National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for design space heating

  1. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  2. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  7. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 636 580 46 1 Q 114.0...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  11. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  12. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies,...

  13. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies,...

  14. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  15. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  16. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  17. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Elder, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance(kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of lightweight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

  18. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  19. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Glossary--Space-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space-Heating Equipment Glossary-Space-Heating Equipment Boiler: A type of space-heating equipment consisting of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such...

  20. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  1. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  2. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  3. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  4. Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low...

  5. Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  6. Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (13) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Klamath Falls, Oregon...

  7. Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature...

  8. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  9. Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bywaters, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    recovery design considerations as well as a summary of typical "waste heat" sources and application sites. A procedure for conducting industrial waste heat surveys is presented. Thermodynamic and heat transfer factors are discussed. Problems associated...

  10. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-09-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  11. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder P% postconsumer waste #12;iii Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot

  12. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Lead...

  13. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  14. Synergistic diffuser/heat-exchanger design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzara, David S. (David Sergio), 1980-

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical and numerical evaluation of synergistic diffusing heat-exchanger design is presented. Motivation for this development is based on current diffuser and heat-exchange technologies in cogeneration plants, which ...

  15. The Heat Equation (One Space Dimension) In these notes we derive the heat equation for one space dimension. This partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    . It is called the specific heat of the body. · The rate at which heat energy crosses a surface is proportional), so the rate at which heat energy crosses the right hand end is AT x (x + dx, t). Similarly, the rateThe Heat Equation (One Space Dimension) In these notes we derive the heat equation for one space

  16. Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    . Before the design process can begin, product specifications, such as steam or water pressures and temperatures, and equipment, such as absorption chillers and heat exchangers, need to be identified and defined. The Energy Engineering Laboratory...

  17. Dealing with Uncertainties During Heat Exchanger Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last thirty years much progress has been made in heat exchanger design methodology. Even so, the design engineer still has to deal with a great deal of uncertainty. Whilst the methods used to predict heat transfer coefficients are now quite...

  18. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  19. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  20. Industrial Heat Pump Design Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    There are numerous industries that can incorporate heat pumps into their operations to save energy costs and payoff the investment in well under two years. Many of these industries can cut energy costs associated with evaporation by over 75...

  1. Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-01-12

    This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.

  2. High-dimensional design space visualization for conceptual structural design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Caitlin T

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on visualizing high-dimensional design spaces for early-stage design problems in structural engineering and related disciplines. The design space, which is defined as the n + 1-dimensional surface that ...

  3. Heat and Power Systems Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spriggs, H. D.; Shah, J. V.

    1987-01-01

    variable pattern of energy consumption as individual batches are started up or turned down. Important management considerations are product quality and operating flexiblity. The first step is to identify individual heating and cooling requirements... stream_source_info ESL-IE-87-09-05.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19552 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-87-09-05.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 HEAT AND POWER...

  4. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hung-Wen; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-05-01

    Space heating is the largest energy end use, consuming more than 7 quintillion joules of site energy annually in the U.S. building sector. A few recent studies showed discrepancies in simulated space-heating energy use among different building energy modeling programs, and the simulated results are suspected to be underpredicting reality. While various uncertainties are associated with building simulations, especially when simulations are performed by different modelers using different simulation programs for buildings with different configurations, it is crucial to identify and evaluate key driving factors to space-heating energy use in order to support the design and operation of low-energy buildings. In this study, 10 design and operation parameters for space-heating systems of two prototypical office buildings in each of three U.S. heating climates are identified and evaluated, using building simulations with EnergyPlus, to determine the most influential parameters and their impacts on variations of space-heating energy use. The influence of annual weather change on space-heating energy is also investigated using 30-year actual weather data. The simulated space-heating energy use is further benchmarked against those from similar actual office buildings in two U.S. commercial-building databases to better understand the discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use. In summary, variations of both the simulated and actual space-heating energy use of office buildings in all three heating climates can be very large. However these variations are mostly driven by a few influential parameters related to building design and operation. The findings provide insights for building designers, owners, operators, and energy policy makers to make better decisions on energy-efficiency technologies to reduce space-heating energy use for both new and existing buildings.

  5. Heat Recovery Design Considerations for Cogeneration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquinelli, D. M.; Burns, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design and integration of the heat recovery section, which includes the steam generation, auxiliary firing, and steam turbine modules, is critical to the overall performance and economics of cogeneration, systems. In gas turbine topping...

  6. Increasing Confidence In Geothermal Heat Pump Design Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1998-03-01

    Sizing the ground heat exchanger is one of the most important tasks in the design of a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. Undersizing the heat exchanger can result in poor operating efficiency, reduced comfort, and nuisance heat pump lockouts on safety controls, while an oversized heat exchanger increases the installation cost of the system. The cost of ground loop installation may mean the difference between a feasible and an unfeasible project. Thus there are strong incentives to select heat exchanger lengths which allow satisfactory performance under all operating conditions within a feasible project budget. Sizing a ground heat exchanger is not a simple calculation. In the first place, there is usually some uncertainty in the peak block and annual space conditioning loads for the building to be served by the GHPs. The thermal properties of the soil formation may be unknown as well. Drilling logs and core samples can identify the soil type, but handbook values for the thermal properties of soils vary widely. Properly-done short-term on-site tests and data analysis to obtain thermal properties provide more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only feasible in large projects. Given the uncertainties inherent in the process, if designers were truly working 'close to the edge' - selecting the absolute minimum heat exchanger length required to meet the predicted loads - one would expect to see more examples of undersized heat exchangers. Indeed there have been a few. However, over the past twenty years GHPs have been installed and successfully operated at thousands of locations all over the world. Conversations with customers and facility managers reveal a high degree of satisfaction with the technology, but studies of projects reveal far more cases of generously sized ground heat exchangers than undersized ones. This indicates that the uncertainties in space conditioning loads and soil properties are covered by a factor of safety. These conservative designs increase the installed cost of GHP systems, limiting their use and applicability. Moreover, as ground heat exchanger sizing methods have improved, they have suggested (and field tests are beginning to verify) that standard bore backfill practices lead to unnecessarily large ground heat exchangers. Growing evidence suggests that in many applications use of sand backfill with a grout plug at the surface, or use of bottom-to-top thermally enhanced grout, may provide groundwater protection equal to current practice at far less cost. Site tests of thermal properties provides more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only performed in large projects. Even so, because soil properties can vary over a distance as small as a few feet, the value of these tests is limited. One objective of ongoing research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to increase designers confidence in available ground heat exchanger sizing methods that lead to reliable yet cost-effective designs. To this end we have developed research-grade models that address the interactions between buildings, geothermal heat pump systems and ground heat exchangers The first application of these models was at Fort Polk, Louisiana, where the space conditioning systems of over 4,000 homes were replaced with geothermal heat pumps (Shonder and Hughes, 1997; Hughes et. al., 1997). At Fort Polk, the models were calibrated to detailed data from one of the residences. Data on the energy use of the heat pump, combined with inlet and outlet water temperature and flow rate in the ground heat exchangers, allowed us to determine the thermal properties of the soil formation being experienced by the operating GHP system. Outputs from the models provide all the data required by the various commercially-available ground loop sizing programs. Accurate knowledge of both the building loads and the soil properties eliminated the uncertainty normally associated with the design process, and allowed us to compare the predictions of the commercially-available

  7. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2013-10-15

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  8. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  9. Design and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of double-tube heat exchangers #12;Company Logo Experimental apparatus Metal Type Ti SUS304 Al Cu Al 15m AlDesign and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential OTEC Application Jeong-Tae Kwon1 exchanger #12;Company Logo Cross-Counter -1 heat exchanger Cross-Counter -2 heat exchanger Double tube heat

  10. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800°C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  11. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoorhydronic solar and space that heating adjusts the storagethe heat source is solar heated water at the storage tank

  12. DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By SHAWN ALEX HERN.1 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM DESIGN........................................2-3 2.1.1 Design...............................................................................2-5 2.2 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION................................2-9 3

  13. ISHED1: Applying the LEM Methodology to Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalski, Ryszard S.

    ISHED1: Applying the LEM Methodology to Heat Exchanger Design Kenneth A. Kaufman Ryszard S. Michalski MLI 00-2 #12;2 ISHED1: APPLYING THE LEM METHODOLOGY TO HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN Kenneth A. Kaufman-2 January 2000 #12;ISHED1: APPLYING THE LEM METHODOLOGY TO HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN Abstract Evolutionary

  14. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.; Tomsik, T. M.; Conyers, H. J.

    2014-01-29

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  15. Design of a unique wind powered heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cromack, D.; Po, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an entire wind turbine system utilizing a mechanical churn as the sole means of energy conversion has been completed. The system has been designed to meet the hot water demands of a 100 cow dairy farm which consumes 68,500 kW-hrs of energy yearly in the form of hot water. The hot water produced by this system will be used to provide space heating, livestock facility and milk processing equipment sanitation, and hot tap water. The wind turbine is designed for a moderate average wind speed of 6 m/s. It should be noted that this system could be used for other industrial applications where the energy demand for process hot water is similar to that of the dairy farm.

  16. Solar space heating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergyCompany Limited SPCSolarVisionSolar spaceSolar

  17. Passive Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC Jump to:3 ofAltos del Voltoya SAPassive Solar Space

  18. Designing, testing, and analyzing coupled, flux transformer heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renzi, Kimberly Irene

    1998-01-01

    The proposed research involves designing, testing, and ics. analyzing a coupled, flux transformer heat pipe system following the patent of Oktay and Peterson (1997). Experiments were conducted utilizing four copper heat ...

  19. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  20. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  1. Design space exploration for multiprocessor-based embedded systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Debashis

    2001-01-01

    Design space exploration is the process of obtaining the optimal design out of all possible design alternatives. The design-space becomes very large when the target architecture consists of heterogeneous components, and it is not possible to explore...

  2. Automated Design Space Exploration with Aspen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Spafford, Kyle L.; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Architects and applications scientists often use performance models to explore a multidimensional design space of architectural characteristics, algorithm designs, and application parameters. With traditional performance modeling tools, these explorations forced users to first develop a performance model and then repeatedly evaluate and analyze the model manually. These manual investigations proved laborious and error prone. More importantly, the complexity of this traditional process often forced users to simplify their investigations. To address this challenge of design space exploration, we extend our Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) language with three new language constructs: user-defined resources, parameter ranges, and a collection ofmore »costs in the abstract machine model. Then, we use these constructs to enable automated design space exploration via a nonlinear optimization solver. We show how four interesting classes of design space exploration scenarios can be derived from Aspen models and formulated as pure nonlinear programs. The analysis tools are demonstrated using examples based on Aspen models for a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform, the CoMD molecular dynamics proxy application, and the DARPA Streaming Sensor Challenge Problem. Our results show that this approach can compose and solve arbitrary performance modeling questions quickly and rigorously when compared to the traditional manual approach.« less

  3. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A recent assessment indicates that if 20% of US homes replaced their existing space-conditioning and water-heating systems with properly designed, installed and operated state-of-the-art GSHP systems, it would yield significant benefits each year. These include 0.8 quad British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy savings, 54.3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} emission reductions, $10.4 billion in energy cost savings and 43.2 gigawatts of reduction in summer peak electrical demand.

  4. Hybrid Heat Pump Design and Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Koebberman, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Hybrid Heat Pump (HHP) converts industrial waste heat into process steam. Waste heat at temperatures as low as approximately 200°F can be used. Steam output covers a range between 12,000 Ib/h and 50,000 Ib/h, depending on the application...

  5. INTEGRATED DESIGN AND CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    INTEGRATED DESIGN AND CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORKS #12; by Knut Wiig Mathisen A Thesis examples in their research attitudes. Truls also introduced me to heat exchanger networks, and has been have worked closely together with John Ulvøy on a paper on heat exchanger network synthesis

  6. ITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    in-vessel component cooling systems malfunction. Therefore, special design criteria are requestedITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN Y. Hoshi 1 , Y. Kataoka 2 , V. Tanchuk 1 the vacuum vessel cooling system has a safety role of providing the ultimate decay heat removal system ,when

  7. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  8. A Compact Thermal Heat Switch for Cryogenic Space Applications Operating near 100 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Marc; Thummes, Günter

    2013-01-01

    A thermal heat switch has been developed intended for cryogenic space applications operating around 100 K. The switch was designed to separate two pulse tube cold heads that cool a common focal plane array. Two cold heads are used for redundancy reasons, while the switch is used to reduce the thermal heat loss of the stand-by cold head, thus limiting the required input power, weight and dimensions of the cooler assembly. After initial evaluation of possible switching technologies, a construction based on the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of different materials was chosen. A simple design is proposed based on thermoplasts which have one of the highest CTE known permitting a relative large gap width in the open state. Furthermore, the switch requires no power neither during normal operation nor for switching. This enhances reliability and allows for a simple mechanical design. After a single switch was successfully built, a second doubleswitch configuration was designed and tested. The long term performan...

  9. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  10. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  12. EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Flávio Rech

    EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING UML-BASED TOOLS FLÁVIO R. WAGNER, carro}@inf.ufrgs.br Abstract: This tutorial discusses design space exploration and software automation and allow design space exploration together with software automation. Key words: Embedded Software, Design

  13. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  14. Space Heating Trends in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia1 Mandeep Dhaliwal and Larry Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200604 Space Heating Trends in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia1 Mandeep Dhaliwal and Larry in a northern country such as Canada. Residential space heating is of particular interest in Prince Edward (NRCan) suggests that despite their similarities, the space heating requirements for Prince Edward Island

  15. Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

    2012-01-01

    This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

  16. Steps for design of Heat Exchanger Dr. Reyad Shawabkeh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    Steps for design of Heat Exchanger By Dr. Reyad Shawabkeh Department of Chemical Engineering King to cold and hot streams. Then obtain the heat duty, q. 5. Based on the type of flow, calculate Log Mean/Assume the type of floating head of the exchanger and obtain the bundle diameter clearance, BDC . Use the chart

  17. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  18. Impacts of Some Building Design Parameters on Heat Pump Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdim, B.; Manioglu, G.

    2011-01-01

    . In this study; in order to provide energy conservation and climatic comfort in buildings, an approach which aims to control the energy consumption of heat pumps by controlling decisions related to building design parameters have been developed. For this purpose...

  19. Banbury Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustriaBiofuelsOpen Energy Information Space Heating Low

  20. Bozeman Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank, Maine: Energy Resources Jump to:Open Energy Information Space Heating

  1. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkus, P.; Tuluca, A.

