National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for design kv rating

  1. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  2. Design and Overview of 100 kV Bushing for the DNB Injector of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Sejal; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M. J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A. K. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India); Rajesh, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India); Microelectronics and Materials Physics Labs, P.O.Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Nishad, S.; Srusti, B. [DesignTech Systems Ltd, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh-500034 (India); Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J.; Svensson, L. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-09-26

    The 100 kV bushing is one of the most important and technologically challenging Safety Important Class (SIC) components of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector of ITER. It forms interface between gas insulated electrical transmission line and torus primary vacuum and acts as a vacuum feedthrough of ITER. Design optimization has been carried out to meet the electric and structural requirements based on its classification. Unlike HNB bushing, single stage bushing is designed to provide 100 kV isolation. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based optimization has been carried out for electrostatic and structural analysis. Manufacturing assembly sequence is studied and presented in this paper. However validation of the same is foreseen from manufacturer.

  3. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30

    ABSTRACT The Solid-State Fault Current Limiter (SSCL) is a promising technology that can be applied to utility power delivery systems to address the problem of increasing fault currents associated with load growth. As demand continues to grow, more power is added to utility system either by increasing generator capacity or by adding distributed generators, resulting in higher available fault currents, often beyond the capabilities of the present infrastructure. The SSCL is power-electronics based equipment designed to work with the present utility system to address this problem. The SSCL monitors the line current and dynamically inserts additional impedance into the line in the event of a fault being detected. The SSCL is based on a modular design and can be configured for 5kV through 69kV systems at nominal current ratings of 1000A to 4000A. Results and Findings This report provides the final test results on the development of 15kV class SSCL single phase power stack. The scope of work included the design of the modular standard building block sub-assemblies, the design and manufacture of the power stack and the testing of the power stack for the key functional tests of continuous current capability and fault current limiting action. Challenges and Objectives Solid-State Current Limiter technology impacts a wide spectrum of utility engineering and operating personnel. It addresses the problems associated with load growth both at Transmission and Distribution class networks. The design concept is pioneering in terms of developing the most efficient and compact power electronics equipment for utility use. The initial test results of the standard building blocks are promising. The independent laboratory tests of the power stack are promising. However the complete 3 phase system needs rigorous testing for performance and reliability. Applications, Values, and Use The SSCL is an intelligent power-electronics device which is modular in design and can provide current limiting or current interrupting capabilities. It can be applied to variety of applications from distribution class to transmission class power delivery grids and networks. It can also be applied to single major commercial and industrial loads and distributed generator supplies. The active switching of devices can be further utilized for protection of substation transformers. The stress on the system can be reduced substantially improving the life of the power system. It minimizes the voltage sag by speedy elimination of heavy fault currents and promises to be an important element of the utility power system. DOE Perspective This development effort is now focused on a 15kV system. This project will help mitigate the challenges of increasing available fault current. DOE has made a major contribution in providing a cost effective SSCL designed to integrate seamlessly into the Transmission and Distribution networks of today and the future. Approach SSCL development program for a 69kV SSCL was initiated which included the use of the Super GTO advanced semiconductor device which won the 2007 R&D100 Award. In the beginning, steps were identified to accomplish the economically viable design of a 69kV class Solid State Current Limiter that is extremely reliable, cost effective, and compact enough to be applied in urban transmission. The prime thrust in design and development was to encompass the 1000A and the 3000A ratings and provide a modular design to cover the wide range of applications. The focus of the project was then shifted to a 15kV class SSCL. The specifications for the 15kV power stack are reviewed. The design changes integrated into the 15kV power stack are discussed. In this Technical Update the complete project is summarized followed by a detailed test report. The power stack independent high voltage laboratory test requirements and results are presented. Keywords Solid State Current Limiter, SSCL, Fault Current Limiter, Fault Current Controller, Power electronics controller, Intelligent power-electronics Device, IED

  4. Theoretical investigation of the design and performance of a dual energy (kV and MV) radiotherapy imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E. El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In modern radiotherapy treatment rooms, megavoltage (MV) portal imaging and kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging are performed using various active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) designs. To expand the clinical utility of MV and kV imaging, MV AMFPIs incorporating thick, segmented scintillators and, separately, kV imaging using a beam’s eye view geometry have been investigated by a number of groups. Motivated by these previous studies, it is of interest to explore to what extent it is possible to preserve the benefits of kV and MV imaging using a single AMFPI design, given the considerably different x ray energy spectra used for kV and MV imaging. In this paper, considerations for the design of such a dual energy imager are explored through examination of the performance of a variety of hypothetical AMFPIs based on x ray converters employing segmented scintillators. Methods: Contrast, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio performances were characterized through simulation modeling of CBCT imaging, while modulation transfer function, Swank factor, and signal performance were characterized through simulation modeling of planar imaging. The simulations were based on a previously reported hybrid modeling technique (accounting for both radiation and optical effects), augmented through modeling of electronic additive noise. All designs employed BGO scintillator material with thicknesses ranging from 0.25 to 4 cm and element-to-element pitches ranging from 0.508 to 1.016 mm. A series of studies were performed under both kV and MV imaging conditions to determine the most advantageous imager configuration (involving front or rear x ray illumination and use of a mirror or black reflector), converter design (pitch and thickness), and operating mode (pitch-binning combination). Results: Under the assumptions of the present study, the most advantageous imager design was found to employ rear illumination of the converter in combination with a black reflector, incorporate a BGO converter with a 0.508 mm pitch and a 2 cm thickness, and operate at full resolution for kV imaging and 2 × 2 binning mode for MV imaging. Such a dual energy imager design should provide soft tissue visualization at low, clinically practical doses under MV conditions, while helping to preserve the high spatial resolution and high contrast offered by kV imaging. Conclusions: The authors’ theoretical investigation suggests that a dual energy imager capable of largely preserving the desirable characteristics of both kV and MV imaging is feasible. Such an imager, when coupled to a dual energy radiation source, could facilitate simplification of current treatment room imaging systems (as well as their associated quality assurance), and facilitate more precise integration of kV and MV imaging information by virtue of reduced geometric uncertainties.

  5. Minority Utility Rate Design Assessment Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-20

    Econometric model simulates consumer demand response to various user-supplied, two-part tariff electricity rate designs and assesses their economic welfare impact on black, hispanic, poor and majority households.

  6. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-09

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 ÎĽs duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of a 12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. In addition, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.

  7. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-09

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 μs duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of amore » 12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. In addition, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.« less

  8. 500 kV Spare Transformer Procurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procurement capital project is for the acquisition of five, 500 kV spare transformers, which are to be strategically located throughout the system, and for the...

  9. Standby rate design: current issues and possible innovations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulding, A.J.; Bahceci, Serkan

    2007-05-15

    While options pricing principles have some relevance for the design a standby distribution rates, insurance pricing may provide an even better model. An insurance-based approach using an outage probability methodology also provides powerful incentives to the utility to connect additional DG resources to the grid. (author)

  10. A rate design to increase efficiency and reduce revenue requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonin, David Magnus

    2009-05-15

    One decoupling approach, a Straight Fixed Variable (SFV) rate design, is a rational way to recover fixed and variable costs because it aligns pricing with variable and fixed cost causation, thereby removing the utility's profit sensitivity to reduced sales. The problem with SFV is that it reduces the variable charge to short-term variable cost, leading to overconsumption. Revenue-neutral energy efficiency ''feebates'' combining fees and rebates offer an economic incentive for consumer energy efficiency. (author)

  11. New 500-kV Ion Source Test Strand for HIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangster, T.C.; Ahle, L.E.; Halaxa, E.F.; Karpenko, V.P.; Oldaker, M.E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.

    2000-03-09

    One of the most challenging aspects of ion beam driven inertial fusion energy is the reliable and efficient generation of low emittance, high current ion beams. The primary ion source requirements include a rise time of order 1-{micro}sec, a pulse width of at least 20-{micro}sec, a flattop ripple of less than 0.1% and a repetition rate of at least 5-HZ. Naturally, at such a repetition rate, the duty cycle of the source must be greater than 10{sup 8} pulses. Although these specifications do not appear to exceed the state-of-the-art for pulsed power, considerable effort remains to develop a suitable high current ion source. Therefore, we are constructing a 500-kV test stand specifically for studying various ion source concepts including surface, plasma and metal vapor arc. This paper will describe the test stand design specifications as well as the details of the various subsystems and components.

  12. A New 500-kV Ion Source Test Stand for HIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangster, T.C.; Ahle, L.E.; Halaxa, E.F.; Karpenko, V.P.; Oldaker, M. E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.

    2000-10-05

    One of the most challenging aspects of ion beam driven inertial fusion energy is the reliable and efficient generation of low emittance, high current ion beams. The primary ion source requirements include a rise time of order 1-msec, a pulse width of at least 20-msec, a flattop ripple of less than 0.1% and a repetition rate of at least 5-Hz. Naturally, at such a repetition rate, the duty cycle of the source must be greater than 108 pulses. Although these specifications do not appear to exceed the state-of-the-art for pulsed power, considerable effort remains to develop a suitable high current ion source. Therefore, we are constructing a 500-kV test stand specifically for studying various ion source concepts including surface, plasma and metal vapor arc. This paper will describe the test stand design specifications as well as the details of the various subsystems and components.

  13. Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielek, Timothy P.; Thompson, Douglas G.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2009-03-03

    High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

  14. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed Photovoltaics (PV) for Residential Customers in California Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

  15. Customer Incentives for Energy Efficiency Through Electric and Natural Gas Rate Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    Summarizes the issues and approaches involved in motivating customers to reduce the total energy they consume through energy prices and rate design.

  16. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  17. Rethinking Standby & Fixed Cost Charges: Regulatory & Rate Design Pathways to Deeper Solar PV Cost Reductions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While solar PV's impact on utilities has been frequently discussed the past year, little attention has been paid to the potentially impact posed by solar PV-specific rate designs (often informally referred to as solar "fees" or "taxes") upon non-hardware "soft" cost reductions. In fact, applying some rate designs to solar PV customers could potentially have a large impact on the economics of PV systems.

  18. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  19. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of McNary Group 2 - Big Eddy to Knight The Big Eddy - Knight 500 kV line and new substation (WOMR Group 2) project is one of five projects recommended out of the 2008 Cluster...

  20. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  1. Debate response: Which rate designs provide revenue stability and efficient price signals? Let the debate continue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonin, David Magnus

    2009-11-15

    Let's engage in further discussion that provides solutions and details, not just criticisms and assertions. Let's engage in a meaningful dialogue about the conditions where real-time pricing or critical peak pricing with decoupling or the SFV rate design with a feebate is most effective. (author)

  2. In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2013-01-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

  3. A 120kV IGBT modulator for driving a pierce electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, L. M.; Brown, R. W.; Carlson, R. L.; Ferguson, P.; Haynes, W. B.; Kirbie, H. C.; Russell, S. J.; Sigler, F. E.; Smirnova, E. I.; Wheat, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    An IGBT modulator has been developed to drive a 120 kV, 23 A Pierce electron gun. The modulator is capable of producing pulses up to 10 {mu}s in width at repetition rates up to 10Hz with no active reset. The pulse rise time on the electron gun will be approximately 2 {mu}s and the remaining 8 {mu}s of flattop is tuned to have a ripple of less than 1 percent rms. The modulator technology was developed from a previous 50 kV prototype. The modulator consists of six boards, each with one EUPEC IGBT that drives a single common step-up transformer wound on METGLAS 2605SC cores. The six transformer cores share a common bi-filar output secondary winding. The modulator uses a fiber optic trigger system and has a high voltage cable output with an epoxy receptacle on the oil end and a ceramic receptacle on the vacuum end. The 120 kV electron gun was manufactured by MDS Co. and will be used to generate sheet electron beams from the standard pencil beam produced by the Pierce electron gun.

  4. Heavy duty insulator assemblies for 500-kV bulk power transmission line with large diameter octagonalbundled conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Hayase, I.; Hirai, J.; Inove, M.; Naito, K.; Yukino, T.

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes the design procedure and the results of field tests on mechanical performances of insulator assemblies newly developed to support octagonal-bundled conductors for 500-kV bulk power transmission. Taking account of conductor-motion-induced peak tensile load, fatigue, torsional torque and others, a successful design has been achieved in two prototype assemblies for such heavy mechanical duties as encountered during conductor galloping or swing. This has been proved throughout three years of the field tests.

  5. INTEGRATED 15KV SIC VSD AND HIGH-SPEED MW MOTOR FOR GAS COMPRESSION...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTEGRATED 15KV SIC VSD AND HIGH-SPEED MW MOTOR FOR GAS COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Eaton Corporation - Arden, NC A 15 kilovolt (kV) SiC variable-speed drive will be integrated with a ...

  6. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line ...

  7. 0.4 kV remote control (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .4 kV remote control (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name 0.4 kV remote control Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map......

  8. 220 kV SSSC device for power flow control (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    20 kV SSSC device for power flow control (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name 220 kV SSSC device for power flow control Country Spain Headquarters Location...

  9. ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable...

  10. Environmental assessment: Warren Air Force Base 115-kV transmission line, Cheyenne, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), is propsoing to construct a new electrical tranmission line and substation in southeastern Wyoming. This proposed line, called the Warren Air Force Base Tranmission Line, will supply power for Western's system to Francis E.Warren Air Force Base (F.E. Warren AFB) near Cheyenne. It would allow for increased tranmission capacity to the air base. F.E. Warren AFB currently is served electrically be Western via a 13.8-kv line. It is a wood-pole, double-circuit line without an overhead ground wire, which extends from Western's Cheyenne Substation, through an urban area, and onto the air base. The Cheyenne Substation is located on the south side of the city of Cheyenne. The electrical load on the base is increasing from 4 megawatts (MW) to 11 or 12 MW, an approximate three-fold increase. Voltage problems occasionally occur at the base due to the present electrial loads and to the age and inadequacy of the 13.8-kv line, which was placed in service in 1941. The existing line has served beyond its designed service life and requires replacement. Replacement would be necessary even without an increasing load. F.E. Warren AFB has several new and expanding programs, including additional housing, shopping centers, and the Peacekeeper Missile Program. Part of this expansion already has occured; the remainder is expected by early 1988. This expansion has created the need for additional electrical service. The present 13.8-kV line is not capable of supporting the additional load. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. EA-1679: Grand Coulee's Third Powerplant 500-kV Transmission Line Replacement Project, Grant and Okanogon Counties, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates potential environmental impacts from the construction and operation of six new 500-kV overhead transmission lines to replace six existing underground lines at Grand Coulee Dam. DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a cooperating agency, was asked by the U. S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation to design and construct the proposed new transmission lines. A Finding of No Significant Impact was issued by BPA in December 2011.

  12. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.

  13. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  14. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas ...

  15. Docket No. EO-05-01: Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages Docket No. EO-05-01: Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages Docket No. EO-05-01. Pursuant to the United States Department of Energy Order No. 202-05-03, issued December 20, 2005 directing Mirant Potomac River to generate electricity at Potomac River Generating Station, PEPCO hereby files this Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages. PDF icon Docket No. EO-05-01: Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned

  16. EIS-0344: Grand Coulee-Bell 500 kV Transmission Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed action for the construction and operation of the proposed Grand Coulee-Bell 500-kV Transmission Line Project.

  17. Rate impacts and key design elements of gas and electric utility decoupling: a comprehensive review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesh, Pamela G.

    2009-10-15

    Opponents of decoupling worry that customers will experience frequent and significant rate increases as a result of its adoption, but a review of 28 natural gas and 17 electric utilities suggests that decoupling adjustments are both refunds to customers as well as charges and tend to be small. (author)

  18. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, NaĂŻm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer adoption of PV (from -14% to -61%, depending on the design). Moving towards time-varying rates, on the other hand, may accelerate near- and medium-term deployment (through 2030), but is found to slow adoption in the longer term (-22% in 2050).

  19. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  20. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

  1. Rate Design and Renewables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Berkeley Ryan Kellogg Department of Economics University of Michigan The Midwest oil ... benefit by exporting refined products * Economics of relaxing crude oil export ban? * ...

  2. Optimized design for PIGMI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansborough, L.; Hamm, R.; Stovall, J.; Swenson, D.

    1980-01-01

    PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is a compact linear proton accelerator design, optimized for pion production and cancer treatment use in a hospital environment. Technology developed during a four-year PIGMI Prototype experimental program allows the design of smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linacs. A new type of low-energy accelerating structure, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) has been tested; it produces an exceptionally good-quality beam and allows the use of a simple 30-kV injector. Average axial electric-field gradients of over 9 MV/m have been demonstrated in a drift-tube linac (DTL) structure. Experimental work is underway to test the disk-and-washer (DAW) structure, another new type of accelerating structure for use in the high-energy coupled-cavity linac (CCL). Sufficient experimental and developmental progress has been made to closely define an actual PIGMI. It will consist of a 30-kV injector, and RFQ linac to a proton energy of 2.5 MeV, a DTL linac to 125 MeV, and a CCL linac to the final energy of 650 MeV. The total length of the accelerator is 133 meters. The RFQ and DTL will be driven by a single 440-MHz klystron; the CCL will be driven by six 1320-MHz klystrons. The peak beam current is 28 mA. The beam pulse length is 60 ..mu..s at a 60-Hz repetition rate, resulting in a 100-..mu..A average beam current. The total cost of the accelerator is estimated to be approx. $10 million.

  3. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  4. Case Study of the Failure of two 13.8kV Control & Metering Transformers that caused significant Equipment Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreifuerst, G R; Chew, D B; Mangonon, H L; Swyers, P W

    2011-08-25

    The degradation and failure of cast-coil epoxy windings within 13.8kV control power transformers and metering potential transformers has been shown to be dangerous to both equipment and personnel, even though best industrial design practices were followed. Accident scenes will be examined for two events at a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory. Failure modes will be explained and current design practices discussed with changes suggested to prevent a recurrence and to minimize future risk. New maintenance philosophies utilizing partial discharge testing of the transformers as a prediction of end-of-life will be examined.

