cooled heat exchanger was designed, and the test facility was constructed based on ASHRAE Standard 41.2-1987. A conventional air-cooled… (more)

Tsao, Han-Chuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers, and other associates heat rejection equipment.

Matson, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

385

Laser Cooling and Cold Atomic Matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Cooling and Cold Atomic Matter: to advance the understanding and applications of cold atomic matter, including ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Data Center Alternative Cooling Analysis Tool  

amounts of energy. Consistent large loads of energy are required for data center efficiency and reliability. Four different cooling technologies, ...

387

Modeling Cathode Cooling Due to Power Interruption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Modeling Cathode Cooling Due to Power Interruption ... Development and Application of SAMI's Low Voltage Energy-Saving Technology.

388

Engineered design of SSC cooling ponds  

SciTech Connect

The cooling requirements of the SSC are significant and adequate cooling water systems to meet these requirements are critical to the project`s successful operation. The use of adequately designed cooling ponds will provide reliable cooling for operation while also meeting environmental goals of the project to maintain streamflow and flood peaks to preconstruction levels as well as other streamflow and water quality requirements of the Texas Water Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Bear, J.B.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

What's so cool about Curiosity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's so cool about Curiosity? What's so cool about Curiosity? Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory, is the largest and most complicated device we have ever landed on a planet other than Earth. ï‚· About the size of a small SUV -- ten feet long (not including the arm), nine feet wide and seven feet tall ï‚· 900 kilograms (2,000 pounds) (Spirit and Opportunity, earlier research vehicles sent to Mars were 384 pounds) ï‚· Uses aerobraking, parachute, retro rockets and skycrane concepts to land gently (Spirit and Opportunity used aerobraking, parachutes and airbags that bounced them to the surface) Curiosity carries three instruments from Los Alamos National Laboratory. ï‚· The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator supplies electricity and heat to the rover

390

Transphase cool storage test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial cool storage systems. Transphase, Inc. provided a prototype of a new storage tank design equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system and filled with a eutectic designed to freeze at 41{degree}F. The Transphase cool storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank with relatively constant brine temperatures over most of the charging cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was governed mainly by the brine flow rate and the tank`s remaining charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. This prototype unit experienced several operational problems, not unexpected for the first full-size execution of a new design. Such prototype testing was one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

Stovall, T.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Edward S. Steinfeld Richard K. Lester  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The exceptions are 9 small units that burn oil, one that burns coke oven gas, and 13 that burn coal gangue in the combustion unit. In other cases, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or "scrubbers," enabling post-combustion flue-gas desulfurization systems. Should Chinese environmental regulations strengthen in the near term

392

Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the chillers and cooling towers, the thermal storage tankthe chillers and cooling towers, the thermal storage tank,of thermal energy storage in building cooling systems.

Ma, Yudong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COOLING AND DOUBLE WALLBOARD COMPARISON OF THERMAL STORAGEThermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential CoolingThermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Viability of dynamic cooling control in a data center environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Beitelmal, “Thermal Considerations in Cooling Large Scalesmart cooling, dynamic thermal control, energy optimization,thermal management conditions. EP-04-1163, BASH Keywords: Data center cooling,

Boucher, T.; Auslander, D.; Bash, C.; Federspiel, C.; Patel, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the effect of thermal mass on cooling loads, and thereforelift radiant cooling using building thermal mass, Departmentlevel thermal modelling are recommended for design cooling

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF THIS DOCUME THERMAL FOR COOLING ENERGY STORAGE BUILDINGSi- LBL-25393 THERMAL FOR COOLING w ENERGY STORAGE BUILDINGSpeak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for on-chip cooling solution, thermal characterization andActive cooling can provide an effective thermal resistance (cooling of electron gas and by reducing the lattice thermal

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoidthe shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoidC . Blumstein; "Alternatives to Compressor Cooling in

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Passive Cooling of a Micromechanical Oscillator with a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Closely related passive cooling has been reported in [9,20 ... Although rather modest cooling is obtained here ... eventually provide ground state cool- ing ...

