Sample records for design space heating

  1. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  2. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  9. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  10. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  11. Heat and Power Systems Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spriggs, H. D.; Shah, J. V.

    HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS DESIGN H. D. Spriggs and J. V. Shah, Leesburg. VA ABSTRACT The selection of heat and power systems usually does not include a thorough analysis of the process heating. cooling and power requirements. In most cases..., these process requirements are accepted as specifications before heat and power systems are selected and designed. In t~is article we describe how Process Integration using Pinch Technology can be used to understand and achieve the minimum process heating...

  12. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  13. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  14. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  15. Designing Flexible Heat Exchanger Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautam, R.; Chen, H. S.; Wareck, J. S.

    Procedures and methods used for designing flexible heat exchanger networks are described. The general approach consists of defining the flexibility problem as a set of cases. Pinch Technology is then used to develop an initial network design...

  16. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  17. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  18. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  19. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  20. Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

  1. Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Walley's...

  2. Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  3. Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warner...

  4. Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

  5. Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature...

  6. Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  7. Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature...

  8. Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  9. Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  10. Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature...

  11. Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low...

  12. Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  13. Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  14. Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  15. Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  16. Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  17. Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  18. Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  19. Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  20. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  1. Design Development Analyses in Support of a Heat pipe-Brayton Cycle Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeve, Brian E. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kapernick, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the power systems under consideration for future space exploration applications, including nuclear electric propulsion or as a planetary surface power source, is a heat pipe-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the heat pipes to the Brayton gas via a heat exchanger attached to the heat pipes. This paper discusses the fluid, thermal and structural analyses that were performed in support of the design of the heat exchanger to be tested in the SAFE-100 experimental program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An important consideration throughout the design development of the heat exchanger was its capability to be utilized for higher power and temperature applications. This paper also discusses this aspect of the design and presents designs for specific applications that are under consideration. (authors)

  2. Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bywaters, R. P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery design considerations as well as a summary of typical "waste heat" sources and application sites. A procedure for conducting industrial waste heat surveys is presented. Thermodynamic and heat transfer factors are discussed. Problems associated...

  3. Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bywaters, R. P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery design considerations as well as a summary of typical "waste heat" sources and application sites. A procedure for conducting industrial waste heat surveys is presented. Thermodynamic and heat transfer factors are discussed. Problems associated...

  4. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Homes & Buildings Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and...

  5. Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

    with a heat exchanger to work as a Combined Heat and Power system for the University which will supplement the chilled water supply and electricity. The design constraints of the heat recovery unit are the specifications of the turbine and the chiller...

  6. Synergistic diffuser/heat-exchanger design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzara, David S. (David Sergio), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical and numerical evaluation of synergistic diffusing heat-exchanger design is presented. Motivation for this development is based on current diffuser and heat-exchange technologies in cogeneration plants, which ...

  7. Fairmont Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center1 Fairmont Hot Springs Resort is a Space Heating low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Fairmont, Montana. This article is...

  8. Design Space Exploration of Parameterized Systems using Design of Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 2.1 Design space exploration for system specific tuningShin Figure 5: Noxim NoC design space with over 60,00030: Percent of the design space that needs to be explored in

  9. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  10. East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space...

  11. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  12. Performance predictions and measurements for space-power-system heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature liquid metal heat pipes designed for space power systems have been analyzed and tested. Three wick designs are discussed and a design rationale for the heat pipe is provided. Test results on a molybdenum, annular wick heat pipe are presented. Performance limitations due to boiling and capillary limits are presented. There is evidence that the vapor flow in the adiabatic section is turbulent and that the transition Reynolds number is 4000.

  13. An analytical model for the design of in-slab electric heating panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, T.L.; Kilkis, B.I. [Heatway, Springfield, MO (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a steady-state heat transfer model is described for design and sizing of electric radiant panel heating systems embedded in a slab. This model is applicable both for ceiling and floor panels. An approximate panel surface heat output algorithm is also given as a function of size and orientation of the heated space and outdoor exposure.

  14. Industrial Heat Pump Design Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    There are numerous industries that can incorporate heat pumps into their operations to save energy costs and payoff the investment in well under two years. Many of these industries can cut energy costs associated with evaporation by over 75...

  15. Industrial Heat Pump Design Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are numerous industries that can incorporate heat pumps into their operations to save energy costs and payoff the investment in well under two years. Many of these industries can cut energy costs associated with evaporation by over 75...

  16. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hung-Wen; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space heating is the largest energy end use, consuming more than 7 quintillion joules of site energy annually in the U.S. building sector. A few recent studies showed discrepancies in simulated space-heating energy use among different building energy modeling programs, and the simulated results are suspected to be underpredicting reality. While various uncertainties are associated with building simulations, especially when simulations are performed by different modelers using different simulation programs for buildings with different configurations, it is crucial to identify and evaluate key driving factors to space-heating energy use in order to support the design and operation of low-energy buildings. In this study, 10 design and operation parameters for space-heating systems of two prototypical office buildings in each of three U.S. heating climates are identified and evaluated, using building simulations with EnergyPlus, to determine the most influential parameters and their impacts on variations of space-heating energy use. The influence of annual weather change on space-heating energy is also investigated using 30-year actual weather data. The simulated space-heating energy use is further benchmarked against those from similar actual office buildings in two U.S. commercial-building databases to better understand the discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use. In summary, variations of both the simulated and actual space-heating energy use of office buildings in all three heating climates can be very large. However these variations are mostly driven by a few influential parameters related to building design and operation. The findings provide insights for building designers, owners, operators, and energy policy makers to make better decisions on energy-efficiency technologies to reduce space-heating energy use for both new and existing buildings.

  17. Close-spaced thermionic converters with active spacing control and heat-pipe isothermal emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Koester, J.K.; Chang, J.; Britt, E.J.; McVey, J.B. [Space Power, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermionic converters with interelectrode gaps smaller than 10 microns are capable of substantial performance improvements over conventional ignited mode diodes. Previous devices which have demonstrated operation at such small gaps have done so at low power densities and emitter temperatures. Higher power operation requires overcoming two primary design issues: thermal distortion of the emitter due to temperature gradients and degradation of the in-gap spacers at higher emitter temperatures. This work describes two innovations for solution of these issues. The issue of thermal distortion was addressed by an isothermal emitter incorporating a heat-pipe into its structure. Such a heat-pipe emitter, with a single-crystal emitting surface, was fabricated and characterized. Finite-element computational modeling was used to analyze its distortion with an applied heat flux. The calculations suggested that thermal distortion would be significantly reduced as compared with a solid emitter. Ongoing work and preliminary experimental results are described for a system of active interelectrode gap control. In the present design an integral transducer determines the interelectrode gap of the converter. Initial designs for spacing actuators and their required cesium vapor seals are discussed. A novel hot-shell converter design incorporating active spacing control and low-temperature seals is presented. A converter incorporating the above features would be capable of near ideal-converter performance at high power densities. In addition, active spacing control can potentially completely eliminate short-circuit failures in thermionic converter systems.

  18. Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.

  19. Heat Recovery Design Considerations for Cogeneration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquinelli, D. M.; Burns, E. D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and integration of the heat recovery section, which includes the steam generation, auxiliary firing, and steam turbine modules, is critical to the overall performance and economics of cogeneration, systems. In gas turbine topping...

  20. Heat Recovery Design Considerations for Cogeneration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquinelli, D. M.; Burns, E. D.

    The design and integration of the heat recovery section, which includes the steam generation, auxiliary firing, and steam turbine modules, is critical to the overall performance and economics of cogeneration, systems. In gas turbine topping...

  1. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for...

  2. Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dock KGRA, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock KGRA, New...

  3. Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industry

  4. INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    designed as stand-alone systems, i.e. a heat pump water heater (HPWH) in combination with separate units

  5. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100-kWt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 deg. C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested. (authors)

  6. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  7. Spacing innovation and learning in design organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García Herrera, Cristóbal, 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main research question of this thesis is the following: What is the relationship between spaces and innovation in the context of design organizations such as IDEO, the MIT Media Lab and Design Continuum? This thesis ...

  8. 1 CO2 Heat Pump System for Space Heating and Hot Water Heating in Low-Energy Houses and Passive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designed as a stand-alone system, i.e. a heat pump water heater in combination with a separate unit for

  9. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800°C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  10. DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By SHAWN ALEX HERN.1 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM DESIGN........................................2-3 2.1.1 Design...............................................................................2-5 2.2 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION................................2-9 3

  11. The effect of fan and heat sink design on heat removal from microprocessor chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltrip, Kedra G

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air flow and heat removal characteristics for fan/heat sink designs used to cool Pentium class processors were analyzed. Five designs were tested for fan speed, differential and static nozzle pressure, static fan pressure, fan input current...

  12. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  13. Chapter 2: Machine Design, Fueling, and Heating in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streibl, Bernhard; Lang, Peter Thomas; Leuterer, Fritz; Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie; Staebler, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The machine design, power supply, and machine protection, as well as the different heating systems installed at ASDEX Upgrade are discussed. The available auxiliary heating power of 30 MW, supplied by three different heating systems, allows the power deposition to be varied and species heated over a large range. These three heating systems - neutral beam, ion cyclotron, and electron cyclotron heating - are presented in detail. A description of the pellet refueling system is included, which is successfully used for density control.

  14. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  15. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyGlossaryProgramRussiaSpace Heating and Cooling Basics Space

  16. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  17. Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extraction from the ground. The paper presented has shown that the heat rejection of the GLHEs and the system energy consumption are approached to discuss the ground heat balance with different design procedures and control strategies though the system...

  18. Designing, testing, and analyzing coupled, flux transformer heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renzi, Kimberly Irene

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research involves designing, testing, and ics. analyzing a coupled, flux transformer heat pipe system following the patent of Oktay and Peterson (1997). Experiments were conducted utilizing four copper heat pipes, lined with copper mesh...

  19. Automated Design Space Exploration with Aspen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Spafford, Kyle L.; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Architects and applications scientists often use performance models to explore a multidimensional design space of architectural characteristics, algorithm designs, and application parameters. With traditional performance modeling tools, these explorations forced users to first develop a performance model and then repeatedly evaluate and analyze the model manually. These manual investigations proved laborious and error prone. More importantly, the complexity of this traditional process often forced users to simplify their investigations. To address this challenge of design space exploration, we extend our Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) language with three new language constructs: user-defined resources, parameter ranges, and a collection ofmore »costs in the abstract machine model. Then, we use these constructs to enable automated design space exploration via a nonlinear optimization solver. We show how four interesting classes of design space exploration scenarios can be derived from Aspen models and formulated as pure nonlinear programs. The analysis tools are demonstrated using examples based on Aspen models for a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform, the CoMD molecular dynamics proxy application, and the DARPA Streaming Sensor Challenge Problem. Our results show that this approach can compose and solve arbitrary performance modeling questions quickly and rigorously when compared to the traditional manual approach.« less

  20. Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design May 19, 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program 2010 Peer Review ENVIRON International PI : Metin Ozbek Track : GSHP Demonstration Projects This...

  1. Hybrid Heat Pump Design and Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Koebberman, W. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Heat Pump (HHP) converts industrial waste heat into process steam. Waste heat at temperatures as low as approximately 200°F can be used. Steam output covers a range between 12,000 Ib/h and 50,000 Ib/h, depending on the application...

  2. 1-MWE heat exchangers for OTEC. Final design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprouse, A.M.

    1980-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a 1 MWe OTEC heat exchanger is documented, including the designs of the evaporator and associated systems, condenser, instrumentation, and materials for corrosion/erosion control and fabrication processes. (LEW)

  3. Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Panjeh Shahi, M. H.

    Design of Crude Oil Pre-heat Trains G.T.Po]Jey B.L.Yeap D.I.Wilson M.H.Panjeh Shahi Pinchtechnology.com Dept of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. University of Cambridge University of Tehran Pre-heat trains differ from most other heat... recovery networks in a number of important ways. Combination offactors gives rise to the need for a design procedure specific to pre heat trains. Outlining these factors, we first observe that one cold stream (the incoming crude) dominates the heat...

  4. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  5. DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR BUILDING AIRFLOW AND HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Cold Walls .................................................................................. 34 #12;vDESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR BUILDING AIRFLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS By MOHAMMAD fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 2005 #12;ii DESIGN OF A HEAT TRANSFER

  6. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  7. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  8. "Table HC8.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by UrbanRural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Space Heating...

  9. "Table HC10.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Space Heating Usage...

  10. Design optimization of conventional heat pumps: application to steady-state heating efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C.K.; Fischer, S.K.; Ellison, R.D.; Jackson, W.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimiztion program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency heat pumps. The method used allows for the simultaneous optimization of selected design variables, taking proper account of their interactions, while constraining other parameters to chosen limits or fixed values. For optimiztion of the steady-state heating efficiency of conventional heat pumps, ten variables were optimized while heating capacity was fixed; the results may, however, be scaled to other capacities. Calculations were made for a range of component efficiencies and heat exchanger sizes. The results predict substantial improvement in heating performance due to both optimal system configurations and the use of improved components. Sensitivity analyses show that there is considerable latitude for deviating from the optimum design to make use of available component sizes and for accomodating the compromises needed for good cooling performance.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  12. Design of a high temperature hot water central heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, E.L.; Johnson, R.C.; Weaver, J.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the conceptual design of a central heating system at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The resource considered for this heating system design was hot dry rock geothermal energy. Design criteria were developed to ensure reliability of energy supply, to provide flexibility for adaptation to multiple energy resources, to make optimum use of existing equipment and to minimize reinvestment cost. A variable temperature peaking high temperature water system was selected for this purpose.

  13. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  14. On the design of heat-transfer probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brich, M.A.; Ganzha, V.L.; Saxena, S.C. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saxena and coworkers have reported heat-transfer coefficient values for magnetofluidized beds using electrically heated heat-transfer probes. Here, a two-dimensional heat-transfer model is employed to investigate the influence of significant design features on measured parameters. Numerical calculations reveal that the thermal conductivity of the probe material has an insignificant contribution but the material of end caps and relative sizes and locations of the probe and heater appreciably influence the heat-transfer rates through end-conduction.

  15. Dealing with Uncertainties During Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.

    heat capacity flow rate of 30 kW/K. The cold stream flowing through E I bas a heat capacity flow rate of 55 kW/K and that flowing through E2 a value of 35 kW/K. 123 ESL-IE-01-05-20 Proceedings from the Twenty-third National Industrial Energy... Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 1-4, 2001 E2 Area = 100 m 2 cp= 35 kW/K El Area = 300 m 2 Figure 1. Simple Heat Exchanger Network CP = 30 kW/K CP= 55 kWIK Assume that exchangers EI (of heat transfer area 100 m 2 ) and E2 (of 300 m 2...

  16. Characterizing Microprocessor Benchmarks Towards Understanding the Workload Design Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Lizy Kurian

    #12;Characterizing Microprocessor Benchmarks Towards Understanding the Workload Design Space The University of Texas at Austin December 2003 #12;Characterizing Microprocessor Benchmarks Towards #12;Characterizing Microprocessor Benchmarks Towards Understanding the Workload Design Space

  17. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkus, P. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (US); Tuluca, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  18. Heat Exchanger Network Targeting, Design and Analysis: The MIDAS Package

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, I.; Jones, D. H.; Smith, G. J.

    are: o Improved utility targeting for constrained problems and wide range utilities. . o Advanced heat exchanger network area targeting. o Optimization of temperature driving forces for minimum total cost. o Automated HEN design using a... counter current conditions. 2. Finite temperature driving forces are required for heat transfer in any real system~ A minimum driving force of l'ITmln is assumed to prevail within the network, i.e. a stream giving up heat (said to be "hot...