  5. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-03-30

    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  6. Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy In accordance with DOE Order No. 202-05-03 Pepco is required to provide notification of any and all 230kV planned outages at Potomac River Generating Station. On Tuesday February 20, 2007 Potomac Electric Power Company (Pepco) will be taking a planned outage on the 23106 high voltage circuit between the Palmer's Corner Substation and the Potomac River Generating Station. PDF icon Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station More Documents

  7. Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The next planned outage on xxxxx high voltage circuit between Palmers Corner Substation and the Potomac River Generating Station is scheduled for Sunday, June 3, 2007 and will begin at 4:00 AM with a scheduled return date of Saturday, June 9, 2007 at 2:00 PM. PDF icon Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station More Documents & Publications Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station Notification of Planned

  8. Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Order No. 202-07-02: In accordance with DOE Order No. 202-07-02, Pepco is required to provide notification of any and all 230kV planned and unplanned outages at Potomac River Generating Station. PDF icon Notification of Planned 230kV Outage at Potomac River Generating Station More Documents & Publications Re: Potomac River Generating Station Department of Energy, Case No. EO-05-01: Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) evised plan for transmission outages for the

  9. EIS-0107: Mead-Phoenix +500-kV Direct Current Transmission Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) prepared this statement to analyze the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts arising from WAPA and regional project sponsors’ proposal to construct a 500 kilovolt (kV) alternating current (AC) transmission line with the capability to be upgraded later to 500kV direct current (DC), connecting the Westwing Substation, located north of Phoenix, Arizona, with a new McCullough II Substation, located approximately 14 miles west of Boulder City, Nevada. This statement modifies a previously prepared federal statement from which the participants' election to proceed had not occurred at the time this statement was prepared.

  10. Use of Static Compensators for Voltage Control at 330- and 500-kV Substations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dement'ev, Yu. A.; Kochkin, V. I.; Idiatullov, R. M.; Papafanasopulo, S. G.; Smirnov, A. A.; Smirnov, S. G.

    2003-05-15

    A scheme for compensating the reactive power and controlling the voltage of high-voltage, intermediate-voltage, and low-voltage buses of 330 - 500-kV substations, which consist of static thyristor compensators (STC) on low-voltage autotransformers and controlled shunting reactors on high-voltage lines, is presented. It is shown that the STC can be created step-by-step beginning with the reactive part on substations with low-loaded lines. Results of installation of reactor groups of STC stepwise-controlled by vacuum switches at 330- and 500-kV substations are presented. Tests of the reactor groups have proved their high efficiency.

  11. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arantchouk, L. Larour, J.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-10

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180?kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21?cm long at the output of the generator.

  12. EA-1665: Davis-Kingman 69-kV Transmission Line Rebuild Project, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western plans to rebuild a 26.6-mile-long portion of the existing 27.3-mile-long Davis–Kingman Tap 69-kV Transmission Line within the existing ROW in order to improve the reliability of the transmission service.

  13. Craig-Bonanza 345-kV Transmission Line Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), and the Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct and maintain a 345- kilovolt (kV) transmission line between Craig, Colorado, and Bonanza in eastern Utah. The project began in 1986 and construction is scheduled to be completed in 1989. The project, known as the Craig-Bonanza 345-kV Transmission Line Project (Project), will be located in Moffat and Rio Blanco counties in Colorado and Uintah County in Utah. Western has the lead role for project development and management, including environmental studies and construction. Cooperating federal agencies include the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Rural Electrification Administration, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), the DOE and the BLM. 360 refs., 33 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. EIS-0365: Imperial-Mexicali 230-kV Transmission Lines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 27, 2001, Baja California Power, Inc. (hereafter referred to as Intergen), InterGen Aztec Energy, V.B.V., filed an application with DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, for a Presidential permit that would allow construction and connection of a double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line extending from the Imperial Valley Substation in California for a distance of about 6 mi (10 km) to a point west of Calexico at the U.S.-Mexico border.

  15. INTEGRATED 15KV SIC VSD AND HIGH-SPEED MW MOTOR FOR GAS COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eaton Corporation – Arden, NC A 15 kilovolt (kV) SiC variable-speed drive will be integrated with a high-speed megawatt motor for gas compression applications. This new drive technology will be developed and tested to operate at greater than 99% efficiency and achieve 10 times the power density of competing drives, providing an integrated, highly-efficient motor and drive system for natural gas applications. Fact sheet coming soon.

  16. A Study of Electromagnetic Radiation of Corona Discharge Near 500-Kv Electric Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korzhov, A. V.; Okrainskaya, I. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Kufel'd, V. D.

    2004-01-15

    Data on the spectral composition and intensity of electromagnetic radiation of corona discharge are obtained in an experimental study performed on the outdoor switchgear of the Shagol 500-kV substation of the Chelyabinsk Enterprise of Trunk Transmission Grids and under a 500-kV Shagol - Kozyrevo overhead transmission line. The electromagnetic environment on the territory of the 500-kV outdoor switchgear is shown to be determined by narrow-band radiations (harmonics of the frequency of electric supply) and wide-band radiations due to corona discharges of high-voltage sources. This means that the personnel experience the action of a commercial-frequency electric field and electromagnetic radiation of a quite wide range, which is not allowed for by the existing guidelines. It is recommended to continue the study in cooperation with medical institutions in order to create guidelines that would allow for the joint action of commercial-frequency electric field and electromagnetic radiation and for the voltage in the line, the current load, the meteorological situation, and other factors.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 10: Partial kV CBCT, complete kV CBCT and EPID in breast treatment: a dose comparison study for skin, breasts, heart and lungs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussin, E; Archambault, L K; Wierzbicki, W

    2014-08-15

    The advantages of kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV CBCT) imaging over electronic portal imaging device (EPID) such as accurate 3D anatomy, soft tissue visualization, fast rigid registration and enhanced precision on patient positioning has lead to its increasing use in clinics. The benefits of this imaging technique are at the cost of increasing the dose to healthy surrounding organs. Our center has moved toward the use of daily partial rotation kV CBCT to restrict the dose to healthy tissues. This study aims to better quantify radiation doses from different image-guidance techniques such as tangential EPID, complete and partial kV CBCT for breast treatments. Cross-calibrated ionization chambers and kV calibrated Gafchromic films were used to measure the dose to the heart, lungs, breasts and skin. It was found that performing partial kV CBCT decreases the heart dose by about 36%, the lungs dose by 31%, the contralateral breast dose by 41% and the ipsilateral breast dose by 43% when compared to a full rotation CBCT. The skin dose measured for a full rotation CBCT was about 0.8 cGy for the contralateral breast and about 0.3 cGy for the ipsilateral breast. The study is still ongoing and results on skin doses for partial rotation kV CBCT as well as for tangential EPID images are upcoming.

  18. Grand Coulee - Bell 500-kV Transmission Line Project, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-08-09

    BPA is proposing to construct a 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line that would extend approximately 84 miles between the Grand Coulee 500-kV Switchyard, near Grand Coulee Dam, and the Bell Substation, in Mead just north of Spokane. The new line would cross portions of Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, and Spokane counties. In addition to the transmission line, new equipment would be installed at the substations at each end of the new line and at other facilities. The proposed action would remove an existing 115-kV transmission line and replace it with the new 500-kV line on existing right-of-way for most of its length. Additional right-of-way would be needed in the first 3.5 miles out of the Grand Coulee Switchyard to connect to the existing 115-kV right-of-way. Since the mid-1990s, the transmission path west of Spokane, called the West of Hatwai transmission pathway, has grown increasingly constrained. To date, BPA has been able to manage operation of the path through available operating practices, and customer needed have been met while maintaining the reliability of the path. however, in early 2001, operations showed that the amount of electricity that needs to flow from east to west along this path creates severe transmission congestion. Under these conditions, the system is at risk of overloads and violation of industry safety and reliability standards. The problem is particularly acute in the spring and summer months because of the large amount of power generated by dams east of the path. Large amounts of water cannot be spilled during that time in order for BPA to fulfill its obligation to protect threatened and endangered fish. The amount of power that needs to move through this area during these months at times could exceed the carrying capacity of the existing transmission lines. In additional capacity is not added, BPA will run a significant risk that it will not be able to continue to meet its contractual obligations to deliver power and maintain reliability standards that minimize risks to public safety and to equipment. BPA is considering two construction alternatives, the Agency Proposed Action and the Alternative Action. The Alternative Action would include all the components of the Preferred Action except a double-circuit line would be constructed in the Spokane area between a point about 2 miles west of the Spokane River and Bell Substation, a distance of about 9 miles. BPA is also considering the No Action Alternative.

  19. SU-D-207-03: Development of 4D-CBCT Imaging System with Dual Source KV

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Tubes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SU-D-207-03: Development of 4D-CBCT Imaging System with Dual Source KV X-Ray Tubes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SU-D-207-03: Development of 4D-CBCT Imaging System with Dual Source KV X-Ray Tubes Purpose: The purposes of this work are to develop 4D-CBCT imaging system with orthogonal dual source kV X-ray tubes, and to determine the imaging doses from 4D-CBCT scans. Methods: Dual source kV X-ray tubes were used for the 4D-CBCT

  20. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  1. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  2. Collimated electron beam accelerated at 12 kV from a Penning discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toader, D.; Oane, M.; TicoĹź, C. M.

    2015-01-15

    A pulsed electron beam accelerated at 12 kV with a duration of 40 ÎĽs per pulse is obtained from a Penning discharge with a hollow anode and two cathodes. The electrons are extracted through a hole in one of the cathodes and focused by a pair of coils. The electron beam has a diameter of a few mm in the cross section, while the beam current reaches peak values of 400 mA, depending on the magnetic field inside the focussing coils. This relatively inexpensive and compact device is suitable for the irradiation of small material samples placed in high vacuum.

  3. Metal artifact correction for x-ray computed tomography using kV and selective MV imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Meng; Keil, Andreas; Constantin, Dragos; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The overall goal of this work is to improve the computed tomography (CT) image quality for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kilovoltage (kV) projection data with selectively acquired megavoltage (MV) data that do not suffer from photon starvation. When both of these imaging systems, which are available on current radiotherapy devices, are used, metal streak artifacts are avoided, and the soft-tissue contrast is restored, even for regions in which the kV data cannot contribute any information. Methods: Three image-reconstruction methods, including two filtered back-projection (FBP)-based analytic methods and one iterative method, for combining kV and MV projection data from the two on-board imaging systems of a radiotherapy device are presented in this work. The analytic reconstruction methods modify the MV data based on the information in the projection or image domains and then patch the data onto the kV projections for a FBP reconstruction. In the iterative reconstruction, the authors used dual-energy (DE) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) methods to simultaneously combine the kV/MV data and perform the reconstruction. Results: The authors compared kV/MV reconstructions to kV-only reconstructions using a dental phantom with fillings and a hip-implant numerical phantom. Simulation results indicated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and the modified dual-energy PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in the kV projections. The root-mean-square errors of soft-tissue patterns obtained using combined kV/MV data are 10–15 Hounsfield units smaller than those of the kV-only images, and the structural similarity index measure also indicates a 5%–10% improvement in the image quality. The added dose from the MV scan is much less than the dose from the kV scan if a high efficiency MV detector is assumed. Conclusions: The authors have shown that it is possible to improve the image quality of kV CTs for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kV projection data with selectively acquired MV data that do not suffer from photon starvation. Numerical simulations demonstrated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and a modified kV/MV PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in kV projections. Combined kV/MV images may permit the improved delineation of structures of interest in CT images for patients with metal implants or fillings.

  4. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  5. Long-term stability and mechanical characteristics of kV digital imaging system for proton radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Mingyao Botticello, Thomas; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Winey, Brian

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the long-term image panel positioning stability and gantry angle dependence for gantry-mounted kV imaging systems. Methods: For patient setup digital imaging systems in isocentric rotating proton beam delivery facilities, physical crosshairs are commonly inserted into the snout to define the kV x-ray beam isocenter. Utilizing an automatic detection algorithm, the authors analyzed the crosshair center positions in 2744 patient setup kV images acquired with the four imagers in two treatment rooms from January 2012 to January 2013. The crosshair position was used as a surrogate for imaging panel position, and its long-term stability at the four cardinal angles and the panel flex dependency on gantry angle was investigated. Results: The standard deviation of the panel position distributions was within 0.32 mm (with the range of variation less than ± 1.4 mm) in both the X-Z plane and Y direction. The mean panel inplane rotations were not more than 0.51° for the four panels at the cardinal angles, with standard deviations ≤0.26°. The panel position variations with gantry rotation due to gravity (flex) were within ±4 mm, and were panel-specific. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the kV image panel positions in our proton treatment system were highly reproducible at the cardinal angles over 13 months and also that the panel positions can be correlated to gantry angles. This result indicates that the kV image panel positions are stable over time; the amount of panel sag is predictable during gantry rotation and the physical crosshair for kV imaging may eventually be removed, with the imaging beam isocenter position routinely verified by adequate quality assurance procedures and measurements.

  6. TH-C-18A-10: The Influence of Tube Current On X-Ray Focal Spot Size for 70 KV CT Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, X; Grimes, J; Yu, L; Leng, S; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Focal spot blooming is an increase in the focal spot size at increased tube current and/or decreased tube potential. In this work, we evaluated the influence of tube current on the focal spot size at low kV for two CT systems, one of which used a tube designed to reduce blooming effects. Methods: A slit camera (10 micron slit) was used to measure focal spot size on two CT scanners from the same manufacturer (Siemens Somatom Force and Definition Flash) at 70 kV and low, medium and maximum tube currents, according to the capabilities of each system (Force: 100, 800 and 1300 mA; Flash: 100, 200 and 500 mA). Exposures were made with a stationary tube in service mode using a raised stand without table movement or flying focal spot technique. Focal spot size, nominally 0.8 and 1.2 mm, respectively, was measured parallel and perpendicular to the cathode-anode axis by calculating the full-width-at-half-maximum of the slit profile recording using computed radiographic plates. Results: Focal spot sizes perpendicular to the anode-cathode axis increased at the maximum mA by 5.7% on the Force and 39.1% on the Flash relative to that at the minimal mA, even though the mA was increased 13-fold on the Force and only 5- fold on the Flash. Focal spot size increased parallel to the anode-cathode axis by 70.4% on Force and 40.9% on Flash. Conclusion: For CT protocols using low kV, high mA is typically required. These protocols are relevant in children and smaller adults, and for dual-energy scanning. Technical measures to limit focal spot blooming are important in these settings to avoid reduced spatial resolution. The x-ray tube on a recently-introduced scanner appears to greatly reduce blooming effects, even at very high mA values. CHM has research support from Siemens Healthcare.

  7. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management is preparing, with DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as a cooperating agency, an EIS that evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to construct a 230-kV transmission line in Washington State. BPA’s proposed action is to interconnect the proposed transmission line to an existing BPA substation.

  8. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  9. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  10. 1.9 kV AlGaN/GaN Lateral Schottky Barrier Diodes on Silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Mingda; Song, Bo; Qi, Meng; Hu, Zongyang; Nomoto, Kazuki; Yan, Xiaodong; Cao, Yu; Johnson, Wayne; Kohn, Erhard; Jena, Debdeep; et al

    2015-02-16

    In this letter, we present AlGaN/GaN lateral Schottky barrier diodes on silicon with recessed anodes and dual field plates. A low specific on-resistance RON,SP (5.12 mΩ · cm2), a low turn-on voltage (<0.7 V) and a high reverse breakdown voltage BV (>1.9 kV), were simultaneously achieved in devices with a 25 μm anode/cathode separation, resulting in a power figure-of-merit (FOM) BV2/RON,SP of 727 MW·cm2. The record high breakdown voltage of 1.9 kV is attributed to the dual field plate structure.

  11. EIS-0025: Miles City-New Underwood 230-kV Electrical Transmission Line, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Area Power Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental and socioeconomic implications of its proposed action to construct a 3.28-mile, 230-kV transmission line between Miles City and Baker, Montana, Hettinger, North Dakota, and New Underwood, South Dakota, in Custer and Fallon Counties in Montana, Adams, Bowman, and Slope Counties in North Dakota and Meade, Pennington, and Perkins Counties in South Dakota.

  12. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  13. EIS-0005-FS: Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1979 Program, Facility Location on Supplement, Southwest Oregon Area Service, Buckley-Summer Lake 500 kV Line, Supplemental

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Bonneville Power Administration document assesses the environmental impacts of constructing transmission facilities, which will coordinate with the Midpoint-Malin 500-kV line to be constructed by the Pacific Power and Light (PP&L) Company. The proposed action includes the construction of the 1.56-mile Buckley-Summer Lake 500-kV transmission line; the proposed Buckley Substation near Maupin, Oregon; and the proposed Summer Lake Substation near Silver Lake, Oregon.

  14. The results of systems tests of the 500 kV busbar controllable shunting reactor in the Tavricheskaya substation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, S. I.; Karpov, V. N.; Kiselev, A. N.; Kochkin, V. I.

    2009-09-15

    The results of systems tests of the 500 kV busbar magnetization-controllable shunting reactor (CSR), set up in the Tavricheskaya substation, including measurements of the quality of the electric power, the harmonic composition of the network currents of the reactor for different values of the reactive power consumed, the determination of the regulating characteristics of the reactor, the speed of response of the shunting reactor in the current and voltage stabilization modes, and also the operation of the reactor under dynamic conditions for different perturbations, are presented. The results obtained are analyzed.

  15. Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Ratings for Overhead Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, A.