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

400

Rapid cooling technology could aid surgery patients, heart attack...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling technology could aid surgery patients, heart attack victims Diagram shows how ice slurry cools blood INTERNAL COOLING - An ice slurry, delivered through an endotracheal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially suppressed 3P_2 neutron gap if free quarks occur for M cooling data existing by today. It is suggested to discuss a "2SC+X" phase, as a possibility to have all quarks paired in two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints, where the X-gap is of the order of 10 keV - 1 MeV. Density independent gaps do not allow to fit the cooling data. Only the presence of an X-gap that decreases with increase of the density could allow to appropriately fit the data in a similar compact star mass interval to that following from a purely hadronic model.

H. Grigorian

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

402

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Proceedings of the Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of cooling towers and associated systems strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Twenty-four papers presented at the 2012 Cooling Tower Technology Conference, held August 8–9, 2012, in Pensacola, Florida, discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. ...

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

406

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Improvements in solid desiccant cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DINC (Direct-Indirect Evaporative Cooling) cycle was proposed in 1986 by Texas A and M researchers. The idea was to combine the benefits of direct and indirect evaporative cooling with desiccant dehumidifying using a rotating solid silica-gel dehumidifier. Recent parametric studies completed for the Texas Energy Research in Applications Program have developed a computer design for a nominal 3-ton system that would minimize the energy consumption (both thermal and electric) while maintaining a sensible heat ratio of 75% or less. That optimum design for the original 1986 DINC cycle was modified to improve its energy efficiency. The modifications described in this paper were: (1) staging the desiccant regeneration air and (2) recirculation of the primary air to the secondary side of the indirect evaporative cooling. Computer simulations were run to study the effect of the modifications on the performance of the system. American Refrigeration Institute (AIR) standard conditions (Ambient air at 35C, 40% R.H. and Room air at 26.7C, 50% R.H.) were used for all the modifications. Results were also compared to the familiar Pennington (ventilation) cycle. The study indicated that recirculating the indirect evaporative cooler air only degenerated the performance. However, staging a portion of the regeneration air could improve the thermal coefficient of Performance by 25% over the non-staged DINC cycle. Compared to a similar staged-regeneration Pennington cycle it is a 16% improvement in thermal COP and the sensible heat ratio was 70%.

Waugaman, D.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have higher cooling capacity because the thermal resistancethe thermal comfort requirement unless the cooling capacitysurface cooling system and TABS systems THERMAL COMFORT

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government & commercial sectors - update 1998,7/99,3268845  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BARRIERS TO THE INCREASED UTILIZATION BARRIERS TO THE INCREASED UTILIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION/DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS BY GOVERNMENT AND COMMERCIAL SECTORS - UPDATE 1998 EERC Topical Report DE-FC21-93MC-30097--79 Submitted by: Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett Everett A. Sondreal Edward N. Steadman Kurt E. Eylands Bruce A. Dockter Energy & Environmental Research Center PO Box 9018 Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 99-EERC-07-08 July 1999 i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

412

Longer-term Characterization of Mercury Partitioning and Re-emissions in a Full-scale Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Site 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from an EPRI project focused on understanding and enhancing how mercury is captured by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and how it partitions among the FGD liquor, fine solids, and bulk FGD solid byproduct. A second objective was to close a mercury balance around the host unit by determining what portion of the coal mercury exits the stack with the scrubbed flue gas and how much ends up in the fly ash, byproduct gypsum, and FGD wastewater. During t...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

413

Western Cooling Efficiency Center | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Efficiency Center Efficiency Center Jump to: navigation, search Name Western Cooling Efficiency Center Place Davis, CA Website http://http://wcec.ucdavis.edu References Western Cooling Efficiency Center [1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections Western Cooling Efficiency Center is a research institution located in Davis, CA, at the University of California at Davis (UC Davis). References ↑ "Western Cooling Efficiency Center" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Western_Cooling_Efficiency_Center&oldid=382319" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