    1993-06-01

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  2. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  3. Design and Development of a Plastic Film Heat Exchanger 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, E. C.; Gollin, M. K.; Brownell, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    condensing vapor. The low thermal conductivity of the plastic is off set by the use of thin films so that overall heat transfer rates are achieved which are comparable 'to conventional units. Potential.uses for such? a unit are low grade heat recovery... with the design of elements and manifolds are described together with an analysis of the thermal and hydraulic factors affecting the operation of the unit. INTRODUCTION The concept for the plastic film heat exchanger (PFHX) is that of individual heat...

  4. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  5. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  6. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  7. Design tool needs for space nuclear propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, A.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Lewis, B.R. (Atom Analysis, Inc., Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The interest in a return trip for humans to the moon and a pioneering voyage to Mars has rekindled interest in the use of nuclear reactors to provide propulsion for both piloted and robotic space vehicles. Two types of nuclear reactor-based propulsion systems are currently envisioned: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The former relies on the direct heating and exhaust of a propellant within the core of the reactor, while the latter utilizes ion thruster engines for propulsion, and the nuclear reactor supplies the large amount of electrical power required to drive the engines. Another direct contrast between the NTP and NEP concepts is the length of reactor operation. The NTP nuclear rocket core is required to produce large amounts of thermal power for relatively short bursts (on the order of minutes to hours), and the NEP reactor core operates for a much longer period of time (on the order of days to months) with a steady-state electrical power output. The design of these types of nuclear reactor systems requires the use of specific analysis tools, some of which already exist and others that need considerable development. The general areas in which design tools are needed in the development of systems for space nuclear propulsion include the following: (1) neutronics design - both steady-state and transient applications including thermal feedback effects; (2) thermal-hydraulics design - again, both steady-state and transient applications with coupling to and from the neutronics design codes; (3) materials analysis tools - due to the high temperatures and high stresses required for efficient propulsion operation, increased importance will be placed on understanding the material responses; and (4) systems analysis - these codes allow optimizaiton of the entire propulsion system.

  8. Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

  9. Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Develop a least-cost design tool (OptGSHP) that will enable GSHP developers to analyze system cost and performance in a variety of building applications to support both design, operational and purchase decisions. Integrate groundwater flow and heat transport into OptGSHP. Demonstrate the usefulness of OptGSHP and the significance of a systems approach to the design of GSHP systems.

  10. Design issues of a thermoacoustic refrigerator and its heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C.

    1996-12-31

    Thermoacoustic refrigeration is a fast advancing new refrigeration technology. Performance calculations indicate remarkable values for the thermoacoustic core of a thermoacoustic refrigerator. The thermoacoustic core is responsible for pumping heat from a cold to a hot temperature reservoir. However, the systems necessary to support the thermoacoustic core, such as heat exchangers and acoustic drivers are the weak points of this refrigeration technology. Particularly, heat exchangers were designed so far without any optimization. A reason for this is the lack of knowledge of the flow structures and heat transfer phenomena at the interface between the thermoacoustic core and the heat exchangers. For the purpose of gaining better insight, the authors built a thermoacoustic refrigerator model and applied visualization techniques, such as smoke injection and holographic interferometry, to visualize the flow and temperature fields at the interface.

  11. Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    home heating systems, which consisted of pumping geothermal water and steam through passive steam heaters, and convert the systems to one using modern heat exchange units. It...

  12. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  13. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  14. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  15. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  16. Design Approach and Performance Analysis of a Small Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) for Net Zero Energy Homes (ZEH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance analysis of a variable-capacity heat pump system developed for a small [1800ft2 (167 m2)] prototype net ZEH with an average design cooling load of 1.25 tons (4.4 kW) in five selected US climates. The heat pump integrates space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, and humidity control (humidification and dehumidification) functions into a single integrated heat pump (IHP) unit. The design approach uses one small variable-capacity compressor to meet all the above functions in an energy efficient manner. Modal performance comparisons to an earlier IHP product are shown relative to the proposed new design for net ZEH application. The annual performance analysis approach using TRNSYS in conjunction with the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is discussed. Annual performance projections for a range of locations are compared to those of a base system consisting of separate pieces of equipment to perform the same functions. The ZEH IHP is projected to reduce energy use for space heating & cooling, water heating, dehumidification, and ventilation for a net ZEH by about 50% compared to that of the base system.

  17. Design Space Exploration of Parameterized Systems using Design of Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, David

    2011-01-01

    10 1.6 Design42 4.3 Pareto point generation using design of experiments (from VPR for a single metric design. . . . . . . . . . . .

  18. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  19. Space Reactor Radiation Shield Design Summary, for Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EC Pheil

    2006-02-17

    The purpose of this letter is to provide a summary of the Prometheus space reactor radiation shield design status at the time of program restructuring.

  20. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  1. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, sometimes called ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs), have been proven capable of significantly reducing energy use and peak demand in buildings. Conventional equipment for controlling the temperature and humidity of a building, or supplying hot water and fresh outdoor air, must exchange energy (or heat) with the building's outdoor environment. Equipment using the ground as a heat source and heat sink consumes less non-renewable energy (electricity and fossil fuels) because the earth is cooler than outdoor air in summer and warmer in winter. The most important barrier to rapid growth of the GSHP industry is high first cost of GSHP systems to consumers. The most common GSHP system utilizes a closed-loop ground heat exchanger. This type of GSHP system can be used almost anywhere. There is reason to believe that reducing the cost of closed-loop systems is the strategy that would achieve the greatest energy savings with GSHP technology. The cost premium of closed-loop GSHP systems over conventional space conditioning and water heating systems is primarily associated with drilling boreholes or excavating trenches, installing vertical or horizontal ground heat exchangers, and backfilling the excavations. This project investigates reducing the cost of horizontal closed-loop ground heat exchangers by installing them in the construction excavations, augmented when necessary with additional trenches. This approach applies only to new construction of residential and light commercial buildings or additions to such buildings. In the business-as-usual scenario, construction excavations are not used for the horizontal ground heat exchanger (HGHX); instead the HGHX is installed entirely in trenches dug specifically for that purpose. The potential cost savings comes from using the construction excavations for the installation of ground heat exchangers, thereby minimizing the need and expense of digging additional trenches. The term foundation heat exchanger (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation, 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three par

  2. Design and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling using HFC or CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Design and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling using HFC or CO2: +33 2 23 23 42 97 Fax: +33 2 23 23 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents a Heat Pump for Simultaneous heat pump i in is isentropic mec mechanical nof without frosting o out r refrigerant S sublimation sc

  3. Determination of Ranged Sets of Design Specifications by Incorporating Design Space Heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei

    method is developed for obtaining a ranged set of design specifications that meets design criteria while well they meet design criteria. Second, a new design flexibility measure is used as a metric to select s in a design attribute space F single or multiple design criteria Ij(y) influence function of a design

  4. Design principles for the development of space technology maturation laboratories aboard the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saenz Otero, Alvar, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis formulates seven design principles for the development of laboratories which utilize the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate the maturation of space technologies. The principles are derived from ...

  5. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  6. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    load and capacity; solar heat gain; Radiant design standardssignificance of solar radiation in the design process andthe magnitude of solar impacts under various design/control

  7. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an ...

  8. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5732E An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings Author(s), Hung Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH than 7 trillion Joules of site energy annually [USDOE]. Analyzing building space heating performance

  9. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  10. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David Scott; Uwechue, Uzo Philip

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blum, Helcio

    2010-01-01

    the building (heating or cooling) served floor space, 11 andtotal floor space of all buildings with space heating andheating it applies only to buildings with a small floor

  12. SURVEY OF ADVANCED HEAT PUMP DEVELOPMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING* Phillip D. Fairchild

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;SURVEY OF ADVANCED HEAT PUMP DEVELOPMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING* Phillip D. Fairchild Energy Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory it*~~ ~Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT Because of the heat pump energy research organiza- tions. This paper presents a survey of heat pump RD&D projects with special

  13. Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Panjeh Shahi, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-02-04-21.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 17668 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-02-04-21.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Design of Crude Oil...-ordinates of hot stream inlet/desalter inlet temperature. The slope of the line is given by the ratio of the crude oil heat capacity flowrate to the hot stream heat capacity flowrate. The result could be that shown in Figure 7. ~ ?.JIt...

  14. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  15. Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

    1980-12-01

    A description is given of the development and testing of the newly-marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH), and an analysis is presented of its performance and space conditioning impacts. This system utilizes an air-to-water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests. Since a HPWH is usually installed indoors and extracts heat from the air, its operation is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. To investigate HPWH performance and a space conditioning impacts, a simulation has been developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics are adapted for three US geographical areas (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas), and the system is simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. In addition, the water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio (RPR) of the HPWH. The annual simulated RPRs range from 1.5 to 1.7, which indicate a substantial space heating penalty of HPWH operation in these cities.

  16. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  17. Computational exploration of the structural design space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Caitlin T

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on computational strategies for incorporating structural considerations into the earliest stages of the architectural design process. Because structural behavior is most affected by geometric form, ...

  18. Design space exploration and optimization using modern ship design tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Adam T. (Adam Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    Modern Naval Architects use a variety of computer design tools to explore feasible options for clean sheet ship designs. Under the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division ...

  19. Problems with specifying Tmin in design of processes with heat exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Problems with specifying Tmin in design of processes with heat exchangers Jørgen Bauck Jensen case studies. Keywords: Tmin, vapour compression cycle, heat exchanger, design. 1 Introduction simple and common approach for design of processes with heat exchangers, especially at an early design

  20. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Conditioning Research Institute A directory listing air conditioning and heat pump products that meet energy performance tiers established by the Consortium for Energy...

  1. Steering magnet design for a limited space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura,M.; Fite, J.; Lodestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.

    2009-05-04

    We compare two extreme designs of steering magnets. The first one is a very thin steering magnet design which occupies only 6 mm in length and can be additionally installed as needed. The other is realized by applying extra coil windings to a quadrupole magnet and does not consume any length. The properties and the features of these steering magnets are discussed.

  2. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  3. Automated mechanism design with a structured outcome space Vincent Conitzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automated mechanism design with a structured outcome space Vincent Conitzer Computer Science) to design a mechanism that maximizes one of the following objectives: 1) expected social wel- fare when of types. Finally, we show that when design- ing randomized mechanisms, we can exploit the structure

  4. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  5. HEAT KERNEL AND GREEN FUNCTION ESTIMATES ON NONCOMPACT SYMMETRIC SPACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Lizhen

    HEAT KERNEL AND GREEN FUNCTION ESTIMATES ON NONCOMPACT SYMMETRIC12, 43A80, 43A85, * *43A90, 58G11. Key words and phrases. Green function, heat kernel, Iwasawa effi* *ciently to pro- duce sharp and complete results comparable to the Euclidean or the compact case

  6. 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-47 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. HP Wnet,in QH QL TL TH Analysis The maximum heat pump coefficient of performance would occur if the heat pump were completely reversible, 5.7 K026K300 K300 COP maxHP, LH H TT

  7. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  8. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

  9. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

  10. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a multi-condenser loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Daniel Frank

    2012-01-01

    A condenser design was characterized for a multi-condenser loop heat pipe (LHP) capable of dissipating 1000 W. The LHP was designed for integration into a high performance aircooled heat sink to address thermal management ...

  11. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Confined Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-05-05

    Pool boiling is an effective method used in many technical applications for a long time. Its highly efficient heat transfer performance results from not only the convection effect but also the phase change process in pool boiling. Pool boiling...

  12. Fusion Engineering and Design 45 (1999) 377407 Critical heat flux analysis and R&D for the design of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    1999-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 45 (1999) 377­407 Critical heat flux analysis and R&D for the design and the design analysis performed in converging on a choice of reference configuration and parameters which of the ITER divertor have to be designed for high heat fluxes (up to 20 MW/m2 over :10 s). Accommodation

  13. Exploring IBA Design Space for Improved Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Jung "EJ"

    to mitigate the interface problem, it is clearly not the solution. Similarly, the prevailing communication design alternatives. In this paper, we investigate four corelated techniques for providing high--InfiniBand architecture, multicasting, multipathing, NIC/HCA, packet dropping, quality of service, system area network. Ç

  14. Evolution of small-space plasma in a microthruster designed for small spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farahat, A. M., E-mail: farahata@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Applied and Supporting Studies (Saudi Arabia); Ramadan, E. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Information and Computer Science (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma and gas particle dynamics in atmospheric pressure helium-filled small volume are investigated using a two-dimensional model. The model includes the conservation equations for the plasma and the neutral gas. In this paper, results are presented from simulation of the interaction between gas and charged species, which in turn causes heating and thrust generation for this microengine. Gas heating and neutral depletion initiations are observed, highlighting the close interaction between gas and charged species in governing the evolution of the small-space plasma inside a microthruster designed for microsatellites.

  15. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By MATT AND DESIGN TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: Jeffrey D. Spitler Thesis Title of Study: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND DESIGN TOOL DE- VELOPMENT FOR SURFACE WATER HEAT PUMP

  17. Designing Optimal Heat and Power Systems for Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutkowski, M. A.; Witherell, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    . It must facilitate understanding the tradeoffs among the components of the heat and power system including steam generation, furnaces used for process heating, steam and gas turbines, heat exchange networks, heat pumps, refrigeration systems, and purchased...