  19. List of Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergy JumpsourceSpace Heat

  20. Design and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design and Test of Tube & Shell Heat Exchangers for Potential OTEC Application Jeong-Tae Kwon1 University, South Korea 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sunmoon University, South Korea 3Offshore CCS

  1. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  2. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  3. Impacts of Some Building Design Parameters on Heat Pump Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdim, B.; Manioglu, G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important properties of a sustainable building is to provide thermal comfort conditions for users with a minimum heating and cooling energy consumption. Therefore, primary design parameters of building should be developed...

  4. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  5. Design and testing of a combustion-heated nineteen-converter SAVTEC array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyren, T.; Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Korringa, M.; McVey, J.; Sahines, T.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SAVTEC (Self-Adjusting Versatile Thermionic Energy Converter) is a new design approach for achieving very close (<12..mu..) interelectrode spacing in a thermionic converter. Techniques were developed for fabricating an array of nineteen SAVTEC converters. The array was incorporated in an SiC protective ''hot shell'' which also served as a radiant heat source for the emitter of each converter. The completed assembly was tested with a specially constructed combustion heat source. Electric output was generated by sixteen of the nineteen converters, despite poor thermal contact in a cooling block, which resulted in high collector temperatures. Details of the array design and test results are described.

  6. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  8. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  9. Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

  10. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined with heat pump improve the thermal performance of the heat pump and the global system. The performances of the heating system combining heat pump and solar collectors are higher than that of solar heating system with solar collectors and storage...

  11. Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Develop a least-cost design tool (OptGSHP) that will enable GSHP developers to analyze system cost and performance in a variety of building applications to support both design, operational and purchase decisions. Integrate groundwater flow and heat transport into OptGSHP. Demonstrate the usefulness of OptGSHP and the significance of a systems approach to the design of GSHP systems.

  12. City of Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Palms Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Twenty-Nine Palms, California Coordinates 34.1355582, -116.0541689 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"...

  13. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  14. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space temperature, occupant thermal comfort, cooling and heating loads, HVAC equipment sizes, energy consumption, utility cost, air emissions, water usage, renewable

  15. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  16. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  17. Design and performance of radioisotope space power systems based on OSC multitube AMTEC converter designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C. [Orbital Sciences Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends the analytical procedure described in another paper in these proceedings to analyze a variety of compact and light-weight OSC-designed radioisotope-heated generators. Those generators employed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and a converter containing sixteen AMTEC cells of OSC`s revised five-tube design with enhanced cell wall reflectivity described in a companion paper in these proceedings. OSC found that the performance of the generator is primarily a function of the thermal insulation between the outside of the generator`s 16 cells and the inside of its wall. After examining a variety of insulation options, it was found that the generator`s performance is optimized by employing a hybrid insulation system, in which the space between the cells is filled with fibrous Min-K insulation, and the generator walls are lined with tapered (i.e., graded-length) multifoil insulation. The OSC design results in a very compact generator, with eight AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack. The choice of the five-tube cells makes it possible to expand the BASE tube diameter without increasing the cell diameter. This is important because the eight cells mate well with the stacked GPHS modules. The OSC generator design includes a compliant heat source support and preload arrangement, to hold the heat source modules together during launch, and to maintain thermal contact conductance at the generator`s interfaces despite creep relaxation of its housing. The BOM and EOM (up to 15 years) performances of the revised generators were analyzed for two and three GPHS modules, both for fresh fuel and for aged fuel left over from a spare RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) fueled in 1982. The resulting power outputs were compared with JPL`s latest EOM power demand goals for the Pluto Express and Europa Orbiter missions, and with the generic goals of DOE`s Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) study. The OSC AMTEC designs yielded system efficiencies three to four times as high as present-generation RTGs.

  18. Design Space Exploration of Parameterized Systems using Design of Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is known as a full factorial design: --- (A off, B off, Cknown as fractional factorial design involving experimentsetc. ) of the full factorial design. Numerous fractional

  19. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  20. Assessment of next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Natesan, K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made an assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. A detailed thermal hydraulic analysis, using models developed at ANL, was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop. Two IHX designs namely, shell and straight tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in an earlier assessment. Helical coil heat exchangers were analyzed in the current report and the results were compared with the performance features of designs from industry. In addition, a comparative analysis is presented between the shell and straight tube, helical, and printed circuit heat exchangers from the standpoint of heat exchanger volume, primary and secondary sides pressure drop, and number of tubes. The IHX being a high temperature component, probably needs to be designed using ASME Code Section III, Subsection NH, assuming that the IHX will be classified as a class 1 component. With input from thermal hydraulic calculations performed at ANL, thermal conduction and stress analyses were performed for the helical heat exchanger design and the results were compared with earlier-developed results on shell and straight tube and printed circuit heat exchangers.

  1. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal heat pumps, sometimes called ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs), have been proven capable of significantly reducing energy use and peak demand in buildings. Conventional equipment for controlling the temperature and humidity of a building, or supplying hot water and fresh outdoor air, must exchange energy (or heat) with the building's outdoor environment. Equipment using the ground as a heat source and heat sink consumes less non-renewable energy (electricity and fossil fuels) because the earth is cooler than outdoor air in summer and warmer in winter. The most important barrier to rapid growth of the GSHP industry is high first cost of GSHP systems to consumers. The most common GSHP system utilizes a closed-loop ground heat exchanger. This type of GSHP system can be used almost anywhere. There is reason to believe that reducing the cost of closed-loop systems is the strategy that would achieve the greatest energy savings with GSHP technology. The cost premium of closed-loop GSHP systems over conventional space conditioning and water heating systems is primarily associated with drilling boreholes or excavating trenches, installing vertical or horizontal ground heat exchangers, and backfilling the excavations. This project investigates reducing the cost of horizontal closed-loop ground heat exchangers by installing them in the construction excavations, augmented when necessary with additional trenches. This approach applies only to new construction of residential and light commercial buildings or additions to such buildings. In the business-as-usual scenario, construction excavations are not used for the horizontal ground heat exchanger (HGHX); instead the HGHX is installed entirely in trenches dug specifically for that purpose. The potential cost savings comes from using the construction excavations for the installation of ground heat exchangers, thereby minimizing the need and expense of digging additional trenches. The term foundation heat exchanger (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation, 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three par

  2. Design principles for the development of space technology maturation laboratories aboard the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saenz Otero, Alvar, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis formulates seven design principles for the development of laboratories which utilize the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate the maturation of space technologies. The principles are derived from ...

  3. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  4. A simplistic model of cyclic heat transfer phenomena in closed spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclic heat transfer inside closed spaces is investigated analytically using a simple heat transfer model. The model consists of a gas layer exchanging heat with two bounding parallel walls that pulsate against each other in the transverse direction. Correlations for the magnitude and the phase lag of the heat transfer are obtained. Also, an expression for the power loss due to the cyclic heat transfer is presented. It is shown that the loss approaches zero as the heat transfer process approaches either isothermal or adiabatic conditions. The power loss is shown to be a strong function of the phase angle between the bulk gas temperature and the heat transfer.

  5. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5732E An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings Author(s), Hung Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH than 7 trillion Joules of site energy annually [USDOE]. Analyzing building space heating performance

  6. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  7. EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Flávio Rech

    EMBEDDED SW DESIGN SPACE EXPLORATION AND AUTOMATION USING UML-BASED TOOLS FLÁVIO R. WAGNER, carro}@inf.ufrgs.br Abstract: This tutorial discusses design space exploration and software automation based on an UML front-end. First, we review software automation tools targeted at the embedded systems

  8. SURVEY OF ADVANCED HEAT PUMP DEVELOPMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING* Phillip D. Fairchild

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;SURVEY OF ADVANCED HEAT PUMP DEVELOPMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING* Phillip D. Fairchild Energy Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory it*~~ ~Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT Because of the heat pump energy research organiza- tions. This paper presents a survey of heat pump RD&D projects with special

  9. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  10. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  11. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  12. Design space exploration and optimization using modern ship design tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Adam T. (Adam Thomas)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern Naval Architects use a variety of computer design tools to explore feasible options for clean sheet ship designs. Under the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division ...

  13. Structural design criteria for high heat flux components.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.

    1999-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The high temperature design rules of the ITER Structural Design Criteria (ISDC), are applied to first wall designs with high heat flux. The maximum coolant pressure and surface heat flux capabilities are shown to be determined not only by the mechanical properties of the first wall material but also by the details of the blanket design. In a high power density self-cooled lithium blanket, the maximum primary stress in the first wall is controlled by many of the geometrical parameters of the blanket, such as, first wall span, first wall curvature, first wall thickness, side wall thickness, and second wall thickness. The creep ratcheting lifetime of the first wall is also shown to be controlled by many of the same geometrical parameters as well as the coolant temperature. According to most high temperature design codes, the time-dependent primary membrane stress allowable are based on the average temperature (ignoring thermal stress). Such a procedure may sometimes be unconservative, particularly for embrittled first walls with large temperature gradients. The effect of secondary (thermal) stresses on the accumulation of creep deformation is illustrated with a vanadium alloy flat plate first wall design.

  14. Design of a core-length thermionic fuel element for electrical heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G. (ThermoTrex Coporation, 85 First Avenue, P.O. Box 8995, Waltham, MA 02254-8995 (United States)); Horner, H. (General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States)); Lamp, T. (Wright Laboratories, WL/POOC-2, Wright Patternson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States))

    1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design of an electrically heated version of a core-length Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) with advanced features, as is suggested by the designation Advanced Thermionic Inititative (ATI). The advanced features include a high-strength emitter structure to be fabricated by Space Power, Incorporated. This structure consists of a cylindrical emitter, 15 mm diameter and 254 mm long of Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) tungsten, reinforced with tungsten-hafnium carbide wire wound over a CVD tungsten core with additional CVD tungsten incorporating and bonding the wire into the emitter. The emitter surface is CVD tungsten, deposited from tungsten chloride resulting in the desirable crystal orientation of [l angle]110[r angle]. It is possible to design a reactor with core-length TFEs so that it can be electrically tested prior to fueling. The program is focussed on the design and fabrication of a single core-length TFE with current collection at both ends which will be tested in a reactor. In parallel with this effort is the design, fabrication, and testing of an unfueled, electrically heated prototype. The intent is to make the electrically heated converter as similar as possible to the fueled one, while providing for accurate emitter and collector temperature measurement.

  15. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  16. Designing Optimal Heat and Power Systems for Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutkowski, M. A.; Witherell, W. D.

    Power Research Institute (EPRI) of Palo Alto, California. In the paper, the use of Pinch Technology as a tool for analyzing industrial processes is demonstrated along with proper simulation of a corresponding heat and power system. For each process...Xisting design to determine improvement opportunities. INTRODUCTION This paper presents the results of a study conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) by Linnhoff March. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology...

  17. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  18. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

  19. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

  20. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an auxiliary energy source...

  1. 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-47 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. HP Wnet,in QH QL TL TH Analysis The maximum heat pump coefficient of performance would occur if the heat pump were completely reversible, 5.7 K026K300 K300 COP maxHP, LH H TT

  2. Evolution of small-space plasma in a microthruster designed for small spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farahat, A. M., E-mail: farahata@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Applied and Supporting Studies (Saudi Arabia); Ramadan, E. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Information and Computer Science (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma and gas particle dynamics in atmospheric pressure helium-filled small volume are investigated using a two-dimensional model. The model includes the conservation equations for the plasma and the neutral gas. In this paper, results are presented from simulation of the interaction between gas and charged species, which in turn causes heating and thrust generation for this microengine. Gas heating and neutral depletion initiations are observed, highlighting the close interaction between gas and charged species in governing the evolution of the small-space plasma inside a microthruster designed for microsatellites.

  3. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a multi-condenser loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Daniel Frank

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A condenser design was characterized for a multi-condenser loop heat pipe (LHP) capable of dissipating 1000 W. The LHP was designed for integration into a high performance aircooled heat sink to address thermal management ...

  4. Design and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling using HFC or CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    subcooling vol volumetric w water 1. Context and objectives Nowadays, global warming being a major concern and the large temperature glide at heat rejection used for DHW production. Keywords: design, simulation, heating;2 NOMENCLATURE c relative clearance volume (-) C electricity consumption (Wh) Cp specific heat (J kg-1 K-1 ) h

  5. Design evolution and verification of the general-purpose heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a radioisotope heat source for use in space power systems. It employs a modular design, to make it adaptable to a wide range of energy conversion systems and power levels. Each 250 W module is completely autonomous, with its own passive safety provisions to prevent fuel release under all abort modes, including atmospheric reentry and earth impact. Prior development tests had demonstrated good impact survival as long as the iridium fuel capsules retained their ductility. This requires high impact temperatures, typically above 900/sup 0/C and reasonably fine grain size, which in turn requires avoidance of excessive operating temperatures and reentry temperatures. These three requirements - on operating, reentry, and impact temperatures - are in mutual conflict, since thermal design changes to improve any one of these temperatures tend to worsen one or both of the others. This conflict creates a difficult design problem, which for a time threatened the success of the program. The present paper describes how this problem was overcome by successive design revisions, supplemented by thermal analyses and confirmatory vibration and impact tests; and how this may be achieved while raising the specific power of the GPHS to 83 W/lb, a 50% improvement over previously flown radioisotope heat sources.

  6. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  7. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  8. Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

  9. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Confined Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Pool boiling is an effective method used in many technical applications for a long time. Its highly efficient heat transfer performance results from not only the convection effect but also the phase change process in pool boiling. Pool boiling...

  10. "Table HC9.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Climate Zone1" ,,"Less than 2,000 CDD and --",,,,"2,000 CDD or More and Less than 4,000...

  11. "Table HC4.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing...

  12. "Table HC3.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing...

  13. Hierarchical Modeling for Population-Based Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catton, I. , 2001, "NON-INTRUSIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTCatton, I. , 2010, "Non- Intrusive Heat Transfer Coefficientthis section, the non-intrusive induction heating transient

  14. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  15. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  16. Practical Analysis of a New Type Radiant Heating Technology in a Large Space Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Cao, G.; Gang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the fields of heating in large space and building energy conservation? In an attempt to conserve energy and reduce energy loss, it has become necessary to seek effective means of reducing heat loss in energy consumption. The development of improved means...

  17. Practical Analysis of a New Type Radiant Heating Technology in a Large Space Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Cao, G.; Gang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the fields of heating in large space and building energy conservation? In an attempt to conserve energy and reduce energy loss, it has become necessary to seek effective means of reducing heat loss in energy consumption. The development of improved means...

  18. Using digest pages to increase user result space: Preliminary designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lalmas, Mounia

    Using digest pages to increase user result space: Preliminary designs Shanu Sushmita Queen Mary. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a digest page, which is a fictitious document built from its documents summarized into the digest page. This paper presents preliminary designs regarding

  19. NASA Launches ATREX Space Network to Begin New Design Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    Design Phase - 8 Dual Frequency Radar Arrives at Goddard - 9 Goddard Community Visitor Center Hosts TitanNASA Launches ATREX Pg 3 Space Network to Begin New Design Phase Pg 8 Visitor Center Hosts Titan://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/goddard-view.html Managing Editor: Trusilla Steele Editor: John M. Putman News items for publication in Goddard View must

  20. Foundation Heat Exchanger Model and Design Tool Development and Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heat Exchangers for Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems - Numerical Modeling and Experimental. Fisher, J. Shonder, P. Im. 2010. Residential Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Utilizing Foundation Heat. Feasibility of foundation heat exchangers in ground source heat pump systems in the United States. ASHRAE

  1. Oil Extraction Factory Crude Oil Heating System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai Qiushi; Pan Yi; Yang Shuangchun

    Abstract:-The design of general process is divided into: according to the original material and the data were based on the calculated; calculate the joint station dewatering tank and the sewage tank capacity; then its thermodynamic calculation, hydraulic calculation, selection of pump in heating furnace and to determine the types and quantity of the last of the pipelines; the permitted maximum, minimum throughput and stop lose time to carry out a series of process calculation, also made the hot oil pipeline thermal stress compensation calculation. Keywords:-calculate; hydraulic; pipeline;minimum throughput I.