414

Alternate Cooling Methods for Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling in industrial facilities has traditionally been performed by mechanical vapor compression units. While it remains the standard, recent concerns with the rising cost of electricity and environmental legislation restricting or outlawing CFC refrigerants has caused many plants to evaluate existing cooling methods. This paper presents case studies on alternate cooling methods used for space conditioning at several different industrial facilities. Methods discussed include direct and indirect evaporative, desiccant, and absorption cooling. Cooling effectiveness, operating cost and investment are also presented. Data for this evaluation was collected from clients served by Georgia Tech's Industrial Energy Extension Service, a state-sponsored energy conservation assistance program.

Brown, M.; Moore, D.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Passive containment cooling water distribution device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Hookstown, PA); Fanto, Susan V. (Plum Borough, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:46pm Addthis Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger What does this mean for me? You may be able to keep your home cool with energy-efficient and well-placed fans. Fans are less expensive to operate than air conditioners. Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's also cooled by natural ventilation or air conditioning. Ceiling Fans Ceiling fans are considered the most effective of these types of fans,

418

VORPAL Simulations Relevant to Coherent Electron Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Coherent electron cooling (CEC)* combines the best features of electron cooling and stochastic cooling, via free-electron laser technology**, to offer the possibility of cooling high-energy hadron beams with order-of-magnitude shorter cooling times. Many technical difficulties must be resolved via full-scale 3D simulations, before the CEC concept can be validated experimentally. VORPAL is the ideal code for simulating the â modulatorâ and â kickerâ regions, where the electron and hadron beams will co-propagate as in a conventional electron cooling section. Unlike previous VORPAL simulations*** of electron cooling physics, where dynamical friction on the ions was the key metric, it is the details of the electron density wake driven by each ion in the modulator section that must be understood, followed by strong amplification in the FEL. We present some initial simulation results. In particular, we compare the semi-analytic binary collision model with electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC).

Bell, G.I.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Sobol, A.V.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Derbenev, Yaroslav

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

VORPAL simulations relevant to coherent electron cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent electron cooling (CEC) [1] combines the best features of electron cooling and stochastic cooling, via free-electron laser technology [2], to offer the possibility of cooling high-energy hadron beams with order-of-magnitude shorter cooling times. Many technical difficulties must be resolved via full-scale 3D simulations, before the CEC concept can be validated experimentally. VORPAL is the ideal code for simulating the modulator and kicker regions, where the electron and hadron beams will co-propagate as in a conventional electron cooling section. Unlike previous VORPAL simulations [3] of electron cooling physics, where dynamical friction on the ions was the key metric, it is the details of the electron density wake driven by each ion in the modulator section that must be understood, followed by strong amplification in the FEL. We present some initial simulation results.

Bell,G.; Bruhwiler, D.; Sobol, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Litvinenko, V.; Derbenev, Y.

2008-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

420

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. The video shows pedestrians walking on a city street. Think about it this way... in the summertime we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter colors reflect - rather than absorb - the heat of the sun. The video shows images of a white roof. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is often light in color and made

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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421

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Addthis Description By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Fossil Oil Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY OF ENERGY STEVEN CHU: The reason we wanted the Department of Energy to take the lead in cool roofs is to demonstrate that this really saves money. If you have a roof and it's black, it's absorbing energy from the sun

422

Cavity cooling of a single atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All conventional methods to laser-cool atoms rely on repeated cycles of optical pumping and spontaneous emission of a photon by the atom. Spontaneous emission in a random direction is the dissipative mechanism required to remove entropy from the atom. However, alternative cooling methods have been proposed for a single atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity; the role of spontaneous emission is replaced by the escape of a photon from the cavity. Application of such cooling schemes would improve the performance of atom cavity systems for quantum information processing. Furthermore, as cavity cooling does not rely on spontaneous emission, it can be applied to systems that cannot be laser-cooled by conventional methods; these include molecules (which do not have a closed transition) and collective excitations of Bose condensates, which are destroyed by randomly directed recoil kicks. Here we demonstrate cavity cooling of single rubidium atoms stored in an intracavity dipole trap. The cooling mechanism res...