  18. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A, Gungor A. Energy and exergy analyses of space heating inThe results from exergy analysis drew similar conclusions -presented energy and exergy analyses for the whole process

  19. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  20. Foundation Heat Exchanger Model and Design Tool Development and Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Feasibility of foundation heat exchangers in ground source heat pump systems in the United States. ASHRAE Heat Exchangers for Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems - Numerical Modeling and Experimental. Fisher, J. Shonder, P. Im. 2010. Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Utilizing Foundation Heat

  1. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Patrick; Sink, Charles

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to accommodate hot water from the proposed wood-burning GARN Boiler, once installed, and rely on the existing fuel oil-fired hot water heating equipment for backup. The boiler would use an estimated 125 bone dry tons, equivalent to 100 cords, woody biomass feedstock obtained from local lands per year. Project would use local labor as described in the Port Graham Biomass Project, report completed by Chena Power, Inc. and Winters and Associates as part of the in-kind support to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) project for work on a project for State of Alaska’s Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). NVPG will likely initiate operations of the biomass boiler system even though several operational variations were studied. Obtaining the fuel source could be done by contractors, PGVC employees, or NVPG employees. Feeding the system would likely be done by NVPG employees. A majority of the buildings heated would be owned by NVPG. The PGVC office would be heated as well as the Old Fire Hall used as a workshop and storage area for North Pacific Rim Housing Authority. One methodology studied to charge for cost of utilizing the community building biomass system would use a percentage of use of hot water generated by the biomass hot water system based on past heating oil usage in relation to all buildings heated by biomass hot water. The method is better described in the Port Graham Biomass Project report. Fuel source agreements have been drafted to enter into agreements with area landowners. One Native allotment owner has asked Chugachmiut Forestry to begin a timber sale process to sell timber off her lands, specifically wind thrown timber that was determined to be of sufficient quantity to supply to the proposed biomass heating system for approximately 5-years. On NVPG’s behalf, Chugachmiut has presented to PGVC three different documents, attached, that could lead to a sale of woody biomass fuel for the project for up to 25-years, the expected life of the project. PGVC has signed a letter of intent to negotiate a sale of woody biomass material April 30, 2015. Chugachmiut Forestry

  2. Using digest pages to increase user result space: Preliminary designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lalmas, Mounia

    Using digest pages to increase user result space: Preliminary designs Shanu Sushmita Queen Mary. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a digest page, which is a fictitious document built from its documents summarized into the digest page. This paper presents preliminary designs regarding

  3. Critically Exploring the Virtual Possession Design Space Through Fieldwork and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Critically Exploring the Virtual Possession Design Space Through Fieldwork and Constructive Design, photos, tickets); things that never had a lasting material form (e.g., electronic message archives devices and services (e.g., photo location information, music play histories, automatic and manual photo

  4. Designing Space in Virtual Environments for Aiding Wayfinding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowden, Richard

    Environments for Aiding Wayfinding Behaviour 51 51 VR may be considered as the ultimate medium for producing of being and moving within a designed environment prior to its construction. This paper, howeverDesigning Space in Virtual Environments for Aiding Wayfinding Behaviour Dimitrios Charitos

  5. NASA Launches ATREX Space Network to Begin New Design Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    Design Phase - 8 Dual Frequency Radar Arrives at Goddard - 9 Goddard Community Visitor Center Hosts TitanNASA Launches ATREX Pg 3 Space Network to Begin New Design Phase Pg 8 Visitor Center Hosts Titan://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/goddard-view.html Managing Editor: Trusilla Steele Editor: John M. Putman News items for publication in Goddard View must

  6. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  7. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|SensitiveApril 2, 2014 Smith Named as NewAprilSpaceSpaceSpace

  8. A testing and HVAC design methodology for air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, P.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers were tested using ASHRAE Standard 84-1991 as a guide. Some changes are introduced for the test facility and methods of calculating effectiveness. ASME PTC 19.1-1985 is used as a guide for uncertainty analysis. Tests were done for a range of mass flux [1.574 to 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s)], ratios of mass flow rates (0.6 to 1.85), supply air temperatures ({minus}10 C to 40 C), and heat exchanger tilt angles ({minus}8.9{degree} to 11.2{degree}). Because humidity changes in the exhaust and supply air streams were negligible, only the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy was considered. Measured and calculated results show significant variations in the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy, and uncertainties with each independent variable. For balanced exhaust and supply flow rates at {minus}10 C supply air temperature and 1.574 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s) mass flux, the measured effectiveness for sensible and total energy was calculated to be 0.48 and 0.44, respectively, with uncertainties of 0.057 and 0.052. These measurements decreased to 0.42 and 0.37, with uncertainties of 0.016 and 0.018 for a mass flux of 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s). Because water vapor condensation effects were small or negligible, the difference between the effectiveness for the sensible and total energy was within the overlapping uncertainty range of each. Based on counterflow heat exchanger theory and convective heat transfer equations, expressions are presented to extrapolate the effectiveness data between and beyond the measured data points. These effectiveness equations, which represent the variation in effectiveness with several independent operating variables, are used for HVAC design that is aimed at achieving minimum life-cycle costs.

  9. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  10. Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 289297 Nuclear heating measurements for SS-316, copper, graphite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 289­297 Nuclear heating measurements for SS-316, copper for the reduction of design margins are stringently addressed in the design criteria. The uncertainty of the data base relevant to nuclear heating is considered as one of the most crucial problems in the designs

  11. Hierarchical Modeling for Population-Based Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David

    2013-01-01

    Figure 3.3: Heat exchanger core pressure drop. Adapted fromFigure 3.3: Heat exchanger core pressure drop. Adapted fromtotal pressure drop through a compact heat exchanger as ? P

  12. Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.

    2000-01-01

    , and oil preheaters. The heating requirements for these heat sinks are generally met by burning fossil fuels or even by using electric heaters while available waste heat is rejected to the surrounding environment using devices such as cooling towers...

  13. A Semi-Empirical Model for Porous Media Heat Exchanger Design Richard A. Wirtz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    A Semi-Empirical Model for Porous Media Heat Exchanger Design Richard A. Wirtz1 Mechanical-dimensional temperature Introduction Compact heat exchangers invariably incorporate heat transfer augmentation technology matrix at the fluid-solid interface of a compact heat exchanger will also enhance performance

  14. Optimum Design of Micro Bare-Tube Heat Exchanger Tomohisa OKU, Nobuhide KASAGI and Yuji SUZUKI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    , optimum design is made for three types of micro bare-tube heat exchangers, i.e., heater core and radiator2313 Optimum Design of Micro Bare-Tube Heat Exchanger Tomohisa OKU, Nobuhide KASAGI and Yuji SUZUKI@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Micro bare-tube heat exchangers can accomplish high performance and compactness with their simple

  15. School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Delta T optimisation of district heating network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Delta T optimisation of district heating of any network. Most existing district heating systems work at small (10-15 C) delta T. Although for the conventional and optimised design of the district heating network. The network operation will be simulated

  16. 1 Imbedded Heat Pipe Prototype Modelling, Design, and Construction for Particle Ac-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    1 Imbedded Heat Pipe Prototype Modelling, Design, and Construction for Particle Ac- celerator for predicting heat pipe performance has been generated and a design based on the results of that model has been implemented. A prototype heat pipe is under construction to test the validity of the model. The prototype

  17. Secondary heat exchanger design and comparison for advanced high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, P.; Kim, E. S.; Siahpush, A.; McKellar, M.; Patterson, M.

    2012-07-01

    Next generation nuclear reactors such as the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR) are designed to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers - helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger - as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with distributed load analysis and comparison. Comparison is provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations. (authors)

  18. Study and design of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ongena, J.; Messiaen, A.; Van Eester, D.; Schweer, B.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Kazakov, Ye. O.; Louche, F.; Vervier, M.; Koch, R.; Krivska, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Van Schoor, M.; Wauters, T. [Laboratory for Plasmaphysics, Ecole Royale Militaire–Koninklijke Militaire School, TEC Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Borsuk, V.; Neubauer, O.; Schmitz, O. [IEK-4/Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, TEC Partner, Juelich (Germany); Offermans, G. [ZEA-1, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Altenburg, Y.; Baylard, C. [Max-Planck Institute für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); and others

    2014-06-15

    The current status of the mechanical and electromagnetic design for the ICRF antenna system for W7-X is presented. Two antenna plugins are discussed: one consisting of a pair of straps with pre-matching to cover the first frequency band, 25–38 MHz, and a second one consisting of two short strap triplets to cover a frequency band around 76 MHz. This paper focusses on the two strap antenna for the lower frequency band. Power coupling of the antenna to a reference plasma profile is studied with the help of the codes TOPICA and Microwave Studio that deliver the scattering matrix needed for the optimization of the geometric parameters of the straps and antenna box. Radiation power spectra for different phasings of the two straps are obtained using the code ANTITER II and different heating scenario are discussed. The potential for heating, fast particle generation, and current drive is discussed. The problem of RF coupling through the plasma edge and of edge power deposition is summarized. Important elements of the complete ion cyclotron resonance heating system are discussed: a resonator circuit with tap feed to limit the maximum voltage in the system, and a decoupler to counterbalance the large mutual coupling between the 2 straps. The mechanical design highlights the challenges encountered with this antenna: adaptation to a large variety of plasma configurations, the limited space within the port to accommodate the necessary matching components and the watercooling needed for long pulse operation.

  19. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesAVideoSolar DecathlonSolid-StateManufacturing3Space

  20. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvestingRenewable Energy (EERE)NewslettersWaterSpace

  1. Design of compact intermediate heat exchangers for gas cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gezelius, Knut, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Two aspects of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for GFR service have been investigated: (1) the intrinsic characteristics of the proposed compact printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE); and (2) a specific design optimizing ...

  2. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  3. Bell Island Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation Beaufort County,Bel Air North,Bell County,Information Space

  4. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems, in, 2012. [15] F.Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings ofof radiant floor cooling systems and their associated air

  5. Hierarchical Modeling for Population-Based Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David

    2013-01-01

    transfer in tube banks in crossflow. [60] Zukauskas, A. ,law based optimisation of crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger

  6. DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR BUILDING AIRFLOW AND HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :..................................................................................................... 30 4.1.1 Heat Transfer and Transport Experiments: ............................................. 30 4 and Cold Walls .................................................................................. 34 #12;v

  7. Numerical approximation of bang-bang controls for the heat equation: an optimal design approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Numerical approximation of bang-bang controls for the heat equation: an optimal design approach computation of null controls of minimal L -norm for the linear heat equation with a bounded potential. Both and boundary controllability cases, are described within this new approach. Keywords: Linear heat equation

  8. Numerical approximation of bang-bang controls for the heat equation: an optimal design approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Numerical approximation of bang-bang controls for the heat equation: an optimal design approach approximation of null controls of minimal L -norm for the linear heat equation with a bounded potential. Both the internal and boundary controllability problem of a linear heat equation with a bounded potential. Let us

  9. DESIGN AND MODELING OF DISPATCHABLE HEAT STORAGE IN WIND/DIESEL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    and Industrial Engineering University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 ABSTRACT This paper discusses a heating to be uneconomical. End uses, such as heating and water pumping are certainly attractive and may be economic; while1 DESIGN AND MODELING OF DISPATCHABLE HEAT STORAGE IN WIND/DIESEL SYSTEMS Clint Johnson, Utama

  10. Non-Space Heating Electrical Consumption in Manufactured Homes: Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onisko, Stephen A.; Roos, Carolyn; Baylon, David

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes submeter data of the non-space heating electrical energy use in a sample of manufactured homes. These homes were built to Super Good Cents insulation standards in 1988 and 1989 under the auspices of RCDP Cycle 2 of the Bonneville Power Administration. They were designed to incorporate innovations in insulation and manufacturing techniques developed to encourage energy conservation in this important housing type. Domestic water heating (DWH) and other non-space heat energy consumption, however, were not generally affected by RCDP specifications. The purpose of this study is to establish a baseline for energy conservation in these areas and to present a method for estimating total energy saving benefits associated with these end uses. The information used in this summary was drawn from occupant-read submeters and manufacturersupplied specifications of building shell components, appliances and water heaters. Information was also drawn from a field review of ventilation systems and building characteristics. The occupant survey included a census of appliances and occupant behavior in these manufactured homes. A total of 150 manufactured homes were built under this program by eight manufacturers. An additional 35 homes were recruited as a control group. Of the original 185 houses, approximately 150 had some usable submeter data for domestic hot water and 126 had usable submeter data for all other nonheating consumption. These samples were used as the basis for all consumption analysis. The energy use characteristics of these manufactured homes were compared with that of a similar sample of RCDP site-built homes. In general, the manufactured homes were somewhat smaller and had fewer occupants than the site-built homes. The degree to which seasonal variations were present in non-space heat uses was reviewed.

  11. SPACE-R Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System: Design and Technology Demonstration Program. Semiannual technical progress report for period ending March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This Semiannual Technical Progress Report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments for the Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System (TI-SNPS) Design and Technology Demonstration Program of the Prime Contractor, Space Power Incorporated (SPI), its subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories during the first half of the Government Fiscal Year (GFY) 1993. SPI`s subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories include: Babcock & Wilcox for the reactor core and externals; Space Systems/Loral for the spacecraft integration; Thermocore for the radiator heat pipes and the heat exchanger; INERTEK of CIS for the TFE, core elements and nuclear tests; Argonne National Laboratories for nuclear safety, physics and control verification; and Oak Ridge National laboratories for materials testing. Parametric trade studies are near completion. However, technical input from INERTEK has yet to be provided to determine some of the baseline design configurations. The INERTEK subcontract is expected to be initiated soon. The Point Design task has been initiated. The thermionic fuel element (TFE) is undergoing several design iterations. The reactor core vessel analysis and design has also been started.

  12. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim

    2013-09-01

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  13. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2005-02-06

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called 'HPR-1'.

  14. Heat Transfer -1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with dimensions and properties given below. (a) Calculate the solar heat flux (W/m2 is at a distance where the solar heat flux (as defined above) is 500 W/m2 , and the flat plate is oriented

  15. Parameter spaces and design optimization of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C.

    1996-12-31

    In the last two decades thermoacoustic refrigerators were developed in research laboratories with the goal to understand the basic physics and thermodynamics of thermoacoustic heat pumping. These research efforts led to a good understanding of this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology that employs acoustic power to pump heat. Consequently the next step is to improve and optimize the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators and seek commercial applications. For this purpose, the need for fast and simple engineering estimates arises. By implementing the simplified linear model of thermoacoustic refrigerators--the short stack boundary layer approximation--such design estimates were derived and presented in this paper in the form of a design algorithm. Calculations obtained with this algorithm predict values for the Coefficient Of Performance (COP) of the order of 5 to 6. These values cannot be achieved at this time because of loss mechanisms in key parts of the thermoacoustic refrigerator, which are not quite understood yet. Nevertheless, these values are encouraging and gaining a better understanding of these loss mechanisms will be a big step towards the commercial market for this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology.

  16. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations.

  17. Constructal multi-scale package of vertical channels with natural convection and maximal heat transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW STRUCTURES-scale structures in natural convection with the objective of maximizing the heat transfer density, or the heat transfer rate per unit of volume§ . The flow volume is filled with vertical equidistant heated blades

  18. The Design of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Ground-coupled heat pumps are being installed in increasing numbers due to proven performance and economy. The overall thermal resistance between the ground coupling fluid and a given type of surrounding soil is affected by pipe material, wall...

  19. Nonlocal modeling and swarm-based design of heat sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, D; Catton, I

    2013-01-01

    fin heat sink found by the PSO after its a) first, b)Figure 3: Flow chart of PSO algorithm Figure 4: Evolution ofresistance during the a) PSO and b) GA optimizations of a

  20. Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Although the advantages of ground-source heat pumps over their conventional alternatives make these systems a very attractive choice for air conditioning, not only for residential buildings but increasingly also for institutional and commercial...