  2. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Confined Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    on pool boiling. In the study, confinement was achieved by placing a flat plate over heated surface. The flat plate has a hole in the middle, and there is a gap between the flat plate and the heater. The diameters of hole are 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm; the gap...

  3. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  4. A testing and HVAC design methodology for air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, P.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers were tested using ASHRAE Standard 84-1991 as a guide. Some changes are introduced for the test facility and methods of calculating effectiveness. ASME PTC 19.1-1985 is used as a guide for uncertainty analysis. Tests were done for a range of mass flux [1.574 to 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s)], ratios of mass flow rates (0.6 to 1.85), supply air temperatures ({minus}10 C to 40 C), and heat exchanger tilt angles ({minus}8.9{degree} to 11.2{degree}). Because humidity changes in the exhaust and supply air streams were negligible, only the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy was considered. Measured and calculated results show significant variations in the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy, and uncertainties with each independent variable. For balanced exhaust and supply flow rates at {minus}10 C supply air temperature and 1.574 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s) mass flux, the measured effectiveness for sensible and total energy was calculated to be 0.48 and 0.44, respectively, with uncertainties of 0.057 and 0.052. These measurements decreased to 0.42 and 0.37, with uncertainties of 0.016 and 0.018 for a mass flux of 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s). Because water vapor condensation effects were small or negligible, the difference between the effectiveness for the sensible and total energy was within the overlapping uncertainty range of each. Based on counterflow heat exchanger theory and convective heat transfer equations, expressions are presented to extrapolate the effectiveness data between and beyond the measured data points. These effectiveness equations, which represent the variation in effectiveness with several independent operating variables, are used for HVAC design that is aimed at achieving minimum life-cycle costs.

  5. School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Delta T optimisation of district heating network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Delta T optimisation of district heating of any network. Most existing district heating systems work at small (10-15 C) delta T. Although for the conventional and optimised design of the district heating network. The network operation will be simulated

  6. Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.

    In small and medium sized manufacturing facilities, several situations exist where sources of waste heat and sinks needing heat transfer coexist. Examples of waste heat include but are not limited to: drained hot water streams from water cooled...

  7. Secondary heat exchanger design and comparison for advanced high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Kim, E. S. [Seoul National Univ., P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Siahpush, A.; McKellar, M.; Patterson, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next generation nuclear reactors such as the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR) are designed to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers - helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger - as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with distributed load analysis and comparison. Comparison is provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations. (authors)

  8. Study and design of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ongena, J.; Messiaen, A.; Van Eester, D.; Schweer, B.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Kazakov, Ye. O.; Louche, F.; Vervier, M.; Koch, R.; Krivska, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Van Schoor, M.; Wauters, T. [Laboratory for Plasmaphysics, Ecole Royale Militaire–Koninklijke Militaire School, TEC Partner, Brussels (Belgium); Borsuk, V.; Neubauer, O.; Schmitz, O. [IEK-4/Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, TEC Partner, Juelich (Germany); Offermans, G. [ZEA-1, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Altenburg, Y.; Baylard, C. [Max-Planck Institute für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); and others

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current status of the mechanical and electromagnetic design for the ICRF antenna system for W7-X is presented. Two antenna plugins are discussed: one consisting of a pair of straps with pre-matching to cover the first frequency band, 25–38 MHz, and a second one consisting of two short strap triplets to cover a frequency band around 76 MHz. This paper focusses on the two strap antenna for the lower frequency band. Power coupling of the antenna to a reference plasma profile is studied with the help of the codes TOPICA and Microwave Studio that deliver the scattering matrix needed for the optimization of the geometric parameters of the straps and antenna box. Radiation power spectra for different phasings of the two straps are obtained using the code ANTITER II and different heating scenario are discussed. The potential for heating, fast particle generation, and current drive is discussed. The problem of RF coupling through the plasma edge and of edge power deposition is summarized. Important elements of the complete ion cyclotron resonance heating system are discussed: a resonator circuit with tap feed to limit the maximum voltage in the system, and a decoupler to counterbalance the large mutual coupling between the 2 straps. The mechanical design highlights the challenges encountered with this antenna: adaptation to a large variety of plasma configurations, the limited space within the port to accommodate the necessary matching components and the watercooling needed for long pulse operation.

  9. Design of compact intermediate heat exchangers for gas cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gezelius, Knut, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two aspects of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for GFR service have been investigated: (1) the intrinsic characteristics of the proposed compact printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE); and (2) a specific design optimizing ...

  10. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  11. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  12. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuldt, Thilo; Krutzik, Markus; Bote, Lluis Gesa; Gaaloul, Naceur; Hartwig, Jonas; Ahlers, Holger; Herr, Waldemar; Posso-Trujillo, Katerine; Rudolph, Jan; Seidel, Stephan; Wendrich, Thijs; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Sven; Kubelka-Lange, André; Milke, Alexander; Rievers, Benny; Rocco, Emanuele; Hinton, Andrew; Bongs, Kai; Oswald, Markus; Franz, Matthias; Hauth, Matthias; Peters, Achim; Bawamia, Ahmad; Wicht, Andreas; Battelier, Baptiste; Bertoldi, Andrea; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud; Massonnet, Didier; Lévèque, Thomas; Wenzlawski, Andre; Hellmig, Ortwin; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; von Klitzing, Wolf; Chaloner, Chris; Summers, David; Ireland, Philip; Mateos, Ignacio; Sopuerta, Carlos F; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Tino, Guglielmo M; Williams, Michael; Trenkel, Christian; Gerardi, Domenico; Chwalla, Michael; Burkhardt, Johannes; Johann, Ulrich; Heske, Astrid; Wille, Eric; Gehler, Martin; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Gürlebeck, Norman; Braxmaier, Claus; Rasel, Ernst

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species $^{85}$Rb/$^{87}$Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry...

  13. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouofSolvingexplore correlation613Space4

  14. 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest

  15. Interaction of a solar space heating system with the thermal behavior of a building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilmer, C.; Warren, M.L.; Auslander, D.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal behavior of a building in response to heat input from an active solar space heating system is analyzed to determine the effect of the variable storage tank temperature on the cycling rate, on-time, and off-time of a heating cycle and on the comfort characteristics of room air temperature swing and of offset of the average air temperature from the setpoint (droop). A simple model of a residential building, a fan coil heat-delivery system, and a bimetal thermostat are used to describe the system. A computer simulation of the system behavior has been developed and verified by comparisons with predictions from previous studies. The system model and simulation are then applied to determine the building response to a typical hydronic solar heating system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoor temperatures, and fan coil sizes. The simulations were run only for those cases where there was sufficient energy from storage to meet the building load requirements.

  16. Hierarchical Modeling for Population-Based Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer in tube banks in crossflow. [60] Zukauskas, A. ,law based optimisation of crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger

  17. SPACE-R Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System: Design and Technology Demonstration Program. Semiannual technical progress report for period ending March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Semiannual Technical Progress Report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments for the Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System (TI-SNPS) Design and Technology Demonstration Program of the Prime Contractor, Space Power Incorporated (SPI), its subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories during the first half of the Government Fiscal Year (GFY) 1993. SPI`s subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories include: Babcock & Wilcox for the reactor core and externals; Space Systems/Loral for the spacecraft integration; Thermocore for the radiator heat pipes and the heat exchanger; INERTEK of CIS for the TFE, core elements and nuclear tests; Argonne National Laboratories for nuclear safety, physics and control verification; and Oak Ridge National laboratories for materials testing. Parametric trade studies are near completion. However, technical input from INERTEK has yet to be provided to determine some of the baseline design configurations. The INERTEK subcontract is expected to be initiated soon. The Point Design task has been initiated. The thermionic fuel element (TFE) is undergoing several design iterations. The reactor core vessel analysis and design has also been started.

  18. Design of chemical reactors of the heat exchanger type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBeth, Lloyd Theodore

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , of the coolant varies with respect to its position in the tubes. A heat balance on the reactants is shown below. Heat balance on the reacting mass during time ae Heat in by generation = rV QR& 9 R R Heat transferred from p i = the tubes to the mass: na... at constant temper- ature, less and less heat must be removed as the reaction proceeds. This is accomplished by the gradual reduction of the coolant flow rate. A mefhod for the determination of the inanner in which the coolant rate must be varied...

  19. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Technical progress report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The systematic development of the residential combustion system is divided into three phases. Only Phase I is detailed here. Phase I constitutes the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a pulse combustor sized for residential space heating. Phase II is an optional phase to develop an integrated system including a heat exchanger. Phase III is projected as a field test of the integrated coal-fired residential space heater. The Phase I effort was nearing completion during this reporting period and a final report is in preparation. The configuration testing was completed early in the period and based upon results of the configuration tests, an optimized configuration for the experimental development testing was chosen. The refractory-lined chambers were fabricated and tested from mid-September through early October. The tandem unit was operated on dry micromized coal without support gas or excitation air for periods lasting from one to three hours. Performance was stable and turndown ratios of 3:1 were achieved during the first three-hour test. A early commercial residential heating system configuration has been identified on the basis of the development testing conducted throughout the first phase of this effort. The development effort indicates that the residential unit goals are achievable with some additional product improvement effort to increase carbon burn-out efficiency, reduce CO emissions and develop a reliable and compact dry, ultrafine coal feed system (not included in the present effort).

  20. Optimal heat-reversible snap joints for frame-panel assembly in aluminum space frame automotive bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    Optimal heat-reversible snap joints for frame-panel assembly in aluminum space frame automotive, snap-fit joints, aluminum space frame 1 INTRODUCTION Aluminum space frame (AFS) automotive bodies to dramatically improve the recyclability of aluminum space frame (ASF) bodies by enabling clean separation

  1. Pointing control design for autonomous space vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, K.D.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the design of pointing control systems for autonomous space vehicles. The function of the pointing control system is to keep distant orbiting objects within the field-of-view of an on-board optical sensor. We outline the development of novel nonlinear control algorithms which exploit the availability of on- board sensors. Simulation results comparing the performance of the different pointing control implementations are presented.

  2. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  3. Heat Transfer -1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with dimensions and properties given below. (a) Calculate the solar heat flux (W/m2 is at a distance where the solar heat flux (as defined above) is 500 W/m2 , and the flat plate is oriented

  4. Design of a Simplified Closed Brayton Cycle for a Space Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N. F. [Institute for Advanced Studies-IEAv, Rodovia dos Tamoios, km 5.5, Putim, 12228-001 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco Jacarei, SP, Brazil 55-12-3947-5474 (Brazil); Camillo, Giannino Ponchio [Institute for Advanced Studies-IEAv, Rodovia dos Tamoios, km 5.5, Putim, 12228-001 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Placco, Guilherme Moreira [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco Jacarei, SP, Brazil 55-12-3947-5474 (Brazil)

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are: 1) to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and 2) to build a demonstrative simulator of CBCL. This preliminary design study is been developed around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes details of the CBCL mechanical design and the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. However, for this first application pure helium will be used as working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer were developed to simulate thermal components. A new graphical interface was developed for the simulator to display the thermal process variables in steady state and to keep track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. A set of new results are being produced. These new results help to establish the hot and cold source geometry allowing for price estimating costs for building the actual device. These fresh new results will be presented and discussed.

  5. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations.

  6. Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Summers, G.

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPV's are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that - when fully developed - they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g. RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 degrees C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low mass generators. Another copy is in the Energy Systems files.

  7. Analysis, optimization, and assessment of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design for an illustrative space mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, C.; Summers, G. [Fairchild Space and Defense Corporation, Germantown, Maryland 20874 (United States)

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPVs are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that---when fully developed---they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source`s mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system`s specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV`s current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g., RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 {degree}C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low-mass generators. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Constructal multi-scale package of vertical channels with natural convection and maximal heat transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW STRUCTURES-scale structures in natural convection with the objective of maximizing the heat transfer density, or the heat transfer rate per unit of volume§ . The flow volume is filled with vertical equidistant heated blades

  9. Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration as Front End for Effective Space System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Adam M.

    The inability to approach systematically the high level of ambiguity present in the early design phases of space

  10. Sodium storage facility trace heat system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.D.

    1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the SSF PLC Ladder Logic, Cross references, and the software that was used to control the amount of power applied to the SSF Trace Heated components.

  11. The Design of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, J. D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-coupled heat pumps are being installed in increasing numbers due to proven performance and economy. The overall thermal resistance between the ground coupling fluid and a given type of surrounding soil is affected by pipe material, wall...

  12. Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the advantages of ground-source heat pumps over their conventional alternatives make these systems a very attractive choice for air conditioning, not only for residential buildings but increasingly also for institutional and commercial...

  13. The Design of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, J. D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-coupled heat pumps are being installed in increasing numbers due to proven performance and economy. The overall thermal resistance between the ground coupling fluid and a given type of surrounding soil is affected by pipe material, wall...

  14. Heat transfer from combustion gases to a single row of closely spaced tubes in a swirl crossflow Stirling engine heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankston, C.P.; Back, L.H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an experimental program to determine the heat-transfer characteristics of a combustor and heat-exchange system in a hybrid solar receiver which utilizes a Stirling engine. The system consists of a swirl conbustor with a crossflow heat exchanger composed of a single row of 48 closely spaced curved tubes. In the present study, heat-transfer characteristics of the combustor/heat-exchanger system without a Stirling engine have been studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Non-dimensional heat-transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer have been obtained and are compared with available literature data. The results show significantly enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Also, heat transfer along the length of the tubes is found to vary, the effect depending upon test condition.

  15. An Analysis of Predicted vs. Monitored Space Heat Energy Use in 120 Homes : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, John G.; Young, Marvin; Washington State Energy Office.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SUNDAY thermal simulation program was used to predict space heat energy consumption for 120 energy efficient homes. The predicted data were found to explain 43.8 percent of the variation in monitored space heat consumption. Using a paired Student's to test, no statistically significant difference could be found between mean predicted space heat and monitored space heat for the entire sample of homes. The homes were grouped into seven classes, sub-samples by total heat loss coefficient. An intermediate class (UA = 300--350 Btu/{degrees}F) was found to significantly over-predict space heat by 25 percent. The same class was over-predicted by 16 percent in the analogous Cycle 1 research, but the sample size was smaller and this was not found to be statistically significant. Several variables that were not directly included as inputs to the simulation were examined with an analysis of covariance model for their ability to improve the simulation's prediction of space heat. The variables having the greatest effect were conditioned floor area, heating system type, and foundation type. The model was able to increase the coefficient of determination from 0.438 to 0.670; a 54 percent increase. While the SUNDAY simulation program to aggregate is able to predict space heat consumption, it should be noted that there is a considerable amount of variation in both the monitored space heat consumption and the SUNDAY predictions. The ability of the program to accurately model an individual house will be constrained by both the quality of input variables and the range of occupant behavior. These constraints apply to any building model.

  16. An Analysis of Predicted vs. Monitored Space Heat Energy Use in 120 Homes :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, John G.; Young, Marvin; Washington State Energy Office.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SUNDAY thermal simulation program was used to predict space heat energy consumption for 120 energy efficient homes. The predicted data were found to explain 43.8 percent of the variation in monitored space heat consumption. Using a paired Student`s to test, no statistically significant difference could be found between mean predicted space heat and monitored space heat for the entire sample of homes. The homes were grouped into seven classes, sub-samples by total heat loss coefficient. An intermediate class (UA = 300--350 Btu/{degrees}F) was found to significantly over-predict space heat by 25 percent. The same class was over-predicted by 16 percent in the analogous Cycle 1 research, but the sample size was smaller and this was not found to be statistically significant. Several variables that were not directly included as inputs to the simulation were examined with an analysis of covariance model for their ability to improve the simulation`s prediction of space heat. The variables having the greatest effect were conditioned floor area, heating system type, and foundation type. The model was able to increase the coefficient of determination from 0.438 to 0.670; a 54 percent increase. While the SUNDAY simulation program to aggregate is able to predict space heat consumption, it should be noted that there is a considerable amount of variation in both the monitored space heat consumption and the SUNDAY predictions. The ability of the program to accurately model an individual house will be constrained by both the quality of input variables and the range of occupant behavior. These constraints apply to any building model.