Maunz, P; Schuster, I; Syassen, N; Pinkse, P W H; Rempe, G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Passive cooling program element. [Skytherm system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An outline of the Passive Cooling R and D program element is presented with significant technical achievements obtained during FY 1978. Passive cooling mechanisms are enumerated and a survey of ongoing projects is made in the areas of cooling resource assessment and system development. Results anticipated within the next fiscal year are discussed and the direction of the R and D effort is indicated. Passive cooling system development has centered primarily about the Skytherm system. Two projects are underway to construct such systems in regions having a higher cooling load than the original Skytherm site at Atascadero, California. Component development and commercialization studies are major goals of these two projects and a third project at Atascadero. A two-story passive cooling test module has been built to study radiative, evaporative and convective cooling effects in a structure making use of the thermosiphon principle, but not equipped with a roof pond.

Wahlig, M.; Martin, M.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

ION-BY-ION COOLING EFFICIENCIES  

SciTech Connect

We present ion-by-ion cooling efficiencies for low-density gas. We use Cloudy (version 10.00) to estimate the cooling efficiencies for each ion of the first 30 elements (H-Zn) individually. We present results for gas temperatures between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 8} K, assuming low densities and optically thin conditions. When nonequilibrium ionization plays a significant role the ionization states deviate from those that obtain in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), and the local cooling efficiency at any given temperature depends on specific nonequilibrium ion fractions. The results presented here allow for an efficient estimate of the total cooling efficiency for any ionic composition. We also list the elemental cooling efficiencies assuming CIE conditions. These can be used to construct CIE cooling efficiencies for non-solar abundance ratios or to estimate the cooling due to elements not included in any nonequilibrium computation. All the computational results are listed in convenient online tables.

Gnat, Orly [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: orlyg@tapir.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hybrid Zero Valent Iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment platform that has shown great potential in our previous bench-scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and other pollutants from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. This integrated treatment system employs new iron chemistry to create highly reactive mixture of Fe^0, iron oxides (FeOx) and various forms of Fe (II) for the chemical transformation and mineralization of various heavy metals in water. To further evaluate and develop the hZVI technology, a pilot-scale demonstration had been conducted to continuously treat 1-2 gpm of the FGD wastewater for five months at Plant Wansley, a coal-fired power plant of Georgia Power. This demonstrated that the scaled-up system was capable of reducing the total selenium (of which most was selenate) in the FGD wastewater from over 2500 ppb to below 10 ppb and total mercury from over 100 ppb to below 0.01 ppb. This hZVI system reduced other toxic metals like Arsenic (III and V), Chromium (VI), Cadmium (II), Lead (II) and Copper (II) from ppm level to ppb level in a very short reaction time. The chemical consumption was estimated to be approximately 0.2-0.4 kg of ZVI per 1 m^3 of FGD water treated, which suggested the process economics could be very competitive. The success of the pilot test shows that the system is scalable for commercial application. The operational experience and knowledge gained from this field test could provide guidance to further improvement of technology for full scale applications. The hZVI technology can be commercialized to provide a cost-effective and reliable solution to the FGD wastewater and other metal-contaminated waste streams in various industries. This technology has the potential to help industries meet the most stringent environmental regulations for heavy metals and nutrients in wastewater treatment.