  1. Measurement and analysis of SPS kicker magnet heating and outgassing with Different Bunch Spacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, M J; Cornelis, K; Ducimetière, L; Mahner, E; Papotti, G; Rumolo, G; Senaj, V; Shaposhnikova, E

    2010-01-01

    Fast kicker magnets are used to inject beam into and eject beam out of the CERN SPS accelerator ring. These kickers are generally ferrite loaded transmission line type magnets with a rectangular shaped aperture through which the beam passes. Unless special precautions are taken the impedance of the ferrite yoke can provoke significant beam induced heating, over several hours, even above the Curie temperature of the ferrite. At present the nominal bunch spacing in the SPS is 25 ns, however for an early stage of LHC operation it is preferable to have 50 ns bunch spacing. Machine Development (MD) studies have been carried out with an inter-bunch spacing of 25 ns, 50 ns or 75 ns. For some of the SPS kicker magnets the 75 ns bunch spacing resulted in considerable beam induced heating. In addition the MDs showed that 50 ns bunch spacing could result in a very rapid pressure rise in the kicker magnet and thus cause an interlock. This paper discusses the MD observations of the SPS kickers and analyses the available d...

  2. Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration as Front End for Effective Space System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Adam M.

    The inability to approach systematically the high level of ambiguity present in the early design phases of space

  3. THERMAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW FLOW RATE SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    THERMAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR LOW FLOW RATE SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS-phase micro- channel heat sinks under a fixed liquid coolant flow rate. The parameters relevant to heat sink-channel dimensions corresponding to the prescribed dissipative heat flux and liquid coolant flow rate. Heat sink

  4. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water supply for multi-unit residential high rise of a project/report". #12;2 Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water

  5. Heat Exchanger Network Targeting, Design and Analysis: The MIDAS Package 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, I.; Jones, D. H.; Smith, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-87-09-07.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30705 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-87-09-07.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 HEAT EXCHANGER... of heat exchanger networks (HENs) has focused on the production of powerful, user-friendly software. Advanced optimization techniques, such as mixed integer non linear programming, have been added to established pinch procedures to increase...

  6. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  7. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  8. Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

  9. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thilo Schuldt; Christian Schubert; Markus Krutzik; Lluis Gesa Bote; Naceur Gaaloul; Jonas Hartwig; Holger Ahlers; Waldemar Herr; Katerine Posso-Trujillo; Jan Rudolph; Stephan Seidel; Thijs Wendrich; Wolfgang Ertmer; Sven Herrmann; André Kubelka-Lange; Alexander Milke; Benny Rievers; Emanuele Rocco; Andrew Hinton; Kai Bongs; Markus Oswald; Matthias Franz; Matthias Hauth; Achim Peters; Ahmad Bawamia; Andreas Wicht; Baptiste Battelier; Andrea Bertoldi; Philippe Bouyer; Arnaud Landragin; Didier Massonnet; Thomas Lévèque; Andre Wenzlawski; Ortwin Hellmig; Patrick Windpassinger; Klaus Sengstock; Wolf von Klitzing; Chris Chaloner; David Summers; Philip Ireland; Ignacio Mateos; Carlos F. Sopuerta; Fiodor Sorrentino; Guglielmo M. Tino; Michael Williams; Christian Trenkel; Domenico Gerardi; Michael Chwalla; Johannes Burkhardt; Ulrich Johann; Astrid Heske; Eric Wille; Martin Gehler; Luigi Cacciapuoti; Norman Gürlebeck; Claus Braxmaier; Ernst Rasel

    2014-12-08

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species $^{85}$Rb/$^{87}$Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for $10^{-11}$ mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (819 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

  10. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  11. Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    11 Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design H. Boyer applications are finally discussed. One concerns the modeling of a flat plate air collector and the second focuses on the modeling of Trombe solar walls. In each case, detailed modeling of heat transfer allows

  12. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  13. Negative heat capacity for a Klein-Gordon oscillator in non-commutative complex phase space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slimane Zaim; Hakim Guelmamene; Yazid Delenda

    2015-10-30

    We obtain exact solutions to the two-dimensional Klein-Gordon oscillator in a non-commutative complex phase space to first order in the non-commutativity parameter. We derive the exact non-commutative energy levels and show that the energy levels split to $2m$ levels. We find that the non-commutativity plays the role of a magnetic field interacting automatically with the spin of a particle induced by the non-commutativity of complex phase space. The effect of the non-commutativity parameter on the thermal properties is discussed. It is found that the dependence of the heat capacity $C_V$ on the non-commutative parameter gives rise to a negative quantity. Phenomenologically, this effectively confirms the presence of the effects of self-gravitation induced by the non-commutativity of complex phase space.

  14. Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

  15. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  16. Hierarchical Modeling for Population-Based Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the Stirling Engine Regenerator in anapproach to the design of Stirling engine regenerator matrixFoil Regenerator for Stirling Engines." [48] Ibrahim, M. ,

  17. Design Space Exploration with Automatic Selection of SW and HW for Embedded Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Flávio Rech

    Design Space Exploration with Automatic Selection of SW and HW for Embedded Applications Júlio C. B in a complex embedded systems design. Thus, with wide range of SW and HW IP solutions, the designer has several of software and hardware IP components for embedded applications. Design space exploration is achieved

  18. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  19. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  20. Table HC6.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices, Sales Volumes & Stocks9a.5 Space Heating

  1. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  2. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01

    methods for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summergas emission savings of ground source heat pump systems inheat exchangers for ground-source heat pumps: A literature

  3. Problems with Specifying Tmin in the Design of Processes with Heat Exchangers Jrgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Problems with Specifying Tmin in the Design of Processes with Heat Exchangers Jørgen Bauck Jensen exchangers may lead to wrong decisions and should be used with care when designing heat exchanger systems the resulting areas are installed. In addition, different U values for the heat exchangers are not easily

  4. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  5. A Dimension Space for Designing Richly Interactive Systems: a Perspective on the MagicBoards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigay, Laurence

    A Dimension Space for Designing Richly Interactive Systems: a Perspective on the Magic is intended to help designers understand both the physical and virtual entities from which their systems and informational density. The Dimension Space is applied to two new systems developed at Grenoble, exposing design

  6. Active Solar Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating...

  7. The Impact of Social Space Design on Students’ Behavioral Problems in Middle Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Raechel

    2011-08-08

    that is physically or emotionally harmful to another student, oneself, or school property (e.g., stealing, fighting and name-calling). For each space, design elements that were analyzed included seating, privacy, equipment, structure, and open space. Within one...

  8. Project title: Natural ventilation, solar heating and integrated low-energy building design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-10

    emissions targets. That is why the Cambridge-MIT Institute set up a project to design buildings that consume less energy. The Challenge Their work focuses on the design of energy efficient buildings that use natural ventilation processes, solar... Awards E-stack brings a breath of fresh air to UK schools HOME ABOUT US FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES PROJECTS EDUCATION NEWS EVENTS DOWNLOADS CONTACT US PROJECTS Natural Ventilation Solar Heating and Integrated Low-Energy Building Design SEARCH: Go Page 1...

  9. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  10. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  11. Design method of interaction techniques for large information spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigay, Laurence

    insights for the design of such techniques. Our design approach is based on ergonomic criteria that arose the ergonomic criteria. After the design of the interaction technique, the next step is software design. We establish links between our design rules/ergonomic criteria and the software architecture model. By applying

  12. $500,000 annually for heating and cooling prior to the installation of the PureComfortTM cooling, heating, and power system. Electrical power and space conditioning are now

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -fired boilers and a steam heating system, and supplements the remaining campus heating and cooling system$500,000 annually for heating and cooling prior to the installation of the PureComfortTM cooling, heating, and power system. Electrical power and space conditioning are now provided more efficiently

  13. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  14. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  15. Title: Optimal Design of Thermoelectric Generators for Low Grade Heat Recovery Developed by Dr. HoSung Lee on 12/15/2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Sung

    Title: Optimal Design of Thermoelectric Generators for Low Grade Heat Recovery Developed by Dr. Ho- grade waste heat recovery with the present optimal design. We consider low grade heat recovery from

  16. Heat recovery and seed recovery development project: preliminary design report (PDR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arkett, A. H.; Alexander, K. C.; Bolek, A. D.; Blackman, B. K.; Kurrle, P. E.; Tram, S. V.; Warren, A. M.; Ziobrowski, A. J.

    1981-06-01

    The preliminary design and performance characteristics are described of the 20 MWt heat recovery and seed recovery (HRSR) system to be fabricated, installed, and evaluated to provide a technological basis for the design of commercial size HRSR systems for coal-fired open-cycle MHD power plants. The system description and heat and material balances, equipment description and functional requirements, controls, interfacing systems, and operation and maintenance are detailed. Appendices include: (1) recommended environmental requirements for compliance with federal and state of Tennessee regulations, (2) channel and diffuser simulator, (3) equipment arrangement drawings, and (4) channel and diffuser simulator barrel drawings. (WHK)

  17. Using machine-learning to efficiently explore the architecture/compiler co-design space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubach, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Designing new microprocessors is a time consuming task. Architects rely on slow simulators to evaluate performance and a significant proportion of the design space has to be explored before an implementation is chosen. ...

  18. Geothermal space heating applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Final report, August 20, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birman, J.H.; Cohen, J.; Spencer, G.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a first-stage evaluation of the overall feasibility of utilizing geothermal waters from the Madison aquifer in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana for space heating are reported. A preliminary assessment of the resource characteristics, a preliminary design and economic evaluation of a geothermal heating district and an analysis of environmental and institutional issues are included. Preliminary investigations were also made into possible additional uses of the geothermal resource, including ethanol production. The results of the resource analysis showed that the depth to the top of the Madison occurs at approximately 5,500 feet at Poplar, and the Madison Group is characterized by low average porosity (about 5 percent) and permeability (about 0.004 gal/day-ft), and by hot water production rates of a few tens of gallons per minute from intervals a few feet thick. The preliminary heating district system effort for the town of Poplar included design heat load estimates, a field development concept, and preliminary design of heat extraction and hot water distribution systems. The environmental analysis, based on current data, indicated that resource development is not expected to result in undue impacts. The institutional analysis concluded that a Tribal geothermal utility could be established, but no clear-cut procedure can be identified without a more comprehensive evaluation of legal and jurisdistional issues. The economic evaluation found that, if the current trend of rapidly increasing prices for fossil fuels continues, a geothermal heating district within Poplar could be a long-term, economically attractive alternative to current energy sources.

  19. Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process Heat Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman

    2007-10-01

    The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon heat transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. Heat transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the heat transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process heat, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The production of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production requires both heat at higher temperatures (up to 1000oC) and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact heat exchanger is to maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900oC, based on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen production plant. Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE’s) have superior heat transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, heat losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change heat transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral Heat Exchanger.

  20. Global Optimization for the Design of Space Trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-11-21

    Lambert's problem and arc Given two points in space and the time of flight between ... points can be calculated by solving a Lambert's problem, which basically.

  1. The use of visual comfort metrics in the design of daylit spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakubiec, John Alstan

    2014-01-01

    It is desirable to design buildings with natural daylight and views to the outside, which can maximize passive solar heating, minimize electric lighting use and contribute to feelings of wellbeing and awareness. Unfortunately, ...

  2. Visual analysis design to support research into movement and use of space in Tallinn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visual analysis design to support research into movement and use of space in Tallinn: A case study-user friendly design and very high demand for monitoring tools in the urban planning process. · The design. · The design for comparison tasks is good to motivate suitable research questions for further analyses Qiuju

  3. A Dimension Space for the Design of Interactive Systems within their Physical Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigay, Laurence

    A Dimension Space for the Design of Interactive Systems within their Physical Environments T their systems are built, and the tradeoffs involved in both the design of the entities themselves at Grenoble, exposing design tradeoffs and design rules for richly interactive systems. Keywords Dimension

  4. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  5. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  6. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  7. The Configuration Space Method for Kinematic Design of Elisha Sacks and Leo Joskowicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskowicz, Leo

    .2 Tolerance Analysis 100 6.3 Algorithms for Kinematic Pairs 103 6.4 Algorithms for Mechanisms 107 6.5 NotesThe Configuration Space Method for Kinematic Design of Mechanisms Elisha Sacks and Leo Joskowicz­ The configuration space method for kinematic design of mechanisms / Elisha Sacks and Leo Joskowicz. p. cm. Includes

  8. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: Afor ground-source heat pumps: A literature review,

  9. Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 549553 Numerical analysis of MHD flow and heat transfer in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 549­553 Numerical analysis of MHD flow and heat transfer January 2006 Abstract MHD flow and heat transfer have been analyzed for a front poloidal channel blanket; Magnetohydrodynamics; Heat transfer 1. Introduction Using flow channel inserts (FCIs) made

  10. Design and optimization of lightweight space telescope structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Andrzej Matthew

    2007-01-01

    As mankind attempts to look deeper into the universe, increasingly larger space telescopes will be needed to achieve the levels of resolution required to perform these missions. Due to this increase in size, increasing ...

  11. Mechanical counter-pressure space suit design using active materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to greatly improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities; however, the underlying technologies required to provide ...

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF MISSION DESIGN FOR CONSTRAINED LIBRATION POINT SPACE MISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    or force perturbations by the full space environment (e.g. solar radiation pressure). Trajectory Samantha I. Infeld December 2005 Revision Date: December 16, 2005 #12;Copyright c 2006 by Samantha I

  13. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  14. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  15. The development of design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass based on the glass failure prediction model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Timothy Andrew

    1991-01-01

    - strengthened and tempered glass are then used for determining the design load after the annealed glass design load is calculated. The widely accepted design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass are 2. 0 and 4. 0 respectively. The traditional...-STRENGTHENED AND TEMPERED GLASS DESIGN FACTOR TABLES LOWEST FACTOR WITHIN ASPECT RATIO CHARTS . . . . . . . ~ . ~ . ~ 193 VITA 212 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Typical stress profile of tempered and heat-strengthened glass Figure 2 Expected wind velocities on a 50...

  16. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  17. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerof solar combined heat and power systems . . . . . . .

  18. Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.

  19. Design Space Exploration of incompletely specified Embedded Systems by Genetic Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huss, Sorin A.

    Design Space Exploration of incompletely specified Embedded Systems by Genetic Algorithms Stephan Germany Abstract Due to their growing complexity embedded systems are no longer designed from scratch. Therefore, a design methodology is necessary which allows to reuse existing submodules in combination

  20. Subcontract Report: Modular Combined Heat & Power System for Utica College: Design Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, Greg

    2007-09-01

    Utica College, located in Utica New York, intends to install an on-site power/cogeneration facility. The energy facility is to be factory pre-assembled, or pre- assembled in modules, to the fullest extent possible, and ready to install and interconnect at the College with minimal time and engineering needs. External connections will be limited to fuel supply, electrical output, potable makeup water as required and cooling and heat recovery systems. The proposed facility will consist of 4 self-contained, modular Cummins 330kW engine generators with heat recovery systems and the only external connections will be fuel supply, electrical outputs and cooling and heat recovery systems. This project was eventually cancelled due to changing DOE budget priorities, but the project engineers produced this system design specification in hopes that it may be useful in future endeavors.