  17. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  18. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thilo Schuldt; Christian Schubert; Markus Krutzik; Lluis Gesa Bote; Naceur Gaaloul; Jonas Hartwig; Holger Ahlers; Waldemar Herr; Katerine Posso-Trujillo; Jan Rudolph; Stephan Seidel; Thijs Wendrich; Wolfgang Ertmer; Sven Herrmann; André Kubelka-Lange; Alexander Milke; Benny Rievers; Emanuele Rocco; Andrew Hinton; Kai Bongs; Markus Oswald; Matthias Franz; Matthias Hauth; Achim Peters; Ahmad Bawamia; Andreas Wicht; Baptiste Battelier; Andrea Bertoldi; Philippe Bouyer; Arnaud Landragin; Didier Massonnet; Thomas Lévèque; Andre Wenzlawski; Ortwin Hellmig; Patrick Windpassinger; Klaus Sengstock; Wolf von Klitzing; Chris Chaloner; David Summers; Philip Ireland; Ignacio Mateos; Carlos F. Sopuerta; Fiodor Sorrentino; Guglielmo M. Tino; Michael Williams; Christian Trenkel; Domenico Gerardi; Michael Chwalla; Johannes Burkhardt; Ulrich Johann; Astrid Heske; Eric Wille; Martin Gehler; Luigi Cacciapuoti; Norman Gürlebeck; Claus Braxmaier; Ernst Rasel

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species $^{85}$Rb/$^{87}$Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for $10^{-11}$ mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (819 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

  19. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  20. Guidelines for selecting a solar heating, cooling or hot water design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, C.J. Jr.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guidelines are presented for the professional who may have to choose between competing solar heating and cooling designs for buildings. The experience of the National Solar Data Network in monitoring over 100 solar installations are drawn upon. Three basic principles and a design selection checklist are developed which will aid in choosing the most cost effective design.

  1. Design and Development of a Plastic Film Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, E. C.; Gollin, M. K.; Brownell, D. L.

    be liquid, gas, or a condensing vapor. The low thermal conductivity of the plastic is off set by the use of thin films so that overall heat transfer rates are achieved which are comparable 'to conventional units. Potential.uses for such? a unit are low... grade heat recovery, flu?e gas condensing, and liquid dessicant dehumidification systems. This paper discusses the range of plastic films available and compares their individual properties with those desirable in materials to be used in a PFHX...

  2. Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    11 Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design H. Boyer applications are finally discussed. One concerns the modeling of a flat plate air collector and the second focuses on the modeling of Trombe solar walls. In each case, detailed modeling of heat transfer allows

  3. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  4. Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

  5. ITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    normal pulse operation, the heat deposited in the in-vessel components is released into the environment. Ito 1 , P. Lorenzetto 4 , Y. Okawa 5 1 ITER Joint Central Team, 11025 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA; 2 ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Japan; 3 ITER Joint Central Team, Garching

  6. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  7. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  8. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Thornton, Jeff W. [Thermal Energy Systems Specialists, Inc.; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern United States, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  9. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern US, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  10. Hierarchical Modeling for Population-Based Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geb, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of the Stirling Engine Regenerator in anapproach to the design of Stirling engine regenerator matrixFoil Regenerator for Stirling Engines." [48] Ibrahim, M. ,

  11. Study on the heat transfer and pattern formation of an evaporating binary liquid in view of space experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolper, Pierre

    fluid dynamics simulations are performed using the software ComSol (finite elements methodStudy on the heat transfer and pattern formation of an evaporating binary liquid in view of space numerical simulations Investigate heat transfer and pattern formation for a set of parameters Identify

  12. Design study of a coal-fired thermionic (THX) topped power plant. Volume IV. Thermionic heat exchanger design and costing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.S.; Britt, E.J.

    1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume deals with the details of how thermionic conversion works, and how it is used in a coal-fired furnace to achieve power plant efficiencies of 45%, and overall costs of 36.3 mills/kWh. A review of the fundamental technical aspects of thermionic conversion is given. The overall Thermionic Heat Exchanger (THX) design, the heat pipe design, and the interaction of the heat pipes with the furnace are presented. Also, the operational characteristics of thermionic converters are described. Details on the computer program used to perform the parametric study are given. The overall program flow is reviewed along with the specifics of how the THX subroutine designed the converter to match the conditions imposed. Also, input costs and variables effecting the THX's performance are detailed. The efficiencies of the various power plants studied are given as a function of the air preheat temperature, size of the power plant, and thermionic level of performance.

  13. "Table HC11.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362 Home324

  14. "Table HC12.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362780324

  15. Helium Refrigerator Design for Pulsed Heat Load in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuendig, A.; Schoenfeld, H. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak type will be operated in a pulsed mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time steps of approximately one hour. What are the necessary steps for a refrigerator to cope with such load variations?A series of numerical simulations has been performed indicating the possibility of an active refrigerator control with low exergetic losses. A basic comparison is made between the largest existing refrigerator sizes and the size required to service for example the ITER requirements.

  16. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurns, John M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bäck, Harald [Sweco Industry AB, P.O. Box 286, 201 22 Malmö (Sweden); Gierow, Martin [Lunds Energikoncernen AB, P.O. Box 25, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  17. OPTIMIZATION AND DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR HIGH FLUX MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKS FOR LIQUID AND GASEOUS SINGLE-PHASE FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Norbert

    forced convection micro-channel heat sinks for minimum pump power at high heat fluxes. Results gained orders of magnitude, especially for high heat flux devices. Using water and air as coolants, designs for heat fluxes of >10 kW/cm2 and >100 W/cm2 respectively with pump/fan power expenses less than 1

  18. DESIGN AND MODELING OF DISPATCHABLE HEAT STORAGE IN WIND/DIESEL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    1 DESIGN AND MODELING OF DISPATCHABLE HEAT STORAGE IN WIND/DIESEL SYSTEMS Clint Johnson, Utama system designed to increase the utilization of wind power in cold climate wind/diesel systems where and load occurs in many isolated cold-climate diesel systems around the world where the summer population

  19. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System Callaway Spring 2011 #12;Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar a leading choice for DCS-CHP systems, if operation on steam is successful and reliability issues can

  20. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water supply for multi-unit residential high rise of a project/report". #12;2 Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water) for effective capture of heat from waste grey water. Calculations for energy, dollar and GHG savings were made

  1. Integrated structural control design of large space structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Active control of structures has been under intensive development for the last ten years. Reference 2 reviews much of the identification and control technology for structural control developed during this time. The technology was initially focused on space structure and weapon applications; however, recently the technology is also being directed toward applications in manufacturing and transportation. Much of this technology focused on multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) identification and control methodology because many of the applications require a coordinated control involving multiple disturbances and control objectives where multiple actuators and sensors are necessary for high performance. There have been many optimal robust control methods developed for the design of MIMO robust control laws; however, there appears to be a significant gap between the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of control and identification methods to address structural control applications. Many methods have been developed for MIMO identification and control of structures, such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization (Q-Markov COVER) for identification; and, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Frequency Weighted LQG and H-/ii-synthesis methods for control. Upon implementation, many of the identification and control methods have shown limitations such as the excitation of unmodelled dynamics and sensitivity to system parameter variations. As a result, research on methods which address these problems have been conducted.

  2. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  3. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  4. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived and verified. The 600 MWt VHTR core input file developed in preparation for the transient tritium analysis of VHTR systems was replaced with the original steady-state inputs for future calculations. A Finite Element Method analysis was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software to accurately predict tritium permeation through the PCHE type heat exchanger walls. This effort was able to estimate the effective thickness for tritium permeations and develop a correlation for general channel configurations, which found the effective thickness to be much shorter than the average channel distance because of dead spots on the channel side.

  5. Geothermal space heating applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Final report, August 20, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birman, J.H.; Cohen, J.; Spencer, G.J.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a first-stage evaluation of the overall feasibility of utilizing geothermal waters from the Madison aquifer in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana for space heating are reported. A preliminary assessment of the resource characteristics, a preliminary design and economic evaluation of a geothermal heating district and an analysis of environmental and institutional issues are included. Preliminary investigations were also made into possible additional uses of the geothermal resource, including ethanol production. The results of the resource analysis showed that the depth to the top of the Madison occurs at approximately 5,500 feet at Poplar, and the Madison Group is characterized by low average porosity (about 5 percent) and permeability (about 0.004 gal/day-ft), and by hot water production rates of a few tens of gallons per minute from intervals a few feet thick. The preliminary heating district system effort for the town of Poplar included design heat load estimates, a field development concept, and preliminary design of heat extraction and hot water distribution systems. The environmental analysis, based on current data, indicated that resource development is not expected to result in undue impacts. The institutional analysis concluded that a Tribal geothermal utility could be established, but no clear-cut procedure can be identified without a more comprehensive evaluation of legal and jurisdistional issues. The economic evaluation found that, if the current trend of rapidly increasing prices for fossil fuels continues, a geothermal heating district within Poplar could be a long-term, economically attractive alternative to current energy sources.

  6. Design predictions and diagnostic test methods for hydronic heating systems in ASHRAE standard 152P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of test for residential thermal distribution efficiency is currently being developed under the auspices of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The initial version of this test method is expected to have two main approaches, or ``pathways,`` designated Design and Diagnostic. The Design Pathway will use builder`s information to predict thermal distribution efficiency in new construction. The Diagnostic Pathway will use simple tests to evaluate thermal distribution efficiency in a completed house. Both forced-air and hydronic systems are included in the test method. This report describes an approach to predicting and measuring thermal distribution efficiency for residential hydronic heating systems for use in the Design and Diagnostic Pathways of the test method. As written, it is designed for single-loop systems with any type of passive radiation/convection (baseboard or radiators). Multiloop capability may be added later.

  7. Heat recovery and seed recovery development project: preliminary design report (PDR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arkett, A. H.; Alexander, K. C.; Bolek, A. D.; Blackman, B. K.; Kurrle, P. E.; Tram, S. V.; Warren, A. M.; Ziobrowski, A. J.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preliminary design and performance characteristics are described of the 20 MWt heat recovery and seed recovery (HRSR) system to be fabricated, installed, and evaluated to provide a technological basis for the design of commercial size HRSR systems for coal-fired open-cycle MHD power plants. The system description and heat and material balances, equipment description and functional requirements, controls, interfacing systems, and operation and maintenance are detailed. Appendices include: (1) recommended environmental requirements for compliance with federal and state of Tennessee regulations, (2) channel and diffuser simulator, (3) equipment arrangement drawings, and (4) channel and diffuser simulator barrel drawings. (WHK)

  8. Global Optimization for the Design of Space Trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    the European Space Agency as test problems for global optimization. We show that ... solved by means of relatively simple global optimization techniques rely-.

  9. Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

  10. The use of visual comfort metrics in the design of daylit spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakubiec, John Alstan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is desirable to design buildings with natural daylight and views to the outside, which can maximize passive solar heating, minimize electric lighting use and contribute to feelings of wellbeing and awareness. Unfortunately, ...

  11. Blended Interaction Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    Blended Interaction ­ Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces Hans-Christian Jetter, Florian Geyer, Tobias Schwarz, Harald Reiterer Human-Computer Interaction Group, University of Konstanz In this paper, we propose Blended Interaction as a conceptual framework for the design of interactive spaces. We

  12. Retrofitting the heating system for NASA's space shuttle engine test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arceneaux, T.W. (NASA, St. Louis, MO (US))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The John C. Stennis Space Center is one of nine NASA field installations and is the second largest NASA Center, occupying 13,480 acres (55 km{sup 2}) and surrounded by a 125,327-acre (507 km{sup 2}) unpopulated buffer zone. Since its beginnings, the center has been the prime NASA installation for static firing. This paper reports that because of the critical nature of the center's missions, precise instrumentation and comfortable personnel environments must be constantly and efficiency maintained. When the site was built nearly 30 years ago, two main boiler plants were installed. One was in the base area (which houses administrative and engineering offices) and the second was in the test area where the test stands and test support buildings are located. These two boiler plants generated high pressure, high temperature water (400{degrees} F, 400 psi; 204{degrees} C, 2,756 kPa) that was used for heating, reheating and absorption cooling. This high temperature hot water (HTHW) was circulated by pumps to various buildings on the site through an underground piping network. Once in the buildings, the HTHW passed through absorption chillers for cooling and high temperature-to-medium temperature water converters for heating and reheating.

  13. Design and analysis of megawatt-class heat-pipe reactor concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, D.; Kapernick, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS C921, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest in finding an alternative to diesel-powered systems at locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. One promising option is a 1- to 10-MW mobile reactor system, that could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term ({>=} 5 years) power in any environment. The reactor and required infrastructure could be transported to any location within one or a few standard transport containers. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than 'traditional' reactors that rely on pumped coolant through the core. This paper examines a heat pipe reactor that is fabricated and shipped as six identical core segments. Each core segment includes a heat-pipe-to-gas heat exchanger that is coupled to the condenser end of the heat pipes. The reference power conversion system is a CO{sub 2}-Brayton system. The segments by themselves are deeply subcritical during transport, and they would be locked into an operating configuration (with control inserted) at the final destination. Two design options are considered: a near-term option and an advanced option. The near-term option is a 5-MWt concept that uses uranium-dioxide fuel, a stainless-steel structure, and potassium as the heat-pipe working fluid. The advanced option is a 15-MWt concept that uses uranium-nitride fuel, a molybdenum/TZM structure, and sodium as the heat-pipe working fluid. The materials used in the advanced option allow for higher temperatures and power densities, and enhanced power throughput in the heat pipes. Higher powers can be obtained from both concepts by increasing the core size and the number of heat pipes. (authors)

  14. Managing uncertainty in space systems conceptual design using portfolio theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Myles Alexander, 1975-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most significant challenges in conceptual design is managing the tradespace of potential architectures-choosing which design to pursue aggressively, which to keep on the table and which to leave behind. This ...

  15. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  16. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  17. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: Afor ground-source heat pumps: A literature review,

  18. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P(t) UAB time constant. Heat input power from a fan coil orof a building in response to heat input from an active solarS.R. of a building under heat input conditions for active

  19. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  20. Mechanical counter-pressure space suit design using active materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to greatly improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities; however, the underlying technologies required to provide ...

  1. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  2. Basin View Geothermal Heating District, Klamath Falls, Oregon: conceptual design and economic-feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The findings of a feasibility study performed for Basin View Heating District in Klamath Falls, Oregon are reported. The purpose of the study is to determine the physical, economic, and political feasibility of establishing a geothermal heating district to provide space heat to housing units in the Basin View Development of Klamath Falls. Of the several systems considered, all are physically feasible. The project is politically feasible if the owner compiles with governmental requirements. Economic feasibility is based on considerations of money value rates, tax rates and expected rates of return, which are dependent on government and money markets. For analysis a money value rate of 21% and an owner's marginal tax rate of 35% were adopted.