Peddi, Phani 1987-

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Cooling by Heat Conduction Inside Magnetic Flux Loops and the Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas via heat conduction along magnetic field lines inside magnetic flux loops in cooling flow clusters of galaxies. I find that such heat conduction can reduce the fraction of energy radiated in the X-ray band by a factor of 1.5-2. This non-radiative cooling joins two other proposed non-radiative cooling processes, which can be more efficient. These are mixing of cold and hot gas, and heat conduction initiated by magnetic fields reconnection between hot and cold gas. These processes when incorporated into the moderate cooling flow model lead to a general cooling flow model with the following ingredients. (1) Cooling flow does occur, but with a mass cooling rate about 10 times lower than in old versions of the cooling flow model. Namely, heating occurs such that the effective age of the cooling flow is much below the cluster age, but the heating can't prevent cooling altogether. (2) The cooling flow region is in a non-steady state evolution. (3) Non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas can bring the model to a much better agreement with observations. (4) The general behavior of the cooling flow gas, and in particular the role played by magnetic fields, make the intracluster medium in cooling flow clusters similar in some aspects to the active solar corona.

Noam Soker

2003-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

428

Underground-desiccant cooling system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Underground-Desiccant Cooling System relies on the successful coordination of various components. The central feature of the system is a bed of silica gel which will absorb moisture from house air until the gel has become saturated. When this point has been reached, the silica gel must be regenerated by passing hot air through it. For this project, the hot air is produced by air-type solar collectors mounted on the roof and connected with the main air-handling system by means of ducts attached to the outside of the house. As the air is dehumidified its temperature is raised somewhat by the change of state. The dried but somewhat heated air, after leaving the silica gel bed, passes through a rock bin storage area and then past a water coil chiller before being circulated through the house by means of the previously existing ductwork. The cooling medium for both the rock bin and the chiller coil is water which circulates through underground pipes buried beneath the back yard at a depth of about 10 to 12 ft. When the silica gel is being regenerated by the solar collectors, house air bypasses the desiccant bed but still passes through the rock bin and the chiller coil and is cooled continuously. The system is designed for maximum flexibility so that full use can be made of the solar collectors. Ducting is arranged so that the collectors provide heat for the house in the winter and there is also a hot-water capability year-round.

Finney, O.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Cooling Fusion in a Flash | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Fusion in a Flash American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Cooling Fusion in a Flash...

430

Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Spray cooling is a feasible cooling technology for hybrid vehicle electronics; HFE 7100 is a promising coolant.

Mudawar, I.; Bharathan, D.; Kelly, K.; Narumanchi, S.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Efficient cooling: Making it happen  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a series of solutions that can help everyone to some basic questions about air conditioning: what`s the best way to size a residential air conditioner? to what extent do air conditioners tend to be oversized? how can energy research and programs help promote optimal sizing of cooling systems? Topics covered include the following: defining the debate over sizing of air conditioners; methods for sizing; evaluating simple {open_quotes}rules of thumb{close_quotes}; working with HVAC contractors; creating consumer demand for proper sizing. 1 fig. 1 tab.

Sherman, C.; Hildebrandt, E. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Indirect evaporative cooling in retail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

JCPenney Co., Inc., recently opened a 126,000-sq ft, two-level retail store in Albuquerque, NM. The project construction was accomplished using a design-build format. This process allows preliminary construction processes to begin while the design is finalized. Law/Kingdom, Inc. was assigned the architectural and engineering services for this building. During the process of design, the team decided to study the addition of evaporative cooling into the air system. This article reviews system design, selection, and performance using an indirect evaporative system in the HVAC system. It also demonstrates the company`s design approach on the original equipment selection for a typical anchor store.

Bartlett, T.A. [JCPenney Co., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator

434

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially supp...