  1. Organism of options : a design strategy for flexible space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Young-Ju, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The need for "flexibility" of architecture has been increasing as recent social demands are rapidly changing. However, many buildings designed in the name of flexibility are blocky, boring, and actually quite inflexible ...

  2. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  3. A Study of Wind Energy Use for Space Heating in Prince Edward Island1 Larry Hughes, Mandeep Dhaliwal, Aaron Long, Nikita Sheth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200605 A Study of Wind Energy Use for Space Heating in Prince Edward Island1 Larry Hughes in June 2006. #12;Hughes, Dhaliwal, Long, Sheth: Wind for space heating 1 Abstract Prince Edward Island, or other energy sources, are at the mercy of rapidly changing energy prices. Prince Edward Island

  4. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    floor area, and consume the most energy in the commercialheating energy, while the Low Heating cases consume less

  5. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  6. Structural design of a lunar lander spacecraft for the Texas space grant regolith oxygen production experiment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baccus, Ronald Kregg

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is the determination of a structural design for the lunar lander spacecraft currently being developed by the Texas Space Grant Consortium to transport a regolith oxygen production experiment to the surface of the moon...

  7. Environmental design guidelines for a second generation, LEO, permanently manned space station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, David Michael, 1960-

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the thoughts and efforts of the author's participation and co-organization of the Space Station Design Workshop (SSDW). The SSDW was a student run event whose inception surfaced in the ...

  8. Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Considering a heating/cooling coil with adjustable heat-exchange area, an unequal type is put forward in this paper. Aiming at the application of such heat exchanger in an air-handling unit, restriction conditions are given for the minimum heat...

  9. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will be performed to develop probability of confidence in what is measured in the test loop. Overall, the testing loop will allow development of needed heat transfer related thermophysical parameters for all the salts, validate existing correlations, validate measuring instruments under harsh environment, and have extensive corrosion testing of materials of construction.

  10. Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mylavarapu, Sai K.; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Glosup, Richard E.; Unocic, Raymond R

    2012-01-01

    The very high temperature reactor (VHTR), using gas-cooled reactor technology, is one of the six reactor concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum and is anticipated to be the reactor type for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP). In this type of reactor with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to secondary fluid for electricity production, process heat, or hydrogen cogeneration. The current Technology Readiness Level status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reactor core outlet temperatures of 750-800oC is 3 on a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the most ready. At present, there is no proven high-temperature IHX concept for VHTRs. Amongst the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP is the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, two PCHEs were fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and will be experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The HTHF was primarily designed and constructed to test the thermal-hydraulic performance of PCHEs The test facility is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800oC and 3 MPa, respectively. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical machining and diffusion bonding are briefly discussed for Alloy 617 plates. Diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 plates with and without a Ni interlayer is discussed. Furthermore, preliminary microstructural and mechanical characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented.

  11. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Menguc, Thermal radiation heat transfer, CRC Press, 2011.convection and radiation heat transfer are compared to theused for this study. Radiation Heat Transfer In the ASHRAE

  12. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2009-01-01

    of convection and radiation heat transfer and developconvection and radiation heat transfer in three dimensionsaccount for 3- D radiation heat transfer on indoor surfaces.

  13. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2009-01-01

    free convection. In: Heat Transfer and Turbulent Buoyantof convection heat transfer and develop correlations.and radiation heat transfer and develop correlations for

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  15. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  16. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  17. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  18. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed

  19. ON THE ROLE OF THERMOELECTRIC HEAT TRANSFER IN THE DESIGN OF SMA ACTUATORS: THEORETICAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON THE ROLE OF THERMOELECTRIC HEAT TRANSFER IN THE DESIGN OF SMA ACTUATORS: THEORETICAL MODELING theoretical/experimentalstudy of the heat transferin thermoelectricShape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators is undertaken in this paper. A one-dimensional model of a thermoelectric unit cell with a SMA junction

  20. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but ...

  1. Design of an experimental loop for post-LOCA heat transfer regimes in a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran, Peter A. (Peter Andrew)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to design an experimental thermal-hydraulic loop capable of generating accurate, reliable data in various convection heat transfer regimes for use in the formulation of a comprehensive convection ...

  2. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  3. "Table HC11.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Very Little or None",24.7,3.2,2.2,1 "Type of Supplemental Heating Equipment Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"N","N","N" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,"Q","Q","Q" "SteamHot Water...

  4. "Table HC13.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Very Little or None",24.7,8.5,3.9,2.2,2.4 "Type of Supplemental Heating Equipment Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,0.4,0.3,"Q","N" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.7,0.3,0.2,"Q" "SteamHot...

  5. "Table HC10.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Very Little or None",24.7,3.2,6.9,8.5,6.1 "Type of Supplemental Heating Equipment Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"N","Q",0.4,"Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,"Q",0.9,0.7,0.6 "SteamHot...

  6. "Table HC14.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Very Little or None",24.7,6.1,2,4.1 "Type of Supplemental Heating Equipment Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"Q","N","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.6,"Q",0.5 "SteamHot Water...

  7. "Table HC12.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Very Little or None",24.7,6.9,4.7,2.2 "Type of Supplemental Heating Equipment Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"Q","Q","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.9,0.5,0.3 "SteamHot Water...

  8. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  9. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  10. Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Matthew

    We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

  11. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01

    energy use includes hot- water energy consumed by the reheatemissions, water usage, renewable energy, etc. EnergyPlus iswater heating, and plug-loads, the key driving factors of a building’s total energy

  12. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    experimental data, Energy and Buildings 36, 543-555. O.G.consumption for heating, Energy and Buildings 43, 2662-2672.reduction for a net zero energy building, ACEEE Summer Study

  13. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant FloorBauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant FloorBauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor

  14. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    7] B. Borresen, Floor heating and cooling of an atrium, in:thermal performance of floor heating systems, Solar Energy,discussed this issue for floor heating, but not cooling.

  15. A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimization program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;ABSTRACT A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimization program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency heat pumps. The method used allows efficiency of conventional heat pumps, ten variables were optimized while heating capacity was fixed

  16. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  17. Design and Testing of a Heat Transfer Model of a Raccon (Procyon Lotor) in a Closed Tree Den Author(s): Jeffrey Thorkelson and Robert K. Maxwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Design and Testing of a Heat Transfer Model of a Raccon (Procyon Lotor) in a Closed Tree Den Author. http://www.jstor.org #12;Ecology (1974) 55: pp. 29-39 DESIGN AND TESTING OF A HEAT TRANSFER MODEL of Ecology and Behavioral Biology, Universityof Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101 Aabstract. A heat

  18. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerin parabolic trough solar power technology. Journal of Solar

  19. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  20. The Design and Performance of SpaceWire Router-network using CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    The Design and Performance of SpaceWire Router-network using CSP Session:Components Short Paper the point of view of robustness and security using CSP (Communication Sequential Processes) method, one Correspondong author:fukunaga@tmu.ac.jp 1 Occam has been originally developed by Inmos Limited inspired by CSP[3

  1. Negative heat capacity for a Klein-Gordon oscillator in non-commutative complex phase space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaim, Slimane

    2015-01-01

    We obtain exact solutions of the two-dimensionl Klein-Gordon oscillator in a noncommutative (NC) complex phase space up to the first order of noncommutativity parameter. We derive the exact non-commutative energy levels and show that the energy is shifted to 2m levels. We have found that the non-commutativity plays the role of a magnetic field interacting automatically with the spin of a particle indused by the noncommutativity of complex phase space. The effect of the NC parameters on thermal properties was discussed. It is found that the dependence of C{V} on the non-commutative parameters gives rise to a negative quantity. Phenomenologically, this effectively confirms the presence the effects of a self-gravitating induced by the non-commutativity of complex phase space.

  2. Integration of Low Energy Technologies for Optimal Building and Space Conditioning Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.E. Fisher

    2006-01-07

    EnergyPlus is the DOE's newest building energy simulation engine. It was developed specifically to support the design of low energy building systems. This project focused on developing new low energy building simulation models for EnergyPlus, verifying and validating new and existing EnergyPlus models and transferring the new technology to the private sector. The project focused primarily on geothermal and radiant technologies, which are related by the fact that both are based on hydronic system design. As a result of this project eight peer reviewed journal and conference papers were added to the archival literature and five technical reports were published as M.S. theses and are available in the archival literature. In addition, several reports, including a trombe wall validation report were written for web publication. Thirteen new or significantly enhanced modules were added to the EnergyPlus source code and forty-two new or significantly enhanced sections were added to the EnergyPlus documentation as a result of this work. A low energy design guide was also developed as a pedagogical tool and is available for web publication. Finally several tools including a hybrid ground source heat pump optimization program and a geothermal heat pump parameter estimation tool were developed for research and design and are available for web publication.

  3. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  4. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  5. A Real Options Framework for Space Mission Design Andrew A. Gray, Payman Arabshahi, Elisabeth Lamassoure, Clayton Okino, Jason Andringa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arabshahi, Payman

    1 A Real Options Framework for Space Mission Design Andrew A. Gray, Payman Arabshahi, Elisabeth,payman,elama,okino, andringa}@jpl.nasa.gov Abstract--a real options framework for use in space mission design is presented that the flexibility provides; in this application the real options framework becomes a powerful tool. The utility

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  7. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  8. Modeling and design of perforated prosthetic sockets ARCHM to increase heat transfer of residual limbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbajal, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Heat build-up in prosthetic sockets is a significant problem experienced by many amputees in America, with no central solution in sight. Heat and discomfort accounts for over 70% of problems experienced by lower limb ...

  9. Effects of installing economizers in boilers used in space heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Medina, M.A.; Schruben, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses how the performance of a boiler can be improved by adding an economizer to preheat the boiler's feedwater. An energy analysis was applied to a boiler and then to both a boiler and an economizer (water pre-heater) to evaluate the benefits of heat recovery. Exergy rates calculated for both the boiler and the economizer determined that the temperature of the stack gases had primary effects on the performance of a boiler. The results from this study showed that 57% of the heat rejected at the boiler's stack could be recovered by installing an economizer to preheat the feedwater. As a result, the average cost savings that would be realized for a 36,400 kg/h (80,000 lbm/h) boiler averages US$8 per hour. The cost savings to steam production averaged US$0.20 per 455 kg (1,000 lbm) of steam and the ration between the cost savings to stack temperature averaged $0.02 per C (1.8 F). For this case, the fuel and the cost savings realized from using an economizer were averaged at 3.8% and 3.7%, respectively. These results translated to total cost savings, for an eight-day period considered, of US$940.

  10. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities

  11. Theoretical Design of Thermosyphon for Process Heat Transfer from NGNP to Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ~ 1300K) and industrial scale power transport (=50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization / condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e. without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) or vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  12. Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    ) for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration (A/C­R) applications. Adsorber beds should be specificallyAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Conversion

  13. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  14. Optimization of heat exchanger design in a thermoacoustic engine using a second law analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishikawa, H.; Hobson, P.A.

    1996-05-01

    An analysis for the time averaged entropy generation due to both flow and heat transfer losses in the heat exchangers of a thermoacoustic engine has been developed. An expression for the optimum dimensionless heat exchanger area corresponding to minimum entropy generation has been determined in terms of three other dimensionless parameters. Optimum heat exchanger areas were calculated for three thermoacoustic devices. For the prime mover components of the thermoacoustic devices investigated where the temperature differences across the regenerator stacks were high, the analysis developed indicated that the heat exchanger at the hot end of the regenerator stack should be smaller than that at the cold end.

  15. Expert Meeting Report. Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-06-01

    This Building America expert meeting was held on 7/31/2011, in Westford, Massachusetts. Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  16. "Table HC11.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional3 Housing24 Space

  17. Conceptual Design Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Tower Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Chad

    2002-07-18

    The main objective of this work was to develop a conceptual design and engineering prototype for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) tower structure. This thesis describes the conceptual design of a GLAST tower and the fabrication and testing of a prototype tower tray. The requirements were that the structure had to support GLAST's delicate silicon strip detector array through ground handling, launch and in orbit operations as well as provide for thermal and electrical pathways. From the desired function and the given launch vehicle for the spacecraft that carries the GLAST detector, an efficient structure was designed which met the requirements. This thesis developed in three stages: design, fabrication, and testing. During the first stage, a general set of specifications was used to develop the initial design, which was then analyzed and shown to meet or exceed the requirements. The second stage called for the fabrication of prototypes to prove manufacturability and gauge cost and time estimates for the total project. The last step called for testing the prototypes to show that they performed as the analysis had shown and prove that the design met the requirements. As a spacecraft engineering exercise, this project required formulating a solution based on engineering judgment, analyzing the solution using advanced engineering techniques, then proving the validity of the design and analysis by the manufacturing and testing of prototypes. The design described here met all the requirements set out by the needs of the experiment and operating concerns. This strawman design is not intended to be the complete or final design for the GLAST instrument structure, but instead examines some of the main challenges involved and demonstrates that there are solutions to them. The purpose of these tests was to prove that there are solutions to the basic mechanical, electrical and thermal problems presented with the GLAST project.

  18. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2005-01-01

    Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage ‡ Afzal Sgeneration unit with heat recovery for space and watergeneration unit with heat recovery for space and water

  19. MEASURED SPACE CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE OFA VERTICAL-BORE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP) OVER TWELVE MONTHS UNDER SIMULATED OCCUPANCY LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 7.56 kW (2.16 ton) GSHP serving the space conditioning loads of a 251m2 (2700ft2) residential home with a phase change material in its envelope, and a single vertical-bore 94.5m (310 ft) ground loop. The same ground loop also serviced a ground source heat pump water heater. Envelope characteristics are discussed briefly in the context of reducing thermal losses. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, energy delivered/removed, compressor electricity use, COP, GSHP run times (low and high compressor stages), and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Both practical as well as research and development issues are discussed. The findings suggest that GSHPs represent a practical technology option to reduce source energy reduction and greenhouse emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 target of generating over 25% of heat consumed in the EU from renewable energy.

  20. Energy Efficiency Supporting Policy and Heat Pumping Technology in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    conservation 4 Feature ( Newly developed) Design for CO2 refrigerant Compressor for high pressure Counter flow Heat exchanger Over 15 manufactures have taken part in the markets ever since. Owing to newly developed feature Counter flow Heat exchanger Heat pump unit Storage tank Ref: TEPCO Website Ref: HPTCJ HP Space

  1. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  3. Design Report for the ½ Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisowski, D. D.; Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Bremer, N.; Aeschlimann, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  4. Design and construction of a Helmholtz coil apparatus for nanoparticle heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenstein, Jessica A. (Jessica Ann)

    2006-01-01

    Manipulating biomolecules can lead to better understanding how specific biological components function and can result in new therapeutic techniques. Biomolecules are manipulated by magnetically heating conductive nanoparticles ...

  5. The Design of an Open Rankine-Cycle Industrial Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Chaudoir, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    from a simulated 150?F clean waste water stream. The plant is based on the Open-Dpen? heat pump concept, i.e., no system evapo rator or condenser. The water vapor is generated by a flash evaporation process. In this heat pump system, shown... schematically in Figure 2, the waste stream supplies the heat energy for the system and also serves as the heat pump working flUid. The waste water stream is directed to a flash evapo rator, where approximately 0.5 to 1% of the stream is vaporized...

  6. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    shaded regions represent power generation costs . . 11 Heat-against conventional power generation technologies when thephotovoltaic and wind power generation have recently seen

  7. Hypermodular Self-Assembling Space Solar Power -- Design Option for Mid-Term GEO Utility-Scale Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitgab, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a design for scaleable space solar power systems based on free-flying reflectors and module self-assembly. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by design independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly or transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study describe a design for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  8. Design considerations of a 15kW heat exchanger for the CSPonD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adames, Adrian A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a 15 kW heat exchanger model for the CSPonD molten salt receiver that will shuttle the molten salt's thermal energy for conversion to electric power. A heat extraction system ...

  9. Heat sink design considerations in medium power electronic applications with long power cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744611; Thiringer, Torbjörn; Bongiorno, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of the heat sink thickness and material, as well as, of the convection coefficient of the water cooling system on the power-electronics module thermal stressing. The heat extraction capability of different thicknesses is tested. It is concluded that the thickest heat sink results in marginally lower temperature variation at the junction level compared to the second thickest one. In the thickest heat sink case, the linear dependence of the thermal resistance on the thickness counteracts the benefit of the increased thermal capacitance. The increase in the cooling medium flow rate, which corresponds to an increase in the convection coefficient between the heat sink bottom surface and the water, can be avoided by increasing the thickness of the heat sink. In this way, the energy consumption of the cooling system is reduced. The increase in the flow rate drastically reduces the thermal stressing in the thinnest heat sink case. The increase of the heat sink thickne...

  10. Materials technology assessment for a 1050 K Stirling Space Engine design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheuermann, C.M.; Dreshfield, R.L.; Gaydosh, D.J.; Kiser, J.D.; MacKay, R.A.; McDanels, D.L.; Petrasek, D.W.; Vannucci, R.D.; Bowles, K.J.; Watson, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    An assessment of materials technology and proposed materials selection was made for the 1050 K (superalloy) Stirling Space Engine design. The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate previously proposed materials selections, evaluate the current state-of-the-art materials, propose potential alternate materials selections and identify research and development efforts needed to provide materials that can meet the stringent system requirements. This assessment generally reaffirmed the choices made by the contractor; however, in many cases alternative choices were described and suggestions for needed materials and fabrication research and development were made.

  11. Final Report for "Design calculations for high-space-charge beam-to-RF conversion".

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David N Smithe

    2008-10-17

    Accelerator facility upgrades, new accelerator applications, and future design efforts are leading to novel klystron and IOT device concepts, including multiple beam, high-order mode operation, and new geometry configurations of old concepts. At the same time, a new simulation capability, based upon finite-difference “cut-cell” boundaries, has emerged and is transforming the existing modeling and design capability with unparalleled realism, greater flexibility, and improved accuracy. This same new technology can also be brought to bear on a difficult-to-study aspect of the energy recovery linac (ERL), namely the accurate modeling of the exit beam, and design of the beam dump for optimum energy efficiency. We have developed new capability for design calculations and modeling of a broad class of devices which convert bunched beam kinetic energy to RF energy, including RF sources, as for example, klystrons, gyro-klystrons, IOT's, TWT’s, and other devices in which space-charge effects are important. Recent advances in geometry representation now permits very accurate representation of the curved metallic surfaces common to RF sources, resulting in unprecedented simulation accuracy. In the Phase I work, we evaluated and demonstrated the capabilities of the new geometry representation technology as applied to modeling and design of output cavity components of klystron, IOT's, and energy recovery srf cavities. We identified and prioritized which aspects of the design study process to pursue and improve in Phase II. The development and use of the new accurate geometry modeling technology on RF sources for DOE accelerators will help spark a new generational modeling and design capability, free from many of the constraints and inaccuracy associated with the previous generation of “stair-step” geometry modeling tools. This new capability is ultimately expected to impact all fields with high power RF sources, including DOE fusion research, communications, radar and other defense applications.

  12. Effect of rib spacing on heat transfer and friction in a rotating two-pass rectangular (AR=1:2) channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yao-Hsien

    2006-10-30

    The research focuses on testing the heat transfer enhancement in a channel for different spacing of the rib turbulators. Those ribs are put on the surface in the two pass rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of AR=1:2. ...

  13. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    Definitions Space Heating Space Cooling Hot Water . .in Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Section C: Program GoalSpace Heating Space Cooling Section G: Task Classifications

  14. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Game Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4.1 Designlevel Design Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Design of organic Rankine cycles for conversion of waste heat in a polygeneration plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiGenova, Kevin (Kevin J.)

    2011-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycles provide an alternative to traditional steam Rankine cycles for the conversion of low grade heat sources, where steam cycles are known to be less efficient and more expensive. This work examines organic ...

  16. The Design of Novel Microwave-Heated Reaction Cells for Infrared Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silverwood, Ian P

    Two novel microreactor cells for the investigation of catalysts by in-situ infrared spectroscopy under microwave and conventional heating are presented. A transmission infrared microreactor cell is demonstrated which ...

  17. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    Performance-Cost analysis of solar combined heat and powerCHP system where the solar field cost is split between thea predicted levelized solar thermal cost of $0.03/kWh, this

  18. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    a direct comparison of EnergyPlus simulated radiation heatStandards, 1983. [19] DOE, EnergyPlus Engineering Reference,as the ratio of the EnergyPlus simulated radiant cooling

  19. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    2009, May). Solar heat worldwide: Markets and contributionis a large proven market for solar energy. With widespreadSolar Rankine thermodynamics matches California demand To get a first approximation of the market

  20. Design and Operation of Fluid Beds for Heating, Cooling and Quenching Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A commercial foundry has been established which makes extensive use of fluid beds in the production of heat treated alloy steel castings. The castings are cooled immediately after solidification by fluidizing the mold sand in which they were cast...

  1. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  2. Recovery act. Development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shaojie; Ellis, Dan

    2014-05-29

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  3. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  4. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-05-14

    We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

  5. Experiments on transformation thermodynamics: Molding the flow of heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schittny, Robert; Guenneau, Sebastien; Wegener, Martin

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been shown theoretically that the time-dependent heat conduction equation is form-invariant under curvilinear coordinate transformations. Thus, in analogy to transformation optics, fictitious transformed space can be mapped onto (meta-)materials with spatially inhomogeneous and anisotropic heat-conductivity tensors in the laboratory space. On this basis, we design, fabricate, and characterize a micro-structured thermal cloak that molds the flow of heat around an object in a metal plate. This allows for transient protection of the object from heating, while maintaining the same downstream heat flow as without object and cloak.

  6. Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

    2007-01-01

    The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 147 7 20 20 3 64 1 5 3 7 16 Principal Building Activity Education ... 109 4 22 24 3 33 (*) 5 1 9 6 Food Sales...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Concrete (Block or Poured) ... 89.9 31.3 7.2 5.8 7.5 18.6 2.4 6.7 Q 1.7 7.7 Concrete Panels ... 101.7 33.3 8.0 7.1 5.5 28.3 1.5 3.3 1.6 4.3 8.8 Siding or...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    or Shingles ... 37.7 2.3 4.2 3.4 0.9 12.3 0.5 7.2 0.9 1.4 4.5 Metal Panels ... 40.3 1.6 3.3 4.8 0.5 16.3 Q 6.0 0.5 1.5 5.7 Window...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    890 34 116 113 15 335 6 104 19 43 105 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 113 5 13 5 3 27 2 40 2 3 11 5,001 to 10,000 ......

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    119 2 2 10 Food Service ... 217 10 28 24 10 42 13 70 2 2 15 Health Care ... 248 6 34 42 2 105 1 8 4 10 36 Inpatient...

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 100 Operators:3,037

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 100

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 167 481 436

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 167 481 436

  16. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 167 481 436

  17. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 167 481

  18. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 167

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 167

  20. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 167

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 16748.0 1.8

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 16748.0

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559 16748.0890

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 1003,559Released:

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop

  10. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

    1993-04-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  11. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    in solar thermal electricity technology. Solar Energy 76(1-solar energy is ubiquitous, and valuable when converted to high-grade heat or electricity.electricity in a natural gas, coal or nuclear power plant can instead harness solar energy

  12. Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|SensitiveApril 2, 2014 Smith Named as NewAprilSpace

  13. Prototype secondary mirror assembly design for the space infrared telescope facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.; Krim, M.

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe their design of a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) under development for the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program. The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate below 4 K and provide the functions of highly precise 2-axis dynamic tilting (chopping) in addition to the conventional functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. Their PSMA design employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminium cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feedback provided by pairs of differential position sensors. The voice coil actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass enhancing servo system stability and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose dimensional characteristics are nominally identical to that of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a six degree of freedom focus and centering mechanism using pivoted actuation levers driven by lead screw/harmonic drive/stepper motor assemblies.

  14. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  15. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  16. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4oC and 21.7oC, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.

  17. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced helical screw-tape inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-02-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)

  18. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  19. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  20. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  1. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Paradigm Shift in Design for NASA's Space Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    , given the extended life-cycle of the project, how can one architect a space exploration system implications of NASA's new space exploration initiative at the value, system architecture and vehicle levels

  2. Spacecraft design-for-demise strategy, analysis and impact on low earth orbit space missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waswa, M. B. Peter (Peter Moses Bweya)

    2009-01-01

    Uncontrolled reentry into the Earth atmosphere by LEO space missions whilst complying with stipulated NASA Earth atmospheric reentry requirements is a vital endeavor for the space community to pursue. An uncontrolled reentry ...

  3. COUPLING CONSTRAINT BOUNDARY MAPPING IN THE PROCESS DESIGN PARAMETER SPACE WITH COMMERCIAL PROCESS SIMULATOR TO ESTIMATE PROCESS DESIGN RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Elim Rosalva

    2010-01-25

    design and an evaluation of the safety factor effectiveness in increasing reliability would identify which equipment is unnecessarily oversized, which is critically undersized and which uncertainties are the principal contributors to low reliability...

  4. PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer General Electric Company Space Division King of Prussia, Pa. ABSTRACT A heat activated heat pump (HAHP by the heat pump effect. The Stirling engine/Rankine cycle refrigeration loop heat pump being developed would

  5. Earth Planets Space, 57, 895902, 2005 Short time-scale heating of the Earth's mantle by ice-sheet dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    -scale energy transfer from the ice sheet loading and unloading processes to the Earth's interior via viscous flow can represent a non-negligible mantle energy source with cryogenic origins. Volumetric heating rebound. 1. Introduction The Earth is a nonlinear dynamical system with a fluid atmosphere and oceans

  6. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01

    energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility...

  7. Increased confidence in concept design through trade space exploration and multiobjective optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odegard, Ryan Glenn

    2008-01-01

    The growing size, complexity and demands of engineering systems requires paying greater attention to the initial design of the system concept. To improve the process by which concept design is carried out, this thesis ...

  8. Low-Impact Air-to-Ground Free-Space Optical Communication System Design and First Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Geday, Morten A; Sanchez-Pena, Jose M; Oton, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    An air-to-ground free-space optical communication system has been designed and partially developed. The design covers both the communications between the airborne and the ground station, and the acquisition, tracking and pointing. A strong effort has been made in order to achieve the minimum payload power, size and weight, for which a MEMS modulating retroreflector has been chosen. In the ground station, a new technique for fine pointing, based on a liquid crystal device, is proposed and will be demonstrated, as well as other improvements with the aim of optimizing the ground station performance.

  9. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because...

  10. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Design of a Personalized Lighting Control System Enabled by a Space Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, G.; Petrushevski, F.; Sipetic, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a research effort to develop a prototype of a personalized lighting control system that adjusts the visual environment based on user preferences. Lighting controllers query a space model to retrieve lighting objects...

  12. Design and fabrication of a test apparatus for lightweight flexible space modules for assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harlan, Andrew R. (Andrew Ryan)

    2007-01-01

    Future space missions will require the on-orbit construction of large structures, such as solar arrays and telescopes. Currently, on-orbit construction and maintenance work is primarily accomplished by astronauts, during ...

  13. On the articulation and the synthesis of space in architectural and urban design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arioka, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    The problem of observer in contemporary physics, or Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty and Einstein's theory of relativity had considerable strong impact on our notion of time and space. We are in the irreversible arrow ...

  14. Gain-scheduled controller design for load-following in static space nuclear power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbasioglu, Fetiye Ozlem

    1993-01-01

    The use of shunt regulators for load-following of proposed static space nuclear power systems (SNPSS) raises a number of concerns, such as the possibility of a failure in the shunt regulators requiring reactor shutdown, or the possible need...

  15. Integrated modeling to facilitate control architecture design for lightweight space telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohan, Lucy Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis it to examine the effects of utilizing control to better meet performance and systematic requirements of future space telescopes. New telescope systems are moving toward tighter optical performance ...

  16. Front/back/side : design of outdoor spaces for multi-family residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darden, Gwynne

    1996-01-01

    This thesis begins with the critique of the current situation of detached, privately owned, multi-family residences and seeks alternative solutions at both the broad scale of the block, and at the scale of the spaces ...

  17. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  18. Exploration and assessment of the environmental design space for commercial aircraft and future technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barter, Garrett E. (Garrett Ehud), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Design and regulatory initiatives for aircraft noise and emissions should appreciate the integrated nature of the aircraft system. The computational ability exists to consider environmental and traditional performance ...

  19. Title: Optimal Design of a Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating for Car Seat Comfort Developed by Dr. HoSung Lee on 10/18/2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Sung

    1 Title: Optimal Design of a Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating for Car Seat Comfort Developed by Dr. HoSung Lee on 10/18/2014 Car seat comfort is becoming more and more a competitive issue, moving optional to standard vehicle equipment. From early 1960s, it was shown that aerated car seats improved

  20. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  1. Fast Neutron Spectrum Potassium Worth for Space Power Reactor Design Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bess, John D.; Marshall, Margaret A.; Briggs, J. Blair; Tsiboulia, Anatoli; Rozhikhin, Yevgeniy; Mihalczo, John T.

    2015-03-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal (oralloy ) during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, one was performed that consisted of uranium metal annuli surrounding a potassium-filled, stainless steel can. The outer diameter of the annuli was approximately 13 inches (33.02 cm) with an inner diameter of 7 inches (17.78 cm). The diameter of the stainless steel can was 7 inches (17.78 cm). The critical height of the configurations was approximately 5.6 inches (14.224 cm). The uranium annulus consisted of multiple stacked rings, each with radial thicknesses of 1 inch (2.54 cm) and varying heights. A companion measurement was performed using empty stainless steel cans; the primary purpose of these experiments was to test the fast neutron cross sections of potassium as it was a candidate for coolant in some early space power reactor designs.The experimental measurements were performed on July 11, 1963, by J. T. Mihalczo and M. S. Wyatt (Ref. 1) with additional information in its corresponding logbook. Unreflected and unmoderated experiments with the same set of highly enriched uranium metal parts were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in the 1960s and are evaluated in the International Handbook for Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook) with the identifier HEU MET FAST 051. Thin graphite reflected (2 inches or less) experiments also using the same set of highly enriched uranium metal parts are evaluated in HEU MET FAST 071. Polyethylene-reflected configurations are evaluated in HEU-MET-FAST-076. A stack of highly enriched metal discs with a thick beryllium top reflector is evaluated in HEU-MET-FAST-069, and two additional highly enriched uranium annuli with beryllium cores are evaluated in HEU-MET-FAST-059. Both detailed and simplified model specifications are provided in this evaluation. Both of these fast neutron spectra assemblies were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. The calculated eigenvalues for both the detailed and the simple benchmark models are within ~0.26 % of the benchmark values for Configuration 1 (calculations performed using MCNP6 with ENDF/B-VII.1 neutron cross section data), but under-calculate the benchmark values by ~7s because the uncertainty in the benchmark is very small: ~0.0004 (1s); for Configuration 2, the under-calculation is ~0.31 % and ~8s. Comparison of detailed and simple model calculations for the potassium worth measurement and potassium mass coefficient yield results approximately 70 – 80 % lower (~6s to 10s) than the benchmark values for the various nuclear data libraries utilized. Both the potassium worth and mass coefficient are also deemed to be acceptable benchmark experiment measurements.

  2. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  3. System Modeling of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01

    To improve the system performance of the GHP, modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated by using ORNL Modulating Heat Pump Design Software, which is used to predict steady-state heating and cooling performance of variable-speed vapor compression air-to-air heat pumps for a wide range of operational variables. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine, the SHR can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% in rated operating conditions.

  4. Abstract--In the design of hybrid vehicles, it is important to identify proper component sizes. When the search space of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    in this paper. This method is applied to design an input-split hybrid vehicle utilizing a single planetary gear and Toyota Highlander Hybrid, use two planetary gears. There are also hybrid designs in combat vehicles [4-planetary gear configurations are design candidates, we explore the full search space of configuration

  5. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  6. The design and feasibility of a 10 mN chemical space propulsion thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design of a ten milli Newton chemical propulsion system for providing approximately 200 m/s delta velocity to a five kg satellite. The nozzle is the focus of the experimental work, which involves ...

  7. Efficient design-space exploration of custom instruction-set extensions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuluaga, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Customization of processors with instruction set extensions (ISEs) is a technique that improves performance through parallelization with a reasonable area overhead, in exchange for additional design effort. This thesis ...

  8. "I Miss Green:" A Comparison of Prison and Space Shuttle Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Issue – Rethinking Prison Design. ” NYTimes.com. New YorkPrint. Peltier, Leonard. Prison Writings: My Life is My Sun14 Tannenbaum, Frank. “Prison Cruelty. ” The Atlantic.com.

  9. lndoor recreational walking in semi-public spaces : assessing demand and design standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Catherine Marie

    2009-01-01

    Encouragement and facilitation of walking for health and community benefits has recently become an important focus in the city planning and public health fields. Urban design guidelines have increasingly highlighted ...

  10. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  11. Design of a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust collector for the Tanpopo mission aboard the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabata, Makoto; Yano, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Mita, Hajime; Okudaira, Kyoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust collector for use in the Tanpopo experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station. The mass production of simple two-layer hydrophobic aerogels was undertaken in a contamination-controlled environment, yielding more than 100 undamaged products. The collector, comprising an aerogel tile and holder panel, was designed to resist launch vibration and to conform to an exposure attachment. To this end, a box-framing aerogel with inner and outer densities of 0.01 and 0.03 g/cm$^3$, respectively, was fabricated. The aerogel mounted in the panel passed random vibration tests at the levels of the acceptance and qualification tests for launch. It also withstood the pressure changes expected in the airlock on the International Space Station.

  12. "Table HC11.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional3 Housing24 Space5

  13. "Table HC13.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional3 Housing242815 Space

  14. "Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional37 Housing84 Space

  15. "Table HC3.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional37 Housing84 Space5

  16. "Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional37 Housing8434 Space

  17. "Table HC4.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional37 Housing8434 Space5

  18. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar:...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2003 Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons) Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (gallonssquare foot) Energy Information Administration 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 169 146 16 Q Q 99.9 86.2 9.5 Q Q Principal Building Activity Education ... 134 122 8 Q Q 116.6 106.6 6.9 Q Q Food...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTopReleased: September,

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTopReleased:

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTopReleased:Released:

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTopReleased:Released:28

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTopReleased:Released:28

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTopReleased:Released:28

  7. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTopReleased:Released:288

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09 0.01

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11

  14. Design of microcavities in diamond-based photonic crystals by Fourier- and real-space analysis of cavity fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janine Riedrich-Möller; Elke Neu; Christoph Becher

    2010-01-04

    We present the design of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in thin diamond membranes well suited for coupling of color centers in diamond. By comparing simulated and ideal field distributions in Fourier and real space and by according modification of air hole positions and size, we optimize the cavity structure yielding high quality factors up to Q = 320000 with a modal volume of V = 0.35 (lambda/n)^3. Using the very same approach we also improve previous designs of a small modal volume microcavity in silicon, gaining a factor of 3 in cavity Q. In view of practical realization of photonic crystals in synthetic diamond films, it is necessary to investigate the influence of material absorption on the quality factor. We show that this influence can be predicted by a simple model, replacing time consuming simulations.

  15. Design, fabrication, and testing of a mechanical timer in application of a stored-heat solar cooker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Julia C

    2014-01-01

    There is a large need in third-world tropical areas for a method of cooking in which users need minimal resources and traversing to heat food at night. A solution to this problem is to create a stored-heat solar cooker ...

  16. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due...

  17. Simulation Support for Optimizing the Design and Operation of a Large Open-Space Office Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lain, M.; Hensen, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2008-01-01

    and simulation was used to predict the performance of various design alternatives with respect to reducing the required cooling capacity, in order to verify the fan-coil capacity sizing and to optimize the ventilation system and strategy of the atriums. Since...

  18. Structural design and analysis of a lightweight composite sandwich space radiator panel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Sudharsan

    2005-02-17

    The goal of this study is to design and analyze a sandwich composite panel with lightweight graphite foam core and carbon epoxy face sheets that can function as a radiator for the given payload in a satellite. This arrangement provides a lightweight...

  19. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    passive and hybrid space heating systems. Space Cooling Aand hybrid solar heating and cooling systems. Experimentspassive, and hybrid systems for heating, cooling, and

  20. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  1. An experimental study of heating performance and seasonal modeling of vertical U-tube ground coupled heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Randal E.

    1992-01-01

    by circulating the secondary fluid through a pipe buried in the ground. In the heating mode, heat is extracted from the soil by the ground coil and is supplied to the conditioned space via the heat pump's refrigerant cycle. The GCHP is limited only... is the ASHRAE Design/Data Manual [Bose et al. , 1985], This manual also bases ground coil sizing on the line source solution. Deerman [1991] used the constant heat flux cylindrical source solution as a basis for a vertical U-tube simulation program. He used...

  2. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  3. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School..., AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Approved as to Style and Content: Chairman of Committee Head of Departm t + gkA4; August 1961 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The writer...

  4. A Computational Study on the Thermal-Hydraulic Behavior of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Various Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger Designs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuo, Bryce

    2013-02-04

    and concentrated solar power generation. Two main advantages of having supercritical carbon dioxide are the large property variations and component size associated with power cycle. Forced convection heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide in printed circuit...

  5. Scaling of Thermal-Hydraulic Experiments for a Space Rankine Cycle and Selection of a Preconceptual Scaled Experiment Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulfredge, CD

    2006-01-27

    To assist with the development of a space-based Rankine cycle power system using liquid potassium as the working fluid, a study has been conducted on possible scaled experiments with simulant fluids. This report will consider several possible working fluids and describe a scaling methodology to achieve thermal-hydraulic similarity between an actual potassium system and scaled representations of the Rankine cycle boiler or condenser. The most practical scaling approach examined is based on the selection of perfluorohexane (FC-72) as the simulant. Using the scaling methodology, a series of possible solutions have been calculated for the FC-72 boiler and condenser. The possible scaled systems will then be compared and preconceptual specifications and drawings given for the most promising design. The preconceptual design concept will also include integrating the scaled boiler and scaled condenser into a single experimental loop. All the preconceptual system specifications appear practical from a fabrication and experimental standpoint, but further work will be needed to arrive at a final experiment design.

  6. Heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  7. Design and Initial Tests of the Tracker-Converter ofthe Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwood, W.B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De Angelis, A.; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giannitrapani, R.; Giglietto, N.; /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Rome /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /SLAC /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Udine U. /Hiroshima U. /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2007-04-16

    The Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission has been completed and tested. It is the central detector subsystem of the LAT and serves both to convert an incident gamma-ray into an electron-positron pair and to track the pair in order to measure the gamma-ray direction. It also provides the principal trigger for the LAT. The Tracker uses silicon strip detectors, read out by custom electronics, to detect charged particles. The detectors and electronics are packaged, along with tungsten converter foils, in 16 modular, high-precision carbon-composite structures. It is the largest silicon-strip detector system ever built for launch into space, and its aggressive design emphasizes very low power consumption, passive cooling, low noise, high efficiency, minimal dead area, and a structure that is highly transparent to charged particles. The test program has demonstrated that the system meets or surpasses all of its performance specifications as well as environmental requirements. It is now installed in the completed LAT, which is being prepared for launch in early 2008.

  8. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  9. Design of an Online Fission Gas Monitoring System for Post-irradiation Examination Heating Tests of Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Scates

    2010-10-01

    A new Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) has been designed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for use of monitoring online fission gas-released during fuel heating tests. The FGMS will be used with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) within the INL campus. Preselected Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) TRISO (Tri-isotropic) fuel compacts will undergo testing to assess the fission product retention characteristics under high temperature accident conditions. The FACS furnace will heat the fuel to temperatures up to 2,000ºC in a helium atmosphere. Released fission products such as Kr and Xe isotopes will be transported downstream to the FGMS where they will accumulate in cryogenically cooledcollection traps and monitored with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors during the heating process. Special INL developed software will be used to monitor the accumulated fission products and will report data in near real-time. These data will then be reported in a form that can be readily available to the INL reporting database. This paper describes the details of the FGMS design, the control and acqusition software, system calibration, and the expected performance of the FGMS. Preliminary online data may be available for presentation at the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) conference.

  10. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01

    source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Dr. Na Zhu Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China 2014-09-14 ESL-IC-14-09-18a...-conditioning system: ?Splitting air-conditioner for cooling and coal fired boiler for heating. • Problems: a)Energy efficiency is low b)This system is not environmental friendly 2014/11/11 New energy saving technology ESL-IC-14-09-18a Proceedings of the 14th...

  11. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  12. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Geothermal Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, P.; Man, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been gaining increasing popularity for space conditioning in residential and commercial buildings. The geothermal heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from...

  13. Design of Mechanical Systems for Sustainable Buildings, Professor Jorge Gonzalez Fall 2014 Syllabus (Subject to refinement/updating)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    , and industrial spaces. Heating, ventilating, air conditioning. Psychrometric chart processes. Design projects Handbooks ­ Fundamentals & HVAC Applications, American Society of Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia. 2. F.C. McQuiston and J.D. Parker, Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

  14. Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics): September 21, 2000. Heating of the Low-Latitude Solar Wind by Dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    of magnetic uctuation energy in the solar wind and the related dissipation and heating of the ambient ion. For this reason, there is a natural limit to the heating rate Schwartz et al., 1981]. The tur- bulence viewpoint mechanism. The heating rate is at least partially dictated by the spectral transfer rate from the large

  15. 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    -compression refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure11-7 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  17. Conceptual design phase of a district heating and cooling plant with cogeneration to serve James Madison University and the Harrisonburg Electric Commission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belcher, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    A unique opportunity for cooperation and community development exists in Harrisonburg, Virginia. James Madison University, located in Harrisonburg, is undergoing an aggressive growth plan of its academic base which also includes the physical expansion of its campus. The City of Harrisonburg is presently supplying steam to meet a portion of the heating needs of the existing James Madison campus from a city owned and operated waste-to-energy plant. In an effort of cooperation, Harrisonburg and James Madison University have now negotiated an agreement for the city to provide all of the heating and cooling requirements of the new campus expansion. In another unique turn of events, the local electrical power distributor, Harrisonburg Electric Commission, approached the city concerning the inclusion of cogeneration in the project in order to reduce and maintain existing electric rates thus further benefiting the community. Through the cooperation of these three entities, the conceptual design phase of the project has been completed. The plant design developed through this process includes 3,000 tons of chilled water capacity, an additional 64,000 lb/hr of steam capacity and 2.5 MW of cogeneration capacity. This paper describes the conceptual design process for this interesting project.

  18. 21Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Design of AA systemsDesign of AA systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortenkamp, David

    21Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center in autonomy #12;22Dr. Gregory A. Dorais, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space, NASA Ames Research Center Dr. David Kortenkamp, NASA Johnson Space Center Generic control system

  19. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  20. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  1. Energy Signatures: a proposed new design tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1986-04-01

    Energy Signatures is a proposed new technique for aiding a designer in selecting and sizing passive solar elements on a building. Hourly heat flux profiles for each candidate design element are determined. These profiles are then matched to the hourly energy requirement of the space accounting for weather conditions, internal heat profiles of the space, and the mass characteristics of the building. Simulation analysis techniques are used to determine the Energy Signatures, the load profiles, and check the final result. Least-squares techniques are used to determine the optimum mix of strategies. Examples are given to illustrate development of the method up to the present. Future directions and possibilities are outlined.

  2. Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Paul Byrne1 *, Jacques-012-0089-0 #12;1. ABSTRACT The heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) carries out space heating to a standard reversible heat pump (HP). The air evaporator is defrosted by a two-phase thermosiphon without

  3. Urban weather generator user interface development : towards a usable tool for integrating urban heat island effect within urban design process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakano, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Urban Weather Generator (UWG) is the urban design simulation tool that provides climate-specific advice for cityscape geometry and land use to assist the development of energy-efficient cities that are also thermally ...

  4. Designing a 3-D optical multilayer due to merging the concepts of stacked and planar-integrated free-space optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Designing a 3-D optical multilayer due to merging the concepts of stacked and planar-integrated free-space optics M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns Optical interconnects aim to overcome the communication dimension [1]. For the optical implementation of 3-D setups suitable microoptics approaches are re- quired

  5. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  6. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  7. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Notman, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this study included: (1) development of classes of heat pumps, (2) evaluation and selection of a suitable heat pump design model, (3) characterization of suitable baseline heat pump designs, (4) selection of design options that can...

  8. Radiation Shielding Design and Orientation Considerations for a 1 kWe Heat Pipe Cooled Reactor Utilized to Bore Through the Ice Caps of Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael L.; Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2006-01-20

    The goal in designing any space power system is to develop a system able to meet the mission requirements for success while minimizing the overall costs. The mission requirements for the this study was to develop a reactor (with Stirling engine power conversion) and shielding configuration able to fit, along with all the other necessary science equipment, in a Cryobot 3 m high with {approx}0.5 m diameter hull, produce 1 kWe for 5yrs, and not adversely affect the mission science by keeping the total integrated dose to the science equipment below 150 krad. Since in most space power missions the overall system mass dictates the mission cost, the shielding designs in this study incorporated Martian water extracted at the startup site in order to minimize the tungsten and LiH mass loading at launch. Different reliability and mass minimization concerns led to three design configuration evolutions. With the help of implementing Martian water and configuring the reactor as far from the science equipment as possible, the needed tungsten and LiH shield mass was minimized. This study further characterizes the startup dose and the necessary mission requirements in order to ensure integrity of the surface equipment during reactor startup phase.

  9. Integrated heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, G.P.; Blackshaw, A.L.

    1986-07-08

    An integrated heat pump water heater system is described for providing either heating or cooling of an interior space, and heating water in conjunction with either the heating or cooling cycle or independently, by means of a refrigerant flowing through the system. The system consists of: a compressor; a first heat exchanger means for providing heat to the interior space in the heating cycle and for removing heat during the cooling cycle by heat transfer with a refrigerant therein; a second heat exchanger means for transferring heat to or from a refrigerant therein by heat exchanger with an exterior medium; a third heat exchanger means for transferring heat from a refrigerant therein to water circulated therethrough; a first expansion device; a second expansion device; a third expansion device; refrigerant flow connection means connected between the compressor, the heat exchanger means, and the expansion devices which may be controllably connected in alternate configurations whereby. In a first configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the second heat exchanger means, through the first expansion device, through the first heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor. In a second configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the first heat exchanger means, through the second expansion device, through the second heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor. In a third configuration the refrigerant flow is sequentially from the compressor, through the third heat exchanger means, through the third expansion device, through the second heat exchanger means, and back to the compressor.

  10. Concurrent design and optimization of a star tracker for space applications by identification of critical design parameters and their effect on a performance measure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smit, Larissa Christine

    2001-01-01

    An optimization procedure to be used concurrently with a top-down general design process was developed. The optimization procedure consists of identifying the critical design parameters and analyzing their effect on a performance measure...

  11. Design of low-power permanent-magnet synchronous motor for use in high-density heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenicek, David P. (David Pierre)

    2011-01-01

    An analytical model for the functionality of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor is developed. Taking as input a specific geometry, it predicts steady-state losses of a design at an average rate of 0.85 seconds per analysis, ...

  12. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  13. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Vicente Jose

    2011-11-01

    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.

  14. Space Solar Power Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  15. Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Hern, Shawn [ClimateMaster, Inc.] [ClimateMaster, Inc.; McDowell, Tim [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC] [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

  16. University of Toronto, Center for Advanced Diffusion Wave Technologies In order to design and improve heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    University of Toronto, Center for Advanced Diffusion Wave Technologies #12;· In order to design;Experimental setup Pulse generator Al film Pyroelectric film Sample Diode Laser Lock-in amplifier Laser power tp wp tp tp sw w w w w I H e Y X e e b e k k V HH e e Q e b P e P b P Q P k k

  17. Initial tests of thermoacoustic space power engine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, S. N.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (Wikg). Thennoacoustic engines at the -1-kW scale have converted high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, thennoacoustic engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thennoacoustic engine to a low mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Conversion efficiency data will be presented on a demonstration thennoacoustic engine designed for the 1 00-Watt power range.

  18. Thermoacoustic power systems for space applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, S. N.; Tward, E.; Pedach, M.

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (W/kg). Thermoacoustic engines can convert high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, these engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thermoacoustic engine to a low-mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Data will be presented on the first tests of a demonstration thermoacoustic engine designed for the 100-Watt power range.

  19. Confocal Heat Pump Mike Lampton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Confocal Heat Pump Mike Lampton Space Sciences Lab, UC Berkeley Originally posted 1 April 2014 heat pump since it is based on ideas stemming from confocal ellipsoids. 2 Confocal Ellipsoids I begin symmetrical. There are infinitely many other possibilities. Each is reciprocal. 3 Confocal Heat Pump

  20. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  1. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  2. A new approach in data visualization to integrate time and space variability of daylighting in the design process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Lu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Daylighting design has great impact on the performance and aesthetical quality of a work of architecture but requires many issues to be addressed during the design process. The way existing daylighting tools deliver data ...

  3. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  4. Testing of advanced ceramic fabric heat pipe for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Webb, B.J.; Bates, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The development and application of Stirling engines for space power production requires concomitant development of an advanced heat rejection system. We are currently involved in the design, development, and testing of advanced ceramic fabric (ACF) water heat pipes for optimal heat rejection from the Stirling cycle without the use of hazardous working fluids such as mercury. Our testing to-date has been with a 200-{mu}m thick titanium heat pipe utilizing Nextel {trademark} fabric as both the outer structural component and as a wick. This heat pipe has been successfully started up from a frozen condition against a negative 4 degree tilt (i.e., fluid return to evaporator was against gravity), with 75 W heat input, in ambient air. In a horizontal orientation, up to 100 W heat input was tolerated without experiencing dryout. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  6. Mechanical Design Engineer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diagnostics instrumentationoptics design SKILLS: Machine, design, heat transfer and structural design, Parametric modeling experience, Knowledge of manufacturing techniques,...

  7. Multimegawatt gyrotrons for plasma heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Advani, R.; Denison, D.; Kreischer, K.E.; Shapiro, M.A.; Temkin, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    The gyrotron is under development as a high power source for plasma heating at electron cyclotron resonance. For heating large scale plasmas, such as the DIII-D machine at General Atomics, it is advantageous to have high unit power heating sources to reduce the cost and complexity of the system. The authors will present preliminary designs of 1.5 and 2 MW gyrotrons at a frequency of 110 GHz. The gyrotron designs are based on previous successful results at the 1 MW level at frequencies from 110 to 170 GHz. The baseline design is for a TE{sub 28.8} mode cavity with an electron beam of 80 to 110 kV and a current of up to 80A. The expected efficiency exceeds 30% but it should increase to over 50% with a depressed collector. The output beam will be a Gaussian TEM{sub 00} mode in free space. The gyrotron will be investigated experimentally in short pulse operation (approximately 3 microseconds) at MIT and, if successful, will be developed in a 10s pulsed or CW version by industry. There are two competing approaches for the design of multimegawatt gyrotrons: conventional, cylindrical cavity gyrotrons and coaxial cavity gyrotrons. The conventional cavity approach is being considered as an extension of present day gyrotron research at 110 GHz. The coaxial cavity gyrotron is under investigation at MIT with the goal of output powers of 3 MW at 140 GHz. Recent experimental results from the coaxial cavity gyrotron at power levels in excess of 1 MW will be presented.

  8. Passive solar heating analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Mc Farland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses about the design of solar heating systems. The terms and symbols are clearly defined. Step-by-step procedures are indicated. Worked examples are given with tables, graphs, appendixes.

  9. Greywater heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmberg, D.

    1983-11-21

    A kilowatt meter and water meter were installed to monitor pregreywater usage. The design considerations, the heat exchanger construction and installation, and the monitoring of usage levels are described.

  10. Design of applicative 100 W Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagawa, Noboru; Hirata, Koichi; Takeuchi, Makoto

    1995-12-31

    A small 100 W displacer type Stirling engine is being developed under a project of a JSME committee, RC127. The project consists of sixteen Japanese academic researchers of universities and governmental laboratories and eleven enterprise members related to the Stirling field. The engine has very unique features. Its expansion cylinder is heated by combustion gas or solar energy directly, and a simple cooling system rejects heat from the working fluid. A regenerator is built in the displacer piston with heating and cooling tubes in which the working fluid flows from/to outer tubes. The outer tubes for heating were located at the top of the expansion cylinder and the tubes for cooling are in the middle of the cylinder. The target performance is a 100 W output with 20% thermal efficiency at the operating conditions of 923 K expansion space temperature, 343 K compression space temperature, and 1,000 rpm. The 100 W displacer engine was designed based on a design manual established by a related JSME committee, RC110. It contains several guides to design for cycle, heat exchanger system, and mechanism of most Stirling cycle machines. The engine was designed by using the fundamental method, the second and third-order analyses accomplished with the newly arranged knowledge about each component. This paper presents the engine specifications and the theoretical analysis results. The design method is also introduced briefly.

  11. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling July 27, 2014 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat...

  12. Ingestion of high temperature mainstream gas into the rotor-stator cavities of a gas turbine is one of the major problems faced by the turbine designers. The ingested gas heats up rotor disks and induces higher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingestion of high temperature mainstream gas into the rotor-stator cavities of a gas turbine is one of the major problems faced by the turbine designers. The ingested gas heats up rotor disks and induces higher a negative effect on the gas turbine thermal efficiency, one goal is to use the least possible amount

  13. Design and operation of a retarding field energy analyzer with variable focusing for space-charge-dominated electron beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valfells, Ágúst

    -charge-dominated electron beams Y. Cui, Y. Zou, A. Valfells, M. Reiser, M. Walter, I. Haber, R. A. Kishek, S. Bernal, and P with electron beams of several keV, in which space-charge effects play an important role. A cylindrical focusing, high-energy colliders, free electron lasers, and other applications require high-quality intense beams

  14. A Design and Implementation of Immersive Virtual Space Authoring System Jeongdan Choi, Chansu Lee, Kwangman Oh, Chanjong Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chan-Su

    software modules, 3D authoring software modules and VR I/O devices such as CyberGlove and HMD. We also house. Also, many authors who want to create the virtual space need more and more convenient interface of a number of commands for object loading, object placement, property specification and animation

  15. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  16. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  17. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a corporate income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  18. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situtations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others or to reduce the number of heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures is predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Natural convective loops that can occur in buildings are described and a few design guidelines are presented.

  19. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  20. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  1. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  2. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  3. Designing Flexible Heat Exchanger Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautam, R.; Chen, H. S.; Wareck, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    optimization approach will work Quite well here. So it is tried first. 210 Table 1 Example" STREAK DATA Period 1 Cl/3 of the Time) STREAK TSC"C) TTC"C) KCP CkW/OC) 1 249 100 10.55 2 259 128 12.66 3 96 170 9.144 4 106 270 15.00 Period 2 STREAK TSC..."C) TTC"C) KCP CkW/"C) 1 229 120 7.032 2 239 148 8.44 3 96 170 9.144 4 106 270 15.00 Peri od 3 C1/3 of the Time) STREAK TSC "C) TTC "C) KCP CkW/"C) 1 249 100 10.55 2 259 128 12.66 3 116 150 6.096 4 126 250 10.00 "Floudas and Grossman, 1986...

  4. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  5. The BS degree in Earth and Space Exploration, Concentration in Exploration Systems Design requires the following core courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    Laboratory I (1) SES 104 Earth, Solar System, and Universe Laboratory II (1) SES 210 Engineering Systems (3) SES 310 Concepts of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Design (3) SES 330 Practical Electronic and Instrument Assembly (4) SES 405 Exploration Systems Engineering (3) In addition, four elective courses must

  6. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating...

  7. Space Systems Finland 1 Deployment in the Space Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    © Space Systems Finland 1 Deployment in the Space Sector #12;© Space Systems Finland 2 SW Constraints Design Requirements User Requirements SW Requirements #12;© Space Systems Finland 3 The space, but there is no viable alternative · Many requirements are not testable #12;© Space Systems Finland 4 SSF OBJECTIVES

  8. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II - Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Design Options for Locating Ducts...

  9. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    tiles for thermal energy storage,” working paper, Colorado1991). Wallboard with latent heat storage for passive solarR. (2000). Thermal energy storage for space cooling, Pacific

  10. Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-04-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

  11. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

  12. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  13. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI`s High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed in this paper is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing - culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engines (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding. The success of the SPDE at 650 K has resulted in a more ambitious Stirling endeavor - the design, fabrication, test and evaluation of a designed-for-space 25 kW per cylinder Stirling Space Engine (SSE). The SSE will operate at a hot metal temperature of 1050 K using superalloy materials. This design is a low temperature confirmation of the 1300 K design. It is the 1300 K free-piston Stirling power conversion system that is the ultimate goal; to be used in conjunction with the SP-100 reactor. The approach to this goal is in three temperature steps. However, this paper concentrates on the first two phases of this program - the 650 K SPDE and the 1050 K SSE.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  15. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps, Final Report, May 1986 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this study included: (1) development of classes of heat pumps, (2) evaluation and selection of a suitable heat pump design model, (3) characterization of suitable baseline heat pump designs, (4) selection of design options that can...

  16. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  17. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  18. Residential gas heat pump assessment: A market-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1995-09-01

    There has been considerable activity in recent years to develop technologies that could reduce or levelize residential and light-commercial building space cooling electrical use and heating/cooling energy use. For example, variable or multi-speed electric heat pumps, electric ground-source heat pumps, dual-fuel heat pumps, multi-function heat pumps, and electric cool storage concepts have been developed; and several types of gas heat pumps are emerging. A residential gas heat pump (GHP) benefits assessment is performed to assist gas utility and equipment manufacturer decision making on level of commitment to this technology. The methodology and generic types of results that can be generated are described. National market share is estimated using a market segmentation approach. The assessment design requires dividing the 334 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAS) of the US into 42 market segments of relatively homogeneous weather and gas/electric rates (14 climate groupings by 3 rate groupings). Gas and electric rates for each MSA are evaluated to arrive at population-weighted rates for the market segments. GHPs are competed against 14 conventional equipment options in each homogeneous segment.

  19. Incorporate Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Heating and Cooling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    about FEMP-designated and ENERGY STAR-qualified heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and water heating products into tables that mirror American Society of...

  20. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...