    2013-01-31

    In 2010, a project was initiated through a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to evaluate EPRI�s rating technology and instrumentation that can be used to monitor the thermal states of transmission lines and provide the required real-time data for real-time rating calculations. The project included the installation and maintenance of various instruments at three 230 kV line sites in northern New York. The instruments were monitored, and data collection and rating calculations were performed for about a three year period.

  16. Reliable, high repetition rate thyratron grid driver used with a magnetic modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J.V.; Ball, D.G.; Garrett, D.N.

    1991-06-14

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses a magnetic modulator switched by a high voltage thyratron to drive a gas discharge laser. The thyratron trigger source must provide an extremely reliable, low jitter, high- rep-rate grid pulse. This paper describes a thyratron grid driver which delivers a 1.2 kV, 80 ns rise time grid pulse into a 50 ohm load at up to 4.5 kHz repetition rate and has demonstrated approximately 10,000 hours MTBF. Since the thyratron is used with a magnetic compression circuit having a delay time of 1.4 ms this grid driver incorporates a jitter compensation circuit to adjust the trigger timing of the thyratron to provide overall modulator/laser jitter of less than {plus minus} 2 ns. The specific grid driver requirements will be discussed followed by a description of the circuit design and theory of operation. Construction comments will be followed by performance data (for a specific thyratron and magnetic compression circuit), including pulse shape, jitter, and lifetime. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  17. Design and preliminary test results of the 40 MW power supply at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boenig, H.J.; Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C.; Ferner, J.A.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J.; Rumrill, R.H.; Rumrill, R.S.

    1993-11-01

    Four highly stabilized, steady-state, 10 MW power supplies have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL. Each supply consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors and freewheeling diodes, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply is 17 kA and each supply has a one hour overload capability of 20 kA. The power supply output bus system, including a reversing switch at the input and 2 {times} 16 disconnect switches at the output, connects each supply to 16 different magnet cells. The design of the power supply is described and preliminary test results with a supply feeding a 10 MW resistive load are presented.

  18. Characterization of the CEBAF 100 kV DC GaAs Photoelectron Gun Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Stutzman; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; G.R. Myneni; M. Poelker

    2007-05-01

    A vacuum system with pressure in the low ultra-high vacuum (UHV) range is essential for long photocathode lifetimes in DC high voltage GaAs photoguns. A discrepancy between predicted and measured base pressure in the CEBAF photoguns motivated this study of outgassing rates of three 304 stainless steel chambers with different pretreatments and pump speed measurements of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps. Outgassing rates were measured using two independent techniques. Lower outgassing rates were achieved by electropolishing and vacuum firing the chamber. The second part of the paper describes NEG pump speed measurements as a function of pressure through the lower part of the UHV range. Measured NEG pump speed is high at pressures above 5×10^?11 Torr, but may decrease at lower pressures depending on the interpretation of the data. The final section investigates the pump speed of a locally produced NEG coating applied to the vacuum chamber walls. These studies represent the first detailed vacuum measurements of CEBAF photogun vacuum chambers.

  19. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  20. Type A Accident Investigation Report on the June 25, 1997, Contractor Inspector Fatality on the Satsop-Aberdeen #2 & #3 230 kV Line

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On June 27, 1997, I established a Type-A Accident Investigation Board to investigate the June 25, 1997 fatal contractor accident which occurred on BPAÂ’s Satsop-Aberdeen #2 and #3 230-kV transmission lines right-of-way.

  1. Increasing the reliability of the shutdown of 500 - 750-kV overhead lines equipped with shunt reactors in an unsuccessful three-phase automatic repeated closure cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuz'micheva, K. I.; Merzlyakov, A. S.; Fokin, G. G.

    2013-05-15

    The reasons for circuit-breaker failures during repeated disconnection of 500 - 750 kV overhead lines with shunt reactors in a cycle of unsuccessful three-phase automatic reconnection (TARC) are analyzed. Recommendations are made for increasing the operating reliability of power transmission lines with shunt reactors when there is unsuccessful reconnection.

  2. Type A Accident Investigation Board Report of the April 25, 1997, Contractor Fatality on the Olympia-White River #1 230 kV Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 25, 1997, at approximately 1510 hours, a lineman for Great Southwestern Construction Inc. was fatally electrocuted when he came in direct contact with a deenergized 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission power line conductor which contained an induced voltage.

  3. Prototype Development Progress Toward a 500 kV Solid State Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leyh, G.

    2004-07-27

    Recent advances in IGBT and SiC technology have made possible a range of solid-state modulator concepts that were unthinkable a decade ago. Power densities and speeds of pulsed-power circuits have increased dramatically due to the commercial introduction of fast, multi-kilovolt IGBT silicon and SiC diodes featured in PCB-style packages. A solid-state modulator concept that stands to benefit considerably from recent IGBT and SiC breakthroughs is the Marx configuration--where an array of stacked modules generates high-voltage output pulses directly from a low voltage DC supply. The Marx scheme avoids the large, inefficient and costly magnetic cores inherent in standard modulator designs, resulting in a considerably simpler, cheaper and more compact mechanical solution. The main disadvantage to this approach is that the individual cells in a Marx bank must float at high voltages during the pulse, complicating the distribution of power and timing signals. This paper examines in closer detail the practical advantages and pitfalls of a solid-state Marx configuration, and explores a design approach with emphasis on performance, wall-plug efficiency, cost of manufacture, availability and ease of service. The paper presents electrical diagrams, mechanical CAD layout and preliminary prototype test data.

  4. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  5. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  6. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  7. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  8. Development of NS-TACSR with extremely suppressed aeolian noise and its application to 500 kV overhead transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Furukawa, S. (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Shimojima, K.; Yamamoto, K. (Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Hitachi (JP))

    1991-10-01

    Recently in Japan, with the unprecedented advance of residential area development in the suburbs of large cities, it has become quite difficult to secure the routes of EHV transmission lines from nuclear power plants in remote places to the suburbs of large cities, urging resolution of environmental problems related to transmission lines. In Japan, aerodynamic sound produced by conductors and insulators frequently caused noise problems. Having an opportunity of constructing a 500 kV transmission line through a residential are, we made a research to resolve this noise problem. This paper describes the characteristics of aeolian noise and preventive measures against it.

  9. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  10. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  11. Residential Solar Valuation Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Residential Solar Valuation Rates This presentation summarizes the information discussed by Rabago Energy during the Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs Webinar on Sept. 27, 2012. PDF icon utility_design_rabago_energy.pdf More Documents & Publications Austin Energy's Residential Solar Rate QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 1 QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 8

  12. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  13. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  14. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  15. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  16. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  17. Proposed amendment to presidential permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada. [Forbes Substation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company's (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP's original amendment request remain valid.

  18. Curecanti-Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines access roads rehabilitation, maintenance, and construction project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is a power marketing agency of the US Department of Energy, with jurisdiction in 15 western states. The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) of Western performs the agency`s mission in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, and Nevada. As part of its mission, Western owns, operates, and maintains a system of transmission lines for transmitting bulk electrical energy from points of generation to and between delivery points. Part of that system in southwestern Colorado includes the Blue Mesa-Curecanti and Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines. Western proposes to conduct maintenance and improve its access roads for these two transmission lines. This paper discusses the impacts to the existing environment as well as the environmental consequences resulting from the maintenance and construction that is proposed.

  19. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  20. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  2. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  3. Proposed amendment for Presidential Permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada Northern States Power Company. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Northern States Power Company, (NSP), a Minnesota investor owned utility has applied to the Office of Fossil Energy, United States Department of Energy, to amend Presidential Permit PP-63 to allow for alterations to the 500 kV transmission line and as sedated facilities currently regulated by this permit. The alterations proposed for the 500 kV line owned by NSP are part of a long term effort sponsored by NSP to upgrade the existing NSP transmission system to allow for increased exchange of electricity with the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board. Presidential Permit PP-63 authorized NSP to construct, connect, operate and maintain a 500 kV line at the United States/Canadian border approximately seven-and-a-half miles west of Warroad in Roseau County, Minnesota. This line connects with a 500 kV line owned and operated by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (MHEB), which extends from Dorsey, Manitoba, Canada to the United States/Canadian border. NSP proposes to increase the electricity transfer capability of this transmission facility by constructing a new 80-acre substation on the existing 500 kV line in Roseau County, Minnesota, and upgrading the existing substation at Forbes, Minnesota. The proposed Roseau substation would contain two 41.5 ohm series capacitor banks. In addition, static VAR compensators are to be installed at the existing Forbes Substation. Approximately 5 acres would be added to the 30-acre Forbes site to house the additional equipment. No new lines would enter or exit the facility. NSP proposes to place the new Roseau Substation in service in May 1993 and to complete the upgrading of the Forbes Substation in March 1994. The primary, initial purpose of these modifications is to enable NSP to import 400 megawatts of electric power from MHEB during the summer months to meet peak electrical demand in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. It is expected that this power transfer would begin in 1993.

  4. Regional Dialogue Guidebook: Background on Products, Rates, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Block Product 4. Renewable Energy Certificates (REC Program) Part 2: Tiered Rate Methodology (TRM) A. Tier 1 Rate Design B. Tier 2 Rate Alternatives 1. Load-Growth Service 2....

  5. SU-E-J-214: Comparative Assessment On IGRT On Partial Bladder Cancer Treatment Between CT-On-Rails (CTOR) and KV Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-Guided radiation therapy(IGRT) depends on reliable online patient-specific anatomy information to address random and progressive anatomy changes. Large margins have been suggested to bladder cancer treatment due to large daily bladder anatomy variation. KV Cone beam CT(CBCT) has been used in IGRT localization prevalently; however, its lack of soft tissue contrast makes clinicians hesitate to perform daily soft tissue alignment with CBCT for partial bladder cancer treatment. This study compares the localization uncertainties of bladder cancer IGRT using CTon- Rails(CTOR) and CBCT. Methods: Three T2N0M0 bladder cancer patients (total of 66 Gy to partial bladder alone) were localized daily with either CTOR or CBCT for their entire treatment course. A total of 71 sets of CTOR and 22 sets of CBCT images were acquired and registered with original planning CT scans by radiation therapists and approved by radiation oncologists for the daily treatment. CTOR scanning entailed 2mm slice thickness, 0.98mm axial voxel size, 120kVp and 240mAs. CBCT used a half fan pelvis protocol from Varian OBI system with 2mm slice thickness, 0.98axial voxel size, 125kVp, and 680mAs. Daily localization distribution was compared. Accuracy of CTOR and CBCT on partial bladder alignment was also evaluated by comparing bladder PTV coverage. Results: 1cm all around PTV margins were used in every patient except target superior limit margin to 0mm due to bowel constraint. Daily shifts on CTOR averaged to 0.48, 0.24, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions); CBCT averaged to 0.43, 0.09, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions). The CTOR daily localization showed superior results of V100% of PTV(102% CTOR vs. 89% CBCT) and bowel(Dmax 69.5Gy vs. 78Gy CBCT). CTOR images showed much higher contrast on bladder PTV alignment. Conclusion: CTOR daily localization for IGRT is more dosimetrically beneficial for partial bladder cancer treatment than kV CBCT localization and provided better soft tissue PTV identification.

  6. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  7. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  8. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  9. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  10. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  11. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  12. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  13. Atomic and electronic structures of SrTiO3/GaAs heterointerfaces: An 80-kV atomic-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Q.; Klie, Robert F; Ogut, Serdar; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the atomic and electronic structures of epitaxially grown, ultrathin SrTiO{sub 3} (100) films on GaAs (001) using 80-kV aberration-corrected atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to develop a fundamental understanding of the interfacial structure-property relationships. We find that the interface is atomically abrupt and no surface reconstruction of the GaAs (001) surface is observed. Using atomic-column resolved EELS, we examine the oxygen vacancy and Ti concentrations in the SrTiO{sub 3} film and across the heterointerface. We show that Ti diffuses into the first few monolayers of GaAs. Using a combination of EELS and first-principles calculations, we present evidence for the formation of As oxides at the interface depending on the thin-film growth conditions. These findings are used to explain the differences in the transport behavior of the films.

  14. Impact Mitigation and Monitoring of the BPA 500-kV Garrison-Taft Transmission Line : Effects on Elk Security and Hunter Opportunity, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canfield, Jodie E.

    1988-11-01

    This study was conducted by the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks from 1984--1988 to assess the impacts of the Garrison-Taft segment of a 500-kV powerline on elk summer-fall habitat. Construction of the powerline began in 1983, and the powerline was energized in 1985. The Garrison-Taft powerline corridor crossed 251 km of mountainous terrain in western Montana; about 465 km of new roads were constructed to provide permanent access to the powerline towers. The objectives of the study were: (1) to monitor the effectiveness of mitigation measures, including timing restrictions on construction activities and road closures on newly-built access roads, and (2) to determine if opening previously-unroaded elk security habitats to hunters by powerline access roads affected elk habitat use, distribution, use of security areas, or elk harvest. In addition, both the potential for accelerated timber harvest in areas crossed by the powerline that would not have otherwise been logged because of marginal economics and lack of haul roads and the potential effect of powerline flashovers on future prescribed burning of elk winter-ranges were evaluated. 83 refs., 88 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, W.; Li, J. Y.; Kang, L.; Liu, H. P.; Li, H.; Li, J. D.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, X. W.

    2014-02-15

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36?000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H{sup +}, {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}, {sup 129}Xe{sup 30+}, {sup 209}Bi{sup 33+}, etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  16. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...

  17. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  18. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  19. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartkoski, Dirk A; Deibele, Craig E; Polsky, Yarom

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  20. SU-E-I-07: Response Characteristics and Signal Conversion Modeling of KV Flat-Panel Detector in Cone Beam CT System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Ruifen; Pei, Xi; Wang, Hui; Hu, Liqin

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The flat-panel detector response characteristics are investigated to optimize the scanning parameter considering the image quality and less radiation dose. The signal conversion model is also established to predict the tumor shape and physical thickness changes. Methods: With the ELEKTA XVI system, the planar images of 10cm water phantom were obtained under different image acquisition conditions, including tube voltage, electric current, exposure time and frames. The averaged responses of square area in center were analyzed using Origin8.0. The response characteristics for each scanning parameter were depicted by different fitting types. The transmission measured for 10cm water was compared to Monte Carlo simulation. Using the quadratic calibration method, a series of variable-thickness water phantoms images were acquired to derive the signal conversion model. A 20cm wedge water phantom with 2cm step thickness was used to verify the model. At last, the stability and reproducibility of the model were explored during a four week period. Results: The gray values of image center all decreased with the increase of different image acquisition parameter presets. The fitting types adopted were linear fitting, quadratic polynomial fitting, Gauss fitting and logarithmic fitting with the fitting R-Square 0.992, 0.995, 0.997 and 0.996 respectively. For 10cm water phantom, the transmission measured showed better uniformity than Monte Carlo simulation. The wedge phantom experiment show that the radiological thickness changes prediction error was in the range of (-4mm, 5mm). The signal conversion model remained consistent over a period of four weeks. Conclusion: The flat-panel response decrease with the increase of different scanning parameters. The preferred scanning parameter combination was 100kV, 10mA, 10ms, 15frames. It is suggested that the signal conversion model could effectively be used for tumor shape change and radiological thickness prediction. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81101132, 11305203) and Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province (11040606Q55, 1308085QH138)

  1. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  2. Revenue-stability-target rate making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernick, P.L.

    1983-02-17

    The commonly used rate-making approaches necessarily base themselves on assumptions, vital to their success, about future levels of utility aservice sales. But since sales are a function of random variables beyond the control of the utility as well as actions by the utility itself, the resulting rates fail to protect the utility's revenue stream and its realized rate of return. This article proposes an alternative approach which would decouple utility revenues from sales, thus stabilizing revenue streams with respect to sales fluctuations and rate design changes. Among the benefits would be a lower cost of capital for the utility, as well as decreased utility resistance to conservation by consumers and to efficient rate design.

  3. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  4. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Previous Data Years Year: 2013 2011 2010 2008 2002 Go Background and Methodology The data ... The initial report on coal transportation rates covered the years 2001 through 2008, ...

  5. Draft Tiered Rate Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Regional Dialogue Discussion Purposes Only Pre-Decisional Draft Tiered Rates Methodology March 7, 2008 Pre-decisional, Deliberative, For Discussion Purposes Only March 7,...

  6. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  7. Comparison of the sputter rates of oxide films relative to the sputter rate of SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, D. R.; Engelhard, M. H.; Lea, A. S.; Nachimuthu, P.; Droubay, T. C.; Kim, J.; Lee, B.; Mathews, C.; Opila, R. L.; Saraf, L. V.; Stickle, W. F.; Wallace, R. M.; Wright, B. S.

    2010-09-15

    There is a growing interest in knowing the sputter rates for a wide variety of oxides because of their increasing technological importance in many different applications. To support the needs of users of the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility, as well as our research programs, the authors made a series of measurements of the sputter rates from oxide films that have been grown by oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, pulsed laser deposition, atomic layer deposition, electrochemical oxidation, or sputter deposition. The sputter rates for these oxide films were determined in comparison with those from thermally grown SiO{sub 2}, a common reference material for sputter rate determination. The film thicknesses and densities for most of these oxide films were measured using x-ray reflectivity. These oxide films were mounted in an x-ray photoelectron or Auger electron spectrometer for sputter rate measurements using argon ion sputtering. Although the primary objective of this work was to determine relative sputter rates at a fixed angle, the measurements also examined (i) the angle dependence of the relative sputter rates, (ii) the energy dependence of the relative sputter rates, and (iii) the extent of ion beam induced reduction for some oxides. Oxide films examined include SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, In-Sn oxide, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2} (anatase, rutile, and amorphous), and ZnO. The authors found that the sputter rates for the oxides can vary up to a factor of 2 (usually lower) from that observed for SiO{sub 2}. The ratios of sputter rates relative to those of SiO{sub 2} appear to be relatively independent of ion beam energy in the range of 1-4 kV and for incident angles <50 deg. As expected, the extent of ion beam induced reduction of the oxides varies with the sputter angle.