Grigorian, H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Adsorption and desorption of sulfur dioxide on novel adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sol-gel granulation method was developed to prepare spherical {gamma}-alumina granular supports and supported CuO granular sorbents for flue gas desulfurization. The prepared {gamma}-alumina supported CuO sorbents exhibit desirable pore structure and excellent mechanical properties. The sorbents contain higher loading (30-40 wt. %) of CuO dispersed in the monolayer or sub-monolayer form, giving rise to a larger SO{sub 2} sorption capacity ({gt}20 wt.%) and a faster sorption rate as compared to similar sorbents reported in the literature. With these excellent sulfation and mechanical properties, the sol-gel derived {gamma}-alumina supported CuO granular sorbents offer great potential for use in the dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization process. Research efforts were also made to prepare DAY zeolite supported sorbents with various CuO contents by the microwave and conventional thermal dispersion methods at different conditions. Monolayer or sub-monolayer coating of Cu(NO{sub 3})sub 2 or CuO was achieved on several DAY supported sorbents by the microwave heating method but not by the conventional thermal dispersion method. The DAY zeolite supported CuO sorbents prepared by the microwave heating method can adsorb up to 15 wt.% of SO{sub 2}. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of effective preparation of zeolite supported CuO sorbents by the microwave heating method.

Lin, Y.S.; Deng, S.G.

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

437

Mechanically-reattachable liquid-cooled cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus comprising a rack having a row of shelves, each shelf supporting an electronics circuit board, each one of the circuit boards being manually removable from the shelve supporting the one of the circuit boards and having a local heat source thereon. The apparatus also comprises a cooler attached to the rack and being able to circulate a cooling fluid around a channel forming a closed loop. The apparatus further comprises a plurality of heat conduits, each heat conduit being located over a corresponding one of the circuit boards and forming a path to transport heat from the local heat source of the corresponding one of the circuit boards to the cooler. Each heat conduit is configured to be manually detachable from the cooler or the circuit board, without breaking a circulation pathway of the fluid through the cooler.

Arney, Susanne; Cheng, Jen-Hau; Kolodner, Paul R; Kota-Venkata, Krishna-Murty; Scofield, William; Salamon, Todd R; Simon, Maria E

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

438

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

439

Cool Farm Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Farm Tool Cool Farm Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Farm Tool Agency/Company /Organization: Unilever Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.unilever.com/aboutus/supplier/sustainablesourcing/tools/?WT.LHNAV= Cost: Free Language: English Cool Farm Tool Screenshot References: Cool Farm Tool [1] Overview "The Cool Farm Tool is a new greenhouse gas calculator for farming. It's easy to use and gives instant results that invite users to try out alternatives and ask 'what if' questions. The tool was commissioned by Unilever from the University of Aberdeen The tool is ideal for farmers, supply chain managers and companies interested in quantifying their

440

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs_090804  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for: for: Quarterly Facilities and Infrastructure Meeting Presented by: The Office of Engineering and Construction Management Content Excerpted From Presentation of: Bob Schmidt - NNSA Kansas City Plant Cool Roofs - An Overview August 4, 2009 2 *The terms "white roof" and "cool roof" are often mistakenly used interchangeably. A white roof is not necessarily a cool roof and a cool roof is not necessarily white. *"Cool Roofs" come in many style as defined by industry standard and can include: Metal Single ply Modified bitumen Acrylic coated White Roof vs. Cool Roof 3 Solar reflectance alone can significantly influence surface temperature, with the white stripe on the brick wall about 5 to 10° F (3-5° C) cooler than the surrounding, darker

442

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

443

Abstract Radiative Cooling in Hot Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passive radiative cooling of buildings has been an underachieving concept for decades. The few deployments have generally been in dry climates with low solar angles. The greatest need for cooling is in the tropics. The high humidity endemic to many of these regions severely limits the passive cooling available per radiative area. To wrest temperature relief from humid climates, not just nocturnal cooling but solar irradiance, both direct and indirect, must be addressed. This investigation explores the extent to which thermal radiation can be used to cool buildings in the tropics. It concludes that inexpensive materials could be fabricated into roof panels providing passive cooling day and night in tropical locations with an unobstructed view of sky.