  3. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  4. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  5. Earth Planets Space, 57, 895902, 2005 Short time-scale heating of the Earth's mantle by ice-sheet dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanyk, Ladislav

    by modeling the linear response of a self-gravitating viscoelastic planet, the gravity field anoma- lies haveEarth Planets Space, 57, 895­902, 2005 Short time-scale heating of the Earth's mantle by ice-scale energy transfer from the ice sheet loading and unloading processes to the Earth's interior via viscous

  6. Design Space Exploration of Caches Using Compressed Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roychoudhury, Abhik

    - tems. The trend towards increased customization for em- bedded systems, in addition, requires. As the application program is fixed, there exists a lot of flexibility in choosing an optimal design-on-chip platforms [1] provide the designer of an embedded system with the opportunity to configure the memory

  7. Design space exploration for multiprocessor-based embedded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Debashis

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components and the embedded-system designer has to partition the specification between hardware and software. However, in MSoC allocation is not fixed. A new stage in the design cycle called "Pre-Allocation" is introduced. It determines the number and type...

  8. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

  9. Organism of options : a design strategy for flexible space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Young-Ju, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for "flexibility" of architecture has been increasing as recent social demands are rapidly changing. However, many buildings designed in the name of flexibility are blocky, boring, and actually quite inflexible ...

  10. Subcontract Report: Modular Combined Heat & Power System for Utica College: Design Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, Greg [Gas Technology Institute

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utica College, located in Utica New York, intends to install an on-site power/cogeneration facility. The energy facility is to be factory pre-assembled, or pre- assembled in modules, to the fullest extent possible, and ready to install and interconnect at the College with minimal time and engineering needs. External connections will be limited to fuel supply, electrical output, potable makeup water as required and cooling and heat recovery systems. The proposed facility will consist of 4 self-contained, modular Cummins 330kW engine generators with heat recovery systems and the only external connections will be fuel supply, electrical outputs and cooling and heat recovery systems. This project was eventually cancelled due to changing DOE budget priorities, but the project engineers produced this system design specification in hopes that it may be useful in future endeavors.

  11. Design Guidelines for Ferrite Absorbers Submitted to RF-induced Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertarelli, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of ferrite absorbers is one of the most effective means of damping potentially harmful high order RF modes, which may lead to beam instabilities and excessive power losses in accelerator devices. However, the power deposited on ferrite absorbers themselves maylead to ferrite exceeding its Curie temperature, losing its damping properties. An evaluation of the ferrite capability to dissipate deposited heat is hence of paramount importance for the safe design of particle accelerator devices. In this paper, figures of merit are proposed to assess the maximum specific power allowed on a generic ferrite tile, before it reaches its Curie temperature. Due to its inherent brittleness, sufficient contact pressure between ferrite and its housing, allowing heat transmission by conduction, can hardly be applied. A semi-analytical study is thus performed, assuming that ferrite is evacuating heat solely through radiation. The described method is then exemplified in the case of the BPM-embedded tertiary collimator (T...

  12. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  13. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  14. SparkInfo : designing a social space for co-creation of multimedia contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jee Yeon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    People can have more insights and social experiences when they collaborate on collecting, revisiting, and utilizing their contents, such as images and videos; however, designing a social space that offers rich co-creation ...

  15. Design and Optimization of Lightweight Space Telescope Andrzej M. Stewart and David W. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Miller May 2007 SSL # 9-07 #12;#12;Design and Optimization of Lightweight Space Telescope Structures, for seeing enough promise in me to bring me into the SSL, for always ensuring that I had a source of funding

  16. Environmental design guidelines for a second generation, LEO, permanently manned space station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, David Michael, 1960-

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a continuation of the thoughts and efforts of the author's participation and co-organization of the Space Station Design Workshop (SSDW). The SSDW was a student run event whose inception surfaced in the ...

  17. On the State-Space Design of Optimal Controllers for Distributed Systems with Finite Communication Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fardad, Makan

    On the State-Space Design of Optimal Controllers for Distributed Systems with Finite Communication-space framework in which such controllers can be described. We show that the optimal control problem is not convex systems a desired scenario is to have each subsystem possess its own controller and each controller

  18. INTERACTION OF A SOLAR SPACE HEATING SYSTEM WITH THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilmer, Christian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar con- trols test facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory The interaction of baseboard, radiant panel, and furnace heating

  19. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat consumption of a low energy multifamily complex in Switzerland based on long-term experimental data,

  20. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  1. Title_Design Editor National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Authority ($ millions) Actuals Enacted FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2011 President's Budget presence throughout the solar system · The President's FY2011 Budget Request takes a new approach billion commitment to the agency 5 #12;Title_Design Editor Exploration FY 2011 Budget Request Budget

  2. Parametric design study of ``mini-generator`` with 6-watt heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T. [Orbital Sciences Corporation, 20301 Century Blvd., Germantown, Maryland 20874 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fairchild study showed that generator designs based on a single 1-watt RHU had very poor thermal efficiencies. At their optimum operating point, more than half of the generated heat was lost through the thermal insulation. This resulted in system efficiency of only 2.2%, compared to 7.2% for current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Moreover, there were serious doubts about the fabricability of the required multicouples, particularly of the series/parallel connections between the large number (900) of thermoelectric legs of very small cross-section (0.21 mm square). All in all, the preceding paper showed that neither JPL`s Power Stick design nor the Fairchild-generated derivatives based on the 1-watt heat source looked promising. The present paper describes a similar parametric study of a mini-generator based on a 6-watt heat source, and compares its performance and fabricability to that of the optimum Power Stick derivative and of the current RTG design for the same mission. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  3. Conceptual design study for the HCRF direct contact heat exchanger modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, E. F.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual design of sieve trays for modifying the HCRF direct contact heat exchanger was developed as follows. The models of the prior work, EG&G subcontract No. K-7752, were extended and modified so the predicted heat transfer coincided with the experimental data of the 60 KW Raft River tests conducted by EG&G. Using these models, a hole diameter of 0.25 inches and a hole velocity of 1.3 ft/sec or greater was selected to accomplish the required heat transfer while minimizing mass transferred to the geothermal fluid. Using the above information, a conceptual design for a sieve tray column was developed. It was determined that the column should operate as a working fluid filled, working fluid dispersed column. This is accomplished by level control of the geothermal fluid below the bottom tray. The dimensions and configuration of the trays and downcomers, and the number of holes and their diameters is summarized in Wahl Company drawings 84144001 and 84144003 submitted with this report. The performance of this design is expected to be 12,000 lbs/hr of geothermal fluid for single component fluids and 11,800 to 12,000 lbs/hr for mixed fluids at a working fluid flow rate of 71% of the geothermal fluid flow rate. The flow rate limit of the geothermal fluid will vary from 9800 to 13,000 lbs/hr as the ratio varies from 83% to 62%.

  4. Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering a heating/cooling coil with adjustable heat-exchange area, an unequal type is put forward in this paper. Aiming at the application of such heat exchanger in an air-handling unit, restriction conditions are given for the minimum heat...

  5. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will be performed to develop probability of confidence in what is measured in the test loop. Overall, the testing loop will allow development of needed heat transfer related thermophysical parameters for all the salts, validate existing correlations, validate measuring instruments under harsh environment, and have extensive corrosion testing of materials of construction.

  6. Design and Testing of a Heat Transfer Model of a Raccon (Procyon Lotor) in a Closed Tree Den Author(s): Jeffrey Thorkelson and Robert K. Maxwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Design and Testing of a Heat Transfer Model of a Raccon (Procyon Lotor) in a Closed Tree Den Author. http://www.jstor.org #12;Ecology (1974) 55: pp. 29-39 DESIGN AND TESTING OF A HEAT TRANSFER MODEL

  7. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  8. Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mylavarapu, Sai K. [Ohio State University; Sun, Xiaodong [Ohio State University; Christensen, Richard N. [Ohio State University; Glosup, Richard E. [Ohio State University; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The very high temperature reactor (VHTR), using gas-cooled reactor technology, is one of the six reactor concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum and is anticipated to be the reactor type for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP). In this type of reactor with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to secondary fluid for electricity production, process heat, or hydrogen cogeneration. The current Technology Readiness Level status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reactor core outlet temperatures of 750-800oC is 3 on a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the most ready. At present, there is no proven high-temperature IHX concept for VHTRs. Amongst the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP is the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, two PCHEs were fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and will be experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The HTHF was primarily designed and constructed to test the thermal-hydraulic performance of PCHEs The test facility is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800oC and 3 MPa, respectively. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical machining and diffusion bonding are briefly discussed for Alloy 617 plates. Diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 plates with and without a Ni interlayer is discussed. Furthermore, preliminary microstructural and mechanical characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented.

  9. Manual for the thermal and hydraulic design of direct contact spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for us in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Estimating the error in simulation prediction over the design space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, R. (Rachel); Hemez, F. M. (François M.); Doebling, S. W. (Scott W.)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses the assessrnent of accuracy of simulation predictions. A procedure is developed to validate a simple non-linear model defined to capture the hardening behavior of a foam material subjected to a short-duration transient impact. Validation means that the predictive accuracy of the model must be established, not just in the vicinity of a single testing condition, but for all settings or configurations of the system. The notion of validation domain is introduced to designate the design region where the model's predictive accuracy is appropriate for the application of interest. Techniques brought to bear to assess the model's predictive accuracy include test-analysis coi-relation, calibration, bootstrapping and sampling for uncertainty propagation and metamodeling. The model's predictive accuracy is established by training a metalnodel of prediction error. The prediction error is not assumed to be systcmatic. Instead, it depends on which configuration of the system is analyzed. Finally, the prediction error's confidence bounds are estimated by propagating the uncertainty associated with specific modeling assumptions.

  11. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    free convection. In: Heat Transfer and Turbulent Buoyantof convection heat transfer and develop correlations.and radiation heat transfer and develop correlations for

  12. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined heat and power systems. ASME Conference Proceedingsfor combined heat and power applications. ASME ConferenceRankine combined heat and power technology. ASME Conference

  13. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  14. Industrial food processing and space heating with geothermal heat. Final report, February 16, 1979-August 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunze, J.F.; Marlor, J.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A competitive aware for a cost sharing program was made to Madison County, Idaho to share in a program to develop moderate-to-low temperature geothermal energy for the heating of a large junior college, business building, public shcools and other large buildings in Rexburg, Idaho. A 3943 ft deep well was drilled at the edge of Rexburg in a region that had been probed by some shallower test holes. Temperatures measured near the 4000 ft depth were far below what was expected or needed, and drilling was abandoned at that depth. In 1981 attempts were made to restrict downward circulation into the well, but the results of this effort yielded no higher temperatures. The well is a prolific producer of 70/sup 0/F water, and could be used as a domestic water well.

  15. Design of an experimental loop for post-LOCA heat transfer regimes in a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran, Peter A. (Peter Andrew)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to design an experimental thermal-hydraulic loop capable of generating accurate, reliable data in various convection heat transfer regimes for use in the formulation of a comprehensive convection ...

  16. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  17. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  18. Multigroup half space moment approximations to the radiative heat transfer equations q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coudière, Yves

    cooling) over astrophysics to combustion (e.g., in gas turbine combustion chambers). Since radiative heat into direction l 2 ½À1; 1. Furthermore, T ðx; tÞ is the material temperature. The heat conductivity is denoted with the following boundary conditions. For the material temper

  19. Addressing design challenges in mechanical counterpressure spacesuit design and space-inspired informal education policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Allison P. (Allison Paige)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), or spacewalks allows astronauts to accomplish some of the most important endeavors in space history. The importance of EVA will continue to increase as people venture further into our solar ...

  20. Designing Indian streets as social public spaces : contextual design and planning in Bangalore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandhan, Sneha

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Streets in India have traditionally been the public spaces around which social life has revolved. They constitute the urban public realm where people congregate, celebrate and interact. The hypothesis that forms the basis ...

  1. The effect of respiration heat of sorghum grain on the design of conditioned-air storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Danel Gene

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Approved as to style and content by: C airman...

  2. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemcombined heat and power systems . . . . . . . Verificationmyth eight – worldwide power systems are economically and

  3. Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Richard N. Christensen; Raymond R. Unocic; Richard E. Glosup; Mike W. Patterson

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) using gas-cooled reactor technology is anticipated to be the reactor type for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). In this reactor concept with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation, hydrogen production, and/or industrial process heat applications. At present, there is no proven IHX concept for VHTRs. The current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reduced nominal reactor outlet temperatures of 750–800 degrees C is 3 on a 1–10 scale, with 10 indicating omplete technological maturity. Among the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP with Alloy 617, a candidate high-temperature structural material for NGNP applications, are the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 has been demonstrated, although the optimum diffusion bonding process parameters to engineer a quasi interface-free joint are yet to be determined. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical etching and diffusion bonding are discussed for Alloy 617 plates. In addition, the authors’ experiences with these non-conventional machining and joining techniques are discussed. Two PCHEs are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and are being experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a High-Temperature Helium Facility (HTHF). The HTHF is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800 degrees C and 3 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, some preliminary microstructural and mechanical property characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented. The characterization studies are restricted and less severe from an NGNP perspective but provide sufficient confidence to ensure safe operation of the heat exchangers in the HTHF. The test results are used to determine the design operating conditions for the PCHEs fabricated.

  4. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  5. Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion Energy Source Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert [NASA MSFC, TD40, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, 35812 (United States)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems with a specific mass at or below 50 kg/kWjet could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At the required specific mass, it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission requirements. To help select the system design to pursue, eight evaluation criteria were identified: system integration, safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of four potential concepts was performed: a Testable, Passive, Redundant Reactor (TPRR), a Testable Multi-Cell In-Core Thermionic Reactor (TMCT), a Direct Gas Cooled Reactor (DGCR), and a Pumped Liquid Metal Reactor (PLMR). Development of any of the four systems appears feasible. However, for power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the TPRR has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the TPRR approach. Successful development and utilization of a 'Phase 1' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. (authors)

  6. Design Considerations for a Wireless Sensor Network for Locating Parking Spaces Vamsee K. Boda, Asis Nasipuri, and Ivan Howitt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasipuri, Asis

    Design Considerations for a Wireless Sensor Network for Locating Parking Spaces Vamsee K. Boda the design of a real time parking space locating system using a network of wireless sensor nodes and implementation considerations for a wireless sensor network that can track available parking spaces in public

  7. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  8. Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Matthew

    We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

  9. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental data, Energy and Buildings 36, 543-555. O.G.consumption for heating, Energy and Buildings 43, 2662-2672.reduction for a net zero energy building, ACEEE Summer Study

  10. A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimization program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;ABSTRACT A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimization program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency heat pumps. The method used allows efficiency of conventional heat pumps, ten variables were optimized while heating capacity was fixed

  11. Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

  12. Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system for in-situ nondestructive inspection of Space Shuttle RCC heat shields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Walkington, Phillip D.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) heat shield components on the Space Shuttle's wings must withstand harsh atmospheric reentry environments where the wing leading edge can reach temperatures of 3,000 F. Potential damage includes impact damage, micro cracks, oxidation in the silicon carbide-to-carbon-carbon layers, and interlaminar disbonds. Since accumulated damage in the thick, carbon-carbon and silicon-carbide layers of the heat shields can lead to catastrophic failure of the Shuttle's heat protection system, it was essential for NASA to institute an accurate health monitoring program. NASA's goal was to obtain turnkey inspection systems that could certify the integrity of the Shuttle heat shields prior to each mission. Because of the possibility of damaging the heat shields during removal, the NDI devices must be deployed without removing the leading edge panels from the wing. Recently, NASA selected a multi-method approach for inspecting the wing leading edge which includes eddy current, thermography, and ultrasonics. The complementary superposition of these three inspection techniques produces a rigorous Orbiter certification process that can reliably detect the array of flaws expected in the Shuttle's heat shields. Sandia Labs produced an in-situ ultrasonic inspection method while NASA Langley developed the eddy current and thermographic techniques. An extensive validation process, including blind inspections monitored by NASA officials, demonstrated the ability of these inspection systems to meet the accuracy, sensitivity, and reliability requirements. This report presents the ultrasonic NDI development process and the final hardware configuration. The work included the use of flight hardware and scrap heat shield panels to discover and overcome the obstacles associated with damage detection in the RCC material. Optimum combinations of custom ultrasonic probes and data analyses were merged with the inspection procedures needed to properly survey the heat shield panels. System features were introduced to minimize the potential for human factors errors in identifying and locating the flaws. The in-situ NDI team completed the transfer of this technology to NASA and USA employees so that they can complete 'Return-to-Flight' certification inspections on all Shuttle Orbiters prior to each launch.