  8. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Company PSCo Public Service Company of Colorado PV photovoltaic SAM System Advisor Model TMY3 Typical Meteorological Year 3 TOU time-of-use VEPCo Virginia Electric and...

  9. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to the solar ...

  10. Best Practices: Escalation Rates

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Best Practices Escalation Rates Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Best Practices: Escalation Rate Value of future energy savings * Provides purchasing power for implementing a robust, comprehensive and customized ECM set * Provides an option for paying back financing in the shortest possible

  11. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings & Workshops Rate Case Parties Web Site WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  12. 2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

  13. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W. ); Sims, R.E. )

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ring'' the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  14. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W.; Sims, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ``ring`` the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  15. Design Rational

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... designed for maximal cryptographic strength and high speed ... for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes Using ... two benefits: careful management admits some ...

  16. Subsea HIPPS design procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaroe, R.; Lund, B.F.; Onshus, T.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is based on a feasibility study investigating the possibilities of using a HIPPS (High Integrity Pressure Protection System) to protect a subsea pipeline that is not rated for full wellhead shut-in pressure. The study was called the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study, and was performed by SINTEF, Norway. Here, OPPS is an acronym for Overpressure Pipeline Protection System. A design procedure for a subsea HIPPS is described, based on the experience and knowledge gained through the ``Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study``. Before a subsea HIPPS can be applied, its technical feasibility, reliability and profitability must be demonstrated. The subsea HIPPS design procedure will help to organize and plan the design activities both with respect to development and verification of a subsea HIPPS. The paper also gives examples of how some of the discussed design steps were performed in the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study. Finally, further work required to apply a subsea HIPPS is discussed.

  17. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  18. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and ...

  19. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  20. Rating fenestration for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markway, R.

    1993-09-01

    The grading of windows and doors by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) opens a new era regarding the energy efficiency of fenestration products. For the first time, architects, designers, and other specifiers will find themselves on a level playing field when it comes to comparing the thermal performance of fenestration products. Although only one state, California, now requires the use of fenestration products that have gone through the NFRC's simulation and testing procedures, five other states will soon be doing so, including Washington, Alaska, Oregon, Idaho, and Wisconsin. Others will follow suit; Florida, Arizona, Texas, Louisiana, New York, Massachusetts, and Colorado have shown interest. Exactly what does this mean to architects The NFRC, which was established last year, has developed a procedure to determine accurately the U-value of fenestration products. Under the NFRC program a number of independent simulation and testing laboratories have been approved. These laboratories are charged with the responsibility of determining whether products conform to the U-values represented by the manufacturers. The rating procedure and benefits from it are described.

  1. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  2. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has completed at least 90 days on an established performance plan. Rating officials must take into account the SES member's accomplishments achieved during the performance cycle and the impact to the organization's performance. Rating officials must appraise executives realistically and fairly and avoid ratings inflation.

  3. Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500-kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada, Northern States Power Company. Addendum to the final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  4. Proposed amendment to presidential permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada. Addendum to the final environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  5. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...

  6. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  7. Energy Escalation Rate Calculator Download

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Escalation Rate Calculator (EERC) computes an average annual escalation rate for a specified time period, which can be used as an escalation rate for contract payments in energy savings performance contracts and utility energy services contracts.

  8. Mechanical design aspects of the HYVAX railgun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, W.E.; Cummings, C.E.; Davidson, R.F.; Parker, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    The hypervelocity experiment (HYVAX) railgun is designed to produce projectile velocities greater than 15 km/s in a 13-m-long, round bore gun. The HYVAX gun incorporates a modular design enabling it to operate in either a distributed energy-storage mode or a single-stage mode. The gun is composed of seven 0.3-m-long power input modules and nine 1.2-m-long accelerating modules. The gun is designed for a 100-shot life. To accommodate this, the bore may be enlarged from an initial diameter of 10.8 mm to a final diameter of 12.7 mm. This will allow the bore to be refinished several times during the life of the gun. To minimize mechanical and arc damage to the gun between bore refinishing operations, the gun will incorporate a low pressure helium projectile injector. Projectiles will be injected under vacuum at 350 m/s. The gun will be operated at a peak current and voltage of 600 kA and 6 kV respectively. The gun will undergo three phases of testing. The first phase will be the characterization of the gun's performance using a 3.0-m-long section of the gun comprising two power modules and two accelerating modules. This testing will be accomplished using two of the seven capacitor bank modules. The second test phase will use a distributed power configuration and seven capacitor bank modules to demonstrate a velocity of 15 km/s with a 1-g projectile. The predicted performance of the gun for this test phase is illustrated. In the third phase of testing we will use a magnetic flux compression demonstrating a velocity of 25 km/s.

  9. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  10. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier1Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  12. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  13. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  14. Design of the fundamental power coupler and photocathode inserts for the 112MHz superconducting electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin, T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.

    2011-07-25

    A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be the testing cavity for various photocathodes. In this paper, we present the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) designated to the future experiments. Two types of cathode stalks are discussed. Special shape of the stalk is applied in order to minimize the RF power loss. The location of cathode plane is also optimized to enable the extraction of low emittance beam. The coaxial waveguide structure FPC has the properties of tunable coupling factor and small interference to the electron beam output. The optimization of the coupling factor and the location of the FPC are discussed in detail. Based on the transmission line theory, we designed a half wavelength cathode stalk which significantly brings down the voltage drop between the cavity and the stalk from more than 5.6 kV to 0.1 kV. The transverse field distribution on cathode has been optimized by carefully choosing the position of cathode stalk inside the cavity. Moreover, in order to decrease the RF power loss, a variable diameter design of cathode stalk has been applied. Compared to the uniform shape of stalk, this design gives us much smaller power losses in important locations. Besides that, we also proposed a fundamental power coupler based on the designed beam parameters for the future proof-of-principle CEC experiment. This FPC should give a strong enough coupling which has the Q external range from 1.5e7 to 2.6e8.

  15. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors ...

  16. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  17. Designing tomorrow's warheads -- today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, D.P.

    1988-03-15

    Until recently, new weapons' warheads were most often an incremental improvement on a previous warhead design. The tools available to the munition designer today, however, allow for a more comprehensive methodology to be employed. The focus of this paper will be a portion of the process of design of an explosively formed projectile (EFP) which uses tantalum as its liner material. Several questions surrounding tantalum's behavior under high strains require answers before such an EFP can be properly designed. The base-technology issues of different material properties will be explored using a three-dimensional finite element code (DYNA3D) and then compared to experiments. State-of-the-art diagnostics are an integral part of this methodology. Predetermined ''flasher block'' contours will provide specific position/time data which will assist in improving and understanding the high explosive equation of state as well as determining the energy imparted to the liner. In turn, this will lead to improved modeling of the liner as it translates along the line of flight. Flash X-ray Radiograph (FXR) will provide clues to axial symmetry, density, and overall time/distance information. This data will also provide answers to the strain rate depencence of the tantalum. Integration of the data from the experiment with the material response models allows post-experiment normalization of the code. This ''normalized'' tool is, finally used in the point design of the warhead.

  18. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  19. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  20. April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  1. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...

  2. April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  3. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...

  4. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  5. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  6. April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  7. April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  8. FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...

  9. 2007-2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates In BPAs 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Case (WP-07), BPA agreed that it would post reports about BPAs power...

  10. WP-02 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-02 Power Rate Case (Updated on May 7, 2004) In May of 2000, the BPA Administrator signed a Record of Decision (ROD) on the 2002 Final Power Rate Proposal for the October 2001...

  11. Center for Inverse Design: Inverse Design Approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverse Design Approach This page describes the inverse materials design methodology used by the Center for Inverse Design, which integrates and combines the following: (1) theory,...

  12. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  13. DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-01-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.

  14. Project Definition Rating Index Workbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) Workbook is a tool that was developed to support DOE G-413.3-12A, U. S. Department of Energy Project Definition Rating Index Guide for Traditional Nuclear...

  15. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  16. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  17. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Writing an Effective ISR (max 8000 characters including spaces) Before writing: * Read definitions of rating levels and critical element targets carefully * Review Strategic Plan ...

  18. SN-03 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Related Link: SN-03 Power Rate Case May 1 & 13, 2003 - Debt and Liquidity Strategies workshops (on BPA Corporate web site) March 27, 2003 - SN CRAC Prescheduling...

  19. Characterizing energy dependence and count rate performance of a dual scintillator fiber-optic detector for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoerner, Matthew R. Stepusin, Elliott J.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage (kV) x-rays pose a significant challenge for radiation dosimetry. In the kV energy range, even small differences in material composition can result in significant variations in the absorbed energy between soft tissue and the detector. In addition, the use of electronic systems in light detection has demonstrated measurement losses at high photon fluence rates incident to the detector. This study investigated the feasibility of using a novel dual scintillator detector and whether its response to changes in beam energy from scatter and hardening is readily quantified. The detector incorporates a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, which has a higher sensitivity to scatter x-rays. Methods: The detector was constructed by coupling two scintillators: (1) small cylindrical plastic scintillator, 500 ?m in diameter and 2 mm in length, and (2) 100 micron sheet of gadolinium oxysulfide 500 ?m in diameter, each to a 2 m long optical fiber, which acts as a light guide to transmit scintillation photons from the sensitive element to a photomultiplier tube. Count rate linearity data were obtained from a wide range of exposure rates delivered from a radiological x-ray tube by adjusting the tube current. The data were fitted to a nonparalyzable dead time model to characterize the time response. The true counting rate was related to the reference free air dose air rate measured with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Radcal{sup ®} thimble chamber as described in AAPM Report No. 111. Secondary electron and photon spectra were evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques to analyze ionization quenching and photon energy-absorption characteristics from free-in-air and in phantom measurements. The depth/energy dependence of the detector was characterized using a computed tomography dose index QA phantom consisting of nested adult head and body segments. The phantom provided up to 32 cm of acrylic with a compatible 0.6 cm{sup 3} calibrated ionization chamber to measure the reference air kerma. Results: Each detector exhibited counting losses of 5% when irradiated at a dose rate of 26.3 mGy/s (Gadolinium) and 324.3 mGy/s (plastic). The dead time of the gadolinium oxysulfide detector was determined to be 48 ns, while the dead time of the plastic scintillating detector was unable to accurately be calculated due to poor counting statistics from low detected count rates. Noticeable depth/energy dependence was observed for the plastic scintillator for depths greater than 16 cm of acrylic that was not present for measurements using the gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, leading us to believe that quenching may play a larger role in the depth dependence of the plastic scintillator than the incident x-ray energy spectrum. When properly corrected for dead time effects, the energy response of the gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator is consistent with the plastic scintillator. Using the integrated dual detector method was superior to each detector individually as the depth-dependent measure of dose was correctable to less than 8% between 100 and 135 kV. Conclusions: The dual scintillator fiber-optic detector accommodates a methodology for energy dependent corrections of the plastic scintillator, improving the overall accuracy of the dosimeter across the range of diagnostic energies.

  20. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  1. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  2. Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce / Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, December 5, 2013.

  3. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are ...

  4. DOE Guidance-Category Rating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For most jobs and grade levels under category rating, the certificates of eligibles should be issued in the following order: (1) Career Transition Assistance Program (CTAP) and ...

  5. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  6. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  7. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  8. Design and performance of the traveling-wave beam chopper for the SSRL injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borland, M.; Weaver, J.N.; Baltay, M.; Emery, L.; Fisher, A.S.; Golceff, P.; Hettel, R.; Morales, H.; Sebek, J.; Wiedemann, H.; Youngman, B. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Anderson, R. ); Miller, R.H. )

    1991-05-01

    A pulsed, split-parallel plate chopper has been designed built, and installed as part of the preinjector of the SSRL Injector. Its function is to allow the linear accelerator three consecutive S-band bunches from the long bunch train provided by a RF gun. A permanent magnet deflector (PMD) at the chopper entrance deflects the beam into an absorber when the chopper pulse is off. The beam is swept across a pair of slits at the beam output end when a 7 kV, 10-ns rise-time pulse passes in the opposite direction through the 75 {Omega} stripline formed by the deflecting plates. Bunches exiting the slits have their trajectories corrected by another PMD, and enter the linac. Beam tests demonstrate that the chopper functions as expected. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  9. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This volume contains sections 2 thru 7 of Chapter 15 -- Accident Analyses. Topics covered are: decrease in heat removal by the secondary system; decrease in reactor coolant flow rate; reactivity and power distribution anomalies; increase in RCS inventory; decrease in RCS inventory; and radioactive material release from a system or component. Appendices 15A, 15B, and 15C are included.

  10. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sacramento, CA None OEOEPMEDTD Ryan Watson SMUD Resilient Grid Initiative Install SCADA switches on 69 kV circuits for automatic sectionalizing and fault location and install...

  11. Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Project Definition Rating Index (EM-PDRI) is a modification of a commercially developed planning tool that has been tested by an EM team specifically for...

  12. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at a Tier 2 rate 3) Combination of the two On Nov 1, 2009, customers made their elections for how they will serve their Above-RHWM Load during the FY 2012-2014 purchase...

  13. BPA revises oversupply rate proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comments until May 22, 2013. The rate-setting process will end with the administrator making a decision based on the record developed in the case. BPA expects to issue a final...

  14. VISAR2KV1.0Beta

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-01-01

    The software provides a rapid and robust method for reducing fringe records obtained using eithe a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometry system (ORVIS) or stop-motion imaging of the moving fringe field. The reduced records result in spatially resolved velocity profiles of rapidly accelerating objects. Complex, time-dependent fringe motion (corresponding to local velocity variations) can be evaluated and interpreted using this program.

  15. Design, development, and acceleration trials of radio-frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, S. V. L. S. Jain, Piyush; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Mathew, Jose V.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pande, Manjiri; Krishnagopal, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Singh, P.

    2014-04-15

    A deuteron radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested at BARC, which will be used for neutron generation. The RFQ operates at a frequency of 350 MHz and needs an inter-vane voltage of 44 kV to accelerate the deuteron beam to 400 keV within a length of 1.03 m. The error analysis shows that the offset of two opposite vanes in the same direction by 100 ?m leads to a change in resonant frequency by 1.3 MHz and a significant change of fields in the quadrants (?±40% with respect to average field). From the 3D analysis, we have observed that the unwanted dipole mode frequencies are very near to the quadrupole mode frequency which will make structure sensitive to the perturbations. In order to move the dipole modes away from the quadrupole modes, we have used the dipole stabilizer rods. The 5 wire transmission line theory was used to study the perturbative analysis of the RFQ and based on this a computer program has been written to tune the cavity to get required field distribution. Based on these studies, a 1.03 m long RFQ made of OFE copper has been fabricated and tested. Even though the RFQ was designed for deuteron (D{sup +}) beam, we tested it by accelerating both the proton (H{sup +}) and D{sup +} beams. The RFQ was operated in pulsed mode and accelerated both H{sup +} and D{sup +} beams to designed values of 200 and 400 keV, respectively. The measured parameters are in good agreement with the designed values validating our simulations and fabrication processes. In this paper, simulations, RF measurements, and beam commissioning results are presented.

  16. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates, please see the transmission rates web site. Inactive Rate Cases Integrated Business Review (IBR) Integrated Program Review (IPR) Quarterly Business Review (QBR) Content...

  17. Final Report- National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the key informational barriers for consumers, installers, regulators and policymakers, is the proper comparison cost of utility-supplied electricity that will be replaced with a Photovoltaic (PV) system. Oftentimes, these comparisons are made with national or statewide averages which results in inaccurate comparisons and conclusions. Illinois State University seeks to meet the need for accurate information about electricity costs and rate structure by building a national database of utility rates and rate structures. The database will build upon the excellent framework that was developed by the OpenEI.org initiative and extend it in several important ways. First, the data will be populated and monitored by a team of trained regulatory economists. Second, the database will be more comprehensive because it will be populated with data from newer competitive retail suppliers for states that have restructured their electricity markets to allow such suppliers. Third, the University and its Institute for Regulatory Policy Studies will maintain the database and ensure that it contains the most recent rate information.

  18. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  19. Floating Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Floating Rate Agreement Floating Rate Agreement PDF icon Floating Rate Agreement More Documents & Publications Fixed Rate Agreement Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement Template Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement-Template

  20. Rate Analysis of Two Photovoltaic Systems in San Diego

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Ong, S.; Van Geet, O.

    2009-07-01

    Analysts have found increasing evidence that rate structure has impacts on the economics of solar systems. This paper uses 2007 15-minute interval photovoltaic (PV) system and load data from two San Diego City water treatment facilities to illustrate impacts of different rate designs. The comparison is based on rates available in San Diego at the time of data collection and include proportionately small to large demand charges (relative to volumetric consumption), and varying on- and off- peak times. Findings are twofold for these large commercial systems: 1) transferring costs into demand charges does not result in savings and 2) changes in peak times do not result in a major cost difference during the course of a year. While lessons learned and discussion on rate components are based on the findings, the applicability is limited to buildings with similar systems, environments, rate options, and loads.

  1. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  2. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  3. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  4. Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...

  5. ENERGY STAR Webinar: ENERGY STAR and Green Building Rating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR, this webinar will help attendees how to use EPA tools and resources to help meet requirements for green building rating systems, such as the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the Green Globes system, and others.

  6. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool User's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Na; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Matsumoto, Steven W.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Tool is a web-based system that is designed to allow building owners, managers, and operators to more accurately assess the energy performance of their commercial buildings. This document provide a step-by-step instruction on how to use the tool.

  7. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  8. schedule6_2002.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next Update: October 2008 Table 6. Existing and Proposed High-voltage Transmission Line Additions Filed in Calendar Year 2002, by North American Electric Reliability Council, 2003 Through 20012 (Various) Geographic Area Voltage Capacity Rating (MVa) In- Service Date Electrical Connection Locations Line Information Conductor Characteristics Circuits Company Information Country NERC Region NERC Sub-region Type Operating (kV) Design (kV) From Terminal To Terminal Length (Miles) Type Pole Type Pole

  9. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  10. Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Design Earth-sheltered homes, like the one pictured, are a unique option for efficiently designed homes. No matter the type of home you choose, energy efficient design strategies will save you money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Pamm McFadden/NREL. Earth-sheltered homes, like the one pictured, are a unique option for efficiently designed homes. No matter the type of home you choose, energy efficient design strategies will save you money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Pamm

  11. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" ...

  12. Solar Design Workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  13. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  14. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  15. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2011 CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU October 1, 2011 CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate...

  16. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: electric load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  17. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: DOE Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry DOE...

  18. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: API Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry API...

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: EZFeed Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Database Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: bug Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Discussion bug...

  2. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: energy efficiency Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  3. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: clean energy Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  4. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: datasets Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  5. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: FOA Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry FOA...

  6. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Illinois State University Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  7. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: building load Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  8. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: building load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  9. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: dataset Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  10. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Energy Visions Prize Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  11. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: funding Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  12. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: EIA Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry EIA...

  13. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  14. Plutonium Hexafluoride Thermal Decomposition Rates (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plutonium Hexafluoride Thermal Decomposition Rates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plutonium Hexafluoride Thermal Decomposition Rates Uranium and plutonium may be ...

  15. LB CRAC Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Load-Based (LB) CRAC Power Rate Adjustment Workshop Materials Related Links: Power Rate Adjustments > Load-Based (LB) CRAC December 13, 2006 LB CRAC Workshop Materials (updated...

  16. utility rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    utility Utility Companies utility rate Utility Rates version 1 version 2 version 3 web service Smart meter After several months of development and testing, the next...

  17. USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-06-03

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  18. Visual Design Group | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visual Design Group alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text The Visual Design Group is a full-service graphics and video/animation studio serving the needs of Ames Laboratory and beyond. We offer a variety of services. Our graphics shop rates are $94/hour. There is no fee currently for our video and animation work. For Graphics Services work, please submit a request form here. For Video/Animation

  19. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  20. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  1. High strain-rate model for fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.

    1995-07-01

    Numerical simulations of dynamic uniaxial strain loading of fiber-reinforced composites are presented that illustrate the wide range of deformation mechanisms that can be captured using a micromechanics-based homogenization technique as the material model in existing continuum mechanics computer programs. Enhancements to the material model incorporate high strain-rate plastic response, elastic nonlinearity, and rate-dependent strength degradation due to material damage, fiber debonding, and delamination. These make the model relevant to designing composite structural components for crash safety, armor, and munitions applications.

  2. Selection, Evaluation, And Rating of Compact Heat exchangers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-07

    SEARCH determines and optimizes the design of a compact heat exchanger for specified process conditions. The user specifies process boundary conditions including the fluid state and flow rate and SEARCH will determine the optimum flow arrangement, channel geometry, and mechanical design for the unit. Fluids are modeled using NUST Refprop or tabulated values. A variety of thermal-hydraulic correlations are available including user-defined equations to accurately capture the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of themore » process flows.« less

  3. Fixed Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fixed Rate Agreement Fixed Rate Agreement PDF icon Fixed Rate Agreement More Documents & Publications Floating Rate Agreement Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (August 6, 2009) Federal Loan Guarantees for Projects that Manufacture Commercial Technology Renewable Energy Systems and Components: August 10, 2010

  4. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  5. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  6. System Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Design System Design This template is used to define the system design PDF icon System Design More Documents & Publications Transition Plan Training Plan Feasibility Study ...

  7. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2015 KP-AP-1-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-2-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-3-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 CU-CC-1-J Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke Energy Progress, Western

  8. Designated Team Leader

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Designated Team Leader Each user project is coordinated by a Designated Team Leader (DTL) who may also be the Principal Investigator (PI). The DTL must provide details of all...

  9. Final Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Do adequate calculations exist to support the selected design? (ED-2.3) Are vessels and piping systems designed, sized, and qualified to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ...

  10. Conceptual Safety Design RM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Conceptual Safety Design (CSD) Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the adequacy of the Conceptual Safety Design work, processes and...

  11. Energy design for architects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  12. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  13. Attachments Energy Ratings Council | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Lead Performer: Window Covering Manufacturing Association - New York, NY DOE Funding: $1,600,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - September 30, 2018 Funding Opportunity Announcement: Certification and Rating Attachments for Fenestration Technologies DE-FOA-001000-1504 Project Objective This project is to develop an independent rating, certification, labeling, and performance verification

  14. PBXN-9 Ignition Kinetics and Deflagration Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E; Maienschein, J; Burnham, A; Koerner, J; Hsu, P; Wemhoff, A

    2008-04-24

    The ignition kinetics and deflagration rates of PBXN-9 were measured using specially designed instruments at LLNL and compared with previous work on similar HMX based materials. Ignition kinetics were measured based on the One Dimensional Time-to-Explosion combined with ALE3D modeling. Results of these experiments indicate that PBXN-9 behaves much like other HMX based materials (i.e. LX-04, LX-07, LX-10 and PBX-9501) and the dominant factor in these experiments is the type of explosive, not the type of binder/plasticizer. In contrast, the deflagration behavior of PBXN-9 is quite different from similar high weight percent HMX based materials (i.e LX-10, LX-07 and PBX-9501). PBXN-9 burns in a laminar manner over the full pressure range studied (0-310 MPa) unlike LX-10, LX-07, and PBX-9501. The difference in deflagration behavior is attributed to the nature of the binder/plasticizer alone or in conjunction with the volume of binder present in PBXN-9.

  15. System Design Stage

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This chapter addresses translating the user-oriented functional design specifications into a set of technical, computer-oriented system design specifications; and designing the data structure and processes to the level of detail necessary to plan and execute the Programming and Installation Stages.

  16. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  17. Foundation Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, John; Mosiman, Garrett; Handeen, Daniel; Huelman, Patrick; Christian, Jeffery

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information that will enable designers, builders, and homeowners to understand foundation design problems and solutions. The foundation of a house is a somewhat invisible and sometimes ignored component of the building. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction has significant benefits to the homeowner and the builder, and can avoid some serious future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice means not only insulating to save energy, but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques where appropriate.

  18. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khang, S.J.

    1996-07-31

    Based on the previous years` studies concerning the efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal by spray dryers with high sulfur coal flue gas, the work for year five included investigations of lime dissolution rates at different slaking conditions and with the effect of additives. The prominent additives that have significant effects on lime dissolution rates were tested with the mini pilot spray drying absorber to see their effects on spray drying desulfurization applications. The mechanisms of these additive effects along with the properties of hygroscopic additives have been discussed and incorporated into the spray drying desulfurization model ``SPRAYMOD-M.`` Slaking conditions are very important factors in producing high quality lime slurry in spray drying desulfurization processes. At optimal slaking conditions, the slaked lime particles are very fine (3-5{mu}m) and the slaked lime has high BET surface areas which are beneficial to the desulfurization. The slaked lime dissolution rate experiments in our study are designed to determine how much lime can dissolve in a unit time if the initial lime surface area is kept constant. The purpose of the dissolution rate study for different additives is to find those effective additives that can enhance lime dissolution rates and to investigate the mechanisms of the dissolution rate enhancement properties for these additives. The applications of these additives on spray drying desulfurization are to further verify the theory that dissolution rate is a rate limiting step in the whole spray drying desulfurization process as well as to test the feasibility of these additives on enhancing SO{sub 2} removal in spray dryers.

  19. 2003 CBECS Sample Design

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    during the field period. The rate of nonresponse cases where the respondent spoke a language other than English was notably higher for establishments than for buildings (9...

  20. 2014-2015 Power Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration 905 N.E. 11th Avenue...

  1. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  2. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: American Clean Skies Foundation Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  3. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Rate Home > Groups > Groups > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds There are no feeds from external sites for this group. Groups Menu You must login in...

  4. Category:Utility Rates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rates Jump to: navigation, search Add a new Utility Rate This category currently contains no pages or media. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Utility...

  5. Public Utilities Specialist (Rates) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area Power Administration Locations Phoenix, Arizona Announcement Number ... Southwest Region, Power Marketing, Rates and Alternative Financing, Phoenix, AZ (G6100). ...

  6. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE commercial building energy asset rating program information presented to stakeholders at the workshop held in Washington, DC, December 2011

  7. Explosiv3Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosiv3Design 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:March 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Explosiv3Design 3D-printing technology is booming and could revolutionize the design of high explosives. March 8, 2016 3D printer makes cones of explosive materials A 3D printer is the ideal tool to make these cones of explosive material with finely controlled internal microstructure. Scientists are revolutionizing both the manufacturing process and the explosive materials

  8. Structural design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, P.; Chang, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of seven presented at a special OTC session on international standards for the design of offshore platforms for earthquakes. Companion papers describe an overview of proposed ISO provisions, seismic exposure, foundation design, performance characteristics, a site-specific example, and probability-based LRFD. The focus of this paper is upon results of interest to structural designers, such as: simplified load and resistance factors; lifetime reliability estimates; ductility analysis using API jolts; and example North Sea application.

  9. Expansion solution of Laplace`s equation: Technique and application to hollow beam gun design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.H.; Taccetti, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a flexible algorithm for the general calculation of expansion solutions to Laplace`s equation. The limiting factor in application of the technique is shown to be series truncation error and not errors in calculating numerical derivatives. Application of the algorithm to the accurate computation of arbitrary magnetic fields in cylindrical geometry from on-axis or coil data will be presented. For an ideal current loop, magnetic field accuracies of better than 0.01% of the exact elliptic integral solution can be obtained out to approximately 70--80% of the loop radius. Accuracy improves dramatically for radii closer to the axis. Results also is shown for thin current disks, thin solenoids and thick coils. Other aspects of the technique is illustrated by application to the design of a coil system for a hollow beam electron gun. With some reasonable assumptions about the overlay of the electron trajectories and the magnetic flux contours, it is possible to generate an estimate for the on-axis profile of the gun magnetic field. The expansion technique can then be applied to calculate the off-axis field and its impact on the trajectories without assuming any particular coil system. The initial estimate can then be refined and retested. Finally, an optimization technique is used to develop a coil system which closely reproduces the refined field. The results of carrying out this set of calculations on a 150 kV, 20 A hollow electron gun design for an FEL experiment is reported.

  10. Inherently Risky Design?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inherently Risky Design? The History of Soviet Nuclear Reactors and the Notion of Safety Sonja Schmid, ... Program * Kurchatov turns to power reactors before first Soviet ...

  11. The LCLS Design Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R-593 April 2002 UC-414 Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Conceptual Design Report Published April 2002 Prepared for the Department of Energy under contract number...

  12. Effective Design Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As described in the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG), all Federal agencies are required to follow the Guiding Principles for New Construction and Major Renovations, which include considerations...

  13. ERHIC INTERACTION REGION DESIGN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.PARKER,B.PTITSYN,V.TEPIKIAN,S.WANG,D.WANG,F.

    2003-10-13

    This paper presents the current interaction region design status of the ring-ring version of the electron-ion collider eRHIC (release 2.0).

  14. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  15. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  16. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  17. Labs21 sustainable design programming checklist version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve

    2005-01-07

    This checklist of sustainable design objectives and strategies can be used in the programming and conceptual design phases of a laboratory project. It includes the following: (1) Brief descriptions of each objective and strategy. (2) Metrics for each objective. This checklist is primarily to be used by owners, architects and engineers during the programming and conceptual design phase of a project. It is especially appropriate for use in design charrettes. The strategies and metrics can be included as requirements in the programming document or can be identified for further analysis or consideration during the design development phase. This checklist is hierarchically organized into design areas, objectives for each design area, and strategies and metrics for each objective. The design areas generally correspond to the design areas of the LEED(TM) rating system from the U.S. Green Building Council.

  18. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  19. Core Design Applications

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    CORD-2 is intended for core desigh applications of pressurized water reactors. The main objective was to assemble a core design system which could be used for simple calculations (such as frequently required for fuel management) as well as for accurate calculations (for example, core design after refueling).

  20. Beam director design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  1. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Lighting Design Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ...

  2. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as part of your whole-house design -- an approach for building an energy-efficient home. Indoor Lighting Design When designing indoor lighting for energy efficiency,...

  3. Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices November 18, 2014 1:00PM to 2:30PM EST ...

  4. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  5. Technological advancements in NGV station design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledbetter, G.S.; Grimmer, J.E.; Ketcham, E.T.

    1995-12-31

    Hurricane Compressors` SPRINT System (patent pending) is designed to increase the rate of flow from compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and provide greater utilization of stored CNG than is available from traditional compressor stations. Using a novel method of adapting compressor operation to changes in CNG storage system pressures, this advanced technology provides an alternative mechanism for fuel delivery when demand for fuel is high. Transfer of CNG may be made at higher rates of flow than would be possible either from a pressure depleted storage system or directly from the compressor.

  6. Proposals and Design Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposals and Design Reports Proposals and Design Reports Proposal (1/2/04) Proposal Addendum (29/3/04) Physics Case and Detector Technology Report (12/04) Technical Design Report (7/06) Reviews DOE CD-4 DOE 2008 DOE CD-3b CD-3b Readiness DOE CD-1/2/3a CD-2/3a Readiness CD-1 Readiness PAC Report (4/05) Approvals FNAL PAC Approval: April 15, 2004 DOE Critical Decision 1,2,3a (Performance Baseline, Construction Start) Approval: March 30, 2007 DOE Critical Decision 4 (Project Completion) Approval:

  7. Policies for green design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullerton, D.; Wu, W.

    1998-09-01

    A simple general equilibrium model is used to analyze disposal-content fees, subsidies for recyclable designs, unit-pricing of household disposal, deposit-refund systems, and manufacturer take-back requirements. Firms use primary and recycled inputs to produce output that has two attributes: packaging per unit output, and recyclability. If households pay the social cost of disposal, then they send the right signals to producers to reduce packaging and to design products that can more easily be recycled. If garbage is collected for free, then socially optimum attributes can still be achieved by a tax on producers` use of packaging and subsidy to recyclable designs.

  8. Rampressor Turbine Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2003-09-30

    The design of a unique gas turbine engine is presented. The first Rampressor Turbine engine rig will be a configuration where the Rampressor rotor is integrated into an existing industrial gas turbine engine. The Rampressor rotor compresses air which is burned in a traditional stationary combustion system in order to increase the enthalpy of the compressed air. The combustion products are then expanded through a conventional gas turbine which provides both compressor and electrical power. This in turn produces shaft torque, which drives a generator to provide electricity. The design and the associated design process of such an engine are discussed in this report.

  9. Novel rocket design flight tested

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel rocket design flight tested Novel rocket design flight tested Scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that...

  10. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods Validation The Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering group at NREL validates energy ratings methods by standards committees to establish an energy rating methodology. We are evaluating techniques to account for the impact on PV performance from variations in the spectral distribution of solar radiation. Two types of methods were evaluated for correcting the short-circuit current of PV modules for variations in the solar spectrum under clear skies: (1)

  11. Introducing the Attachments Energy Ratings Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Window Covering Manufacturers Association (WCMA) has launched the Attachments Energy Ratings Council (AERC).

  12. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  13. BPA issues final decision on oversupply rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is consistent with our multiple statutory responsibilities, is rooted in the basic principles of cost causation and fairness that underlie BPA's rate directives, and...

  14. OpenEI Community - utility rate

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    title"" >After several months of development and testing, the next generation web service for the utility rate database is finally here I encourage you to check out...

  15. BPA proposes rate increase to bolster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proposed a 9.6 percent average wholesale power rate increase to compensate for reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales and to continue funding needed investments in...

  16. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  17. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  18. Conceptual Design RM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Review Module is a tool that assists Department of Energy (DOE) federal project review teams in evaluating the adequacy of the conceptual design package prior to CD-1 approval. It focuses on...

  19. DesignForward

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administration Design-Build Contract Awarded for Electrical Substation at Los Alamos National Laboratory April 27, 2016 LOS ALAMOS, NM - Under an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has awarded a design-build contract at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to Gardner Zemke Mechanical and Electrical Contractors of Albuquerque. Under

  20. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Blade engineering and design is one of the most complicated and important aspects of modern wind turbine technology. Engineers strive to design blades that extract as much energy from the wind as possible throughout a range of wind speeds and gusts, yet are still durable, quiet and cheap. A variety of ideas for building turbines and teacher handouts are included in this document and at the Web site.

  1. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  2. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" call slides and discussion summary, December 1, 2011. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Financing Small Business Upgrades

  3. Review of existing residential energy efficiency certification and rating programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy (DOE). The principal objective of the report is to present information on existing Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and their features. Much of the information in this report updates a 1982 report (PNL-4359), also prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for DOE. Secondary objectives of the report are to qualitatively examine the benefits and costs of HERS programs, review survey results on the attitudes of various user groups toward the programs, and discuss selected design and implementation issues.

  4. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  5. Low rate entrainment feeder for fine solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.S.; Piskorz, J.

    1982-08-01

    A mechanically stirred entrainment-type feeder for fine solids has been developed which will give rates constant to +/- 5% for 1 h or more. The feeder was constructed in connection with a mini-fluidized bed flash pyrolysis project for both biomass and Canadian coals. It has been used to feed coal, sawdust and ground bark in sizes below 600 micro m at rates as low as 6 g/h. Gas to solids weight ratios obtained were from about 3:1 to 1:3. The effect on feed rates of most of the operating and geometric parameters was investigated at low feed rates. A mechanism for control of the feed rate was tested and found to be satisfactory.

  6. Advanced solar panel designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph, E.L.; Linder, E.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new high efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  7. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  8. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levels—eliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers “step up” the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually “stepped down” to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcon’s new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcon’s modular devices are designed to ensure reliability—if one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  9. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational and non-operational risks will be described in Section 2.0 of this study. Given these risks, if rates are designed using BPA's traditional approach of only adding Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNRR), power rates would need to recover a much larger ''risk premium'' to meet BPA's TPP standard. As an alternative to high fixed risk premiums, BPA is proposing a risk mitigation package that combines PNRR with a variable rate mechanism similar to the cost recovery adjustment mechanisms used in the FY 2002-2006 rate period. The proposed risk mitigation package is less expensive on a forecasted basis because the rates can be adjusted on an annual basis to respond to uncertain financial outcomes. BPA is also proposing a Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC) to refund reserves in excess of $800M to customers in the event net revenues in the next rate period exceed current financial forecasts.

  10. Design of the NSLS-II Linac Front End Test Stand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fliller III, R.; Johanson, M.; Lucas, M.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II operational parameters place very stringent requirements on the injection system. Among these are the charge per bunch train at low emittance that is required from the linac along with the uniformity of the charge per bunch along the train. The NSLS-II linac is a 200 MeV linac produced by Research Instruments Gmbh. Part of the strategy for understanding to operation of the injectors is to test the front end of the linac prior to its installation in the facility. The linac front end consists of a 100 kV electron gun, 500 MHz subharmonic prebuncher, focusing solenoids and a suite of diagnostics. The diagnostics in the front end need to be supplemented with an additional suite of diagnostics to fully characterize the beam. In this paper we discuss the design of a test stand to measure the various properties of the beam generated from this section. In particular, the test stand will measure the charge, transverse emittance, energy, energy spread, and bunching performance of the linac front end under all operating conditions of the front end.

  11. Design of a beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic for negative ions radio frequency source SPIDER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaniol, B.; Pasqualotto, R.; Barbisan, M.

    2012-04-15

    A facility will be built in Padova (Italy) to develop, commission, and optimize the neutral beam injection system for ITER. The full scale prototype negative ion radio frequency source SPIDER, featuring up to 100 kV acceleration voltage, includes a full set of diagnostics, required for safe operation and to measure and optimize the beam performance. Among them, beam emission spectroscopy (BES) will be used to measure the line integrated beam uniformity, divergence, and neutralization losses inside the accelerator (stripping losses). In the absence of the neutralization stage, SPIDER beam is mainly composed by H{sup -} or D{sup -} particles, according to the source filling gas. The capability of a spectroscopic diagnostic of an H{sup -} (D{sup -}) beam relies on the interaction of the beam particles with the background gas particles. The BES diagnostic will be able to acquire the H{sub {alpha}} (D{sub {alpha}}) spectrum from up to 40 lines of sight. The system is capable to resolve stripping losses down to 2 keV and to measure beam divergence with an accuracy of about 10%. The design of this diagnostic is reported, with discussion of the layout and its components, together with simulations of the expected performance.

  12. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  13. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  14. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  15. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  16. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  17. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  18. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  19. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  20. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  1. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  2. Good, Better, Best: Designing a Designation Program for Solar | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Good, Better, Best: Designing a Designation Program for Solar Good, Better, Best: Designing a Designation Program for Solar December 4, 2012 - 4:00pm Addthis The Energy Department is gathering input on solar designation programs that could one day help consumers recognize the best products and services that the solar industry has to offer. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder/NREL. The Energy Department is gathering input on solar designation programs that could one day help consumers

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier2Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier2Adjustment&oldid539746...

  4. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier5Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier5Max&oldid539754...

  5. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier1Max&oldid539766...

  6. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier1Sell&oldid539770...

  7. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier6Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier6Adjustment&oldid539759...

  8. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier4Max&oldid539751...

  9. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Period | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Number. The allowed values for this property are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructurePeriod" Showing...

  10. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Sell Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Adjustment Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  12. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Sell Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  13. Getting Rate Information from the utility_rates api | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Getting Rate Information from the utilityrates api Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hello, I am trying to use the API to generate information similar to what you can see here: http:...

  14. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov BPA Fuel Mix 2012 2013 2014...

  15. Contract and Tiered Rate Methodology Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    historical demand to provide incentive to lower their peak by providing a marginal price signal on an incremental component of demand. The CDQs are calculated outside of the rate...

  16. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  17. Project Definition Rating Index Workbook Instructions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides instructions for use of the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) Workbook, a tool that automates the calculation of scores in the PDRI master spreadsheet in Appendix D,...

  18. Utility Rates | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rates I'm considering removing the "Show Preview" button, since it does not work (javascript validation issue that could be fixed), and it doesn't make sense. The reason to...

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Global Atlas Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry Global Atlas IRENA...

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Rate Home > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Share your own status updates, and follow the updates & activities of others by creating your own account. Or,...

  1. Revenue instability induced by conservation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesnutt, T.W.; McSpadden, C.; Christianson, J.

    1996-01-01

    The shift toward conservation rate structures, although they may provide better incentives to use scarce water wisely, changes who pays what and can increase the variability of future revenue streams to the water agency. Though the definition of the correct rate structure varies by community, the managerial strategies necessary to cope with the uncertainty brought about by conservation rate structures apply universally. Revenue instability directly increases water supplier`s borrowing costs and adds indirect costs in the form of more complicated planning to provide for a reliable future water supply. This article describes an empirical study using data from two water agencies that have adopted conservation rate structures. The article proposes ways quantitative tools may be used to (1) measure and cope with added uncertainty and (2) make explicit the magnitude of trade-offs between revenue stability, equity, and the provision of incentives for efficient use of water resources.

  2. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1991-06-10

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

  3. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  4. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  5. Designing a Benchmarking Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) Solution Center document about how state and local governments, Indian tribes, and overseas U.S. territories can design a plan to benchmark the energy consumption in public buildings.

  6. Microresonator electrode design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Branch, Darren W.

    2016-05-10

    A microresonator with an input electrode and an output electrode patterned thereon is described. The input electrode includes a series of stubs that are configured to isolate acoustic waves, such that the waves are not reflected into the microresonator. Such design results in reduction of spurious modes corresponding to the microresonator.

  7. Tool and Fixture Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Mark W.

    2015-07-28

    In a manufacturing process, a need is identified and a product is created to fill this need. While design and engineering of the final product is important, the tools and fixtures that aid in the creation of the final product are just as important, if not more so. Power supplies assembled at the TA-55 PF-5 have been designed by an excellent engineering team. The task in PF-5 now is to ensure that all steps of the assembly and manufacturing process can be completed safely, reliably, and in a quality repeatable manner. One of these process steps involves soldering fine wires to an electrical connector. During the process development phase, the method of soldering included placing the power supply in a vice in order to manipulate it into a position conducive to soldering. This method is unacceptable from a reliability, repeatability, and ergonomic standpoint. To combat these issues, a fixture was designed to replace the current method. To do so, a twelve step engineering design process was used to create the fixture that would provide a solution to a multitude of problems, and increase the safety and efficiency of production.

  8. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  9. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  10. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  11. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  12. Realization rates of the National Energy Audit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, L.G.; Gettings, M.B.

    1998-11-01

    Engineering estimates of savings resulting from installation of energy conservation measures in homes are often greater than the savings actually realized. A brief review of prior studies of realization rates prefaces this study of rates from an engineering audit tool, NEAT, (developed for the Department of Energy`s Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program) used in a New York state utility`s low-income program. Estimates of metered and predicted savings are compared for 49 homes taken from a data base of homes that participated in the first year of the utility`s program. Average realization rates ranging from 57% to 69% result, depending on the data quality. Detailed examinations of two houses using an alternate engineering method, the DOE-2 computer program (considered an industry standard), seem to indicate that the low realization rates mainly result from factors other than inaccuracies in the audit`s internal algorithms. Causes of the low realization rates are examined, showing that the strongest single factor linked to the low rates in this study is the use of secondary heating fuels that supplement the primary heating fuel. This study, like the other similar studies, concludes that engineering estimates are valuable tools in determining ranked lists of cost-effective weatherization measures, but may not be accurate substitutes for measured results in evaluating program performance.

  13. Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs This presentation summarizes the introductory information provided by NREL during the Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs Webinar on September 27, 2012. PDF icon utility_design_intro_nrel.pdf More Documents & Publications Residential Solar Valuation Rates text_alternative_stat_webinar_2012_7_18.docx Designing Effective Renewables Programs

  14. Ventuno Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ventuno Design Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ventuno Design Place: Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 49767 Sector: Wind energy Product: German-based wind farm developer with...

  15. Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide focuses on the key elements and design characteristics of building and maintaining a successful residential retrofit program.

  16. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+{trademark} Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ``Tier 1``] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ``Tier 2``] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains parts 2-7 and appendix 15A for section 15 (Accident Analysis) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered in these parts are: decrease in heat removal; decrease in RCS flow rate; power distribution anomalies; increase in RCS inventory; decrease in RCS inventory; release of radioactive materials. The appendix covers radiological release models. Also contained here are five technical specifications for section 16 (Technical Specifications) of the ADM Design and Analysis. They are: TS 1.0 Use and Applications; TS 2.0 Safety Limits; TS 3.0 LCO Availability; TS 3.1 Reactivity Control; and TS 3.2 Power Distribution.

  17. Evaluation of the home-energy-rating concept and the Massachusetts Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankel, M.L.; Duberg, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    This is a report on the results of an evaluation of a home-energy-rating concept based on a Massachusetts pilot project. The focus of the evaluation was on: (1) the compatibility of the Massachusetts rating with the RCS program, (2) who would use the rating and how, (3) qualitative estimates of benefits and costs, and (4) recommendations for further use and testing of the rating. In addition the evaluation of the rating concept also attempted to determine what if any effect the home energy rating has on the demand for energy audits, on the propensity of customers who received ratings to undertake recommended energy-efficiency home improvements, and on changes in mortgage-lending procedures for energy-efficient homes. The evaluation consisted of telephone and in-person discussions with the project developers, the various professional user groups, the recipients of the energy ratings, and control groups of audit customers that did not receive the energy rating. The evaluation was designed to determine the results of the pilot project, assess the project's effectiveness, and analyze the potential for transferring the rating procedure to other geographic locations.

  18. In-vessel ITER tubing failure rates for selected materials and coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, T.D.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    Several materials have been suggested for fabrication of ITER in-vessel coolant tubing: beryllium, copper, Inconel, niobium, stainless steel, titanium, and vanadium. This report generates failure rates for the materials to identify the best performer from an operational safety and availability perspective. Coolant types considered in this report are helium gas, liquid lithium, liquid sodium, and water. Failure rates for the materials are generated by including the influence of ITER`s operating environment and anticipated tubing failure mechanisms with industrial operating experience failure rates. The analyses define tubing failure mechanisms for ITER as: intergranular attack, flow erosion, helium induced swelling, hydrogen damage, neutron irradiation embrittlement, cyclic fatigue, and thermal cycling. K-factors, multipliers, are developed to model each failure mechanism and are applied to industrial operating experience failure rates to generate tubing failure rates for ITER. The generated failure rates identify the best performer by its expected reliability. With an average leakage failure rate of 3.1e-10(m-hr){sup {minus}1}and an average rupture failure rate of 3.1e-11(m-hr){sup {minus}1}, titanium proved to be the best performer of the tubing materials. The failure rates generated in this report are intended to serve as comparison references for design safety and optimization studies. Actual material testing and analyses are required to validate the failure rates.

  19. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  20. Achromatic Interaction Point Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimei Wang,, Yaroslav Derbenev, S.Alex Bogacz, P. Chevtsov, Andre Afanaciev, Charles Ankenbrandt, Valentin Ivanov, Rolland P. Johnson

    2009-05-01

    Designers of high-luminosity energy-frontier muon colliders must provide strong beam focusing in the interaction regions. However, the construction of a strong, aberration-free beam focus is difficult and space consuming, and long straight sections generate an off-site radiation problem due to muon decay neutrinos that interact as they leave the surface of the earth. Without some way to mitigate the neutrino radiation problem, the maximum c.m. energy of a muon collider will be limited to about 3.5 TeV. A new concept for achromatic low beta design is being developed, in which the interaction region telescope and optical correction elements, are installed in the bending arcs. The concept, formulated analytically, combines space economy, a preventative approach to compensation for aberrations, and a reduction of neutrino flux concentration. An analytical theory for the aberration-free, low beta, spatially compact insertion is being developed.

  1. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  2. NRT preliminary design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    preliminary design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  3. Rotor Aerodynamic Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerodynamic Design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  4. Rotor Design Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design Tools - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  5. QA in Design Guidance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    9 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Guidance Document for Integrating Quality Assurance During the Design and Construction Life Cycle September 2011 Page 2 of 29 FOREWORD This Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) guidance document is approved for use by all DOE EM organizational units and contractors performing work for EM. A project's Quality Assurance Program assigns responsibilities and authorities, defines policies and requirements, and provides

  6. GEM Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  7. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. CK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    quantities. Document Available for Download PDF icon CK-1-H Rate Schedule More Documents & Publications CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTV-1-H Wholesale Power Rate ...

  9. Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Replacement Energy System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public...

  10. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and ...

  11. Widget:UtilityRateNamingHelper | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UtilityRateNamingHelper Jump to: navigation, search This widget displays the utility rate database form. For example: Widget:UtilityRateNamingHelper Retrieved from "http:...

  12. Icing rate meter estimation of in-cloud cable icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComber, P.; Druez, J.; Laflamme, J.

    1994-12-31

    In many northern countries, the design and reliability of power transmission lines are closely related to atmospheric icing overloads. It is becoming increasingly important to have reliable instrument systems to warn of icing conditions before icing loads become sufficient to damage the power transmission network. Various instruments are presently being developed to provide better monitoring of icing conditions. One such instrument is the icing rate meter (IRM) which counts icing and de-icing cycles per unit time on a standard probe and can be used to estimate the icing rate on nearby cables. The calibration presently used was originally based on experiments conducted in a cold room. Even though this calibration has shown that the IRM estimation already offers an improvement over model prediction based on standard meteorological parameters, it can certainly be improved further with appropriate field data. For this purpose, the instrument was tested on an icing test site at Mt. Valin (altitude 902 m) Quebec, Canada. In this paper measurements from twelve in-cloud icing events during the 1991--92 winter are divided into one hour periods of icing to provide the experimental icing rate data. The icing rates measured on a 12.5 mm and a 35 mm cables are then compared with the number of IRM signals, also for one hour periods, in relation to initial ice load, temperature, wind velocity and direction. From this analysis, a better calibration for the IRM instrument is suggested. The improvement of the IRM estimation is illustrated by making a comparison with measurements, of the icing load estimation with the old and new calibrations for two complete icing events.

  13. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  14. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  15. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Rate our Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate our Site U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Rate our website The Nevada Field Office is committed to providing high-quality products and services that meet your needs. Your participation in our customer satisfaction survey will help us achieve this goal. NFO would appreciate your taking the time to complete this survey. Responses are confidential. The survey should take approximately 15 minutes or 1 minute per question. You do not have to answers all the questions. How did you feel working

  16. FEMP Designated Product: Lavatory Faucets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP suspended its product designation and purchasing specification for commercial faucets until further notice.

  17. Front-end utility rate updates | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Front-end utility rate updates Home > Groups > Utility Rate Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 13 February, 2013 - 14:28 Utility Rates A few utility rate...

  18. Conceptual Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conceptual Design Review Module March 2010 CD-0 O 0 OFFICE OF C CD-1 F ENVIRO Standard R Concep Rev Critical Decis CD-2 M ONMENTAL Review Plan ptual De view Module sion (CD) Ap CD March 2010 L MANAGE n (SRP) sign e pplicability D-3 EMENT CD-4 Post Ope eration Standard Review Plan, 2 nd Edition, March 2010 i FOREWORD The Standard Review Plan (SRP) 1 provides a consistent, predictable corporate review framework to ensure that issues and risks that could challenge the success of Office of

  19. Ecological Communities by Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2015-06-25

    In synthetic ecology, a nascent offshoot of synthetic biology, scientists aim to design and construct microbial communities with desirable properties. Such mixed populations of microorganisms can simultaneously perform otherwise incompatible functions. Compared with individual organisms, they can also better resist losses in function as a result of environmental perturbation or invasion by other species. Synthetic ecology may thus be a promising approach for developing robust, stable biotechnological processes, such as the conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. However, achieving this will require detailed knowledge of the principles that guide the structure and function of microbial communities.

  20. Control system design method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  1. Preliminary PBFA II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. L.; VanDevender, J. P.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network.

  2. Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, Thomas Kimball; Ross, Michael P.; Lin, Han Wei

    2010-10-01

    Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system requires that security designers provide effective detection, delay, and response functionalities with minimal nuisance alarms. In addition, the designers must take into considerations the security fence system life cycle cost (equipment and grounds maintenance), complexity of the terrain, safety, and environmental conditions (location of where the security fence will be installed). Often, these factors drive the security designers to design a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system (PIDAS) that includes: (1) larger than desired footprint, (2) one or more animal control fences to minimize the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and (3) clear zones and an isolation zone to facilitate intrusion detection and assessment by keeping the fence lines clear of vegetation, trash, and other objects that could impede the security system's performance. This paper presents a two-tier PIDAS design that focuses on effective performance specifically in high probability of detection and low NAR that minimizes cost and the footprint of the system.

  3. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Design Lighting Design Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of

  4. The Distant Type Ia Supernova Rate

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S. E.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lee, J. C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N. A.

    2002-05-28

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample, which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  5. U.S. Utility Rate Database - U.S. Utility Rate Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    As Of Today ApprovedUnapproved All Approved Only Unapproved Only Order By Latest Update Utility Name Rate Name Sector Approval Staus Effective Date End Date Display Results...

  6. WP-96/TR-96 & TC-96 Power and Transmission Rate Case (rates/ratecases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Decision (WP-96 ROD) Final Studies And Documentation (WP-96-FS) Loads and Resources Revenue Requirement Segmentation Marginal Cost Analysis Wholesale Power Rate Development...

  7. Passive solar commercial buildings: design assistance and demonstration program. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-26

    The final design of the Mount Airy Public Library is given. Incremental passive design costs are discussed. Performance and economic analyses are made and the results reported. The design process is thoroughly documented. Considerations discussed are: (1) building energy needs; (2) site energy potentials, (3) matching energy needs with site energy potentials, (4) design indicators for best strategies and concepts, (5) schematic design alternatives, (6) performance testing of the alternatives, (7) design selection, and (8) design development. Weather data and Duke Power electric rates are included. (LEW)

  8. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  9. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  10. Bicriteria network design problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, R.; Sundaram, R.; Ravi, S.S.; Rosenkrantz, D.J.; Hunt, H.B. III

    1997-11-20

    The authors study a general class of bicriteria network design problems. A generic problem in this class is as follows: Given an undirected graph and two minimization objectives (under different cost functions), with a budget specified on the first, find a subgraph from a given subgraph class that minimizes the second objective subject to the budget on the first. They consider three different criteria -- the total edge cost, the diameter and the maximum degree of the network. Here, they present the first polynomial-time approximation algorithms for a large class of bicriteria network design problems for the above mentioned criteria. The following general types of results are presented. First, they develop a framework for bicriteria problems and their approximations. Second, when the two criteria are the same they present a black box parametric search technique. This black box takes in as input an (approximation) algorithm for the criterion situation and generates an approximation algorithm for the bicriteria case with only a constant factor loss in the performance guarantee. Third, when the two criteria are the diameter and the total edge costs they use a cluster based approach to devise approximation algorithms. The solutions violate both the criteria by a logarithmic factor. Finally, for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs, they provide pseudopolynomial-time algorithms for a number of bicriteria problems using dynamic programming. The authors show how these pseudopolynomial-time algorithms can be converted to fully polynomial-time approximation schemes using a scaling technique.

  11. Diagnosis system to improve heat rate in fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, G.; Villavicencio R., A.

    1996-05-01

    Today fossil fuel power plants is showing a trend toward full automation. This increases the difficulty for human operators to follow in detail the progress of power plants, and also limit the contribution of human operators to diagnostic task. Therefore, automated and intelligent fault diagnostic systems have been intensively investigated. Despite several successful examples of diagnostic systems, often called expert systems, the development task of a diagnostic system still remains empiric and is unique for each system. This paper discusses the design of a Diagnostic System to improve Heat Rate for fossil fuel power plant. The approach is characterized as an fault tree diagnostic system. The prototype of this system has showed the benefits and the feasibility of using this system to diagnose equipment in power plants.

  12. Value of Solar. Program Design and Implementation Considerations (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Value of Solar. Program Design and Implementation Considerations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Value of Solar. Program Design and Implementation Considerations Here, we present an analysis that assesses the potential market type that might form in the United States under a VOS rate, given current national average solar costs and various incentive scenarios, for the most populous city in each state. Three

  13. Asset Score Webinar Slides: Real Estate and Design Professionals |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Real Estate and Design Professionals Asset Score Webinar Slides: Real Estate and Design Professionals The Asset Score is a free, web-based software tool developed by DOE and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that assesses the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. It generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies custom opportunities to invest in

  14. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  15. Advances in slurry spray header design technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J.L.; Phillips, P.H.

    1995-06-01

    Due to the structure of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Absorbers for Phase I Compliance have been designed for larger capacities and absorbers with inlet flue gas volume ratings of 1.4 to 2.0 million acfm have become more typical. As a consequence, larger slurry recirculation pump designs have been developed (30,000 to 50,000 gpm) requiring large diameter spray headers with four (4) to five (5) inch slurry spray nozzles. This, in turn, has led to the development of special couplings to replace flanges for nozzle attachment, resulting in significant process, maintainability and economic advantages. A cost comparison of coupling versus the traditional flanged and screwed connections will be made along with the advantages and disadvantages of each of these choices. Additionally, full scale application experience will be reviewed.

  16. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  17. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full-core-height diodes. Moreover, placing the fuel on the outside of the diode makes possible reactors with much higher fuel volume fractions, which enable power-flattened fast reactors scalable to very low power levels without the need for life-limiting hydride moderators or the use of efficiency-limiting driver fuel. In addition, with the fuel on the outside its swelling does not increase the emitter diameter or reduce the interelectrode gap. This should permit long lifetimes even with closer spacings, which can significantly improve the system efficiences. This was confirmed by coupled neutronic, thermal, thermionic, and electrical system analyses - some of which are presented in this paper - and by subsequent experiments. A companion paper presented next describes the fabrication and testing of full-scale converter elements, both fueled and unfueled, and summarizes the test results obtained. There is a duplicate copy in the file.

  18. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  19. MCFC product design improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-05-01

    This contract is supported by DOE and DOD/DARPA funds. The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOE's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (A) To provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed; and (B) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator. These objectives are planned to be achieved in the program coordinated with the Department of Energy, which has been funding a multiyear natural gas fueled direct fuel cell power plant program for civilian applications. Because many DARPA and DOE objectives are similar, the coordinated program activities are considered the most cost-effective for accomplishment of the program objectives. The DARPA/DOE joint program was launched in 1994. The DOE part of the program is expected to continue to the year 2000. The final output of this DOE program is to construct and operate a 2 MW power plant on an East Coast site. The site will be accessible to DOD energy/environmental systems base planners and logistics personnel as well as mission and policy planners to refine deployment configurations of this new power generation system for fixed base applications. A dual fuel fixed base design for military fuels operation, as well as support system logistics will be the key deliverables for the DARPA part of the program.

  20. Consumers face $5. 9 million rate increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Testimony at hearings before the Garrison Diversion Compromise Commission claimed that rural consumers in the Upper Midwest could face $5.9 million in electric rate increases if the commission deauthorizes the project and hydroelectric rates go up to pay the costs of the 1944 Pick-Sloan project originally assigned to irrigation. If there is no irrigation development, the revenue that irrigation must raise to repay the $67 million debt assigned to irrigation must be reassigned to hydroelectric power. The commission represents a compromise between supporters and opponents of the Garrison Diversion project. Spokesmen for regional utilities spoke in support of the project as an investment whose costs have escalated because of delays at the expense of economic development in North Dakota.

  1. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  2. Predict carbonation rate on iron catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    On solely thermodynamic grounds, the main hydrocarbon product of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction should be methane; in practice, however, carbon is frequently produced as well and deposited on the iron catalyst, fouling the active surface sites. South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd.'s experiments with a fluidized Fischer-Tropsch catalyst bed demonstrate that the rate of carbon deposition is strongly dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor, much less dependent on the CO pressure, and not affected at all by the pressure of CO/sub 2/. A suggested reaction scheme for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis explains these observations and provides a basis for a correlation useful in predicting carbon-deposition rates.

  3. Feed rate measuring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1995-12-05

    A system and method are provided for establishing the feed rate of a workpiece along a feed path with respect to a machine device. First and second sensors each having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece are positioned above, and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece along a feed path. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of each sensor and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of the contour of the workpiece. First and second image signals representative of the contour of the workpiece along the feed path are developed by an image processor. The time delay between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals are then used to determine the feed rate based upon the separation of the first and second sensors and the amount of time between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals. 18 figs.

  4. Feed rate measuring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, James L.; Wiczer, James J.

    1995-01-01

    A system and method are provided for establishing the feed rate of a workpiece along a feed path with respect to a machine device. First and second sensors each having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece are positioned above, and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece along a feed path. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of each sensor and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of the contour of the workpiece. First and second image signals representative of the contour of the workpiece along the feed path are developed by an image processor. The time delay between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals are then used to determine the feed rate based upon the separation of the first and second sensors and the amount of time between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals.

  5. PVUSA procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dows, R.N.; Gough, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is one in a series of PVUSA reports on PVUSA experiences and lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California, and from participating utility host sites. During the course of approximately 7 years (1988--1994), 10 PV systems have been installed ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW. Six 20-kW emerging module technology arrays, five on universal project-provided structures and one turnkey concentrator, and four turnkey utility-scale systems (200 to 500 kW) were installed. PVUSA took a very proactive approach in the procurement of these systems. In the absence of established procurement documents, the project team developed a comprehensive set of technical and commercial documents. These have been updated with each successive procurement. Working closely with vendors after the award in a two-way exchange provided designs better suited for utility applications. This report discusses the PVUSA procurement process through testing and acceptance, and rating of PV turnkey systems. Special emphasis is placed on the acceptance testing and rating methodology which completes the procurement process by verifying that PV systems meet contract requirements. Lessons learned and recommendations are provided based on PVUSA experience.

  6. The Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts M. A. Miller and K. L. Johnson Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York T. R. Shippert and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York Stony Brook R. A. Ferrare National

  7. HIGH ENERGY RATE EXTRUSION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, L.

    1963-07-23

    A method of extruding uranium at a high energy rate is described. Conditions during the extrusion are such that the temperature of the metal during extrusion reaches a point above the normal alpha to beta transition, but the metal nevertheless remains in the alpha phase in accordance with the Clausius- Clapeyron equation. Upon exiting from the die, the metal automatically enters the beta phase, after which the metal is permitted to cool. (AEC)

  8. Energy loss rate in disordered quantum well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, P.; Ashraf, S. S. Z.; Hasan, S. T.; Sharma, A. C.

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of dynamically screened deformation potential on the electron energy loss rate in disordered semiconductor quantum well. Interaction of confined electrons with bulk acoustic phonons has been considered in the deformation coupling. The study concludes that the dynamically screened deformation potential coupling plays a significant role as it substantially affects the power dependency of electron relaxation on temperature and mean free path.

  9. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  10. Magnetic fields and galactic star formation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ?0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas (n{sub H}>10{sup 5} cm{sup ?3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 ?G. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  11. Rating the performance of fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, D.K.; Beck, F.A. . Windows and Daylighting Group); duPont, W.C.; Mathis, R.C. )

    1994-08-01

    During the 1980s, a wide variety of new, energy efficient fenestration systems (windows, skylights, doors, etc.) emerged on the market. However, while the products' energy efficiency had increased significantly, little effort was made to standardize the procedures used to determine and report the products' thermal performance properties. Specifiers relied heavily on manufacturers' data. These data were often determined using different procedures, often specified different properties, and some times sounded to good to be true. In addition, code officials could not accurately or efficiently implement state energy codes, so they began mandating rating procedures that often differed from state to state and sometimes within a state. NFRC's mission is to create rating procedures for thermal properties, not to set maximum or minimum property values for specific applications. Other groups -- such as ASHRAE, other code agencies or state governments -- set standards that specify minimum property requirements. Many such standards already require that fenestration thermal properties be determined using NFRC procedures. This article briefly explains NFRC's procedures for determining window heat transfer indices, discusses NFRC's efforts to validate its technical procedures, and explains how specifiers can use the NFRC rating system.

  12. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  13. DOE Designated User Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designated User Facilities DOE Designated User Facilities DOE Designated User Facilities Sept 30 2015 More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - DesignatedUserFacilitiesApri...

  14. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Computational co-design may facilitate revolutionary designs ...

  15. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of windows in buildings similar to the typical buildings. (author)

  16. Relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rates in teenagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terblanche, A.P.S.; Ozkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Butler, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    A study was designed to explore the relationship between self-reported activity levels and actual heart rate (HR) as measured by a portable heart rate monitor. Twenty-two teenagers (8 boys, 14 girls, median age of 16) from Watertown High School, Massachusetts participated in this pilot study which involved continuous monitoring of HR during normal daily activities and simultaneous completion of a time-activity diary. There were 31 successful monitoring sessions ranging from 1.9 to 17 hours with a median monitoring time of 12.6 hours. Four unsuccessful monitoring sessions were experienced due to equipment failure. Apart from participant cooperation, the single most important factor affecting the feasibility of continuous heart rate monitoring was found to be equipment design. Th overall average heart rate observed was 88.4 bpm (SD = 24.3). An individual's correlation coefficient for perceived activity level (documented in half-hour intervals) and heart rate (averaged over the half-hour intervals) varied from 0.24 to 0.89. More than half of the correlation coefficients were below 0.40. There was a significant difference between average heart rate for time spent indoors (90 bpm) versus outdoors (103 bpm) even after correcting for sleeping time. It is concluded that continuous HR monitoring with simultaneous completion of a time/activity dairy is feasible and is a promising source of information for studies on exposure to air pollutants.

  17. We Want It All - Designers

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    We Want It All - Designers Chip Israel MIES, FIALD, LEED AP, LC cisrael@lightingdesignalliance.com We Don't Want It - Glare LED's Are a Tool It's Still bout the Design. Education...

  18. Automated design synthesis of robotic/human workcells for improved manufacturing system design in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Joshua M.

    2012-06-12

    Manufacturing tasks that are deemed too hazardous for workers require the use of automation, robotics, and/or other remote handling tools. The associated hazards may be radiological or nonradiological, and based on the characteristics of the environment and processing, a design may necessitate robotic labor, human labor, or both. There are also other factors such as cost, ergonomics, maintenance, and efficiency that also effect task allocation and other design choices. Handling the tradeoffs of these factors can be complex, and lack of experience can be an issue when trying to determine if and what feasible automation/robotics options exist. To address this problem, we utilize common engineering design approaches adapted more for manufacturing system design in hazardous environments. We limit our scope to the conceptual and embodiment design stages, specifically a computational algorithm for concept generation and early design evaluation. In regard to concept generation, we first develop the functional model or function structure for the process, using the common 'verb-noun' format for describing function. A common language or functional basis for manufacturing was developed and utilized to formalize function descriptions and guide rules for function decomposition. Potential components for embodiment are also grouped in terms of this functional language and are stored in a database. The properties of each component are given as quantitative and qualitative criteria. Operators are also rated for task-relevant criteria which are used to address task compatibility. Through the gathering of process requirements/constraints, construction of the component database, and development of the manufacturing basis and rule set, design knowledge is stored and available for computer use. Thus, once the higher level process functions are defined, the computer can automate the synthesis of new design concepts through alternating steps of embodiment and function structure updates/decomposition. In the process, criteria guide function allocation of components/operators and help ensure compatibility and feasibility. Through multiple function assignment options and varied function structures, multiple design concepts are created. All of the generated designs are then evaluated based on a number of relevant evaluation criteria: cost, dose, ergonomics, hazards, efficiency, etc. These criteria are computed using physical properties/parameters of each system based on the qualities an engineer would use to make evaluations. Nuclear processes such as oxide conversion and electrorefining are utilized to aid algorithm development and provide test cases for the completed program. Through our approach, we capture design knowledge related to manufacturing and other operations in hazardous environments to enable a computational program to automatically generate and evaluate system design concepts.

  19. Energy-Efficient Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design » Energy-Efficient Home Design Energy-Efficient Home Design The Home Energy Score is a national rating system developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Score reflects the energy efficiency of a home based on the home's structure and heating, cooling, and hot water systems. The Home Facts provide details about the current structure and systems. Recommendations show how to improve the energy efficiency of the home to achieve a higher score and save money. The Home Energy Score is a

  20. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding (WP-07) : Administrator's Final Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding, with respect to the adoption of power rates for the three-year rate period commencing October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2009. This ''2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding'' is designed to establish replacement rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) for those that expire on September 30, 2006. This power rate case also establishes the General Transfer Agreement (GTA) Delivery Charge for the period of October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2009. BPA's Power Subscription Strategy and Record of Decision (Subscription Strategy), as well as other Agency processes, provide much of the policy context for this rate case and are described in Section 2. This ROD follows a full evidentiary hearing and briefing, including an Oral Argument before the BPA Administrator. Sections 3 through 18, including any appendices or attachments, present the issues raised by parties in this proceeding, the parties positions, BPA staff positions on the issues, BPA's evaluations of the positions, and the Administrator's decisions. Parties had the opportunity to file briefs on exceptions to the Draft ROD, before issuance of this Final Record of Decision.

  1. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  2. ARIA Cell Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, Martin E.

    2015-05-20

    Detailed schematics of the structure of the preliminary ARIA solenoid cell design including overhead and cross section views and dimensions.

  3. Challenge Home Student Design Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Challenge Home Student Design Competition took place April 26 and 27 at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  4. ORISE: Instructional Design and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instructional Design and Development The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) works with government agencies and organizations to create customized training and instructional design programs, from traditional classroom teaching to online education. ORISE uses a multi-step process to define the instructional design and development needs. Our process includes: Defining the target audience and objectives Designing and developing the program and materials Piloting, delivering and

  5. Prototype simplified daylighting design tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treado, S.J.; Goodin, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    The report describes a prototype simplified design tool which has been developed to provide information for developing effective building fenestration systems. A computer software system was developed to search through and select the best available fenestration designs from a large database of previously simulated buildings. Fenestration designs can be selected based on energy usage, energy cost or peak loads. The determination of fenestration energy costs is discussed. The design tool is primarily intended for commercial, industrial or institutional buildings of any type.

  6. Residential Retrofit Design Guide Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covered the Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide and its elements, including assess, plan, implement, and evaluate.

  7. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2007-11-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) calculates BPA proposed rates based on information either developed in the WPRDS or supplied by the other studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal. All of these studies, and accompanying documentation, provide the details of computations and assumptions. In general, information about loads and resources is provided by the Load Resource Study (LRS), WP-07-E-BPA-01, and the LRS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A. Revenue requirements information, as well as the Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNNR), is provided in the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02, and its accompanying Revenue Requirement Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-02A and WP-07-E-BPA-02B. The Market Price Forecast Study (MPFS), WP-07-E-BPA-03, and the MPFS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-03A, provide the WPRDS with information regarding seasonal and diurnal differentiation of energy rates, as well information regarding monthly market prices for Demand Rates. In addition, this study provides information for the pricing of unbundled power products. The Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04, and the Risk Analysis Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-04A, provide short-term balancing purchases as well as secondary energy sales and revenue. The Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study, WP-07-E-BPA-06, and the Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-06A, implement Section 7(b)(2) of the Northwest Power Act to ensure that BPA preference customers firm power rates applied to their general requirements are no higher than rates calculated using specific assumptions in the Northwest Power Act.

  8. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  9. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ring. When complete, all substations and VHF sites in Oregon will be connected to the digital communications backbone, except as noted below. Analog circuits that terminate or...

  10. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JC Microwave Upgrade This project will complete the digital conversion for the upper part of the JC communications ring. This will involve the installation of seven radio hops...

  11. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Replacement This project will upgrade the 14 governors in the McNary powerhouse with digital controls along with replacement of associated components. Governor upgrades are a...

  12. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    includes four separate capital investments at the Grand Coulee Third Power Plant (TPP): * Stator core and winding replacement on units G19 and G20 * Refurbishment of six...

  13. North Steens 230kV Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cut with a chainsaw. Herbaceous plants and low-growing shrubs will be left in place. All ESC measures will be in place and functioning before any construction activities occur....

  14. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Palisades Turbine Rehabilitation and Runner Replacement This project will rehabilitate the turbines and replace the turbine runners on the four units at the Palisades powerhouse....

  15. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    generator stator windings are over 50 years old, three of the twelve in the family have failed in service, and the typical life of a winding is approximately 35 years. Of the 10...

  16. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Runner Replacements This project will refurbish the turbines and replace the turbine runners on units 1 - 16 at Chief Joseph. The drivers for this project are reliability and...

  17. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tri Cities Maintenance Headquarters This project will construct a new Tri-Cities maintenance headquarters. BPA field operations in Tri-Cities District currently occupy space in a...

  18. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okafor, Udenna

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  20. Advances in geotectural design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Although the price of oil dropped well below $20 US earlier this year from a previous high above $35 US, the interest and participation shown in this conference does not seem to have been materially affected. Perhaps energy, although not unimportant, is no longer the driving force behind the continuing development and exploration of the earth shelter idiom in architecture. Rather, the thrust of most papers seems to seek an understanding of the adaptation of earth shelter into varied types of settings, especially urban applications, and also the understanding of the physical phenomenon of how an earth shelter works. The paper have been grouped into three basic categories with several subsections in each category. First, vernacular approaches are documented from the viewpoint of habitation, and followed by other types of utilization. Then, recent theoretical developments are reviewed in terms of materials, occupant studies, and heat transfer and air flow analyses. The final section deals with contemporary practice, where design concepts and case studies are presented, followed by building systems and urban planning aspects. All 54 papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the Energy Data Base.

  1. ERHIC Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptitsyn,V.; Beebe-Wang,J.; Ben-Zvi,I.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.N.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2008-08-25

    The conceptual design of the high luminosity electron-ion collider, eRHIC, is presented. The goal of eRHIC is to provide collisions of electrons (and possibly positrons) with ions and protons at the center-of-mass energy range from 25 to 140 GeV, and with luminosities exceeding 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A considerable part of the physics program is based on polarized electrons, protons and He3 ions with high degree of polarization. In eRHIC electron beam will be accelerated in an energy recovery linac. Major R&D items for eRHIC include the development of a high intensity polarized electron source, studies of various aspects of energy recovery technology for high power beams and the development of compact magnets for recirculating passes. In eRHIC scheme the beam-beam interaction has several specific features, which have to be thoroughly studied. In order to maximize the collider luminosity, several upgrades of the existing RHIC accelerator are required. Those upgrades may include the increase of intensity as well as transverse and longitudinal cooling of ion and proton beams.

  2. MCFC PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-04-30

    The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOD's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (1) To provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed. (2) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator. These objectives are planned to be achieved in the program coordinated with the Department of Energy, which has been funding a multiyear natural gas fueled direct fuel cell power plant program (DE-FC21-95MC31184) for civilian applications. Because many DARPA and DOE objectives are similar, the coordinated program activities are considered the most cost-effective for accomplishment of the program objectives. The DARPA/DOE joint program was launched in 1994. The DOE part of the program is expected to continue to Year 2000. The final output of this DOE program is to construct and operate a 2 MW power plant on an East Coast site. The site will be accessible to DOD energy/environmental systems base planners and logistics personnel as well as mission and policy planners to refine deployment configurations of this new power generation system for fixed base applications.

  3. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating: Market Research and Program Direction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Na; Taylor, Cody; McCabe, Molly J.

    2012-08-12

    This paper presents the development of a voluntary energy asset rating system, to evaluate the physical characteristics and as-built energy efficiency of new and existing commercial buildings. The energy asset rating system is intended to enable commercial building stakeholders to directly compare expected as-built energy performance among similar buildings and to analyze the potential for capital improvements to increase energy efficiency cost-effectively. Market research has been performed to understand the market demand and how to communicate energy and cost savings to owners, investors, financiers, and others to overcome market barriers and motivate capital investment in building energy efficiency. The paper discusses the findings of the market research. Building owners are concerned about redundancy, conflicting requirements, and cost. They also pointed out a data gap and desire a rating program that identifies improvement opportunities. A meaningful linkage between the energy asset rating and other rating systems is essential. Based on the findings, criteria for a successful energy asset rating program have been developed to direct the program design, including validity of ratings, actionable, cost effective recommendations, effective quality control, integration with other rating systems, and necessary training and education. In addition to the rating system, an asset rating tool is being developed to reduce cost and increase standardization, allowing for consistent and reliable comparisons among and between buildings. The asset rating tool is the first step in the process by which owners can enter information about their building structure and receive information on the building’s modeled performance and recommended efficiency measures.

  4. Liability aspects of home energy-rating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Liability aspects of home energy rating systems are discussed. An introduction to the rating system concept, including types of rating systems, implementation efforts to date, and possible groups to conduct ratings, is also included. The home energy rating system concept involves the periodic rating of the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The rating can provide a relative indication of a home's energy efficiency and also a quantitative estimate of consumption, fuel cost, or both. Primary attention is given to liability issues associated with developing and performing ratings. Secondary attention is given to possible liability associated with misuse of a rating once it has been performed.

  5. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  6. Considerations for efficient airflow design in cleanrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2004-07-29

    A high-performance cleanroom should provide efficient energy performance in addition to effective contamination control. Energy-efficient designs can yield capital and operational cost savings, and can be part of a strategy to improve productivity in the cleanroom industry. Based upon in-situ measurement data from ISO Class 5 clean rooms, this article discusses key factors affecting cleanroom air system performance and benefits of efficient airflow design in clean rooms. Cleanroom HVAC systems used in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are very energy intensive, requiring large volumes of cleaned air to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations. There is a tendency, however, to design excessive airflow rates into cleanroom HVAC systems, due to factors such as design conservatism, lack of thorough understanding of airflow requirements, concerns about cleanliness reliability, and potential design and operational liabilities. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with system type and design, cleanroom functions, and the control of critical parameters such as temperature and humidity. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by cleanliness class have an impact on overall energy use. A previous study covering Europe and the US reveals annual cleanroom electricity usage for cooling and fan energy varies significantly depending on cleanliness class, and may account for up to three-quarters of total annual operating costs. A study on a semiconductor cleanroom in Japan found air delivery systems account for more than 30% of total power consumption. It is evident that the main factors dictating cleanroom operation energy include airflow rates and HVAC system efficiency. Improving energy efficiency in clean rooms may potentially contribute to significant savings in the initial costs of the facilities as well as operation and maintenance costs. For example, energy consumption by a typical chip manufacturer can be cut 40% or more, and the associated greenhouse emissions even more. Cleanroom HVAC systems provide huge opportunities for energy savings in the semiconductor industry. In addition to direct cost reductions in cleanroom investment and operation, energy-efficient designs can reduce maintenance costs, increase power reliability, improve time-to-market in cleanroom production, and improve environmental quality. Companies that use energy efficiency to lower costs and increase productivity can gain a competitive advantage and achieve a higher return on investment. In addition, energy-efficient cleanroom systems conserve energy and natural resources, heightening the company's reputation as an environmentally conscious leader in the community and the industry. A significant portion of energy use in cleanroom environmental systems is associated with recirculating air systems. We will review and analyze design factors and operational performance of airflow systems in ISO Class 5 clean rooms. We will also discuss benefits of efficient cleanroom airflow designs in conjunction with effective cleanroom contamination control. We will consider the following common recirculating air system designs: fan-tower (FT) with pressurized-plenum; distributed air handler unit (AHU); and fan-filter unit (FFU).

  7. Next Update: November 2016 Geographic Area Capacity In-Service

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Geographic Area Capacity In-Service Data Year NERC Region Type Operating (kV) Design (kV) Rating (MVa) Month/Year From Terminal To Terminal Length (Miles) Type Company Code Company Name Organizational Type Ownership (Percent) Project Name Level of Certainty Primary Driver 1 Primary Driver 2 2014 FRCC AC 200-299 115 460 1/2016 SUB 4 230.00 SUB 7 230.00 3.8 OH 18445 of Tallahassee M 100% 0.00 - SUB 7 230.00 Under Constructio Reliability 2014 FRCC AC 100-120 115 232 12/2016 Sub 14 115 Sub 7 115 6.0

  8. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks using feasibly-implementable rate adaptivity. • A buffer-management algorithm that is designed to reduce the size of router buffers, and hence energy consumed. • A packet-scheduling algorithm designed to minimize packet-processing energy requirements. Additional research is recommended in at least two areas: further exploration of rate-adaptation in network switching equipment, including incorporation of rate-adaptation in actual hardware, allowing experimentation in operational networks; and development of control protocols that allow parts of networks to be shut down while minimizing disruption to traffic flow in the network. The research is an integral part of a large effort within Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, aimed at dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks. This Study did not explicitly consider any commercialization opportunities.

  9. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Degradation Rates - An Analytical Review Dirk C. Jordan and Sarah R. Kurtz To be published in Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications Journal Article NREL/JA-5200-51664 June 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or

  10. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samana, A. R.; Sande, D.; Krmpoti?, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  11. Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

  12. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  13. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, Priya McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-05-15

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed.

  14. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To achieve a sizable and self-sustaining market for grid-connected, customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar will likely need to be competitive with retail electricity rates. In this report, we examine the impact of retail rate design on the economic value of commercial PV systems in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial customer retail rates currently offered in the state. We find that the specifics of the rate structure, combined with the characteristics of the customer’s underlying load and the size of the PV system, can have a substantial impact on the customer-economics of commercial PV systems.

  15. Conceptual design summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides beams of neutrons for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The useful neutron flux for these experiments will be at least five times, and in some cases twenty times, more than is available at the world's best existing facilities. In addition, ANS will provide irradiation capabilities for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications, research, and industry and facilities for materials irradiation testing. The need for a new steady-state neutron research facility in the United States was emphasized by the 1984 National Academy Report and confirmed by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Research Advisory Board in 1985. These studies defined a minimum thermal neutron flux requirement of 5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2} {center dot} s{sup {minus}1}. The National Steering Committee for an Advanced Neutron Source, with representation from the major fields of science that will use the facility, was established in 1986 and has continued to define the performance requirements and instrument layouts needed by the user community. To minimize technical risks and safety issues, the project adopted a policy of not relying upon new inventions to meet the minimum performance criteria, and the design presented in this report is built on technologies already used in other facilities and development programs: for example, the involute aluminum-clad fuel plates common to HFIR and ILL and the uranium silicide fuel developed in DOE's Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program and tested in reactors worldwide. At the same time, every state-of-the-art technique has been implemented to optimize neutron beam delivery at the experiments.

  16. Conceptual design summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides beams of neutrons for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The useful neutron flux for these experiments will be at least five times, and in some cases twenty times, more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. In addition, ANS will provide irradiation capabilities for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications, research, and industry and facilities for materials irradiation testing. The need for a new steady-state neutron research facility in the United States was emphasized by the 1984 National Academy Report and confirmed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Energy Research Advisory Board in 1985. These studies defined a minimum thermal neutron flux requirement of 5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} s{sup {minus}1}. The National Steering Committee for an Advanced Neutron Source, with representation from the major fields of science that will use the facility, was established in 1986 and has continued to define the performance requirements and instrument layouts needed by the user community. To minimize technical risks and safety issues, the project adopted a policy of not relying upon new inventions to meet the minimum performance criteria, and the design presented in this report is built on technologies already used in other facilities and development programs: for example, the involute aluminum-clad fuel plates common to HFIR and ILL and the uranium silicide fuel developed in DOE`s Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program and tested in reactors worldwide. At the same time, every state-of-the-art technique has been implemented to optimize neutron beam delivery at the experiments.

  17. Directional recoil rates for WIMP direct detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alenazi, Moqbil S.; Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E Rm 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    New techniques for the laboratory direct detection of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are sensitive to the recoil direction of the struck nuclei. We compute and compare the directional recoil rates dR/dcos{theta} (where {theta} is the angle measured from a reference direction in the sky) for several WIMP velocity distributions including the standard dark halo and anisotropic models such as Sikivie's late-infall halo model and logarithmic-ellipsoidal models. Since some detectors may be unable to distinguish the beginning of the recoil track from its end (lack of head-tail discrimination), we introduce a folded directional recoil rate dR/d|cos{theta}|, where |cos{theta}| does not distinguish the head from the tail of the track. We compute the CS{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} exposures required to distinguish a signal from an isotropic background noise, and find that dR/d|cos{theta}| is effective for the standard dark halo and some but not all anisotropic models.

  18. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  19. CC-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CC-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CC-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Carolina Power & Light Company, Western Division System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to...

  20. CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Southern Illinois System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to Southern Illinois Power ...

  1. CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: East Kentucky System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to East Kentucky Power Cooperative ...

  2. CTV-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    TVA. Document Available for Download PDF icon CTV-1-H Rate Schedule More Documents & Publications CTVI-1-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CM

  3. CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to Big Rivers ...

  4. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: MEAM, MDEA, and SMEPA System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi ...

  5. VA-3-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule VA-3-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Virginia Power System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and...

  6. NC-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NC-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule NC-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Virginia PowerCP&L System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and...

  7. VA-4-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule VA-4-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Virginia Power System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and...

  8. VA-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule VA-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Virginia Power System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and...

  9. VA-2-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule VA-2-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Virginia Power System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and...

  10. Microsoft Word - News Release -- Rating Agencies affirms BPA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bond sale will save BPA rate payers millions of dollars Portland, Ore. - The three major credit rating agencies affirmed the ratings on BPA- backed debt last week, paving the way...

  11. Create New fictional Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Create New fictional Rate Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi - if it possible to create a custom rate format for a fictional utility? I am working on some modeling and I think this...

  12. electricity rates for military bases | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity rates for military bases Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I was hoping to find rates for military bases, but have been unable to find anything. Are they just charged as...

  13. CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Southern Illinois System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to Southern Illinois Power...

  14. JW-2-F Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2-F Wholesale Power Rate Schedule JW-2-F Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Florida Power Corporation System: Jim Woodruff This rate schedule shall be available to the Florida ...

  15. Widget:UtilityRateEntryHelper | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UtilityRateEntryHelper Jump to: navigation, search This widget displays the utility rate database form. For example: Widget:UtilityRateEntryHelper|urdbContextview|urdbPageTitle...

  16. Widget:UtilityRateEntryHelperVideo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UtilityRateEntryHelperVideo Jump to: navigation, search This widget displays the utility rate database form helper video. For example: Widget:UtilityRateEntryHelperVideo...

  17. Widget:UtilityRateEntryHelperTable | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UtilityRateEntryHelperTable Jump to: navigation, search This widget displays the utility rate database form. For example: Widget:UtilityRateEntryHelperTable Retrieved from...

  18. Utility Rate - Q & A | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Rate - Q & A Home > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Question Post date Answers Why don't the rates match my price to compare 21 Dec 2015 - 15:24 2...

  19. Center for Inverse Design: Modality 2 - Design of Materials with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    configuration or a couple of nearby metastable states are relevant. The appropriate strategy to identify potential materials then consists of three main steps: Develop design...

  20. Rock mechanics design in mining and tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the design process as applied to rock mechanics aspects of underground mining and tunneling. Topics covered include a historical perspective, the design process in engineering, empirical methods of design, observational methods of design, and guided design.

  1. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  2. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles

    2013-10-01

    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  3. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain.

  4. DOE Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program Focus Groups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Score MRS "Outstanding" Rating Two Years Running - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia ... Sandia Researchers Score MRS "Outstanding" Rating Two Years Running HomeAdvanced ...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements This tip sheet discusses...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  10. Nuclear Weapons Dismantlement Rate Up 146 Percent | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Weapons Dismantlement Rate Up 146 Percent October 01, 2007 WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The United States significantly increased its rate of dismantled nuclear weapons during ...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Centerra Earns High Performance Rating for Savannah River Site Security Operations Centerra Earns High Performance Rating for Savannah River Site Security Operations January 27, ...

  12. Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Below is information about the student activity...

  13. AP-3-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule AP-3-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American ... American Electric Power Service Corporation (hereinafter called the Company), PJM ...

  14. AP-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule AP-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American ... American Electric Power Service Corporation (hereinafter called the Company), the ...

  15. AP-2-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  16. AP-4-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  17. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity Fact 659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity The ...

  18. Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  19. Certification and Rating of Attachments for Fenestration Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    debt (4.1 billion). KEY RATING DRIVERS BONNEVILLE'S OBLIGATION SECURES BONDS: The rating on the Energy Northwest bonds reflects the credit quality of Bonneville and its...