Aubrey Jaffer

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

445

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roofs: An Introduction Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

446

Cooling of Neutron Stars. Hadronic Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the cooling of isolated neutron stars. The main cooling regulators are introduced: EoS, thermal transport, heat capacity, neutrino and photon emissivity, superfluid nucleon gaps. Neutrino emissivity includes main processes. A strong impact of medium effects on the cooling rates is demonstrated. With taking into account of medium effects in reaction rates and in nucleon superfluid gaps modern experimental data can be well explained.

D. Blaschke; H. Grigorian; D. N. Voskresensky

2004-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

447

A Comparative Demonstration of Alternative Milk Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A newly-designed groundwater-ice bank milk cooling system significantly reduces energy use and peak electric demand by about 30% over a conventional direct expansion bulk tank cooling system. This study compared the energy efficiency, electrical demands, and milk quality obtained using the new and conventional systems. Overall, the new system represents a viable, cost-effective alternative for dairy farms that are upgrading or replacing milk cooling equipment.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Wet/dry cooling tower and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Solar cooling R and D overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The status of the principal solar energy conversion processes for cooling is reviewed; applications ready for demonstrations are identified; and directions for near term R and D efforts needed to bring other potentially successful cooling systems to the point of demonstration are recommended. The principal solar cooling methods are classified as: absorption, heat engine/vapor compression, desiccant, solar assisted heat pump, photovoltaic heat pump, and passive and others.

Auh, P.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Evaporative Enhancement for Air Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes research into condenser air evaporative pre-cooling technologies and the associated potential for energy and peak power savings. The interest in this project is evaluation of the specific application of evaporative cooling to the inlet air of condenser coils, particularly for large roof-top type air cooled chillers. While the technology is established and understood particularly well for hot, dry climates, this report is intended to also examine evaporative ...

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

452

Cool! Nanoparticle Research Points to Energy Savings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The double-bubble effect enhances boiling heat transfer and, ultimately, could help to boost the energy efficiency of industrial-sized cooling systems ...

2011-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

Magneto-Optical Cooling of Atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultra-cold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power and reduced complexity.

Raizen, Mark G; Rochester, Simon; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Cavity cooling of a single atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All conventional methods to laser-cool atoms rely on repeated cycles of optical pumping and spontaneous emission of a photon by the atom. Spontaneous emission in a random direction is the dissipative mechanism required to remove entropy from the atom. However, alternative cooling methods have been proposed for a single atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity; the role of spontaneous emission is replaced by the escape of a photon from the cavity. Application of such cooling schemes would improve the performance of atom cavity systems for quantum information processing. Furthermore, as cavity cooling does not rely on spontaneous emission, it can be applied to systems that cannot be laser-cooled by conventional methods; these include molecules (which do not have a closed transition) and collective excitations of Bose condensates, which are destroyed by randomly directed recoil kicks. Here we demonstrate cavity cooling of single rubidium atoms stored in an intracavity dipole trap. The cooling mechanism results in extended storage times and improved localization of atoms. We estimate that the observed cooling rate is at least five times larger than that produced by free-space cooling methods, for comparable excitation of the atom.

P. Maunz; T. Puppe; I. Schuster; N. Syassen; P. W. H. Pinkse; G. Rempe

2004-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

455

Failure of Cooling Tower West Virginia 1978  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Willow Island disaster was the collapse of a cooling tower under ... In response to this request, NBS carried out field, laboratory and analytical ...

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

456

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

Neuffer, D.V.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Derbenev, Y.S.; Morozov, V.S.; /Jefferson Lab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

C. Y. Yoshikawa, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov, D.V. Neuffer, K. Yonehara

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Modeling Satellite District Heating and Cooling Networks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Satellite District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems offer an alternative structure to conventional, centralized DHC networks. Both use a piping network carrying steam or water… (more)

Rulff, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

The Greenest Way to Stay Cool - NREL  

Coolerado The ‘Elevator Brief” Patented Heat Exchanger that cools air using 50 -90% less energy – peak demand and total KWh -than conventional AC

460

NIST Quantum Refrigerator Offers Extreme Cooling and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST's prototype solid-state refrigerator uses quantum physics in the square chip mounted on the green circuit board to cool the much larger copper ...