  13. MRI Magnet Design: Search Space Analysis, EDAs and a Real-World Problem with Significant Dependencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallagher, Marcus

    MRI Magnet Design: Search Space Analysis, EDAs and a Real-World Problem with Significant Dependencies Bo Yuan School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland QLD 4072, Australia +61-7-33656197 marcusg

  14. Semi-Immersive Space Mission Design and Visualization: Case Study of the "Terrestrial Planet Finder" Mission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semi-Immersive Space Mission Design and Visualization: Case Study of the "Terrestrial Planet Finder of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 Abstract This paper addresses visualization issues of the Terrestrial Planet the visualization of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission (TPF) as a case study to identify and analyze

  15. Design Spaces for Multimedia ComposingTook Roy D. I'ea and Edward Bovle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design Spaces for Multimedia ComposingTook Roy D. I'ea and Edward Bovle Rob de Vogel? Institute, and representational systems such as photography and film. New questions about multimedia composition cut to the heart children are empowered to act as multimedia composers, creating their own works, alone and together

  16. A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Michael C.

    A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect Aaron Carpenter-performance interconnect fabric that is energy-efficient. Well-engineered transmission line-based commu- nication systems and a much better energy profile than a conventional mesh interconnect. Keywords: Transmission Line, On

  17. Design-Space Exploration of Stream Programs through Semantic-Preserving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    enables powerful optimization strategies. As an example, the StreamIt [1] framework defines transformations of dataflow programs en- hancing parallelism through fission/fusion operations1 Design-Space Exploration of Stream Programs through Semantic-Preserving Transformations Pablo de

  18. The Impact of Social Space Design on Students’ Behavioral Problems in Middle Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Raechel

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined the impact of social space design on student behavioral problems in middle schools. A mixed-method approach was used in the form of focus groups and surveys with teachers and students from four central Texas middle schools (7th...

  19. The Design and Performance of SpaceWire Router-network using CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    The Design and Performance of SpaceWire Router-network using CSP Session:Components Short Paper the point of view of robustness and security using CSP (Communication Sequential Processes) method, one Correspondong author:fukunaga@tmu.ac.jp 1 Occam has been originally developed by Inmos Limited inspired by CSP[3

  20. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 Space Vehicle Water Drop Test and Vehicle Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 Space Vehicle Water Drop Test and Vehicle Design Overview The team was tasked with modelling the accelerations and pressures of an impact of the scaled landing vehicle to reduce the accelerations and pressures of the vehicle. Objectives Provide

  1. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant FloorBauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant FloorBauman F. 2013. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor

  2. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy to provide the heat input to a Rankine cycle tosystem. This value, the heat input to the solar collector,generated. The heat and work inputs and outputs to the

  3. "Table HC10.4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal43 Lighting24

  4. "Table HC10.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal43

  5. "Table HC11.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal4362 Home3245

  6. "Table HC12.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal43627803245

  7. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerin parabolic trough solar power technology. Journal of Solar

  8. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    working fluid to power a remote heat engine, as the fluidCHP options. Having a remote heat engine has many advantages

  9. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating a high temperature working fluid to power a remoteand heating for a significant portion of the developed and developing world, including those in remote

  10. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  11. "Table HC14.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"Q","N","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.6,"Q",0.5 "SteamHot Water System","Q","Q","N","Q" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.7,"Q",0.5 "Built-in Pipeless...

  12. "Table HC12.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"Q","Q","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.9,0.5,0.3 "SteamHot Water System","Q","Q","Q","N" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.6,0.4,0.3 "Built-in Pipeless...

  13. "Table HC13.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Heat Pump",0.6,0.4,0.3,"Q","N" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,0.7,0.3,0.2,"Q" "SteamHot Water System","Q","N","N","N","N" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.4,0.3,"Q","N" "Built-in...

  14. "Table HC15.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Heat Pump",0.6,"N","N","N","Q" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,"Q","Q","Q",0.3 "SteamHot Water System","Q","N","N","N","N" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,"Q","Q","N",0.3 "Built-in...

  15. "Table HC11.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used" "Heat Pump",0.6,"N","N","N" "Central Warm-Air Furnace",2.3,"Q","Q","Q" "SteamHot Water System","Q","Q","Q","Q" "Built-in Electric Units",2.2,0.4,"Q",0.2 "Built-in Pipeless...

  16. Optimization of the design and mode of operation of a QD laser for reducing the heat-to-bitrate ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhukov, A. E., E-mail: zhukale@gmail.com; Savelyev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Maximov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kryzhanovskaya, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Gordeev, N. Yu.; Shernyakov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Payusov, A. S.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Zubov, F. I.; Korenev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat dissipation under the high-speed modulation of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers is considered. It is shown that, for a given laser diode, there is a bias current at which the heat-to-bitrate ratio is minimized. Moreover, there exists a certain optimal optical loss of the laser cavity at which the lowest heat-to-bitrate ratio is provided for any design of edge-emitting lasers that can be fabricated from an epitaxial structure. The heat-to-bitrate ratio and the corresponding bitrate are numerically calculated and analytical expressions are derived. It is demonstrated that the heat-to-bitrate ratio of quantum dot edge-emitting lasers can be less than 0.4 pJ/bit at a bitrate exceeding 10 Gbit/s.

  17. Design of a continuous fiber ceramic composite heat exchanger for high-temperature, high-pressure applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Narayanan, T.V. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Shah, A.C.; Weddell, J.K. [DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design of a continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) heat exchanger for high-temperature, high-pressure applications is presented. The CFCC materials under consideration are SiC reinforced with SiC fibers manufactured using the continuous vapor infiltration process and alumina reinforced with SiC or alumina fibers manufactured using the directed metal oxidation process. These composite materials are highly resistant to high-temperature corrosive environment and possess a greater creep strength than metallic materials. Heat exchangers constructed of CFCC material may be utilized for high-temperature, high-pressure applications such as air/gas heaters in advanced energy systems and high-temperature energy recovery systems. This paper presents a design of a gas-to-air CFCC heat exchanger for the high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) in the high-performance power system (HIPPS). The 1.38 MPa (200 psia) air is heated from 760 C (1,400 F) to 982 C (1,800 F) using the combustion products at 1,650 C (3,000 F). The heat exchanger is of a cross-parallel/counter flow type in which the tube-side air flow makes a combined parallel and counter flow arrangement with a cross-flowing combustion gas in such a way that the maximum CFCC tube temperature will not exceed a 1,260 C (2,300 F) design limit. The main heat transfer mechanism from the external hot gas to the tube-side air is that of gaseous radiation for the first few rows of the tubes, followed by convective heat transfer across the remainder of the tube bundle. The design characteristics of this high-temperature, high-pressure CFCC heat exchanger with supporting thermal, flow, structural, and vibrational analyses are presented in detail in the paper.

  18. Optimum Design of Micro Bare-Tube Heat Exchanger Tomohisa OKU, Nobuhide KASAGI and Yuji SUZUKI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    for automobiles, electronic equipement cooling system, and recuperator for micro gas turbine. Key words : Heat

  19. This paper presents design, fabrication, and experimental results of a wireless induction heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transdermal patches. The micro-heating element arrays have been fabricated using electrodeposition of nickel

  20. Integration of Low Energy Technologies for Optimal Building and Space Conditioning Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.E. Fisher

    2006-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    EnergyPlus is the DOE's newest building energy simulation engine. It was developed specifically to support the design of low energy building systems. This project focused on developing new low energy building simulation models for EnergyPlus, verifying and validating new and existing EnergyPlus models and transferring the new technology to the private sector. The project focused primarily on geothermal and radiant technologies, which are related by the fact that both are based on hydronic system design. As a result of this project eight peer reviewed journal and conference papers were added to the archival literature and five technical reports were published as M.S. theses and are available in the archival literature. In addition, several reports, including a trombe wall validation report were written for web publication. Thirteen new or significantly enhanced modules were added to the EnergyPlus source code and forty-two new or significantly enhanced sections were added to the EnergyPlus documentation as a result of this work. A low energy design guide was also developed as a pedagogical tool and is available for web publication. Finally several tools including a hybrid ground source heat pump optimization program and a geothermal heat pump parameter estimation tool were developed for research and design and are available for web publication.

  1. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  2. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Padula, S. A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  4. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

  5. Design and Application of an Electronic Logbook for Space System Integration and Test Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavelaars, Alicia T.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Dept. Aeronaut. Astronaut.; ,

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In the highly technological aerospace world paper is still widely used to document space system integration and test (I&T) operations. E-Logbook is a new technology designed to substitute the most commonly used paper logbooks in space system I&T, such as the connector mate/demate logbook, the flight hardware and flight software component installation logbook, the material mix record logbook and the electronic ground support equipment validation logbook. It also includes new logbook concepts, such as the shift logbook, which optimizes management oversight and the shift hand-over process, and the configuration logbook, which instantly reports on the global I&T state of the space system before major test events or project reviews. The design of E-Logbook focuses not only on a reliable and efficient relational database, but also on an ergonomic human-computer interactive (HCI) system that can help reduce human error and improve I&T management and oversight overall. E-Logbook has been used for the I&T operation of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). More than 41,000 records have been created for the different I&T logbooks, with no data having been corrupted or critically lost. 94% of the operators and 100% of the management exposed to E-Logbook prefer it to paper logbooks and recommend its use in the aerospace industry.

  6. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  7. The Design of an Open Rankine-Cycle Industrial Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Chaudoir, D. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An open Rankine-cycle heat pump is ideally suited for producing low-pressure industrial process steam. Because steam serves as both the heat pump motive fluid and process fluid, the system achieves a unique simplicity and versatility...

  8. Design optimization of residential-sized air-source heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boecker, Curtis Layne

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    larger heat exchangers and increased fan motor efficiency. Variable-speed heat pumps offer the greatest potential for efficiency increases as improvements in the variable-speed compressors progress. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Dennis O... for your support throughout. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION THE HEAT PUMP THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE Page Compressor Heat Exchanger Expansion Device Additional Equipment COMPUTER MODEL SELECTION AND VALIDATION . . 13 General Model...

  9. SPACE-R thermionic space nuclear power system: Design and technology demonstration. Monthly report for 1 August 1994--1 September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to design, develop, demonstrate, and advance the technology for thermionic space nuclear power system (TI-SNPS) to meet key functional requirements with reliable 5{approximately}40 kWe output and 18-month near-term/10-year long-term goals. A 40 kWe TI-SNPS point design will be prepared, and key technologies and critical components supporting that design will be validated. This program will produce an assessed design of a 40 kWe-EOL space nuclear power system. Phase 1 will provide for the performance of parametric trade studies and demonstration of key technologies, resulting in a preferred conceptual design for the TI-SNPS. The focus of the tasks is technology validation drive by the system design.

  10. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  11. Theoretical Design of Thermosyphon for Process Heat Transfer from NGNP to Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ~ 1300K) and industrial scale power transport (=50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization / condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e. without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) or vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  12. 598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 26, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2003 Thermal Design Methodology for High-Heat-Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 26, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2003 Thermal Design Methodology for High-Heat-Flux Single-Phase and Two-Phase Micro-Channel Heat Sinks Weilin of single-phase and two-phase micro-channel heat sinks. The first part of the paper concerns single

  13. Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:14:9a.0 Home7.4 Space

  14. Table HC9.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas:14:9a.05a.4 Space

  15. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly Download:Stocks by3a.7 Million04 Space

  16. "Table HC13.4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances Housing1324

  17. "Table HC14.4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances783

  18. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home8 Water0 Home25

  19. "Table HC9.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home8 Water00 Home25

  20. Development of a vortex combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (combustion tests). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, T.T. [Naval Civil Engineering Lab., Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Nieh, S. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Combustion and Multiphase Flows Lab.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-87PC79660 on ``Combustion Test`` for vortex combustor (VC) development for commercial applications. The work culminated in the successful demonstration of a 2 MB/H proof-of-concept (POC) model firing coal-water fuel (CWF). This development is concerned with a new concept in combustion, and was a general lack of relevant information. The work therefore began (in addition to the companion cold flow modeling study) with the design and test of two subscale models (0.15 and 0.3 MB/H) and one full scale model (3 MB/H) to obtain the needed information. With the experience gained, the 2 MB/H POC model was then designed and demonstrated. Although, these models were designed somewhat differently from one another, they all performed well and demonstrated the superiority of the concept. In summary, test results have shown that VC can be fired on several coal fuels (CWF, dry ultrafine coal, utility grind pulverized coal) at high combustion efficiency (>99%), high firing intensity (up to 0.44 MB/H-ft{sup 3}), and at temperatures sufficiently low or dry ash removal. The combustion process is completed totally inside the combustor. Conventional combustion enhancement techniques such as: preheating (air and/or fuel), pre-combustion, and post combustion are not needed.

  1. Development of a vortex combustor (VC) for space/water heating applications (combustion tests)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, T.T. (Naval Civil Engineering Lab., Port Hueneme, CA (United States)); Nieh, S. (Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Combustion and Multiphase Flows Lab.)

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-87PC79660 on Combustion Test'' for vortex combustor (VC) development for commercial applications. The work culminated in the successful demonstration of a 2 MB/H proof-of-concept (POC) model firing coal-water fuel (CWF). This development is concerned with a new concept in combustion, and was a general lack of relevant information. The work therefore began (in addition to the companion cold flow modeling study) with the design and test of two subscale models (0.15 and 0.3 MB/H) and one full scale model (3 MB/H) to obtain the needed information. With the experience gained, the 2 MB/H POC model was then designed and demonstrated. Although, these models were designed somewhat differently from one another, they all performed well and demonstrated the superiority of the concept. In summary, test results have shown that VC can be fired on several coal fuels (CWF, dry ultrafine coal, utility grind pulverized coal) at high combustion efficiency (>99%), high firing intensity (up to 0.44 MB/H-ft[sup 3]), and at temperatures sufficiently low or dry ash removal. The combustion process is completed totally inside the combustor. Conventional combustion enhancement techniques such as: preheating (air and/or fuel), pre-combustion, and post combustion are not needed.

  2. Hypermodular Self-Assembling Space Solar Power -- Design Option for Mid-Term GEO Utility-Scale Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitgab, Martin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a design for scaleable space solar power systems based on free-flying reflectors and module self-assembly. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by design independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly or transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study describe a design for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  3. Design and construction of a Helmholtz coil apparatus for nanoparticle heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenstein, Jessica A. (Jessica Ann)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manipulating biomolecules can lead to better understanding how specific biological components function and can result in new therapeutic techniques. Biomolecules are manipulated by magnetically heating conductive nanoparticles ...

  4. Materials technology assessment for a 1050 K Stirling Space Engine design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheuermann, C.M.; Dreshfield, R.L.; Gaydosh, D.J.; Kiser, J.D.; MacKay, R.A.; McDanels, D.L.; Petrasek, D.W.; Vannucci, R.D.; Bowles, K.J.; Watson, G.K.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of materials technology and proposed materials selection was made for the 1050 K (superalloy) Stirling Space Engine design. The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate previously proposed materials selections, evaluate the current state-of-the-art materials, propose potential alternate materials selections and identify research and development efforts needed to provide materials that can meet the stringent system requirements. This assessment generally reaffirmed the choices made by the contractor; however, in many cases alternative choices were described and suggestions for needed materials and fabrication research and development were made.

  5. The Design and Feasibility of a 10 mN Chemical Space Propulsion Alexander Bruccoleri , Paulo Lozano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Paulo Lozano June 2009 SSL # 3-09 #12;#12;The Design and Feasibility of a 10 mN Chemical Space Propulsion Thruster Alexander Bruccoleri , Paulo Lozano June 2009 SSL # 3-09 This work is based

  6. A simulation code to assist designing space missions of the Airwatch type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Montaruli; R. Bellotti; F. Cafagna; M. Circella; C. N. De Marzo; P. Lipari

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of an Airwatch type space mission can greatly benefit from a flexible simulation code for establishing the values of the main parameters of the experiment. We present here a code written for this purpose. The cosmic ray primary spectrum at very high energies, the atmosphere modelling, the fluorescence yield, the photon propagation and the detector response are taken into account in order to optimize the fundamental design parameters of the experiment, namely orbit height, field of view, mirror radius, number of pixels of the focal plane, threshold of photo-detection. The optimization criterion will be to maximize counting rates versus mission cost, which imposes limits both on weight and power consumption. Preliminary results on signals with changing energy and zenith angle of incident particles are shown.

  7. Effect of rib spacing on heat transfer and friction in a rotating two-pass rectangular (AR=1:2) channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yao-Hsien

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The research focuses on testing the heat transfer enhancement in a channel for different spacing of the rib turbulators. Those ribs are put on the surface in the two pass rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of AR=1:2. The cross section...

  8. A Study of Wind Energy Use for Space Heating in Prince Edward Island1 Larry Hughes, Mandeep Dhaliwal, Aaron Long, Nikita Sheth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200605 A Study of Wind Energy Use for Space Heating in Prince Edward Island1 Larry Hughes, Mandeep Dhaliwal, Aaron Long, Nikita Sheth Energy Research Group Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada 19 April 2006 1 This paper has been accepted

  9. Design and Modeling of the NU Smart Space Drilling System (SSDS) Yinghui Liu, Brian Weinberg, Constantinos Mavroidis*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavroidis, Constantinos

    1 Design and Modeling of the NU Smart Space Drilling System (SSDS) Yinghui Liu, Brian Weinberg: http://www.coe.neu.edu/~mavro * Associate Professor, Corresponding Author Abstract Deep space drilling Drilling System (SSDS), which is currently being developed at Northeastern University (NU), is a compact

  10. Design considerations of a 15kW heat exchanger for the CSPonD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adames, Adrian A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to develop a 15 kW heat exchanger model for the CSPonD molten salt receiver that will shuttle the molten salt's thermal energy for conversion to electric power. A heat extraction system ...

  11. Geothermal Space Heating Applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the Vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Phase I Report, August 20, 1979--December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Glenn J.; Cohen, M. Jane

    1980-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering and economic study is concerned with the question of using the natural heat of the earth, or geothermal energy, as an alternative to other energy sources such as oil and natural gas which are increasing in cost. This document represents a quarterly progress report on the effort directed to determine the availability of geothermal energy within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana (Figure 1), and the feasibility of beneficial use of this resource including engineering, economic and environmental considerations. The project is being carried out by the Tribal Research office, Assinboine and Sioux Tribes, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Poplar, Montana under a contract to the United States Department of Energy. PRC TOUPS, the major subcontractor, is responsible for engineering and economic studies and the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) is providing support in the areas of environment and finance, the results of which will appear in the Final Report. The existence of potentially valuable geothermal resource within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation was first detected from an analysis of temperatures encountered in oil wells drilled in the area. This data, produced by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, pointed to a possible moderate to high temperature source near the town of Poplar, Montana, which is the location of the Tribal Headquarters for the Fort Peck Reservation. During the first phase of this project, additional data was collected to better characterize the nature of this geothermal resource and to analyze means of gaining access to it. As a result of this investigation, it has been learned that not only is there a potential geothermal resource in the region but that the producing oil wells north of the town of Poplar bring to the surface nearly 20,000 barrels a day (589 gal/min) of geothermal fluid in a temperature range of 185-200 F. Following oil separation, these fluids are disposed of by pumping into a deep groundwater aquifer. While beneficial uses may be found for these geothermal fluids, even higher temperatures (in excess of 260 F) may be found directly beneath the town of Poplar and the new residential development which is being planned in the area. This project is primarily concerned with the use of geothermal energy for space heating and domestic hot water for the town of Poplar (Figure 2 and Photograph 1) and a new residential development of 250 homes which is planned for an area approximately 4 miles east of Poplar along U.S. Route 2 (Figure 2 and Photograph 2). A number of alternative engineering design approaches have been evaluated, and the cost of these systems has been compared to existing and expected heating costs.

  12. Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|Solar windMarch 26,SowjanyaSpace Space The

  13. Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|Solar windMarch 26,SowjanyaSpace Space

  14. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figures A typical wet steam Rankine cycle on a temperature-A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating2011 Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed

  15. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings ofWater-based radiant cooling systems are gaining popularityGain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design. Proceedings of

  16. The Design of Novel Microwave-Heated Reaction Cells for Infrared Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silverwood, Ian P

    Two novel microreactor cells for the investigation of catalysts by in-situ infrared spectroscopy under microwave and conventional heating are presented. A transmission infrared microreactor cell is demonstrated which ...

  17. The Design of an Open Rankine-Cycle Industrial Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Chaudoir, D. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by an electric-motor-driven, multistage compressor train. This strategy permits the heat pump to accommodate upsets such as sudden changes in the waste stream flow and/or temperature, as well as fluctuation within the process stream....

  18. A Preliminary Study on Designing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System for the University Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Reynolds, C. M.; Lee, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) systems are an evolving technology that is at the front of the energy conservation movement. With the reduction in energy consumption and green house gas emissions, CHP systems are improving the efficiency of power...

  19. Design of a novel test bench for induction heating load characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez del Castillo, Lisa

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic materials used in induction heating applications have nonlinear magnetic properties with respect to field strength and frequency, which can be effectively characterized using experimental techniques. To this end, ...

  20. Design and Operation of Fluid Beds for Heating, Cooling and Quenching Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, W. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with austempering cycles have been conducted with excellent results. A unique fluid bed bath which is used for preheating, weld positioning and post-heating of castings has also been produced. Substantial energy and material handling savings have been obtained...

  1. Design of organic Rankine cycles for conversion of waste heat in a polygeneration plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiGenova, Kevin (Kevin J.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic Rankine cycles provide an alternative to traditional steam Rankine cycles for the conversion of low grade heat sources, where steam cycles are known to be less efficient and more expensive. This work examines organic ...

  2. Home Heating Systems Design using PHP and MySQL Databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karnyanszky, Tiberiu Marius

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the use of a computer application based on a MySQL database, managed by PHP programs, allowing the selection of a heating device using coefficient-based calculus.

  3. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar CHP system supplying arbitrary heat and power outputs.e Electrical power output of system Q Solar CHP to PV yearlysolar Rankine CHP system, sized equally in terms of peak power output,

  4. Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar...

  5. Recovery act: development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shaojie

    2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  6. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  7. Heat transfer in the plate heat exchanger of an ammonia-synthesis column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obolentsev, Y.G.; Chus', M.S.; Norobchanskii, O.A.; Teplitshi, Y.S.; Tovazhnyanskii, L.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning and construction of high-capacity synthetic ammonia plants requires the development and fabrication of unique, high unit-power equipment with high technical and economic characteristics. In foreign and domestic practice, tubular heat exchangers with relatively low heat-transfer coefficients are used. Plate heat exchangers are a promising alternative. They are compact and have a high heat energy efficiency and a relatively small metal content. To make an experimental check of the operating capability of a plate heat exchanger under ammonia production conditions, a welded plate heat exchanger was designed for an ammonia synthesis column 800mm in diameter. On prolonged testing (four years), the device provided an autothermal operating mode in the column and the heat transfer coefficient was practically constant for fixed space velocities. Consequently, the heat exchange surface was not contaminated significantly with catalyst dust, confirmed by visual observation of the heat exchanger after disassembly.

  8. Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Information Document, Amendment 10. GCFR residual heat removal system criteria, design, and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a comprehensive set of safety design bases to support the conceptual design of the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) residual heat removal (RHR) systems. The report is structured to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to review and comment in the licensability of these design bases. This report also presents information concerning a specific plant design and its performance as an auxiliary part to assist the NRC in evaluating the safety design bases.

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    64.9 1.4 7.9 9.5 0.5 30.6 0.3 2.1 1.4 3.9 7.3 Principal Building Activity Education ... 37.6 1.5 7.5 8.4 1.1 11.5 0.2 1.6 0.4 3.3 2.1...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 2 Q 14 1 35 1 1 3 Food Service ... 63 3 8 7 3 12 4 20 (*) 1 4 Health Care ... 73 2 10 12 1 31 (*) 2 1 3 11 Inpatient...

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    101.2 38.0 7.8 7.2 7.8 20.0 2.5 5.6 1.2 2.8 8.4 Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) For Lighting ... 112.6 37.8 11.5 9.1 6.2 26.1 1.9...

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 119 2 2 10 Food Service ... 217 10 28 24 10 42 13 70 2 2 15 Health Care ... 248 6 34 42 2 105 1 8 4 10 36 Inpatient...

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 258.3 43.1 17.4 14.8 40.4 25.4 63.5 42.1 1.0 1.0 9.5 Health Care ... 187.7 70.4 14.1 13.3 30.2 33.1 3.5 2.6 1.2 3.2...

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil and

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil andRevised:

  16. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  17. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  18. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8 34.0

  20. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0 1.8

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0890

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100Released:

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop

  12. Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

  13. 1 Copyright 2007 by ASME DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY WITH HIGH-STIFFNESS, HEAT-REVERSIBLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    recycling at the end of product life at the design stage. One of the key considerations is to design and use are now designed with increased emphasis on effective part reuse and material recycling at the end. Reversible snaps, often found at battery covers in electrical appliances (see Figure 1 for examples

  14. Allegations that low-cost solar space heating systems are being ruled out in the solar in Federal Buildings Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are given of an examination of allegations that Marshall Space Flight Center, in its role as technical reviewer for the DOE, arbitrarily recommended requirements which would effectively rule out the use of low-cost solar space heating systems in the solar in Federal Buildings Demonstration Program. The examination addressed whether Marshall's recommended requirements and its evaluation of the low-cost system in question were based on supporting criteria and data, and was not a technical assessment of the allegations. It was concluded that Marshall's recommended requirements and evaluation of the low-cost system in question were indeed based on supporting criteria and data, and were based on guidelines commonly used in the heating and cooling industry and on data collected by eight independent laboratories. The background information, a discussion of the findings, and a chronology of key events surrounding Marshall's recommended requirements and its evaluation are presented. (LEW)

  15. Applying Learnable Evolution Model to Heat Exchanger Design Kenneth A. Kaufman and Ryszard S. Michalski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalski, Ryszard S.

    of the evaporator tubes in the heat exchanger of an air conditioner. This is a very difficult problem because conditioner, refrigerant flows through a loop. It is superheated and placed in contact with cooler outside air conditions, manufacturers of air conditioning systems currently assume in their models average operating

  16. In-space power rejection management via indirect annular flow liquid film management - process design and feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Rube Ben

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    discharge conditioning, and a near constant sink pressure for the supported vapor cycle. Initial design calculations for a space vapor cycle experiment were done and a steady-state computer model of the SLIC was created and used to evaluate the potential... Optimization Considerations III SPACE VAPOR CYCLE EXPERIMENT. General Geometry Energy Balance and Hardware Description IV SLIC STEADY-STATE MAGICAL MODEL Scope . Equations . CodeOrganization, Computer Model Benchmark . V RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Input...

  17. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  18. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  19. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  20. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  1. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  2. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transfer Design Tools Arild Gustavsen1,* , Dariush Arasteh2 , Bjørn Petter Jelle3,4 , Charlie Curcija5-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. 3. Assess existing correlations

  3. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  4. Spacecraft design-for-demise strategy, analysis and impact on low earth orbit space missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waswa, M. B. Peter (Peter Moses Bweya)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncontrolled reentry into the Earth atmosphere by LEO space missions whilst complying with stipulated NASA Earth atmospheric reentry requirements is a vital endeavor for the space community to pursue. An uncontrolled reentry ...

  5. Image collection optimization in the design and operation of lightweight, low areal-density space telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogosian, Josef Roach

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand for space imagery has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Scientific and government agencies rely on Earth-observing space assets for a variety of functions, including mapping, agriculture, and ...

  6. Design Of Heat-Activated Reversible Integral Attachments For Product-Embedded Disassembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    }@engin.umich.edu Abstract Disassembly is a fundamental process needed for component reuse and material recycling in all some snap-fits are designed to be reverisble (eg., battery covers for cellular phones), they require

  7. Project title: Natural ventilation, solar heating and integrated low-energy building design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    greenhouse gas emissions from office buildings CMI E-Newsletter Issue 7 BP announces funding for CMI project on integrated low-energy building design No air conditioning, no sweat! Sustainable Building Design: Application Of Natural Ventilation Short... , such as China, where new buildings are being constructed at a rate far in excess of the level of development in developed countries, and where energy is relatively expensive. More Information For further information, please visit the Natural Ventilation...

  8. Rigorous Separation Design. 2. Network Design Solutions for Mixtures with Various Volatility Differences and Feed Compositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    of temperature collocation for the design of complex distillation networks. Despite search space reduction mass, equilibrium, summation, and heat (MESH) equations. Complex columns are distillation units distillate leaving conventional columns. Complex separation networks are sig- nificant, because there appears

  9. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  10. Stochastic performance analysis and staged control system designs for space based interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kuo-Chia, 1973-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space based interferometry missions have the potential to revolutionize astrometry, providing observations of unprecedented accuracy. Realizing the full potential of these interferometers poses several significant technological ...

  11. Space nuclear power and man's extraterrestrial civilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelo, J.J.; Buden, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines leading space nuclear power technology candidates. Particular emphasis is given the heat-pipe reactor technology currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program is aimed at developing a 10-100 kWe, 7-year lifetime space nuclear power plant. As the demand for space-based power reaches megawatt levels, other nuclear reactor designs including: solid core, fluidized bed, and gaseous core, are considered.

  12. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School... temperatures a cryogenic pump wss necessary. The sire of the pump was computed on the basis of maintaining a one degree Fahrenheit drop of the coolant temperature through the supply systms. The greatest heat load on the supply system being 3718 BTU per hour...

  13. Software requirements, design, and verification and validation for the FEHM application - a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dash, Z.V.; Robinson, B.A.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements, design, and verification and validation of the software used in the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media, are described. The test of the DOE Code Comparison Project, Problem Five, Case A, which verifies that FEHM has correctly implemented heat and mass transfer and phase partitioning, is also covered.

  14. System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations of Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahderekal, Isaac [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Vineyard, Edward [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the system performance of a gas engine driven heat pump (GHP) system, an analytical modeling and experimental study has been made by using desiccant system in cooling operation (particularly in high humidity operations) and suction line waste heat recovery to augment heating capacity and efficiency. The performance of overall GHP system has been simulated with a detailed vapor compression heat pump system design model. The modeling includes: (1) GHP cycle without any performance improvements (suction liquid heat exchange and heat recovery) as a baseline (both in cooling and heating mode), (2) the GHP cycle in cooling mode with desiccant system regenerated by waste heat from engine incorporated, (3) GHP cycle in heating mode with heat recovery (recovered heat from engine). According to the system modeling results, by using the desiccant system the sensible heat ratio (SHR- sensible heat ratio) can be lowered to 40%. The waste heat of the gas engine can boost the space heating efficiency by 25% at rated operating conditions. In addtion,using EnergyPlus, building energy simulations have been conducted to assess annual energy consumptions of GHP in sixteen US cities, and the performances are compared to a baseline unit, which has a electrically-driven air conditioner with the seasonal COP of 4.1 for space cooling and a gas funace with 90% fuel efficiency for space heating.

  15. Increased confidence in concept design through trade space exploration and multiobjective optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odegard, Ryan Glenn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing size, complexity and demands of engineering systems requires paying greater attention to the initial design of the system concept. To improve the process by which concept design is carried out, this thesis ...

  16. Design of a Personalized Lighting Control System Enabled by a Space Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, G.; Petrushevski, F.; Sipetic, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a research effort to develop a prototype of a personalized lighting control system that adjusts the visual environment based on user preferences. Lighting controllers query a space model to retrieve lighting objects...

  17. Integrated modeling to facilitate control architecture design for lightweight space telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohan, Lucy Elizabeth

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis it to examine the effects of utilizing control to better meet performance and systematic requirements of future space telescopes. New telescope systems are moving toward tighter optical performance ...

  18. Gain-scheduled controller design for load-following in static space nuclear power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbasioglu, Fetiye Ozlem

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of shunt regulators for load-following of proposed static space nuclear power systems (SNPSS) raises a number of concerns, such as the possibility of a failure in the shunt regulators requiring reactor shutdown, or the possible need...

  19. Design and fabrication of a test apparatus for lightweight flexible space modules for assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harlan, Andrew R. (Andrew Ryan)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future space missions will require the on-orbit construction of large structures, such as solar arrays and telescopes. Currently, on-orbit construction and maintenance work is primarily accomplished by astronauts, during ...

  20. "Table HC14.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances7835 Space

  1. "Table HC15.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances783525 Space

  2. Exploration and assessment of the environmental design space for commercial aircraft and future technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barter, Garrett E. (Garrett Ehud), 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and regulatory initiatives for aircraft noise and emissions should appreciate the integrated nature of the aircraft system. The computational ability exists to consider environmental and traditional performance ...

  3. Enhanced breakdown voltage and reduced self-heating effects in thin-film lateral bipolar transistors: Design and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Enhanced breakdown voltage and reduced self-heating effects in thin-film lateral bipolar breakdown and self-heating characteristics of a new collector-tub three-zone step doped thin-film lateral-doping; Collector-tub; Silicon-on-insulator; Self-heating 1. Introduction High voltage thin-film (

  4. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  5. System-level Design Space Exploration for Security Processor Prototyping in Analytical Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jenq-Kuen

    of architectures in designing the security processor-based systems typically involves time- consuming simulation strategy for synoptically exploring of the candidate ar- chitectures of security processor-based systems performance evaluations in order to provide design decisions for security processors and systems. In the case

  6. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy...

  7. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  8. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

  9. Study of space charge-dominated beam bunching and some aspects of SSF linac designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is made up from works under the Agreement 1083P0015-35 between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Moscow Radiotechnical Institute. There are five report parts. In the 1-st, 2-nd, and 3-d parts works on SCD-beam dynamics understanding were continued. In the 4-th and 5-th parts two conceptual linac designs were considered: for deutron linac with energy of 40 MeV and for proton linac with energy 1 GeV. The both linacs have focusing by superconducting solenoids (SSF linacs). The 1 GeV proton CW linac design is an extension of the design from.

  10. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  11. Design of a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust collector for the Tanpopo mission aboard the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabata, Makoto; Yano, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Mita, Hajime; Okudaira, Kyoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are developing a silica-aerogel-based cosmic dust collector for use in the Tanpopo experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station. The mass production of simple two-layer hydrophobic aerogels was undertaken in a contamination-controlled environment, yielding more than 100 undamaged products. The collector, comprising an aerogel tile and holder panel, was designed to resist launch vibration and to conform to an exposure attachment. To this end, a box-framing aerogel with inner and outer densities of 0.01 and 0.03 g/cm$^3$, respectively, was fabricated. The aerogel mounted in the panel passed random vibration tests at the levels of the acceptance and qualification tests for launch. It also withstood the pressure changes expected in the airlock on the International Space Station.

  12. lndoor recreational walking in semi-public spaces : assessing demand and design standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Catherine Marie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Encouragement and facilitation of walking for health and community benefits has recently become an important focus in the city planning and public health fields. Urban design guidelines have increasingly highlighted ...

  13. A multi-objective approach to the design of low thrust space trajectories using optimal control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was a solar-wind sample return mission between 2001 and 2004. The Hiten mission marked the first use of a weak the last years dynamical system techniques have been developed for the design of energy

  14. The design and feasibility of a 10 mN chemical space propulsion thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis discusses the design of a ten milli Newton chemical propulsion system for providing approximately 200 m/s delta velocity to a five kg satellite. The nozzle is the focus of the experimental work, which involves ...

  15. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ing the Market for Home Heating and Cooling Equipment," LBLestimating the market shares of space-heating technologiesestimating the market shares of space-heating technologies

  16. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    among different space heating technologies to household andhousehold's choice of heating technology is modeled jointlymodel five space heating technologies given central cooling

  17. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    passive and hybrid space heating systems. Space Cooling Aand hybrid solar heating and cooling systems. Experimentspassive, and hybrid systems for heating, cooling, and

  18. "Table HC13.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances Housing13245

  19. "Table HC15.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances78352

  20. "Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances783525802324

  1. "Table HC3.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home Appliances7835258023245

  2. "Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home Electronics324

  3. "Table HC4.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home Electronics3245

  4. "Table HC8.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home8 Water0

  5. Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    production and space cooling at the same time. An answer to a dual energy demand is the heat pump, sinceModelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Paul Byrne1 *, Jacques-012-0089-0 #12;1. ABSTRACT The heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) carries out space heating

  6. Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator, and its Applicability to an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth; Summers, G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the IAF in Jerusalem, Israel, October 1994. The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the authors. To focus the design effort, it was decided to direct it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by the JPL, envisages a direct eight to nine-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a six-week post-encounter cruise.

  7. Structural design and analysis of a lightweight composite sandwich space radiator panel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Sudharsan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study is to design and analyze a sandwich composite panel with lightweight graphite foam core and carbon epoxy face sheets that can function as a radiator for the given payload in a satellite. This arrangement provides a lightweight...

  8. The impact of different climates on window and skylight design for daylighting and passive cooling and heating in residential buildings: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Sallal, K.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study aims to explore the effect of different climates on window and skylight design in residential buildings. The study house is evaluated against climates that have design opportunities for passive systems, with emphasis on passive cooling. The study applies a variety of methods to evaluate the design. It has found that earth sheltering and night ventilation have the potential to provide 12--29% and 25--77% of the cooling requirements respectively for the study house in the selected climates. The reduction of the glazing area from 174 ft{sup 2} to 115 ft{sup 2} has different impacts on the cooling energy cost in the different climates. In climates such Fresno and Tucson, one should put the cooling energy savings as a priority for window design, particularly when determining the window size. In other climates such as Albuquerque, the priority of window design should be first given to heating savings requirements.

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Food Service ... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Health Care ... 11 6 2 Q 2 5.6 3.3 0.8 Q 1.3 Inpatient...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased: September,

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09 0.01

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634636

  3. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  4. ON THE ROLE OF THERMOELECTRIC HEAT TRANSFER IN THE DESIGN OF SMA ACTUATORS: THEORETICAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is undertaken in this paper. A one-dimensional model of a thermoelectric unit cell with a SMA junction. Semiconductorshave been used for localized cooling, employing the thermoelectricPeltier eect. Depending on the direction of the current, the Peltier eect can be used as a heat sink (refriger- ation) or as a heat source

  5. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due...

  6. Collaborative Planning for Collaborative Learning: Designing and Promoting New Learning Spaces on Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Scott

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ;? Opportunities for group processing #0;? Intentional design Source: Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Establishing the Baseline #0;? Inquiry... access to information #0;? Support Structure #0;? One-stop Building the Prototype - Overview #0;? Main Lab (?standard? lab configuration with 50 Dell Optiplex GX260s) #0;? Media Lab (13 Macintosh G5s equipped to support desktop publishing, multimedia...

  7. Structural design and analysis of a lightweight composite sandwich space radiator panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Sudharsan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Model???????????????????.31 3.5.1 Cutout??...????????????????????32 3.5.2 Antenna????????????...?????????..32 3.6 Preliminary Design????????????????????...33 IV. VIBRATION AND THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SANDWICH RADIATOR PANEL....??..??????????????..35 4.1 Plate Theory???????????????????????..35 4.2 Free Vibration of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate?????....36 4.3 Parametric Study of Simply Supported Plates and Sandwiches.???..38 4.3.1 Aluminum 2024-T3 Isotropic Plate???????????..38...

  8. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  9. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  10. NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes. Potential Impact

  11. Effects of Gadolinium and Europium on the Design and Submersion Criticality of a Fast Spectrum Space Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States)

    2005-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Gadolinium-155 and europium-151 are examined as alternative spectral shift absorbers to rhenium in the Scalable AMTEC Integrated Reactor space power System (SAIRS) heat-pipe reactor. Spectral shift absorbers counteract the reactivity increase when a compact, highly-enriched space nuclear reactor is submerged in seawater or wet sand and flooded following a launch abort accident. After all excess rhenium is removed from the reactor core, gadolinium-155 or europium-151 is added to the core in the form of a 0.1 mm oxide coating on the inside of the reactor vessel and/or as a nitride additive to the UN fuel. To compensate for increased parasitic neutron absorption, the UN fuel enrichment in the SAIRS reactor is increased to from 83.5% to a maximum of 94%. With 12 atom% 155GdN added to the reactor fuel, the outer diameter of the axial reflector decreased by 2 cm, and with a 155Gd2O3 coating on the inside of the reactor vessel, the reactor has $2.47 of excess reactivity at Beginning of Mission (compared to $2.08 for the rhenium base-case) and a worst case submersion and flooding accident reactivity of -$1.12 (compared to -$0.93 for the base-case). The resulting reactor and shield weigh 951.20 kg, for a savings of 100.94 kg over the base-case. When 9 atom% 151EuN is used in the fuel, the outer diameter of the axial reflector is reduced by 4 cm, and the reactor has $2.53 excess reactivity and -$1.13 of reactivity in the worst-case submersion and flooding accident scenario. The europium-case represents a mass savings of 143.16 kg over the base-case for a total reactor and shield mass of 908.98 kg.

  12. The development of design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass based on the glass failure prediction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Timothy Andrew

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the interior. According to ASTM, the residual surface compression of tempered glass is defined to have a value of 10, 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) while heat-strengthened glass has residual compressive stresses greater than 3, 500 psi (24. 13 MPa) but less than 10..., 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) (ASTM, 1989). These residual surface compressive stresses must be overcome by mechanical stresses before the glass surfaces experience tension. Hence heat-strengthened and tempered glass are considerably stronger than annealed...

  13. Research and design work on heat emission and aerodynamic resistance of tube bundles in air cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuntysh, V.B.; Fedotova, L.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of studies of heat emission using methods of local and global thermal simulation of crossflow small-array bundles of tubes finned with wound aluminum strip, and flared into the load-bearing wall, are reported. Correction factors applicable to the method of simulating convective heat transfer over the range Re = (2.5-25).10/sup 3/ are given, with variation in the number of rows over the air course from one to four.

  14. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Geothermal Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, P.; Man, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been gaining increasing popularity for space conditioning in residential and commercial buildings. The geothermal heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from...

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blum, Helcio

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007): “Market Barriers Affecting Water Heating in Norway. ”heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a marketheating and cooling. The non-existence of the equipment efficiency-related market

  16. 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment, and the COP are to be determined. Assumptions 1 enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure, and leaves the condenser space and the power input to the compressor are determined from s and ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) kW1.83 kW7

  17. Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to...

  18. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications...

  19. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Division of Heat and Power Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachkov, Ivan

    Euro Necessary space Rig in use: 45m2 (9mx5m), storage: ca 14 m2 (7mx2m) General application Experimental to high subsonic operation Application for industry Testing of aerodynamic damping of blade rows Turbine - Division of Heat and Power Technology Object Cold Flow Test Turbine Brand name ABB STAL design

  20. Energy Signatures: a proposed new design tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Signatures is a proposed new technique for aiding a designer in selecting and sizing passive solar elements on a building. Hourly heat flux profiles for each candidate design element are determined. These profiles are then matched to the hourly energy requirement of the space accounting for weather conditions, internal heat profiles of the space, and the mass characteristics of the building. Simulation analysis techniques are used to determine the Energy Signatures, the load profiles, and check the final result. Least-squares techniques are used to determine the optimum mix of strategies. Examples are given to illustrate development of the method up to the present. Future directions and possibilities are outlined.

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  3. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential to do so. Heat pump Water heaters, space Useswater heaters Electric space heaters other than heat pumps

  4. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2005, 6(2):162-165.(In Chinese) [4] Sun Jianping, Wang Jinggang, etc. Operating performance analysis of the ground source heat pump [J]. Journal of North China electric Power University, 2004,31(5):52-55.(In Chinese) [5] Wang...

  5. ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detailed heat-balance approach f or load calculations, DOE-Loads for Computerized Energy Calculations: Algorithms for Building Heat

  6. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  7. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  9. Predicting temperatures of stacked heat sinks with a shroud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, T.W.; Bajabir, A.A. (Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (USA)); Petrie, D.J. (Eaton Corporation, Milwaukee, WI (USA))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air cooling of enclosed electrical and electronic equipment is a common application for natural convection heat sinks. Space restrictions lead to stacking of the sinks into vertical arrays. A need for mechanical and electrical isolation leads to placement of a shroud over the array. The result is a complicated heat transfer situation. This paper reports on the first step toward development of analytical design procedures for stacked heat sink arrays with a shroud. It explores the use of a one-dimensional model based on available semi-empirical free convection correlations. These correlations do not yield air temperatures within the sink array.

  10. Designing a 3-D optical multilayer due to merging the concepts of stacked and planar-integrated free-space optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Designing a 3-D optical multilayer due to merging the concepts of stacked and planar-integrated free-space optics M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns Optical interconnects aim to overcome the communication dimension [1]. For the optical implementation of 3-D setups suitable microoptics approaches are re- quired

  11. 1456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 5, JULY 1999 SpaceTime Block Codes from Orthogonal Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    different antennas rather than joint detection. This uses the orthogonal structure of the space­time block1456 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 45, NO. 5, JULY 1999 Space­Time Block Codes from--We introduce space­time block coding, a new par- adigm for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using

  12. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  13. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  14. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Notman, J. R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study included: (1) development of classes of heat pumps, (2) evaluation and selection of a suitable heat pump design model, (3) characterization of suitable baseline heat pump designs, (4) selection of design options that can...

  15. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  16. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  17. Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niess, R. C.

    compression cycle. Using readily available fluorocarbon refrigerants as the heat pump working fluid, this cycle is commonly used because of its wide application opportunities. Compressed Vapors Heat Pump Compressor Heat Sink PrOCess (Condenser... and refrigerants most commonly used and the open-cycle mechanical vapor compression heat pumps. Waste heat sources, heat loads served by heat pumps--and typical applications using heat pumps for large-scale space heating, domestic water heating, and industrial...

  18. Inverse Design Methods for Indoor Ventilation Systems Using1 CFD-Based Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    use efficiency are three important29 indices for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC1 Inverse Design Methods for Indoor Ventilation Systems Using1 CFD-Based Multi equilibrium and require ventilation rates of12 a space to design ventilation systems for the space

  19. Space Solar Power Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  20. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Vicente Jose

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.