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desulfurization scrubbers cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Energy Basics: Space Heating and Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in common, such as thermostats and ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy. Learn how these technologies and systems work. Learn about: Cooling Systems Heating...

462

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of the Cooling Fan Efficiency indexfor a desk fan anda computer fan Stefano Schiavon 1,2,* , M. Sc. PhD

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Dew-Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presentation on innovative indirect evaporative cooling technology developed by Coolerado Corporation given at the Rocky Mountain Chapter ASHRAE conference in April 2012.

Dean, J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Bee Cool Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Product Producer of polysilicon solar panels and solar trackers, and solar battery chargers. References Bee Cool Inc1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

465

Heat pipe cooling of metallurgical furnace equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current water-cooling technology used in the metallurgical industry poses a major safety concern. In addition, these systems are expensive to operate and result in significant… (more)

Navarra, Pietro, 1979-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Property:Cooling Capacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capacity Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "Cooling Capacity" Showing 2 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation...

467

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cool Roofs | Building Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

section of the guide and focus on cool roofs, which are recommended for metal building roofs and roofs with insulation entirely above deck. Publication Date: Wednesday,...

468

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

469

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

470

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Cool CAVEs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CAVEs CAVEs Cool CAVEs January 5, 2011 - 6:18pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? The Idaho National Laboratory's "CAVE" -- 3-D Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment -- allows scientists to literally walk into their data and look at it from multiple perspectives. Projectors, mounted behind the walls and on the ceiling, are manipulated by researchers using 3-D goggles and a handheld controller -- and allow them to study everything from terrain to applied nuclear research, to active sites of proteins. To escape the holiday chaos, many folks found refuge in caves - dark places with sticky floors, lumpy seating and Jeff Bridges playing scenes against a computer-enhanced younger version of himself . . . at least if

473

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

474

Activation of Noble Metals on Metal-Carbide Surfaces: Novel Catalysts for CO Oxidation, Desulfurization and Hydrogenation Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This perspective article focuses on the physical and chemical properties of highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions generated by depositing noble metals on metal-carbide surfaces. To rationalize structure-reactivity relationships for these novel catalysts, well-defined systems are required. High-resolution photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and first-principles periodic density-functional (DF) calculations have been used to study the interaction of metals of Groups 9, 10 and 11 with MC(001) (M = Ti, Zr, V, Mo) surfaces. DF calculations give adsorption energies that range from 2 eV (Cu, Ag, Au) to 6 eV (Co, Rh, Ir). STM images show that Au, Cu, Ni and Pt grow on the carbide substrates forming two-dimensional islands at very low coverage, and three-dimensional islands at medium and large coverages. In many systems, the results of DF calculations point to the preferential formation of admetal-C bonds with significant electronic perturbations in the admetal. TiC(001) and ZrC(001) transfer some electron density to the admetals facilitating bonding of the adatom with electron-acceptor molecules (CO, O{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, thiophene, etc.). For example, the Cu/TiC(001) and Au/TiC(001) systems are able to cleave both S-O bonds of SO{sub 2} at a temperature as low as 150 K, displaying a reactivity much larger than that of TiC(001) or extended surfaces of bulk copper and gold. At temperatures below 200 K, Au/TiC is able to dissociate O{sub 2} and perform the 2CO + O{sub 2} {yields} 2CO{sub 2} reaction. Furthermore, in spite of the very poor hydrodesulfurization performance of TiC(001) or Au(111), a Au/TiC(001) surface displays an activity for the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene higher than that of conventional Ni/MoS{sub x} catalysts. In general, the Au/TiC system is more chemically active than systems generated by depositing Au nanoparticles on oxide surfaces. Thus, metal carbides are excellent supports for enhancing the chemical reactivity of noble metals.

Rodriguez J. A.; Illas, F.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage  

SciTech Connect

The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge