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1

Desiccant bed on hydrocarbon charged to and removed from underground (salt) cavern  

SciTech Connect

A hydrocarbon fluid storage system is described which consists of in operable conjunction: a cavern formed within an underground salt strata below a ground surface, the cavern comprises a lower liquid volume of saturated sodium chloride storage brine and an upper fluid volume of wet hydrocarbon storage fluid, surface fluid handling means; conduit connecting the lower storage brine and upper storage hydrocarbon fluid with the surface fluid handling means, of fluid transfer means enabling transfer of brine and hydrocarbon fluid from the surface to the cavern and from the cavern to the surface, such that brine can be added to or withdrawn from the lower brine volume and hydrocarbon fluids can be added to or withdrawn from the upper hydrocarbon fluid volume, and at least one desiccant drier means positioned at the surface in operable association with the surface fluid handling means whereby the wet hydrocarbon fluid upon withdrawal from the cavern passes through the desiccant drier means and thereby becomes dry, and dry hydrocarbon fluid intended for storage passes through the desiccant drier prior to entering the storage cavern and thereby becomes wet.

Washer, S.P.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

2

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

3

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

4

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

5

New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner October 4, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for liquid desiccant air conditioners (LDACs) within the Federal sector. Benefits Liquid desiccant air conditioners deeply dry air using natural gas, solar energy, waste heat, bio-fuel, or other fossil fuels to drive the system. By providing mostly latent cooling, the LDAC controls indoor humidity without overcooling and reheating. This unit is supplemented by an electric chiller or DX air conditioner that sensibly cools the building's recirculation air. The liquid desiccant is a concentrated salt solution that directly absorbs moisture. Application LDACs are applicable in hospital, office, prison, school, and service

6

Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

8

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

9

Nonmetal-metal transition in metal–molten-salt solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to study the nonmetal-metal transition in two different metal–molten-salt solutions, Kx(KCl)1-x and Nax(NaBr)1-x. As the excess metal concentration is increased the electronic density becomes delocalized and percolating conducting paths are formed, making a significant dc electrical conductivity possible. This marks the onset of the metallic regime. By calculating several electronic and structural properties, remarkable differences between the two solutions are observed. The anomalous behavior of Nax(NaBr)1-x, typical of all the Na-NaX solutions, is found to be related to the strong attractive interaction between the sodium ions and the excess electrons. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

Pier Luigi Silvestrelli; Ali Alavi; Michele Parrinello; Daan Frenkel

1996-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

11

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric Polarizability of DNA in Aqueous Salt Solution ... At each simulation step, we calculate the contribution to the dipole moment from the first n counterions in the list, constituting the net charge (?x(n), ?y(n), ?z(n)) as follows, where e is the elementary charge and xi, yi, zi are the coordinates of the ith counterion in the list. ... Manning32 has already explained this effect in his two-phase model of polarizability, as reflecting the decreased resistance to distortion of the condensation layer. ...

Hitoshi Washizu; Kazuo Kikuchi

2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

14

High performance liquid desiccant cooling system simulation at standard ARI conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

? the experimental indirect evaporative cooler results liqdesc - the liquid desiccant solution room ? the conditioned space s ? desiccant solution tow, in - the inlet condition of the packed tower absorber tow, out ? the outlet condition of the packed tower... surface area of desiccant as well as to suspend the desiccant, which in turn exposes it to the air for a longer period of time. Humid air is blown counter currently from the bottom of the tower through the packing material and 16 Gas ]out Liquid...

McDonald, Brian Francis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The candidate desiccants have toxicity ratings from moderate (LiC1) to low (CaC12) to relatively nontoxic (TEG). One measure of toxicity is the ID50 dose, which is the lethal dose that will result in fatality 60% of the time. Lithium chloride has an LD50..., thereby maintaining the deaiccant in solution. Table 2 Figures of Merit for Safety ID50 Relative Desiccant (02) Weight LiCl 1.23 7 LiBr 4.03 8 The saline desiccants are described aa odorless, while trietheylene glycol is described as having a mild...

Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Viscosity and Diffusion: Crowding and Salt Effects in Protein Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a joint experimental-theoretical study of collective diffusion in, and static shear viscosity of solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins, focusing on the dependence on protein and salt concentration. Data obtained from dynamic light scattering and rheometric measurements are compared to theoretical calculations based on an analytically treatable spheroid model of BSA with isotropic screened Coulomb plus hard-sphere interactions. The only input to the dynamics calculations is the static structure factor obtained from a consistent theoretical fit to a concentration series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data. This fit is based on an integral equation scheme that combines high accuracy with low computational cost. All experimentally probed dynamic and static properties are reproduced theoretically with an at least semi-quantitative accuracy. For lower protein concentration and low salinity, both theory and experiment show a maximum in the reduced viscosity, caused by the electrostatic repulsion of proteins. The validity range of a generalized Stokes-Einstein (GSE) relation connecting viscosity, collective diffusion coefficient, and osmotic compressibility, proposed by Kholodenko and Douglas [PRE 51, 1081 (1995)] is examined. Significant violation of the GSE relation is found, both in experimental data and in theoretical models, in semi-dilute systems at physiological salinity, and under low-salt conditions for arbitrary protein concentrations.

Marco Heinen; Fabio Zanini; Felix Roosen-Runge; Diana Fedunová; Fajun Zhang; Marcus Hennig; Tilo Seydel; Ralf Schweins; Michael Sztucki; Marián Antalík; Frank Schreiber; Gerhard Nägele

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

17

A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour; the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed; and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the allowable concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS sent to SPF has been calculated at approximately 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher, if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 mg/L to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the Isopar{reg_sign} L release data can be treated as a percentage of initial concentration in the concentration range studied. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release is larger than at lower temperatures. In one test at 95 C essentially all of the Isopar{reg_sign} L was released in three months. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few days affected the final Isopar{reg_sign} L amount released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar{reg_sign} L, extractant, suppressor, and modifier) released less Isopar{reg_sign} L than the tests run with Isopar{reg_sign} L. Based on the scoping tests, the Isopar{reg_sign} L releases reported herein are conservative. Isopar{reg_sign} L release was studied for a two-month period and average cumulative yield distributions were produced. From an SPF pouring perspective where saltstone will be poured in a shorter time period of one to two weeks, prior to being capped, the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L occurring in two weeks is more important. The average percentages of Isopar{reg_sign} L released after 13 days from saltstone are, to one sigma standard deviation: 60% {+-} 17% at 95 C, 13% {+-} 4.3% at 75 C, and 4.6% {+-} 1.2% at ambient temperature.

Bronikowski, M

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

19

ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour, the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed, and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the maximum concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS to assure 25% of the lower flammable limit is not exceeded has been determined to be about 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released versus time can be treated as a percentage of initial amount present; there was no statistically significant dependence of the release rate on the initial concentration. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release rate is larger than at lower temperatures. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few hours or days had a significant effect on the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar{reg_sign} L, suppressor trioctylamine (TOA), and modifier Cs-7SB) except the BOBCalixC6 extractant released less Isopar{reg_sign} L than the tests run with Isopar{reg_sign} L/TOA. Based on these scoping tests, the Isopar{reg_sign} L releases reported herein are conservative. Isopar{reg_sign} L release was studied for a two-month period and average cumulative release rates were determined from three sets of tests each at 95 and 75 C and at ambient conditions. The overall average releases at were estimated for each temperature. For the 95 and 75 C data, at a 5% significance level, the hypothesis that the three test sets at each temperature had the same average percent release can be rejected, suggesting that there was a statistically significant difference among the three averages seen in the three experimental tests conducted. An upper confidence limit on the mean percent release required incorporation of variation from two sources: test-to-test variation as well as the variation within a test. An analysis of variance that relies on a random effects model was used to estimate the two variance components. The test-to-test variance and the within test (or residual) variance were both calculated. There is no indication of a statistically significant linear correlation between the percent Isopar{reg_sign} L release and the Isopar{reg_sign} L initial concentration. From the analysis of variance, upper confidence limits at confidences of 80-95% were calculated for the data at 95 and 75 C. The mean Isopar{reg_sign} L percent releases were 67.33% and 13.17% at 95 and 75 C, respectively.

Zamecnik, J; Michael Bronikowski, M; Alex Cozzi, A; Russell Eibling, R; Charles Nash, C

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator" ... Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. ... Cost-Effective Teacher ...

Frederick Sweet

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Ultralow Protein Adsorbing Coatings from Clickable PEG Nanogel Solutions: Bene ts of Attachment under Salt-Induced Phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultralow Protein Adsorbing Coatings from Clickable PEG Nanogel Solutions: Bene ts of Attachment nanogel solutions attached with salt adsorbed signi cantly less brinogen than other 100% PEG coatings

Mitra, Rob

24

Salt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Salt Salt Nature Bulletin No. 340-A April 12, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation SALT It is fortunate that Salt -- common salt, known to chemists as sodium chloride and to mineralogists as Halite -- is one of the most abundant substances on earth, because most of us crave it and must have it. Eskimos get along without salt because they live mostly on the uncooked flesh of fish and mammals. A few nomad tribes never eat it and do not need it because their diet contains so much milk cheese, and meat eaten raw or roasted. We people who eat boiled meat and many vegetables must have salt. Of the millions of tons produced commercially each year, only about three percent is used as table salt. Large quantities are required for refrigeration meat packing, curing and preserving fish, pickles, sauerkraut, and for other foods prepared in brine. A lot of it is needed for livestock. Salt is spread on sidewalks, streets and highways to melt ice in winter. It is used to glaze pottery, sewer pipe and other ceramics. It is required in many metallurgical processes, chemical industries, and the manufacture of such products as leather, glass, soap, bleaching powder and photographic supplies. It has about 14,000 uses.

25

An empirical correlation between the enthalpy of solution of aqueous salts and their ability to form hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The ability of aqueous salt solutions to form hydrates by cooling them at ambient pressure is probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy by examining the structure of the spectra in the hydrogen-bonding region (3,000 - 3,800 cm-1). A collection of 75 organic and inorganic salts in saturated solutions are examined. We have found a correlation between the enthalpy of solution of the salt and its ability to form a hydrate, namely that the salt’s enthalpy of solution is lower than the standard enthalpy of fusion of ice (6 kJ/mol). This observation can serve as an empirical rule that determines whether a salt will form a hydrate upon cooling from its aqueous solution.

Pandelov, S.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pilles, Bert M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR RECEIVED ON FEBRUARY 3, 2009 C O N S P E C T U S Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species

Fayer, Michael D.

27

Review of Desiccant Dehumidification Technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the I990s.

Pesaran, A. A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

29

Improved germination of pansy seed at high temperatures by priming with salt solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Khan et al. , 1981). The Kinetics of Water Uptake by Seeds Many seeds placed in distilled water in petri dishes under optimum conditions for germination show a triphasic pattern of water uptake (Hadas, 1982). The first stage of water uptake... OF PANSY SEED AT HIGH TEMPERATURES BY PRIMING WITH SALT SOLUTIONS Introduction Seed germination can be divided into three separate but overlapping phases: imbibition, transition or lag, and radicle emergence (Hadas, 1982). An osmotically adjusted...

Yoon, Beyoung-Han

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Advanced Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts...

Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

Benjamin Monreal

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

Monreal, Benjamin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pressure exerted by the water vapor (in equilibrium...solutes in solution. The water vapor content of air...they often lead to a condensation of water. For example, early...pure liquid water at atmospheric pressure and at the...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multi-component crystals of the anti-inflammatory drug acemetacin were prepared by melt crystallization and their X-ray crystal structures solved using single-crystal and high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data. The acemetacin-para-aminobenzoic acid adduct and the acemetacin piperazine salt are stable to hydration in the aqueous medium (up to 24 h).

Sanphui, P.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

36

Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations  

SciTech Connect

Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Experimental monitoring of a solution-mining Cavern in Salt: Identifying and Analyzing Early-Warning Signals Prior to Collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental monitoring of a solution-mining Cavern in Salt: Identifying and Analyzing Early. This was the context when the opportunity was taken to instrument a large size in use saline cavern, so as to test that initiate and govern the evolution of the cavern up to its collapse. After a stationary period combined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

Jalalzadeh, A. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Monitoring Vadose Zone Desiccation with Geophysical Methods  

SciTech Connect

Soil desiccation was recently field tested as a potential vadose zone remediation technology. Desiccation removes water from the vadose zone and significantly decreases the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone, thereby decreasing movement of moisture and contaminants. The 2-D and 3-D distribution of moisture content reduction over time provides valuable information for desiccation operations and for determining when treatment goals have been reached. This type of information can be obtained through use of geophysical methods. Neutron moisture logging, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar approaches were evaluated with respect to their ability to provide effective spatial and temporal monitoring of desiccation during a treatability study conducted in the vadose zone of the DOE Hanford Site in WA.

Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Experiments on sorption hysteresis of desiccant materials  

SciTech Connect

Solid desiccant cooling systems take advantage of solar energy for air conditioning. The process involves passing air through a desiccant bed for drying and subsequent evaporative cooling to provide the air conditioning. The desiccant is then regenerated with hot air provided by a gas burner or solar collectors. This performance is limited by the capacity of the desiccant, its sorption properties, and the long-term stability of the desiccant material under cyclic operation conditions. Therefore, we have developed a versatile test facility to measure the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions, under different geometrical configurations, and under a broad range of process air stream conditions, characteristic of desiccant dehumidifer operation. We identified a dependence of the sorption processes on air velocity and the test cell aspect ratio and the dynamic hysteresis between adsorption and desorption processes. These experiments were geared to provide data on the dynamic performance of silica gel in a parallel-passage configuration to prepare for tests with a rotary dehumidifier that will be conducted at SERI in late FY 1984. We also recommend improving the accuracy of the isotopic perturbation technique.

Pesaran, A.; Zangrando, F.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS IN RELATION TO THE IONIC THEORY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...two salts, and y and y2 their degrees of ionization in the pres-ence of each other: C1Y (Cyl1+ C2Y2) =Kl (C1'Yl + C2u'2)n-I c1(1O y,) or of sodium chloride and potassium sul-phate. Up to at least 0.2 normal concen-tration, the...

ARTHUR A. NOYES

1904-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

43

Experiments on sorption characteristics of solid desiccant materials for solar desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A test facility for measuring the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions as well as equilibrium conditions, those experienced during desiccant dehumidifier operation, was constructed and tested. The theory of perturbation chromatography was initially used to measure the equilibrium properties of a desiccant/water-vapor system for the first time. Silica gel, molecular sieve, and gamma-manganese dioxide were tested. The equilibrium capacity estimated by the perturbation chromatography was lower than those available in literature, which suggests that perturbation chromatography may not be applicable to desiccant/water-vapor systems. The perturbation chromatography was replaced with a gravimetric technique, and satisfactory results were obtained for a water-vapor/molecular-sieve system.

Pesaran, A.A.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank And Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 5 Operations  

SciTech Connect

Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 5 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 4 samples indicate generally consistent operations. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in the Actinide Removal process (ARP).

Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Small-angle neutron scattering study of structure and interaction during salt-induced liquid-liquid phase transition in protein solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in aqueous salt solutions of lysozyme protein has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Measurements have been carried out on fixed protein concentration with varying salt concentration approaching LLPT. The data are fitted considering protein interaction by the two Yukawa (2Y) potential which combines short-range attraction and long-range repulsion. We show that LLPT arises because of enhancement of non-DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) short-range attraction without any conformational structural change of the protein. The salt concentration required for LLPT as well as corresponding short-range attraction decreases significantly with increase in protein concentration.

A. J. Chinchalikar; V. K. Aswal; J. Kohlbrecher; A. G. Wagh

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

Effect of Desiccation Cracks on Earth Embankments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

............................................................................. 4 1.4 Methodology ........................................................................................ 6 1.5 Summary .............................................................................................. 8 1.6 Layout... geometry recorded in literature ..... 17 2.5 Desiccation crack behavior during drying-wetting cycles ................... 29 2.6 Flow through a single crack ................................................................. 30 2.7 Flow through a...

Khandelwal, Siddharth

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

47

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Dehydration of natural gas using solid desiccants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas is an important source of primary energy that, under normal production conditions, is saturated with water vapor. Water vapor increases natural gases' corrosivity, especially when acid gases are present. Several methods can be used to dry natural gas and, in this paper, a solid desiccant dehydrator using silica gel is considered due to its ability to provide extremely low dew points. The design analysis of a two-tower, silica gel dehydration unit to dry one million standard m3 of natural gas per day is presented in this paper and the effects of various operating parameters on the design of the unit are discussed. The study also covers the analysis of energy requirements for the regeneration of the weak desiccant bed based on some simplified assumptions and it is found that the higher the regeneration temperature, the smaller are the required quantities of regeneration gas.

P Gandhidasan; Abdulghani A Al-Farayedhi; Ali A Al-Mubarak

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A review of desiccant dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the 1990s. After briefly reviewing the principle of operation, the authors present three case studies-for supermarkets, a hotel, and an office building. The authors also discuss recent advances and ongoing research and development activities.

Pesaran, A.A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Application of Desiccant Drying in Plastic Molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION OF DESICCANT DRYING IN PLASTIC MOLDING Michael Brown, P.E. Greg Connors, P.E. Douglas Moore, P.E. Senior Research Engr. Industrial Engr. Senior Research Engr. Ga. Tech Research Inst. Atlanta Gas Light Co. Ga. Tech Research Inst... will condense on refrigerated display doors. In ice rinks, condensation will occur on the ice surface causing it to soften if the humidity too high. In plastic molding, chilled water is provi ed to rapidly cool the finished parts. Cooling incr...

Brown, M.; Connors, G.; Moore, D.

52

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and that reaction is difficult to reverse (Streitwieser and Heathcock, 1976; King and Poole, 1994). Tertiary amines (R, N) do not form amides but generally give lower K, values than secondary amines. For the extraction of undissociated carboxylic acids, aliphatic... by acidifying with carbon dioxide under pressure in the presence of a suitable solvent (Busche, 1988). Gregor has used electrodialysis to recover acetic acid from dilute (1-5 wt%) acetate solutions. With newer membranes, acid concentrations up to 30% were...

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Desiccant technology and applications, and designing them for utilization of available thermal energy in a combined heat and power (CHP) system.

54

Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

55

An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lavan, Z. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Collier, R.K. Jr. (Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)); Meckler, G. (Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A new equation of state of salt-free flexible-chain polyelectrolyte solution: phase equilibria and osmotic pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a first-principle equation of state of salt-free polyelectrolyte solution in the limit of infinitely long flexible polymer chains in the framework of a field-theoretical formalism beyond the linear Debye-Hueckel theory and predict a liquid-liquid phase separation induced by strong correlation attraction. As a reference system we choose a set of two independent ideal subsystems -- charged macromolecules immersed in a structureless oppositely charged background created by counterions (polymer one component plasma) and couterions immersed in oppositely charged background created by polymer chains (hard-core one component plasma). We calculate the excess free energy of polymer one component plasma in the framework of Modified Random Phase Approximation, whereas a contribution of charge densities fluctuations of neutralizing backgrounds we evaluate at the level of Gaussian approximation. We show that our theory is in a very good agreement with the results of Monte-Carlo and MD simulations for critical parameters of liquid-liquid phase separation and osmotic pressure in a wide range of monomer concentration above the critical point, respectively.

Yu. A. Budkov; A. L. Kolesnikov; N. Georgi; E. A. Nogovitsyn; M. G. Kiselev

2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

57

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Speaker(s): Chadi Maalouf Date: December 2, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Peng Xu Increased living standards and high occupants comfort demands lead to a growth in air conditioning market. This results in high energy consumption and high CO2 emissions. For these reasons, the solar desiccant cooling system is proposed as an alternative to traditional air conditioning systems. This system comprises a desiccant wheel containing Lithium Chloride in tandem with a rotating heat exchanger and two humidifiers on both supply and return air. The required regeneration temperature for the desiccant wheel varies between 40oC and 70oC which makes possible the use

58

Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

Simpson, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Condensation of Self-assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene glycol and Doped with Salt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering, to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of inter-aggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates, and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

Heung-Shik Park; Shin-Woong Kang; Luana Tortora; Satyendra Kumar; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water vapor in a natural gas stream can result in line plugging due to hydrate formation, reduction of line capacity due to collection of free water in the line, and increased risk of damage to the pipeline due to the corrosive effects of water. Therefore, water vapor must be removed from natural gas to prevent hydrate formation and corrosion from condensed water. Gas dehydration is the process of removing water vapor from a gas stream to lower the temperature at which water will condense from the stream; this temperature is called the “dew point” of the gas. Molecular sieves are considered as one of the most important materials that are used as desiccant materials in industrial natural gas dehydration. This work shows a study of natural gas dehydration using 3A molecular sieve as a type of solid desiccant materials, the scope of this work was to build up a pilot scale unit for a natural gas dehydration as simulation of actual existing plant for Egyptian Western Desert Gas Company (WDGC). The effect of different operating conditions (water vapor concentration and gas flow rate) on dehydration of natural gas was studied. The experimental setup consists of cylinder filled with 3A molecular sieve to form a fixed bed, then pass through this bed natural gas with different water vapor concentration, The experimental setup is fitted with facilities to control bed pressure, flow rate, measure water vapor concentration and bed temperature, a gas heater was used to activate molecular sieve bed. Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

Hassan A.A. Farag; Mustafa Mohamed Ezzat; Hoda Amer; Adel William Nashed

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Analysis of a Fabric/Desiccant Window Cavity Dehumidifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of a fabric/desiccant window cavity dehumidifier system for possible use in commercial buildings. The objective was to evaluate fabrics commonly used in buildings, and system concepts...

Hunn, B. D.; Grasso, M. M.; Vadlamani, V.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Weed control and desiccation strategies in chickpea Executive Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-harvest desiccation. Studies were conducted at Minot and Williston, ND and Bozeman, MT from 2002-2004. Sulfentrazone to excellent control of kochia, redroot pigweed, and wild buckwheat. At Williston, sulfentrazone alone, tank

Lawrence, Rick L.

64

Pressure-tuning spectroscopy of charge-transfer salts. X-ray crystallography and comparative studies in solution and in the solid state  

SciTech Connect

The highly colored pyridinium (P{sup +}) and cobaltocenium (C{sup +}) iodides are charge-transfer salts by virtue of the new electronic absorption bands that follow Mulliken theory. X-ray crystallography establishes the relevant interionic separation and steric orientation of the cation/anion pairs P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} and C{sup +}I{sup {minus}} constrained for optimum charge-transfer interaction in the crystal lattice. Spectral comparisons of the charge-transfer (CT) transitions by absorption (solution) and by diffuse reflectance (solid-state) measurements reveals the commonality of contact ion pairs (CIP) in aprotic nonpolar solvents (dichloromethane) with those extant in crystalline charge-transfer salts. As such, the compression of the charge-transfer salts P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} in the solid state by the application of pressures up to 140 kbar leads to unusual red shifts of the CT bands indicative of the dominance of destabilizing charge-transfer interactions.

Bockman, T.M.; Kochi, J.K. (Univ. of Houston, TX (USA)); Chang, H.R.; Drickamer, H.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Field Test of Combined Desiccant-Evaporator Cycle Providing Lower Dew Points and Enhanced Dehumidification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field Test of Combined Desiccant-Evaporator Cycle Providing Lower Dew Points and Enhanced Dehumidification Charles J. Cromer, PhD, P.E.; Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL, 321-638-1445, charlie... of difficult criteria, some with more success than others. Combined Cycle with Desiccant and AC Coil This paper describes the field testing of a novel air conditioning desiccant cycle. This cycle uses a desiccant to move moisture within the air...

Cromer, C. J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Moving Advanced Desiccant Materials into Mainstream Non-CFC Cooling Products  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant air-conditioning systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air-conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building. Recent breakthroughs in desiccant materials technology and the creation of new markets by Indoor Air Quality issues make desiccant-based air-conditioning equipment practical for many space-conditioning applications.

Sand, J R [ORNL; Grossman, G [ORNL; Rice, C K [ORNL; Fairchild, P D [ORNL; Gross, I L [Engelhard/ICC

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Determination of Single-Ion Activities of H+ and Cl– in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by Use of an Ionic Liquid Salt Bridge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many of the problems inherent to KCl-type salt bridges can be circumvented by use of a salt bridge made of a moderately hydrophobic ionic liquid, that is, an ionic liquid salt bridge (ILSB). ... A newly emerged salt bridge based on moderately hydrophobic ionic liqs. is promising to solve many of the problems that KCl-type salt bridges are unable to, possibly making the future of electroanal. ... The new salt bridge is free from most of the problems inherent to KCl-based salt bridges. ...

Hideaki Sakaida; Takashi Kakiuchi

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Influence of Adrenalin, Modified By Salt Solutions, On Blood-Pressure of the Frog and Cat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Bingerts solution: NaCl, 0.7#; CaCl 2, 0.026^; KCl, 0.03#. - 6 - an M/S solution (which is of nearly physiological osmotic pressure) caused no change either in blood-pressure or heart action? and an M/ 2 solution produced only a slight rise in bloodr... inthis way only in the cat); Uric acid; and Na^PCXj., M/16. Those depressing the pressure: KCl, M/l6 and M/32 (not in the frog); CaCl2, M/l6; MgS04, M/8. Those which showed no definite action are: Ringer's solution; NaCl, M/8; CaClg, M / 3 2 ; Na 2HP0...

Burket, Ivan R.

1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Desiccant Moisture Exchange for Dehumidification Enhancement of Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

* -led use of this inprarrPd air mtianer cycle with dssicrants will met likely occur in the cammrcial sector bbm desiccants are acmnonly IaKWn end the potential for savimy is greatar. Cne patential amnercial a~plication where the humidity pmblm...

Cromer, C. J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

International Congress Refrigeration 2003, Washington, DC ACTIVE DESICCANT INTEGRATION WITH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRATION WITH PACKAGED ROOFTOP HVAC EQUPMENT James R. Sand , John C. Fischer* Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL requirements for fresh air ventilation standards with continuous supply and increased amounts of building standard. Integration of a rooftop, unitary air conditioner with an active-desiccant module (ADM) allows

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

72

Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to regenerate the desiccant. Field experiments of two humidity pumps on existing commercial buildings have been initiated. Each system dehumidifies 5000 scfm of make-up air to meet all the latent loads, which is then fed to conventional, electric-driven HVAC...

Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Contamination by Dust Particles and Intensive Desiccation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the area of the quasi-porous internal surface of glass that has been cleaned and roughened by cleaning solution. Again, the fusion process may engulf and incorporate beneath a relatively ...

ALAN W. C. MENZIES

1930-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

74

A model for a variable-volume, density-stratified, liquid desiccant storage tank.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A stratified, single-vessel liquid desiccant storage tank is an attractive option for the seasonal storage of solar energy. Maintaining stratified storage preserves the chemical energy… (more)

Mallinak, Jason

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations  

SciTech Connect

Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

Peters, T. B.

2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

76

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Disposal in Salt Caverns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Salt Caverns Salt Caverns Fact Sheet - Disposal in Salt Caverns Introduction to Salt Caverns Underground salt deposits are found in the continental United States and worldwide. Salt domes are large, fingerlike projections of nearly pure salt that have risen to near the surface. Bedded salt formations typically contain multiple layers of salt separated by layers of other rocks. Salt beds occur at depths of 500 to more than 6,000 feet below the surface. Schematic Drawing click to view larger image Schematic Drawing of a Cavern in Domal Salt Schematic Drawing click to view larger image Schematic Drawing of a Cavern in Bedded Salt Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created by a process called solution mining. Well drilling equipment is used to drill a hole

77

Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet) Alan Robock­October for 141 stations from fields with either winter or spring cereals from the Ukraine for 1958­2002. We-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet), Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

Robock, Alan

78

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Iodized Salt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iodized Salt Iodized Salt Name: Theresa Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why do they put iodine in salt? Replies: Iodine was introduced into salt at earlier this century when it was discovered that certain areas of the US had a mark deficiency in iodine in the diet of people, and people developed a neck swelling (goiter). The Great Lakes region is one of these areas where the soil is lacking iodine. Goiter can be caused when the thyroid gland swells because of a lack of iodine in the diet. Most medical advise now states that iodine in salt is no longer necessary due to our food sources arising from all over the world. Steve Sample Hi Theresa...see, there are a variety of elements and compounds that are necessary for the proper maintenance of our life. One of these is iodine, since a small quantity of iodine is needed for the adequate functioning of the thyroid gland. A deficiency of iodine produces dire effects, as goiter, where the thyroid gland swollens due to the lack of iodine traces in the diet. The iodine affects directly the tyrhoid gland secretions, which themselves, to a great extent, control heart action, nerve response to stimuli, rate of body growth and metabolism.

80

Relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (R-NMRI) of desiccation in M9787 silicone pads.  

SciTech Connect

The production and aging of silicone materials remains an important issue in the weapons stockpile due to their utilization in a wide variety of components and systems within the stockpile. Changes in the physical characteristics of silicone materials due to long term desiccation has been identified as one of the major aging effects observed in silicone pad components. Here we report relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (R-NMRI) spectroscopy characterization of the silica-filled and unfilled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polydiphenylsiloxane (PDPS) copolymer (M9787) silicone pads within desiccating environments. These studies were directed at providing additional details about the heterogeneity of the desiccation process. Uniform NMR spin-spin relaxation time (T2) images were observed across the pad thickness indicating that the drying process is approximately uniform, and that the desiccation of the M9787 silicone pad is not a H2O diffusion limited process. In a P2O5 desiccation environment, significant reduction of T2 was observed for the silica-filled and unfilled M9787 silicone pad for desiccation up to 225 days. A very small reduction in T2 was observed for the unfilled copolymer between 225 and 487 days. The increase in relative stiffness with desiccation was found to be higher for the unfilled copolymer. These R-NMRI results are correlated to local changes in the modulus of the material

Alam, Todd M; Cherry, Brian Ray; Alam, Mary Kathleen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

82

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous homogeneous solution Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Liquids 6. Invited Contributions (a)Gordon Research... Salts Molten Salts Solid State :Ceramics Molten Salts Phys.Chem. Glasses Water & Aqueous Solutions... Liquids Solids...

83

Structural Evaluation and Solution Integrity of Alkali Metal Salt Complexes of the Manganese 12-Metallacrown-4 (12-MC-4) Structural Type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of crystalline salts (LiCl2)[12-MCMn(III)N(shi)-4]- ([(LiCl2),1]-), (Li(trifluoro- acetate))[12-MCMn(III)N(shi)-4:1 metal:metallacrown adducts with lithium and 2:1 metal:metallacrown complexes with sodium and potassium

Gibney, Brian R.

84

Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, And Caustic Wash Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 4 Operations  

SciTech Connect

Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) samples from several of the ?microbatches? of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (?Macrobatch?) 4 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES). Furthermore, samples from the CWT have been analyzed by a variety of methods to investigate a decline in the decontamination factor (DF) of the cesium observed at MCU. The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 3 samples indicate generally consistent operations. There is no indication of a disruption in plutonium and strontium removal. The average cesium DF and concentration factor (CF) for samples obtained from Macrobatch 4 are slightly lower than for Macrobatch 3, but still well within operating parameters. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in Actinide Removal Process (ARP).

Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

85

Demonstration and testing of an all-electric desiccant dehumidifying system at a New Jersey supermarket  

SciTech Connect

A novel all-electric desiccant dehumidifying system was demonstrated and evaluated at a supermarket field test site in New Jersey during 1995. Unlike traditional desiccant systems, this system uses waste heat from vapor-compression refrigerating condensers to regenerate a recently developed desiccant material. The 7,000-cfm (3,300-L/s) unit has a latent capacity of approximately 7 tons (25 kW), with fan energy as the only purchased energy source. This paper discusses the performance of the desiccant system under field conditions and its interactions with the refrigerating and conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Results indicate that the system is three to four times more efficient for moisture removal than a conventional HVAC system with no deleterious effects on refrigerating system operations.

Brandemuehl, M.J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Joint Center for Energy Management; Khattar, M.K. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development and modelling of a solar assisted liquid desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the development and simulation of an advanced solar assisted liquid desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for ... regenerator, and an array of flat plate solar collectors. The sys...

Aqeel Kareem Mohaisen; Zhenjun Ma

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Effects of chemical desiccation and early harvesting on Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seed germination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at two locations over two years in Texas. Objectives of these experiments were to study effects of chemical desiccation and seed maturity at harvest on sorghum seed germination. Sorghum plants were...

Gouveia, Sergio

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Improving Gas-Fired Heat Pump Capacity and Performance by Adding a Desiccant Dehumidification Subsystem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capacity 50%. Increased initial manufacturing costs are estimated at around $500/ton ($142/kW) for volume production. This cost Level is expected to reduce the total initial cost per ton compared to a system without the desiccant subsystem....

Parsons, B. K.; Pesaran, A. A.; Bharathan, D.; Shelpuk, B. C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

What`s new in building energy research - desiccant cooling program  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant cooling systems are energy efficient, cost effective, and environmentally safe. They are used as stand-alone systems or with conventional air-conditioning to improve the indoor air quality of all types of buildings. In these systems, a desiccant removes moisture from the air, which releases heat and increases the air temperature. The dry air is cooled using either evaporative cooling or the cooling coils of a conventional air conditioner. The absorbed moisture in the desiccant is then removed (the desiccant is regenerated, or brought back to its original dry state) using thermal energy supplied by natural gas, electricity, waste heat, or the sun. Commercially available desiccants include silica gel, activated alumina, natural and synthetic zeolites, lithium chloride, and synthetic polymers. Currently, desiccant cooling and dehumidification are being used successfully in industrial and some commercial applications. The Office of Building Technologies in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is working with industry to broaden the market for desiccant cooling so its full energy savings and indoor air quality improvement potential can be realized. The main goals of the Desiccant Cooling Program are to (1) Reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 5 million tons (4.5 million metric tons) annually by 2005 and 18 million tons (16.3 million metric tons) annually by 2010. (2) Reduce energy consumption by 0.1 quad (105.5 petajoules) annually by 2005 and 0.3 quad (316.5 petajoules) annually by 2010. (3) Capture 5% of the air-conditioning market by 2005 and 15% by 2010.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the diameter and depth of the wheel, face flow velocity, rotational speed and other operating conditions. Bulk et al. [11] proposed NTU correlations for design calculation of latent and total effectiveness of enthalpy wheels coated with silica gel..., Wr Te1,We1 Space Fig.2. Passive desiccant system Enthalpy wheels normally use an aluminum substrate coated with a molecular sieve material or silica gel. The effectiveness of an enthalpy wheel depends on the load of desiccant materials...

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications  

SciTech Connect

Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Salt-assistant combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline Nd{sub 2}(Zr{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) solid solutions  

SciTech Connect

Nanocrystalline Nd{sub 2}(Zr{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} series solid solutions were prepared by a convenient salt-assisted combustion process using glycine as fuel. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed the Zr ion can be partially replaced by Sn ion. The partial substituted products were still single-phase solid solutions and the crystal form remained unchanged. TEM images reveal that the products are composed of well-dispersed square-shaped nanocrystals. The method provides a convenient and low-cost route for the synthesis of nanostructures of oxide materials.

Tong Yuping, E-mail: huabeitong@yahoo.cn [School of Civil Engineering and Communication, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Wang Yanping [College of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Retrofitting of Conditioning Systems for Existing Small Commercial Buildings - Analysis and Design of Liquid Desiccant - Vapor Compression Hybrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RETROFITTING OF CONDITIONINC SYSTEMS FOR EXISTING SMALL COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS - ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF LIQUID DESICCANT - VAPOR COMPRESSION HYBRID Ozer A. Arnas Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton... is combined with air heated passively in an attic to regenerate the desiccant. A prototype open-cycle, liquid desiccant dehumidification system has been adapted to the existing mechanical system of the building (Figure 1). Guidelines for retrofitting...

Arnas, O. A.; McQueen, T. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on the Morphogenesis of the Edible Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbial Ecology Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on...flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation...Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). RESULTS Effects of UV-B...regardless of 0.1 W m2 UV-B radiation (Fig. 3a). Furthermore...

Yan-Na Feng; Zhong-Chun Zhang; Jun-Li Feng; Bao-Sheng Qiu

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

96

Energy consumption and optimization of internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: A case study in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose.

Ronghui Qi; Lin Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Alan Robock of Maryland, College Park 4 Ukrainian Research Institute for Environment and Resources, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine Submitted to Geophysical Research

Robock, Alan

98

Application of a solar desiccant/collector system for water recovery from atmospheric air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integrated desiccant/solar collector system for production of fresh water from atmospheric air is described. The solar driven system provided about 1.5 l of fresh water per square meter per day. The system involves the absorption of water vapor from ambient air during the night and simultaneous desiccant regeneration and water vapor condensation during the day. To enhance the mass transfer surface, a thick corrugated layer of cloth was used as a bed to carry the liquid absorbent. In the nocturnal phase of operation, air is allowed to penetrate the desiccant bed. The airflow is driven by fans supported on one side of the desiccant/solar collector unit. In this study, the effects of different parameters on the absorption and regeneration processes are discussed, and operational conditions for the proposed equipment evaluated. Radiation intensity, ambient temperature, bed temperature and temperature of the glass surface were recorded. Also, the productivity of the system during the day and under the given operation conditions was plotted. A mathematical model was prepared and its output compared with the analyzed experimental data.

H.E Gad; A.M Hamed; I.I El-Sharkawy

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

Miyashita, Yasushi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

102

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

103

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

104

Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: $ g(Beg~ 'i:1. ;, "?i C. F. K ttleborough (Chair of Committee) W. He n t (Member), H. Juvka -Wold (Member) G. P. Peterson (Head of Department...) May 1995 Major Subject. Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Simulation and Study of Thermal Performance of Liquid Desiccant Cooling Cycle Configurations. (May 1995) Rajesh Dhir, B. S. , Poona University, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. F...

Dhir, Rajesh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

105

Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)  

SciTech Connect

Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Area Salt Wells Geothermal Area (Redirected from Salt Wells Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Salt Wells Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Future Plans 5 Exploration History 6 Well Field Description 7 Research and Development Activities 8 Technical Problems and Solutions 9 Geology of the Area 9.1 Regional Setting 9.2 Stratigraphy 9.3 Structure 10 Hydrothermal System 11 Heat Source 12 Geofluid Geochemistry 13 NEPA-Related Analyses (9) 14 Exploration Activities (28) 15 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the list of possible values (Phase I - Resource Procurement and Identification, Phase II - Resource Exploration and Confirmation, Phase III - Permitting and Initial Development, Phase IV - Resource Production and Power Plant Construction) for this property.

107

Design, Installation, and Field Verification of Integrated Active Desiccant Hybrid Rooftop Systems Combined with a Natural Gas Driven Cogeneration Package, 2008  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Report summary of a research/demonstration project involving a custom 230 kW cogeneration package with four integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) systems

108

Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Ancient Salt Beds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

North Carolina School of Medicine. In examining fluid inclusions in the salt and solid halite crystals, scientists found abundant cellulose microfibers, estimated to be 250 million...

110

Inside Sea Salt | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sea salt particles are emitted into the atmosphere by the action of ocean waves and bubble bursting at the ocean surface. They are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment....

111

Mineral Salt: A Source of Costly Energy?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...required to pump salt water into a solution cavity...the flow of cooling water of a conventional or...con-siderable preliminary treatment. Os-motic flow through...process of in-verse electrodialysis, only the ions pass...nor extensive pre-treatment of the fluids (1...

W. GARY WILLIAMS

1979-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

112

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

- ranged from 450C to 585C M easurement frequency: salt chemistry - 200 hours off-gas composition - 12 hours Innovat ive Technology Solut ions f or Sustainability ABENGOA...

113

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Analysis of solar desiccant cooling system for an institutional building in subtropical Queensland, Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Institutional buildings contain different types of functional spaces which require different types of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In addition, institutional buildings should be designed to maintain an optimal indoor comfort condition with minimal energy consumption and minimal negative environmental impact. Recently there has been a significant interest in implementing desiccant cooling technologies within institutional buildings. Solar desiccant cooling systems are reliable in performance, environmentally friendly and capable of improving indoor air quality at a lower cost. In this study, a solar desiccant cooling system for an institutional building in subtropical Queensland (Australia) is assessed using TRNSYS 16 software. This system has been designed and installed at the Rockhampton campus of Central Queensland University. The system's technical performance, economic analysis, energy savings, and avoided gas emission are quantified in reference to a conventional HVAC system under the influence of Rockhampton's typical meteorological year. The technical and economic parameters that are used to assess the system's viability are: coefficient of performance (COP), solar fraction, life cycle analysis, payback period, present worth factor and the avoided gas emission. Results showed that, the installed cooling system at Central Queensland University which consists of 10 m2 of solar collectors and a 0.400 m3 of hot water storage tank, achieved a 0.7 COP and 22% of solar fraction during the cooling season. These values can be boosted to 1.2 COP and 69% respectively if 20 m2 of evacuated tube collector's area and 1.5 m3 of solar hot water storage volume are installed.

Ali M. Baniyounes; Gang Liu; M.G. Rasul; M.M.K. Khan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Field development of a desiccant-based space-conditioning system for supermarket applications. Final report, February 1982-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

The benefits associated with the use of gas-regenerated desiccant dehumidifiers in conjunction with electric-vapor-compression sensible cooling to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were evaluated. Data collected at two field installations were used for the assessment, in addition to the results of a computer program developed by Thermo Electron to simulate the loads and equipment performance in a supermarket. Both conventional humidity-level operation (47% relative humidity at 75F) and reduced store humidity level operation were evaluated for the desiccant-based system. Reductions in food refrigeration-system electric consumption with reduced store humidities were experimentally verified at both field sites. The use of desiccant dehumidifier hybrid space-conditioning systems produced operating cost savings over all electric vapor-compression systems in climates of moderate and high humidities.

Cohen, B.M.; Manley, D.L.; Arora, R.; Levine, A.H.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

EnergySolutions Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84101 Sector: Services Product: Utah-based international nuclear services company that provides services and solutions to the nuclear industry....

117

Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended.

Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Batterythermal stability of the neat LiPF 6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF 6 in prototypical Li-ion battery

Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Salt Waste Processing Initiatives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patricia Suggs Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives 2 Overview * Current SRS Liquid Waste System status * Opportunity to accelerate salt processing - transformational technologies - Rotary Microfiltration (RMF) and Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) - Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (ARP/MCU) extension with next generation extractant - Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) performance enhancement - Saltstone enhancements * Life-cycle impacts and benefits 3 SRS Liquid Waste Total Volume >37 Million Gallons (Mgal) Total Curies 183 MCi (51% ) 175 MCi (49% ) >358 Million Curies (MCi) Sludge 34.3 Mgal (92% ) 3.0 Mgal (8%)

120

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Salt Selected (FINAL)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WHY SALT WAS SELECTED AS A DISPOSAL MEDIUM WHY SALT WAS SELECTED AS A DISPOSAL MEDIUM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant U.S. Department Of Energy Government officials and scientists chose the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site through a selection process that started in the 1950s. At that time, the National Academy of Sciences conducted a nationwide search for geological formations stable enough to contain radioactive wastes for thousands of years. In 1955, after extensive

122

A Dash of Salt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tx H2O | pg. 18 A Texas A&M researcher is assessing the impact of using moderately saline water for irrigating urban landscapes in West Texas and southern New Mexico. A DASH OF SALT Researcher assesses salinity impacts on grasses, trees... and shrubs A Dash of Salt Story by Danielle Supercinski { } tx H2O | pg. 19 ?The primary purpose of using moderately saline water for irrigation, including reclaimed water, is to conserve potable [drinkable] water,? said Dr. Seiichi Miyamoto, a...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Area Salt Wells Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Salt Wells Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Future Plans 5 Exploration History 6 Well Field Description 7 Research and Development Activities 8 Technical Problems and Solutions 9 Geology of the Area 9.1 Regional Setting 9.2 Stratigraphy 9.3 Structure 10 Hydrothermal System 11 Heat Source 12 Geofluid Geochemistry 13 NEPA-Related Analyses (9) 14 Exploration Activities (28) 15 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the list of possible values (Phase I - Resource Procurement and Identification, Phase II - Resource Exploration and Confirmation, Phase III - Permitting and Initial Development, Phase IV - Resource Production and Power Plant Construction) for this property.

124

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Water Research 38 (2004) 33313339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Research 38 (2004) 3331­3339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting out associated with transferring solutes from water to a salt solution to the difference in surface tensions likely reflects the inability of the simple surface tension model to account for all interactions among

Herbert, Bruce

128

Fundamental Desiccants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. such as carbon-dioxide, and impuritics, such as dust, pollen, viruses, hydrocarbon emissions and other "rare" gases, such as radon. These impurities can and do become major health risks when they exceed quantified limits. WHAT SHOULD AIR CONDITIONING... for traditional HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems. Control air impurity level required for health and/or process requirements Dust. pollen, bacteria, viruses and radon gas are naturally occurring impurities in the air we breath. Air may...

Krebs, M. E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Salt Creek Student Homepage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Salt Creek Investigation Salt Creek Investigation</2> "Whales Dying in the Pacific Ocean" "Fish Dying in Lake Michigan" Recent headlines remind us of environmental problems near and far away. Scientists have been wondering if these problems could be due to the warmer temperatures this past spring and summer or could there be other reasons? Lack of rain and near drought conditions have forced many areas to restrict water use. We know from past history that pollution affects our drinking water and marine life. Remember what we read about Lake Erie and from reading A River Ran Wild by Lynne Cherry. There are many factors affecting the environment around us . . . even in Salt Creek which runs through our area. We may not be able to investigate the Pacific Ocean and Lake Michigan

130

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Zero Carryover A Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications Preprint A. Lowenstein AIL Research, Inc. S. Slayzak and E. Kozubal National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at ASME International Solar Energy Conference (ISEC2006) Denver, Colorado July 8-13, 2006 Conference Paper NREL/CP-550-39798 July 2006 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

131

Ammoniated salt heat pump  

SciTech Connect

A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat.

Haas, W.R.; Jaeger, F.J.; Giordano, T.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Salt Creek Scenario  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scenario Scenario HELP Index Summary Scenario References Student Pages Two branches of Salt Creek run through the city of Rolling Meadows, Illinois, not far from our school. Five members of our team of eighth grade teachers from different subject areas (science, language arts, bilingual education and special education), decided to develop an interdisciplinary study of Salt Creek as a way of giving our students authentic experiences in environmental studies. The unit begins when students enter school in August, running through the third week of September, and resuming for three weeks in October. Extension activities based on using the data gathered at the creek continue throughout the school year, culminating in a presentation at a city council meeting in the spring.

133

Summary - Salt Waste Processing Facility Design at the Savannah River Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Salt Waste Processing Facility ETR Report Date: November 2006 ETR-4 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Salt Waste Processing Facility Design at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is intended to remove and concentrate the radioactive strontium (Sr), actinides, and cesium (Cs) from the bulk salt waste solutions in the SRS high-level waste tanks. The sludge and strip effluent from the SWPF that contain concentrated Sr, actinide, and Cs wastes will be sent to the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), where they will be vitrified. The decontaminated salt solution (DSS) that is left after removal of the highly

134

salt lake city.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Locations of the Salt Lake City Processing and Disposal Sites Locations of the Salt Lake City Processing and Disposal Sites This fact sheet provides information about the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 Title I processing site and disposal site at Salt Lake City, Utah. These sites are managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Salt Lake City, Utah, Processing and Disposal Sites Site Descriptions and History Regulatory Setting The former Salt Lake City processing site is located about 4 miles south-southwest of the center of Salt Lake City, Utah, at 3300 South and Interstate 15. The Vitro Chemical Company processed uranium and vanadium ore at the site from 1951 until 1968. Milling operations conducted at the processing site created radioactive tailings, a predominantly sandy material.

135

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

136

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

137

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

138

Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B. Wong, and Michael D. Fayer*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Dynamics in Divalent and Monovalent Concentrated Salt Solutions Chiara H. Giammanco, Daryl B, United States ABSTRACT: Water hydrogen bond dynamics in concentrated salt solutions are studied using causes a shift in absorption frequency relative to that of the OD stretch absorption in bulk pure water

Fayer, Michael D.

139

Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms  

Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

REVIEW SHEET 3 (1) A tank contains 100 gallon of salt water which ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solution of 2lbs of salt per gallon enters the tank at a rate of 3 gallons per minute while a flow of fresh water runs into the tank at a rate of 5 gallons per minute.

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department of Energy...

142

Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

EIS-0082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River Site,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River 082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina EIS-0082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina SUMMARY This SEIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of alternatives for separating the high-activity fraction from the low-activity fraction of the high-level radioactive waste salt solutions now stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The high-activity fraction of the high-level waste (HLW) salt solution would then be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and stored until it could be disposed of as HLW in a geologic repository. The low activity fraction would be disposed of as low-level waste (saltstone)

144

Math 315 Exam #3 Solutions in Brief 1. (20 points) Two tanks contain 10 liters of water each. Initially tank  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Math 315 Exam #3 Solutions in Brief 1. (20 points) Two tanks contain 10 liters of water each. Initially tank 1 contains no salt and tank 2 contains 246 grams of salt. Water con- taining 50 grams of salt per liter is added to tank 1 at the rate 2 liters/minute. Water containing no salt is added to tank 2

145

1-Dodecane-sulfonic-acid-sodium-salt(LAS) assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S solid solution as efficient photocatalysts under visible light irradiation  

SciTech Connect

With anionic surfactant LAS assisted, series of zinc cadmium sulfide semiconductor photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method. These products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis absorption spectra (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The photocatalytic activities of as-prepared samples were evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible-light irradiation. The best synthesis parameters are: Composition 0.9:0.1 (Cd:Zn molar ratio), Temperature 160 deg. C, Hydrothermal Time 48 Hour, LAS Concentration 1.7 mmol/L, the maximum visible-light-catalytic hydrogen production rate is 161.25 {mu}mol/h (lambda>430 nm) which is higher than those of by coprecipitation method. The experiment results indicate that surfactant assisted hydrothermal method is an effective way to get highly active CdZnS solid solution photocatalyst.

Jia, B.; Guo, L. J. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University (China)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Solvent wash solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

Neace, J.C.

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

147

Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.

Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

149

Energy and economic performance analysis of an open cycle solar desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for application in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, a transient simulation model and the EnergyPlus were used to study the energy performance and economical feasibility for integrating a solar liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a conventional vapor compression air-conditioning system for the weather condition of Hong Kong. The vapor compression system capacity in the solar assisted air-conditioning system can be reduced to 19 kW from original 28 kW of a conventional air-conditioning system as a case study due to the solar desiccant cooling. The economical performance of the solar desiccant dehumidification system is compared with that of the conventional air-conditioning system. The results show that the energy saving potentials due to incorporation of the solar desiccant dehumidification system in a traditional air-conditioning system is significant for the hot wet weather in Hong Kong due to higher COP resulted from higher supply chilled water temperature from chiller plants. The annual operation energy savings for the hybrid system is 6760 kWh and the payback period of the hybrid system is around 7 years. The study shows that the solar assisted air-conditioning is a viable technology for utilizations in subtropical areas.

Yutong Li; Lin Lu; Hongxing Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Freshwater fish in salt water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freshwater fish in salt water Freshwater fish in salt water Name: Shannon Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What would actually happen if a fresh water fish had to live in salt water? Replies: For most fish, they would die. But some, like eels and salmon, can move freely between the two at certain stages of their lives. To do this they have special mechanisms of excretion and absorption of salt and water. --ProfBill If you put a freshwater fish into saltwater, most fish would lose weight (from losing water from its body) and eventually die. Approximately 2% of all 21000 species of fish actually move from freshwater to saltwater or from salt to fresh at some point in their lives, the move would kill any other fish. But even with these special varieties of fish, the move must be gradual so their bodies can adjust, or they too, will die from the change. If you want to learn more about why the freshwater fish will lose water, (or why a saltwater fish in freshwater would gain water), look up the words "diffusion" and "osmosis"

152

Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

MODELING OF A NOVEL SOLUTION POTASH MINING PROCESS Sergio Almada, Harvey Haugen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by drilling followed by a number of steps to develop a solution mining cavern. Water is injected to dissolve a sump area within the salt at the base of the solution mining cavern. The sump allows insoluble materials settle within the cavern to avoid affecting the solution mining process and the dissolved salt can

154

Why Sequence Great Salt Lake?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Great Salt Lake? Great Salt Lake? On average, the Great Salt Lake is four times saltier than the ocean and also has heavy metals, high concentrations of sulfur and petroleum seeps. In spite of all this, the lake is the saltiest body of water to support life. The lake hosts brine shrimp, algae and a diverse array of microbes, not to mention the roughly 5 million birds that migrate there annually. The secret to these microbes' ability to survive under such harsh conditions might be revealed in their genes. Researchers expect the genetic data will provide insight into how the microorganisms tolerate pollutants such as sulfur and detoxify pollutants such as sulfur and heavy metals like mercury. The information could then be used to develop bioremediation techniques. Researchers also expect that sequencing microorganisms sampled

155

EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories December 14, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Participants in the workshops in Germany toured Asse II, one of Germany’s two salt-based repositories, to gain insights into that facility’s technical challenges and proposed solutions. Pictured, left to right, are an Asse II employee, Bernhard Kienzler of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, CBFO Chief Scientist Roger Nelson, CBFO International Programs Manager Dr. Abraham Van Luik, and Andrew Wolfsberg, Acting Deputy Division Leader for Earth and Environmental Sciences at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Participants in the workshops in Germany toured Asse II, one of Germany's two salt-based repositories, to gain insights into that facility's

156

Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Water Policy Program

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Field development of a desiccant-based space-conditioning system for supermarket applications. Annual report, February 1982-January 1983  

SciTech Connect

The use of gas-regenerated desiccant dehumidification systems to provide space-conditioning for supermarkets was investigated. A silica gel-based dehumidification system and related components were installed in a Jewel supermarket as an adjunct to the conventional vapor-compression air-conditioning system. Instrumentation was installed to monitor this hybrid system and to allow performance comparisons with the conventional vapor-compression system operating alone. Data collected were used to develop load models for the building and to correlate indoor and ambient conditions to the energy consumption by the air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. The expected reduction in refrigeration energy consumption with decreasing store humidities was verified. The load models were used in conjunction with system characteristics to obtain cooling season cost projections for both systems operating under different conditions. Initial estimates indicate that payback periods of the hybrid system could be under 1 year.

Cohen, B.M.; Levine, A.H.; Arora, R.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous nitrate solutions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 23 Evaluation for Biological Reduction of Nitrate and Perchlorate in Brine Water Using Summary: in high salt solution. One culture was capable of reducing up...

159

Salt Lake Community College | .EDUconnections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SLCC Partners with DOE's Rocky Mountain Solar Training Program This program is a joint partnership between DOE's Solar Energy Technogies Program, Salt Lake Community College, Solar Energy International, and the Utah Solar Energy Association that works to accelerate use of solar electric technologies, training and facilities at community and technical college solar training programs within a 15 western United States region. DOE Solar Instructor Training Network Salt Lake City, Utah DOE Applauds SLCC's Science and Technical Programs Architectural Technology Biology Biotechnology Biomanufacturing Chemistry Computer Science Electric Sector Training Energy Management Engineering Geographic Information Sciences Geosciences InnovaBio Manufacturing & Mechanical Engineering Technology

160

Salt dome discoveries mounting in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

Exploratory drilling around piercement salt domes in Mississippi has met with a string of successes in recent months. Exploration of these salt features is reported to have been initiated through the review of non-proprietary, 2D seismic data and subsurface control. This preliminary data and work were then selectively upgraded by the acquisition of additional, generally higher quality, conventional 2D seismic lines. This current flurry of successful exploration and ensuing development drilling by Amerada Hess Corp. on the flanks of salt domes in Mississippi has resulted in a number of significant Hosston discoveries/producers at: Carson salt dome in Jefferson Davis County; Dry Creek salt dome in Covington County, Midway salt dome in lamar County, Monticello salt dome in Lawrence County, and Prentiss salt dome in Jefferson Davis County. The resulting production from these fields is gas and condensate, with wells being completed on 640 acre production units.

Ericksen, R.L. [Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (United States)

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Evaporation-driven growth of large crystallized salt structures in a porous medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subflorescence refers to crystallized salt structures that form inside a porous medium. We report a drying experiment revealing major development of subflorescence in the dry region of the porous medium away from the liquid zone. Using a combination of image analyses and numerical computations, we show that the growth is directly correlated to the evaporation flux distribution along the boundary of the growing salt structure. This indicates that the salt is transported into the domain occupied by the salt structure in the porous medium up to the structure periphery, where salt deposition takes place. This is confirmed when a growing salt structure encounters dry subflorescence formed earlier during the drying process. The dry subflorescence is reimbibed and resumes its growth. The analysis also suggests that the solution within the growing subflorescence is in equilibrium with the crystallized salt wall. These results shed light on the growth mechanisms of subflorescence, a phenomenon that can play a fundamental role in several important issues such as carbon dioxide sequestration or salt weathering.

N. Sghaier; S. Geoffroy; M. Prat; H. Eloukabi; S. Ben Nasrallah

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

162

Charge Density Effects in Salt-Free Polyelectrolyte Solution Rheology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 2-vinyl pyridine and N-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium chloride random copolymers in ethylene glycol of 2-vinyl pyridine and N- methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium chloride (PMVP-Cl) of any charge density was studied over wide ranges of con- centration and effective charge. The fraction of quaternized monomers

Colby, Ralph H.

163

Location of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......understanding of the mechanisms governing such a geohazard and to test the potential of geophysical methods to prevent them, the development...source seismology|Earthquake dynamics|Seismic monitoring and test-ban treaty verification|Earthquake interaction, forecasting......

J. Kinscher; P. Bernard; I. Contrucci; A. Mangeney; J.P. Piguet; P. Bigarre

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soils R. L. Oshrain W. J. Wiebe...Arylsulfatase Activity in Salt Marsh Soilst R. L. OSHRAIN: AND W...Gallagher, J. L., R. J. Reimold, and D...Remote sensing and salt marsh productivity, p. 338-348...

R. L. Oshrain; W. J. Wiebe

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The economics of salt cake recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Simple Method for Killing Halophilic Bacteria in Contaminated Solar Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...growth and also to sterilize solar salt. Two samples of solar salt, contaminated with red...it had a much lower buffering capacity than the used salt, presumably...economical method of freeing solar salt from halophilic bacteria...

D. J. Kushner; G. Masson; N. E. Gibbons

1965-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Radar investigation of the Hockley salt dome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Geophysics RADAR INVESTIGATION OF THE HOCKLEY SALT DOME A Thesis by UAMES ANDREW HLUCHANEK A'pproved as to style and content by: (Head of Departme t ? Member) May 1. 973 ABSTRACT Radar investigation of the Hockley Salt Dome. . (Nay, 1973) James... Andrew Hluchanek, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Robert R. Unterberger Radar probing through salt was accomplished at 17 radar stations established in the United Salt Company mine at Hockley, Texas. The top of the salt dom is mapped...

Hluchanek, James Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993  

SciTech Connect

This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI) Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI) will utilize a newly mined Underground Research Lab (URL) in WIPP to perform a cost effective, proof-of-principle field test of the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste and validate modeling efforts. The goals of the SDDI Thermal Test are to: * Demonstrate a proof-of-principle concept for in-drift disposal in salt. * Investigate, in a specific emplacement concept, the response of the salt to heat. * Develop a full-scale response for run-of- mine (ROM) salt. * Develop a validated coupled process model for disposal of heat-generating wastes in salt. * Evaluate the environmental conditions of the

170

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

SciTech Connect

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

171

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Salt River Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The mission of Salt River Project's (SRP) Electric Vehicle Initiative is to encourage greater use of clean energy transportation. Under this program, SRP's headquarters received two Level 2...

172

Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt test loop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Partnership, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Engineering AREVA and Sandia began operations of their molten salt...

173

Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

Frank Hansen; Till Popp; Klaus Wieczorek; Dieter Stührenberg

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Disparities in Salt Lake County and Salt Lake City Mortgage Outcomes and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

who applied for Salt Lake County properties selected West Valley. · As the overall application volume). · Over 54 percent of all Salt Lake County mortgage applications from 2006 to 2011 were for homes in West Valley, unincorporated areas, West Jordan, and Salt Lake City. For Hispanic/Latino applicants

Feschotte, Cedric

175

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Efficient and Regioselective Halogenations of 2-Amino-1,3-thiazoles with Copper Salts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient and Regioselective Halogenations of 2-Amino-1,3-thiazoles with Copper Salts Fabrice G. Halogenations proceed easily in the presence of copper(I) or copper(II) chlorides, bromides, or iodides directly in solution or with supported copper halides. 1,3-Thiazole rings appear in many compounds that exhibit

Shen, Jun

177

Molten Salt Oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) can be characterized as a simple noncombustion process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes including chemical warfare agents, combustible solids, halogenated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, plutonium-contaminated solids, uranium-contaminated solvents and fission product-contaminated oil. The MSO destruction efficiency of the hazardous organic constituents in the wastes exceeds 99.9999%. Radioactive species, such as actinides and rare earth fission products, are retained in the salt bath. These elements can be recovered from the spent salt using conventional chemical processes, such as ion exchange, to render the salt as nonradioactive and nonhazardous. This paper reviews the principles and capabilities of MSO, previous mixed waste studies, and a new US Department of Energy program to demonstrate the process for the treatment of mixed wastes.

Gay, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Newman, C. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover  

SciTech Connect

A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

179

Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Abstract No abstract available. Author Bureau of Land Management Published U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada, 09/14/2009 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Citation Bureau of Land Management. Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) [Internet]. 09/14/2009. Carson City, NV. U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management,

180

Solar Policy Environment: Salt Lake  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The overall objective of the “Solar Salt Lake” (SSL) team is to develop a fully-scoped city and county-level implementation plan that will facilitate at least an additional ten megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the government, commercial, industrial, and residential sectors by 2015. To achieve this aggressive goal, the program strategy includes a combination of barrier identification, research, and policy analysis that utilizes the input of various stakeholders. Coupled with these activities will be the development and implementation of pilot installations in the government and residential sectors, and broad outreach to builders and potential practitioners of solar energy products in the process. In this way, while creating mechanisms to enable a demand for solar, SSL will also facilitate capacity building for suppliers, thereby helping to ensure long-term sustainability for the regional market.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant February 5, 2014 March 2014 Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Haul Truck Fire at the...

182

Sandia National Laboratories: Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David Gill, ddgill@sandia.gov, (505)-844-1524. Tagged with: Concentrating Solar Power * CSP * Molten Salt * molten salt test loop * National Solar Thermal Test Facility * NSTTF *...

183

Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt energy storage demonstration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

molten salt energy storage demonstration Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power,...

184

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

185

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar...

186

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tatum Salt Dome Test Site...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Tatum Salt Dome Test Site - MS 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Tatum Salt Dome Test Site (MS.01) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site...

187

Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

salt receiver A distributed molten salt transport system Hybridization with natural gas or biofuels. Publications, Patents, and Awards J. E. Pacheco, C. Moursund, D. Rogers;...

188

Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power...

189

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes...

190

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt...

191

Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics...

192

Category:Salt Lake City, UT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UT UT Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Salt Lake City, UT" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVFullServiceRestauran... 57 KB SVHospital Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVHospital Salt Lake C... 57 KB SVLargeHotel Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVLargeHotel Salt Lake... 55 KB SVLargeOffice Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVLargeOffice Salt Lak... 57 KB SVMediumOffice Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png SVMediumOffice Salt La... 62 KB SVMidriseApartment Salt Lake City UT Moon Lake Electric Assn Inc (Utah).png

193

Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Acoustic probing of salt using sonar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACOUSTIC PROBING OF SALT USING SONAR A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN BUTLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Oecember 1977 Major Subject...: Geophysics ACOUSTIC PROBING OF SALT USING SONAR A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN BUTLER Approved as to style and content by: C airman of Com ttee ea of e r nt em er ember December 1977 ABSTRACT Acoustic Probing of Salt Using Sonar. (December 1977...

Butler, Kenneth Bryan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

195

Application of inorganic aluminum salts to intensification of the clarification of cinder and oil-containing waste water  

SciTech Connect

The effects of inorganic coagulants together with polyacrylamide (PAA) were tested in waste water containing oil and finely dispersed cinder. It has been established that concentrated solutions of aluminum salts have the maximal clarification efficiency (82%). It has been shown that the residual alkali content of water is higher when concentrated (20%) solutions of aluminum salts are used than in the case of the use of dilute (1%) solutions. The expediency of the use of aluminum salts for the treatment of waste water with a low initial alkalinity (below 1.0 meq/liter) has been established. It has been established that aluminum sulfate is maximally effective when the alkali content of the water being purified is less than 1.8 or greater than 4.5 meq/liter.

Shub, V.B.; Khukhryanskaya, I.A.

1987-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Molten Salt Batteries and Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter describes recent work on batteries and fuel cells using molten salt electrolytes. This entails a comparison with other batteries and fuel cells utilizing aqueous and organic electrolytes; for...(1,2)

D. A. J. Swinkels

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Determining Salt Tolerance Among Sunflower Genotypes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crop lands around the world are becoming more salt-affected due to natural processes and agricultural practices. Due to this increase of salinization, acquisition of saline tolerant germplasm for breeding purposes is becoming a priority. Although...

Masor, Laura Lee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ERIME .-- - --- - -- BULLETIN NO. izz. June, 1909. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATE ON RICE, LAPS, Che Postoffice College Station, 1 --- Texas. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S I'ATIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. and M... is Col- lege Station, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent upon application to the Director. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. . ...... By G. S. FRAPS. At some of the rice farms located near the coast, the amount of water lxml~etl is sometimes...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1909-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation. This salt has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol % of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO.sub.2 -balanced composition of 90 mol %, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C. making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C. and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, Kien-yin (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Microsoft PowerPoint - S08-05_Leishear_Salt Disposition Initiative.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blending in Nuclear Waste Tanks Blending in Nuclear Waste Tanks Bob Leishear Savannah River Remediation Salt Disposition Engineering November 17, 2010 Print Close 2 Blending in Nuclear Waste Tanks Volume 37.1 Million Gallons (Mgal) Curies 183 MCi (52%) 169 MCi (48%) 352 Million Curies (MCi) 171 MCi (49%) Sludge 34.2 Mgal (92%) 2.9 Mgal (8%) 18.4 Mgal (49%) Salt Supernate 12 MCi (3%) Saltcake 15.8 Mgal (43%) Print Close 3 Blending in Nuclear Waste Tanks Sample of Vitrified Radioactive Glass Print Close 4 Blending in Nuclear Waste Tanks SDU 3 SDU 3 SDU 2 SDU 2 SDU (Vault) 4 SDU (Vault) 4 SDU (Vault) 1 SDU (Vault) 1 Cell A Cell B Saltstone Production Facility Saltstone Production Facility Print Close 5 Blending in Nuclear Waste Tanks Print Close 6 Blending in Nuclear Waste Tanks Sludge Salt Feed Solutions Print Close 7 Experimental Strategy Scale-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins  

SciTech Connect

Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Oxidation and stabilization of hydrocarbon fuels in contact with rock salt  

SciTech Connect

Underground storage is the most ecologically clean and economical method for extended storage of natural gas, crude oil, and petroleum products. Such storage reservoirs are created in stable rock (granites, gneisses, limestone, etc.), rock salt deposits, clays, abandoned mines, and permafrost formations. In this investigation of the influence of rock salt deposits on the oxidation of hydrocarbons (summer-grade straight-run diesel fuel L and automotive gasoline A-76 [unleaded, low-octane]), the authors carried out a kinetic study of hydroperoxide accumulation during the oxidation of these fuels after contact with a saturated solution of rock salt (brine). The experiments were performed in a bubbler-type unit with various ratios of brine to fuel.

Klinaeva, E.V.; Golubeva, I.A.; Tolstykh, L.I. [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives November 14, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. The crushed salt is used as a supplement in cattle feed. Since the salt from WIPP has been mined from the middle of a large salt formation, its quality is high, according to Magnum Minerals.

204

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports Conservation Education, Other Public Initiatives November 14, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Approximately 1.8 million tons of salt have been mined out of the underground at WIPP. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. Proceeds from the WIPP salt allowed hundreds of southeast New Mexico students to learn about resource conservation. The crushed salt is used as a supplement in cattle feed. Since the salt from WIPP has been mined from the middle of a large salt formation, its quality is high, according to Magnum Minerals.

205

Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was previously known the liquidus temperature of the molten salt would change as spent fuel is processed through the Mk-IV electrorefiner. However, the extent of the increase in liquidus temperature was not known. This work is first of its kind in determining thermodynamic properties of a molten salt electrolyte containing transuranics, fission products and bond sodium. Experimental data concluded that the melting temperature of the electrolyte will become greater than the operating temperature of the Mk-IV ER during current fuel processing campaigns. Collected data also helps predict when the molten salt electrolyte will no longer be able to support electrorefining operations.

Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a particularly large advantage near the...of the glass. The thermal transition characteristics...the minimal surface area to the vapor phase...release relatively large amounts of water...Here, wetting frequency is of importance...indicates that extremely large and negative values...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...recombinant gene products represent an energy demand that can induce higher death rates...brown- ing) reaction. It seems that the energy changes involved in the loss of cell viability...consider these alternatives. The free energy of stabilization of globular proteins...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...until dry, under a vapor phase of controlled humidity...Immobilization of cells on dry sand or dry paper has been...Effect of sucrose on phase behavior of membranes intact pollen...leakage are linked with phase transitions of mem- brane...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rehydration is a very rapid onset of cellular metabolism in conjunction with a stepwise and stringent...stringent fashion, to resume integrated metabolism (and all that it means) upon rehydration...that the curtailment of respiratory metabolism prior to rehydration may be essential...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...worldwide are unwittingly in the business of distributing samples of...gene products represent an energy demand that can induce higher...reaction. It seems that the energy changes involved in the loss...these alternatives. The free energy of stabilization of globular...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mirror those described for other natural and synthetic glass-forming...they are stored under an inert gas phase (64, 291). What is...sugars zones. The simplest natural representative is trehalose...information on the positioning of natural chro- mophores or artificially...

M Potts

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} relevant to salt cake processing  

SciTech Connect

One waste product in recycling of Al is salt cake, a mixture of Al, salts, and residue oxides. Several methods have been proposed to recycle salt cake, one involving high-temperature leaching of salts from the salt cake. The salt composition can be approximated as a mixture predominantly of NaCl and KCl salts, with lesser amounts of Mg chloride. In order to better assess the feasibility of recycling salt cake, an experimental study was conducted of phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} at pressure (P), temperature (T), and composition conditions appropriate for high- temperature salt cake recycling. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of small amounts (2-10 wt%) of MgCl{sub 2} on solubilities of halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl) in saturated solutions (30-50 wt% NaCl+KCl; NaCl:KCl = 1:1 and 3:1) at elevated P and T.

Bodnar, R.J.; Vityk, M.O. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States)] [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Hryn, J.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mavrogenes, J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)] [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Organic matter in the Paleogene west European rift: Bresse and Valence salt basins (France)  

SciTech Connect

The Bresse and Valence basins are two adjacent segments of the West European rift. They contain thick Paleogene halite sequences including intercalated and interfingering siliciclastic material and carbonate and sulfate deposits. Source rock samples in this study were mainly taken from the depocenters because of maximum sampling coverage. Organic matter (OM) is generally immature and occurs primarily within intercalated nonhalitic beds. The Bresse basin seems to contain more OM in (1) the Intermediate Salt Formation (Priabonian), composed of alternating laminated carbonate and halite beds; (2) the upper part of the Upper Salt Formation (clayey carbonate beds; Rupelian), affected by synsedimentary halite solution; and (3) the solution breccia which immediate overlies the salt sequence. In the Valence basin, the organic-rich layers are concentrated in the Subsalt Formation (carbonate beds; Priabonian), and the upper part of the Lower Salt Formation (laminates; Rupelian). In both basins, type III organic matter is associated with terrigenous facies. Type I is abundant in the Valence basin (laminites), and type II seems to be more abundant in the Bresse basin. The amount of OM varies considerably, and we suppose it is higher toward the basin margins. From studies made in evaporite basins in other region, which are also known to have significant amounts of organic matter, we find a similar range of organic composition. Such studies are of interest because of their petroleum potential and for understanding precise depositional environments and waste disposal problems (gas generation with local heat source).

Curial, A.; Dumas, D.; Moretto, R.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

Schultz, K.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol% of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO/sub 2/-balanced composition of 90 mol%, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, K.; Coburn, M.D.

1984-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

217

Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

218

Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation ...

Bathe, Mark

219

Multi-parameter monitoring of a solution mining cavern collapse: first insight of precursors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-parameter monitoring of a solution mining cavern collapse: first insight of precursors leveling; early warning system; environmental safety; salt cavern; near-surface geophysics. Mots clés

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Salt Wells Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Geothermal Project Salt Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Salt Wells Geothermal Project Project Location Information Coordinates 39.580833333333°, -118.33444444444° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.580833333333,"lon":-118.33444444444,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Geology of Damon Mound Salt Dome, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Geological investigation of the stratigraphy, cap-rock characteristics, deformation and growth history, and growth rate of a shallow coastal diapir. Damon Mound salt dome, located in Brazoria County, has salt less than 600 feet and cap rock less than 100 feet below the surface; a quarry over the dome provides excellent exposures of cap rock as well as overlying Oligocene to Pleistocene strata. These conditions make it ideal as a case study for other coastal diapirs that lack bedrock exposures. Such investigations are important because salt domes are currently being considered by chemical waste disposal companies as possible storage and disposal sites. In this book, the author reviews previous research, presents additional data on the subsurface and surface geology at Damon Mound, and evaluates Oligocene to post-Pleistocene diapir growth.

Collins, E.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Molten nitrate salt technology development status report  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options  

SciTech Connect

During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Control of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening This publication on soluble salts is dedicated to Dr. Paul Lyerl!. Resident Director of Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at El Paso. From his arrival at the Center in 1942 until his... 23 23 26 27 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 7- :.- 31 32 33 33 34 SUMMARY INTRODUCTION SOLUBLE SALTS IN WATERS AND SOILS Where Salts Come From Kinds and Amounts of Salt How Salt Problems Develop Definition of Terms...

Longenecker, D. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Salt Industry at Sterling, Kansas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Exhaust stean of the engine plant is ad- mitted to the first evaporator and warms the "brine, then passes to the second and warns it lesD and condenses, causing a partial vacuum in the first where the brine then boils violent- ly. The vapor thus... and is condensed by a jet condenser, whereupon the third boils. Each evaporator has its own electric prop- eller stirrers and its own electric elevator to remove the salt. Nearly all the handling is done by electric conveyors until the salt is discharged...

Horner, Robert Messenger

1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER... of Agriculture. ****In cooperation with the School of Agriculture. SYNOPSIS Rice farmers sometimes have trouble with salt in the water used for irrigation. Varying conditions, such as character of soil, amount of water already on the land, stage of growth...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Interactions of Cl? and OH Radical in Aqueous Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a considerable controversy surrounding the nature of the Cl?/OH complex in aqueous solution, which appears as a byproduct of the irradiation of salt solutions in nuclear reactor operation, radioactive waste storage, medicine, and environmental problems. ... A similar process in the interfacial environment has been implicated in the production of molecular chlorine from sea salt aerosol, which ultimately could lead to enhanced ozone levels in the marine boundary layer. ... (2, 3) A detailed understanding of this reaction is hindered by uncertainty regarding the nature of the complex between OH and Cl? in aqueous environments. ...

Marat Valiev; Raffaella D’Auria; Douglas J. Tobias; Bruce C. Garrett

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

228

State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technical Assistance Technical Assistance Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions to someone by E-mail Share State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Facebook Tweet about State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Twitter Bookmark State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Google Bookmark State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Delicious Rank State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on Digg Find More places to share State and Local Solution Center: Financing Solutions on AddThis.com... Strategic Energy Planning Energy Policies & Programs Financing Financing Overview Financing Program Market Segments Energy Data Management Energy Technologies

229

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

230

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MSDS ___Special training provided by the department/supervisor ___Review of the OSHA Lab Standard ___Review of the departmental safety manual ___Review of the Chemical Hygiene Plan ___Safety meetings12.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected) Location

Pawlowski, Wojtek

231

Solar with a Grain of Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...zone, and a bot-tom storage zone. The upper zone...electricity. Hot water is pumped out of the bottom zone...sequentially on the top of the storage zone. Howard C. Bryant...leached salts to the storage zone. One way to do...says French, but the seawater itself is turbid and...

THOMAS H. MAUGH II

1982-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

232

NOVEL GRAPHITE SALTS OF HIGH OXIDIZING POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hr volatiles none AsFS AsFS > CF4 AsFS AsFS AsFS C13.l AsF 6C16.l AsF 6 C24.3AsF6·l/2 F2 > CF4> CF4 > CF4 Table VI-7. Graphite hexafluoroarsenate salts +

McCarron III, Eugene Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Salt repository project closeout status report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

NONE

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Adsorption, encapsulated solute leakage and microflow of giant vesicles during anhydrobiotic preservation in trehalose solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inspired by the variety of organisms that are naturally desiccation tolerant, anhydrobiotic preservation potentially furnishes a means of processing and storing mammalian cells in a state of "suspended animation" at ambient ...

Adams, Dana R. (Dana Renée)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published Online Nevada Encyclopedia, 2009 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat Citation Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology. Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat [Internet]. 2009. Online Nevada Encyclopedia. [updated 2009/03/24;cited 2013/08/07]. Available from: http://www.onlinenevada.org/articles/salt-wells-eight-mile-flat Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Salt Wells Geothermal Area

236

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

237

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

238

Sandia National Laboratories: New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyNew Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries Sandia Tool...

239

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

240

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars, site tours, presentations, and written correspondence.

Barnett, Kimberly

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Interactions among Plant Species and Microorganisms in Salt Marsh Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a New England salt marsh. Ecology 72: 138-148...L. Melville, and R. L. Peterson. 1994...Broome, and S. R. Shafer. 1993...mycorrhizae in salt marshes in North Carolina...a New England salt marsh. J. Ecol. 86: 285-292. 30 Linderman, R. G. 1988. Mycorrhizal...

David J. Burke; Erik P. Hamerlynck; Dittmar Hahn

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Self-potential monitoring of a salt plume  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...salt-migration process. By this we...salt-migration process needs to be much...salt migration process is relatively...written as a MATLAB routine. The...The numerical simulation was used to compute...gradient in the chemical potential of...digitaledition.pdf .. Fournier...

P. Martínez-Pagán; A. Jardani; A. Revil; A. Haas

245

Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

246

Occurrence of gypsum in Gulf coast salt domes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Occurrence of gypsum in Gulf coast salt domes Barton Donald Clinton...OF GYPSUM IN THE GULF COAST SALT DOMES. Sir: On accountof thepaucityof...concerningtheoccurrenceof gypsumandanhydriteon the salt domes. The followingremarksmay...5o-footsill of saltat 3,350feetat Palangana,possiblyalsoStrattonRidge...

Donald Clinton Barton

247

Structural restoration of Louann Salt and overlying sediments, De Soto Canyon Salt Basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is suited for seismic stratigraphic analysis and salt tectonism analysis. Jurassic strata include the Louann Salt on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Destin Dome OCS area...

Guo, Mengdong

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

Flow, Salts, and Trace Elements in the Rio Grande: A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

must then focus on either in- creasing salt removal, minimizing salt inflow into the Rio Grande, or reducing evaporative losses of water, which concentrate salts. Although techniques to remove salts such as reverse os- mosis and electrodialysis exist...

Miyamoto, S.; Fenn, L. B.; Swietlik, D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics of the Alaminos Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

morphology, salt structure, and suprasalt sediments indicate the majority of the slope is covered by a shallow salt canopy. The salt structure map indicates that the Alaminos Canyon study area represents a transition from a semi-continuous salt sheet...

Mechler, Suzanne Marie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

Enrichment and Association of Bacteria and Particulates in Salt Marsh Surface Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto salt marsh...Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto salt marsh...Sippewissett salt marsh, Falmouth, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto salt marsh...largely attributed to intense solar radiation. There have been...

R. W. Harvey; L. Y. Young

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Salt River Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Ventilation Heat Pumps Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies by technology Provider Salt River Electric Cooperative Salt River Electric serves as the rural electric provider in Kentucky's Bullitt, Nelson, Spencer, and Washington counties. Residential customers are eligible for a variety of cash incentives for energy efficiency. The Touchstone Energy Home Program provides a rebate of up to $250 to customers

252

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Salt River Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Project Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Salt River Project Place Tempe, Arizona Utility Id 16572 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] SGIC[2] Energy Information Administration Form 826[3] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Salt River Project Smart Grid Project was awarded $56,859,359 Recovery Act Funding with a total project value of $114,003,719.

254

Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Due to activitiy of the Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, volcanic intrusion and westward movement of the Anatolian plate, diapiric salt structures were occurred in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) basin in central Anatolia, Turkey. With the collisions of the Arabian and Anatolian plates during the late Cretaceous and Miocene times, prominent ophiolitic

255

WIPP Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members WIPP Shares Expertise with Salt Club Members November 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Carlsbad Field Office’s Abe Van Luik, third from right, examines rock salt taken from the Morsleben mine in Germany. Carlsbad Field Office's Abe Van Luik, third from right, examines rock salt taken from the Morsleben mine in Germany. CARLSBAD, N.M. - EM's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) participated in the second meeting of the Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA) Salt Club and the 4th U.S.-German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design & Operation in Berlin. CBFO, which has responsibility for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the National Transuranic (TRU) Program, was represented by International Programs and Policy Advisor Dr. Abe Van Luik.

256

Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone April 29, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Robert Brown, SRR tank farm operator, performs daily inspections of a salt disposition process facility. The inspections and improvement upgrades have resulted in continued successful operations. Robert Brown, SRR tank farm operator, performs daily inspections of a salt disposition process facility. The inspections and improvement upgrades have resulted in continued successful operations. AIKEN, S.C. - The liquid waste cleanup contractor for the EM program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) recently surpassed a 2013 contract milestone by processing more than 600,000 gallons of salt waste. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) salt disposition process facilities

257

Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF)  

Sandia has developed a heat transfer fluid (HTF) for use at elevated temperatures that has a lower freezing point than any molten salt mixture available commercially. This allows the HTF to be used in applications in which the expensive parasitic energy costs necessary for freeze protection can be significantly reduced. The higher operating temperature limit significantly increases power cycle efficiency and overall power plan sun-to-net electric efficiency....

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

258

Unravelling the Structure of Magnus’ Pink Salt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two classic examples of colorful Pt complexes featuring metallophilic interactions are Magnus’ salts, which have a long history of eluding structural characterization. ... The complete 14N WURST-CPMG and BRAIN-CP/WURST-CPMG NMR spectra were generated by mirroring the low-frequency (right) portion of the powder pattern about ? = 0 ppm, as described previously. ... The microscope was equipped with a 32× Schwarzschild objective and a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride detector. ...

Bryan E. G. Lucier; Karen E. Johnston; Wenqian Xu; Jonathan C. Hanson; Sanjaya D. Senanayake; Siyu Yao; Megan W. Bourassa; Monika Srebro; Jochen Autschbach; Robert W. Schurko

2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

259

Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Salt Lake County Residential Solar Financing Study  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

As part of our engagement with the National Renewable Energy Laboratories conducting the Salt Lake County Solar America Residential Finance Study, we have drafted this report summarizing the tools and mechanisms available for residential solar projects. These include the financial incentives available, possible financing models that could be used in the County, and a review of the community-scale solar project in St. George, Utah. We have also provided cost estimates for each system.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

262

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

263

Chemistry and mechanism of molten-salt catalysts in coal-gasification processes. Final report, January 1984-January 1985  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal salts have been recognized as effective catalysts in coal gasification. However, the presence of reducing gases, in particular carbon monoxide, has recently been shown to have serious inhibitory effects on the catalyst performance. This program has addressed the question of the chemical interactions between carbon monoxide gas containing mixtures and the salt catalysts in liquid form by probing the solution chemistry by dynamic electrochemical techniques. The results of this study show that oxalate ions are formed by the reaction between carbonate ions and carbon monoxide gas. At temperatures above 700/sup 0/C, sulfate ions are directly attacked by carbon monoxide. The oxalate ions are electroactive and their electrochemistry has been studied and found to involve adsorption of oxalate and formation of reactive intermediates. The pathway likely involves an ECE sequence. The formation of active adsorbed species such as oxalate or sulfides at high temperature may be the means by which catalytic function of the salts is inhibited.

White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A hypothesis concerning the distribution of salt and salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A IIYPO'rklESIS CO/iCI, RI~ IG TktE DISTRIIoUTIO l OE SALT I'D cAET STRU TURES Rci TIIE GU:I 0= VEXICO A Thesis by JOIIN 'O'OODYJ ORTII A ?TOINE Subrnitte. ' to th, Graouate CoU~ Se Texas A i~. '4 University in partial fv~t'Ub~s "u o I... the reouirernent 'or th ~ cl . . gree o', ' i%I A S T E R 0 E S C IF. U C E ivla y 1 9 I 6 Mr jo? Subject: Geolnsical Oceanography A HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING THE DISTRIBUTION OF SALT AND SALT STRUCTURES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by JOHN WOODWORTH ANTOINE...

Antoine, John Woodworth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Simplified Solution For Gas Flow During a Blow-out in an H2 or Air Storage Cavern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and hydrogen storage in salt caverns. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is experiencing a rise in interest-form solutions of the blow-out problem. These solutions are applied to the cases of compressed air storageA Simplified Solution For Gas Flow During a Blow-out in an H2 or Air Storage Cavern Pierre Bérest

Boyer, Edmond

266

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Destruction of XM-46 (aka LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction Process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant XM-46 (or LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. The current methods of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), propellants and wastes containing energetic materials by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD), or by incineration, are becoming undesirable. LLNL is developing MSD as an alternative to OB/OD and incineration of energetic materials. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of XM-46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, show that: XM-46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration. Under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the XM-46 is converted to NO{sub x}, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO. There exist, however, a number of technical uncertainties: We need to understand better why nitrates build up in the salt bath, and what we can do to reduce this amount. We need to understand the mechanism of XM-46 oxidation and ways to minimize the formation of CO and NO{sub x}. In addition, we would like to find out ways by which a more concentrated solution of XM-46 can be introduced into the reactor, so as to increase the throughputs.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50¢/kWhe , which achieved the Phase 2 Go/No Go target of less than 0.12¢/kWhe. Abengoa Solar has high confidence that the primary risk areas have been addressed in the project and a commercial plant utilizing molten salt is economically and technically feasible. The strong results from the Phase 1 and 2 research, testing, and analyses, summarized in this report, led Abengoa Solar to recommend that the project proceed to Phase 3. However, a commercially viable collector interconnection was not fully validated by the end of Phase 2, combined with the uncertainty in the federal budget, forced the DOE and Abengoa Solar to close the project. Thus the resources required to construct and operate a molten salt pilot plant will be solely supplied by Abengoa Solar.

Grogan, Dylan C. P.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an independent assessment of nuclear safety culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Project. The primary objective of the evaluation was to provide information regarding the status of the safety culture at the SWPF Project. The data collection phase of the assessment occurred during August - September 2012. Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility Project -

270

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Decades' worth of transuranic waste from Los Alamos is being laid to rest at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico March 25, 2013 Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Depending on the impurities embedded within it, the salt from WIPP can be anything from a reddish, relatively opaque rock to a clear crystal like the one shown here. Ordinary salt effectively seals transuranic waste in a long-term repository Transuranic waste, made of items such as lab coats and equipment that have been contaminated by radioactive elements heavier than uranium, is being shipped from the Los Alamos National Laboratory to a long-term storage

271

Salt tectonics, patterns of basin fill, and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect

Salt structures, which develop due to sediment loading, gravity creep, and/or buoyance, include boundary-fault grabens and half grabens, rollers, anticlines, domes and walls, diapirs, sills, massifs, and compressional toe structure. Associated features include fault systems and turtle structures. Of these, six directly relate to basin fill and all directly influence the distribution of reservoir facies. Salt structuring is initiated by sedimentation, which in turn is localized by salt withdrawal. Withdrawal produces individual salt structures, migrating sills, dissected massifs, and regional depocenters bordered by salt walls. Composite withdrawals dictate the patterns of basin fill. Relative rates of structural growth and sedimentation control the distribution of reservoir facies. When growth dominates, sands are channeled into lows. When sedimentation dominates and maintains flat surfaces, facies distribution is not impacted except where faulting develops. This paper presents techniques for using seismic data to determine the controls on salt structural growth and sedimentation and the patterns of basin fill and reservoir distribution.

Yorston, H.J.; Miles, A.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

Neal, J.T.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts  

SciTech Connect

This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Reavis, J.G.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Salt River Project electric vehicle program  

SciTech Connect

Electric vehicles (EV) promise to be a driving force in the future of America. The quest for cleaner air and efforts to trim the nation's appetite for foreign oil are among the reasons why. America's EV future is rapidly approaching, with major automakers targeting EV mass production and sales before the end of the decade. This article describes the Salt River Project (SRP), a leader among electric utilities involved in EV research and development (R and D). R and D efforts are underway to plan and prepare for a significant number of EVs in SRP's service territory and to understand the associated recharging requirements for EVs.

Morrow, K.P.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Hsu, P.C.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area (Redirected from Columbus Salt Marsh Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (3) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure

279

salt-water pumped-storage hydroelectric plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

salt-water pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, saltwater pumped-storage hydroelectric station, seawater pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, seawater pumped-storage hydroelectric station ? Salzwasser-...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - May 2013 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013 CRAD,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Sedimentation and resuspension in a New England salt marsh  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate matter in a salt marsh can undergo repeated sedimentation and resuspension. Sedimentation measured with sediment traps, increases ... suggests that sedimentation is more than offset by resuspension. Resuspension

Thomas E. Jordan; Ivan Valiela

1983-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

282

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

283

Project Profile: Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES), under the Thermal Storage FOA, created a composite thermal energy storage material by embedding nanoparticles in a molten salt base material.

284

Notice of Availability of Section 3116 Determination for Salt...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

in the SPA SEIS, short- term impacts are incurred during operation of the salt waste processing facilities, and long-term impacts are those resulting from release of...

285

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory April 15, 2013 | Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will combine...

286

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory Garcia-Diaz A 1152013:Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will...

287

Multispectral Imaging At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Columbus Salt Marsh Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Usefulness useful...

288

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Advanced Ceramic Materials and Packaging Technologies for Realizing Sensors for Concentrating Solar Power Systems...

289

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

290

THE PARTIAL EQUIVALENT VOLUMES OF SALTS IN SEAWATER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

of the major salts in seawater have been mcasurcd over the salinity ... model of seawater by considering seawater .... mained essentially constant during storage.

291

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

result in large volumes of excavated salt. Seeking an innovative alternative to landfill disposal, EM's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) reached an agreement with Magnum...

292

Sustainable Energy Source for Water Pumping at Puttalam Salt Limited.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The cost of grid based electrical and diesel sea water pumping to salt fields is one of the major cost components out of the… (more)

Kamaldeen, Mohammed Rizwan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR): Method and System to fully fission actinides for electric power production without fuel enrichment, fabrication, or reprocessing A method for...

294

Accelerating Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solutions From vehicles on the road to the energy that powers them, Oak Ridge National Laboratory innovations are advancing American transportation. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is making an impact on everyday America by enhancing transportation choices and quality of life. Through strong collaborative partnerships with industry, ORNL research and development efforts are helping accelerate the deployment of a new generation of energy efficient vehicles powered by domestic, renewable, clean energy. EPA ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel rule ORNL and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory co-led a comprehensive research and test program to determine the effects of diesel fuel sulfur on emissions and emission control (catalyst) technology. In the course of this program, involving

295

Excavation Damaged Zones In Rock Salt Formations  

SciTech Connect

Salt formations have long been proposed as potential host rocks for nuclear waste disposal. After the operational phase of a repository the openings, e.g., boreholes, galleries, and chambers, have to be sealed in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. For optimising the sealing techniques knowledge about the excavation damaged zones (EDZ) around these openings is essential. In the frame of a project performed between 2004 and 2007, investigations of the EDZ evolution were performed in the Stassfurt halite of the Asse salt mine in northern Germany. Three test locations were prepared in the floor of an almost 20 year old gallery on the 800-m level of the Asse mine: (1) the drift floor as existing, (2) the new drift floor shortly after removing of a layer of about 1 m thickness of the floor with a continuous miner, (3) the new drift floor 2 years after cutting off the 1-m layer. Subject of investigation were the diffusive and advective gas transport and the advective brine transport very close to the opening. Spreading of the brine was tracked by geo-electric monitoring in order to gain information about permeability anisotropy. Results obtained showed that EDZ cut-off is a useful method to improve sealing effectiveness when constructing technical barriers. (authors)

Jockwer, N.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Savannah River Site- Salt Waste Processing Facility: Briefing on the Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This is a presentation outlining the Salt Waste Processing Facility process, major risks, approach for conducting reviews, discussion of the findings, and conclusions.

297

From pre-salt sources to post-salt traps: A specific petroleum system in Congo coastal basin  

SciTech Connect

The Bas Congo basin extends from Gabon to Angola and is a prolific oil province where both pre-salt and post salt sources and reservoirs have been found. In the northern part of the basin referred to as the Congo coastal basin, the proven petroleum system is more specific: mature source rocks are found only in pre-salt series whereas by contrast 99 % proven hydrocarbon reserves am located in post-salt traps. Such a system is controlled by the following factors: Source rocks are mostly organic rich shales deposited in a restricted environment developed in a rift prior to the Atlantic Ocean opening; Migration from pre-salt sources to post-salt traps is finalized by local discontinuities of the regional salt layer acting otherwise as a tight seal; Post-salt reservoirs are either carbonates or sands desposited in the evolutive shelf margin developped during Upper Cretaceous; Geometric traps are linked to salt tectonics (mostly turtle-shaped structures); Regional shaly seals are related to transgressive shales best developped during high rise sea level time interval. Stratigraphically, the age of hydrocarbon fields trends are younger and younger from West to East: lower Albian in Nkossa, Upper Albian and lower Cenomanian in Likouala, Yanga, Sendji, Upper Cenomanian in Tchibouela, Turonian in Tchendo, Turanian and Senonian in Emeraude.

Vernet, R.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

Veil, J.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?  

SciTech Connect

Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

Veil, J.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Populations of Methanogenic Bacteria in a Georgia Salt Marsh  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...28. Oremland, R. S., L. M. Marsh, and S. Polcin...reduction in anoxic, salt marsh sediments. Nature...29. Oremland, R. S., and S. Polcin...Pomeroy, L. R., and R. G. Wiegert. 1981. The ecology of a salt marsh. Springer-Verlag...

Michael J. Franklin; William J. Wiebe; William B. Whitman

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous the interfacial water structure. These results suggest that the alkali salt grade even after pretreatment to many chemical, biochemical, and atmospheric processes.1-8 Particularly, Na+ and K+ , as the two most

304

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna* a Laboratoire de Physique or chlorides) have been taken in consideration very soon in nuclear energy production researches with solid fuels, liquid fuel in molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case

Boyer, Edmond

305

Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

1999-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

306

Brachybacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brachybacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood Seong-Kyu Park, Min salt-fermented seafood in Korea. The organism grew in 0­10 % (w/v) NaCl and at 25­37 6C, with optimal

Bae, Jin-Woo

307

Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt- fermented seafood Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1 salt-fermented seafood in Korea. It was a Gram- positive, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium-fermented seafood (`gajami-sikhae') from Korea. Following isolation on marine agar 2216 (MA, BBL) at 30 uC, a pure

Bae, Jin-Woo

308

Salt tectonics, patterns of basin fill, and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect

Salt structures, which develop due to sediment loading, gravity creep, and/or buoyancy, include boundary-fault grabens and half grabens, rollers, anticlines, domes and walls, diapirs, sills, massifs, and compressional toe structures. Associated features include fault systems and turtle structures. Of these, six directly relate to basin fill and all directly influence the distribution of reservoir facies. Salt structuring is initiated by sedimentation, which in turn is localized by salt withdrawal. Withdrawal produces individual salt structures, migrating sills, dissected massifs, and regional depocenters bordered by salt walls. Composite withdrawals dictate the patterns of basin fill. Relative rates of structural growth and sedimentation control the distribution of reservoir facies. When growth dominates, sands are channeled into lows. When sedimentation dominates and maintains flat surfaces, facies distribution is not impacted except where faulting develops. Turtle structures, developed by the inversion of peripheral synclines, can move sands into favorable structural position and/or serve as platforms for carbonate reservoir development. Salt growth varies with type structure, stage of development, and rate of sedimentation. Sedimentation at a specific location depends on basin position, sediment transport system, sea level stand, and rate of salt withdrawal. This paper presents techniques for using seismic data to determine the controls on salt structural growth and sedimentation and the patterns of basin fill and reservoir distribution.

Yorston, H.J.; Miles, A.E.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Process for separating and recovering an anionic dye from an aqueous solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid/liquid phase process for the separation and recovery of an anionic dye from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid phase comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the anionic dye molecules are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt. After contact between the aqueous solution and separation particles, the anionic dye is bound to the particles. The bound anionic dye molecules are freed from the separation particles by contacting the anionic dye-bound particles with an aqueous solution that does not contain a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved lyotropic salt to form an aqueous anionic dye solution whose anionic dye concentration is preferably higher than that of the initial dye-containing solution. 7 figs.

Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

310

Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

311

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savannah River Site Salt Waste Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 August 2013 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development. This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of the safety basis and design development for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site. The review was performed February 12-14, 2013 by DOE's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations, which is within the DOE Office of Health, Safety and Security. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the safety basis, design, and the associated technical documents developed for

312

BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project Abstract No abstract available. Author Bureau of Land Management Organization Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada Published U.S. Department of the Interior, 2011 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project Citation Bureau of Land Management (Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada). 2011. BLM Fact Sheet- Ormat Technologies Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Project. Carson City, Nevada: U.S. Department of the

313

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savannah River Site Salt Waste Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility - August 2013 August 2013 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development. This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of the safety basis and design development for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site. The review was performed February 12-14, 2013 by DOE's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations, which is within the DOE Office of Health, Safety and Security. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the safety basis, design, and the associated technical documents developed for

314

ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility General Information Name ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility Facility Salt Wells Geothermal Facility Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Churchill, NV Coordinates 39.651603422063°, -118.49778413773° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.651603422063,"lon":-118.49778413773,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

315

Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area (Montgomery, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area (Montgomery, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Area Exploration Technique Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics Activity Date 2004 - 2004 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis AMP Resource contracted Willowstick Technologies, LLC to conduct a Controlled Source-Frequency Domain Magnetics (CS-FDM) geophysical investigation at Salt Wells in order to characterize and delineate areas showing the greatest concentrations and highest temperatures of geothermal groundwater. The investigation also sought to map blind faults beneath the

316

Salt River Project SRP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SRP SRP Jump to: navigation, search Name Salt River Project (SRP) Place Tempe, Arizona Zip 85281-1298 Sector Biomass, Solar Product US utility which sources a percentage of its electricity from biomass plants. It is also involved in the solar power industry. Coordinates 33.42551°, -111.937419° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.42551,"lon":-111.937419,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

317

Salt and Light Water Purification System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The need for a proposed solution to help mitigate the world’s water crisis is presented. This need is not a new development in the 21st… (more)

Ewing, Emile

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Analysis of the Massive Salt Fall in Big Hill Cavern 103  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes recent reviews, observations, and analyses believed to be imperative to our understanding of the recent two million cubic feet salt fall event in Big Hill Cavern 103, one of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The fall was the result of one or more stress driven mechanical instabilities, the origins of which are discussed in the report. The work has lead to important conclusions concerning the engineering and operations of the caverns at Big Hill. Specifically, Big Hill, being the youngest SPR site, was subjected to state-of-the-art solutioning methods to develop nominally well-formed, right-circular cylindrical caverns. Examination of the pressure history records indicate that operationally all Big Hill SPR caverns have been treated similarly. Significantly, new three-dimensional (3-D) imaging methods, applied to old (original) and more recent sonar survey data, have provided much more detailed views of cavern walls, roofs, and floors. This has made possible documentation of the presence of localized deviations from ''smooth'' cylindrical cavern walls. These deviations are now recognized as isolated, linear and/or planar features in the original sonar data (circa early 1990s), which persist to the present time. These elements represent either sites of preferential leaching, localized spalling, or a combination of the two. Understanding the precise origin of these phenomena remains a challenge, especially considering, in a historical sense, the domal salt at Big Hill was believed to be well-characterized. However, significant inhomogeneities in the domal salt that may imply abnormalities in leaching were not noted. Indeed, any inhomogeneities were judged inconsequential to the solution-engineering methods at the time, and, by the same token, to the approaches to modeling the rock mass geomechanical response. The rock mass was treated as isotropic and homogeneous, which in retrospect, appears to have been an over simplification. This analysis shows there are possible new opportunities regarding completing an appropriate site characterization for existing operating cavern fields in the SPR, as well as expansion of current sites or development of new sites. Such characterization should first be consistent with needs identified by this report. Secondly, the characterization needs to satisfy the input requirements of the 3-D solutioning calculational methods being developed, together with 3-D geomechanical analyses techniques which address deformation of a salt rock mass that contains inhomogeneities. It seems apparent that focusing on these important areas could preclude occurrence of unexpected events that would adversely impact the operations of SPR.

MUNSON, DARRELL E.; BAUER, STEPHEN J.; RAUTMAN, CHRISTOPHER A.; EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SATTLER, ALLAN R.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - australian sea salt Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Early salt tectonic processes and depositional systems in the Summary: -Permian Salt Basin, Southern North Sea Supervisors: Jrgen Adam (RHUL), Chris Elders (RHUL) Project...

320

Evolution in salt: Genomic and structural approaches to halophilic archaea and their viruses.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Extremely saline environments include salt lakes, evaporation ponds, and terrestrial environments, such as salt deserts and underground halite deposits. They are inhabited by halophilic microbes… (more)

Jaakkola, Salla

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoid salt induced Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with Salt Ions: An Electrostatic Theory for the Hofmeister Effect Summary: , an image charge is induced and a repulsive interaction between the salt ion and its image...

322

Elucidation of Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Zoysia matrella Cultivars: A Study of Structure and Function of Salt Glands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Salt glands are important structural adaptations in some plant and animal species that are involved in the excretion of excess salts. Zoysia matrella is a highly salt tolerant turf grass that has salt glands. Two cultivars of Z. matrella, ‘Diamond...

Rao, Sheetal

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

323

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

SciTech Connect

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

324

Flash Photolysis Studies of Roussin's Black Salt Anion:? Fe4S3(NO)7-  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California 93106-9510, and Integrated Spectroscopy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ... Flash photolysis studies of Roussin's black salt anion, Fe4S3(NO)7-, (RBS) revealed two separate intermediates, X and Y, both of which react with NO with second order kinetics (kNOX = 1.3 × 107 M-1 s-1; kNOY = 7.0 × 105 M-1 s-1 in aqueous solution) to reform the parent complex. ... After 24 h, the spectrum no longer changed and was analogous to that of the original RBS solution, but with all bands shifted ?60 cm-1 to lower energy. ...

James Bourassa; Brian Lee; Stefan Bernard; Jon Schoonover; Peter C. Ford

1999-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

325

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.  

SciTech Connect

Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

Gourishankar, K. V.

1998-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

327

Using Encapsulated Phase Change Salts for Concentrated Solar Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Storing thermal energy as latent heat of fusion in phase change material (PCM), such as inorganic salt mixtures, can improve the energy density by as much as 50% while reducing the cost by over 40%. However, to discharge stored energy from PCMs, which has low thermal conductivity, requires a large heat transfer area which drives up the cost. Fortunately, salts encapsulated into small capsules can provide high specific surface area thus alleviating this problem. However, a technical barrier with encapsulating salts is that when it is produced, a void must be created inside the shell to allow for expansion of salt when it is heated above its melting point to 550 °C. Terrafore's method to economically create this void consists of using a sacrificial polymer which is coated as the middle layer between the salt prill and the shell material. The polymer is selected such that it decomposes much below the melting point of salt to gas leaving a void in the capsule. Salts with different melting points are encapsulated using the same recipe and contained in a packed bed consisting of salts with progressively higher melting points from bottom to top of the tank. This container serves as a cascaded energy storage medium to store heat transferred from the sensible heat energy collected in solar collectors. Mathematical models indicate that over 90% of salt in the capsules undergo phase change improving energy density by over 50% from a sensible-only thermal storage. Another advantage of this method is that it requires only a single tank as opposed to the two-tanks used in a sensible heat storage, thereby reducing the cost from a nominal $27 per kWht to $16 per kWht and coming close to the SunShot goal for thermal storage of $15 per kWht.

A. Mathur; R. Kasetty; J Oxley; J Mendez; K. Nithyanandam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA. Application of RF for cesium removal in the Hanford WTP does not involve in-riser columns but does utilize the resin in large scale column configurations in a waste treatment facility. The basic conceptual design for SCIX involves the dissolution of saltcake in SRS Tanks 1-3 to give approximately 6 M sodium solutions and the treatment of these solutions for cesium removal using one or two columns supported within a high level waste tank. Prior to ion exchange treatment, the solutions will be filtered for removal of entrained solids. In addition to Tanks 1-3, solutions in two other tanks (37 and 41) will require treatment for cesium removal in the SCIX unit. The previous SCIX design (McCabe, 2005) utilized CST for cesium removal with downflow supernate processing and included a CST grinder following cesium loading. Grinding of CST was necessary to make the cesium-loaded material suitable for vitrification in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Because RF resin is elutable (and reusable) and processing requires conversion between sodium and hydrogen forms using caustic and acidic solutions more liquid processing steps are involved. The WTP baseline process involves a series of caustic and acidic solutions (downflow processing) with water washes between pH transitions across neutral. In addition, due to resin swelling during conversion from hydrogen to sodium form an upflow caustic regeneration step is required. Presumably, one of these basic processes (or some variation) will be utilized for MSP for the appropriate ion exchange technology selected. CST processing involves two primary waste products: loaded CST and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). RF processing involves three primary waste products: spent RF resin, DSS, and acidic cesium eluate, although the resin is reusable and typically does not require replacement until completion of multiple treatment cycles. CST processing requires grinding of the ion exchange media, handling of solids with high cesium loading, and handling of liquid wash and conditioning solutions. RF processing requires h

King, W

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

329

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

330

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fracturing around excavations in salt at the WIPP  

SciTech Connect

Salt is a plastic material when subjected to high confining pressures. However, salt can behave in a brittle manner with the development of fracturing when subject to deviatoric stresses and low confining pressures. Field data demonstrating brittle behavior have been collected and evaluated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This facility is being developed to prove technology for the safe emplacement and storage of transuranic nuclear wastes in deep excavations in salt. Studies using visual, instrumentation and geophysical techniques have been carried out in the underground facility to identify and characterize the types of fractures that develop around openings. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Cook, R.F. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (USA). Waste Isolation Div.); Roggenthen, W.M. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Molten salts in nuclear science and technology: a scientometric perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper attempts to highlight quantitatively and qualitatively the growth and development of world literature on molten salts in terms of publication output as per INIS database (1972-2011). The objective of the study was to perform a scientometric analysis of all research publications on molten salts in the world. The parameters studied include year-wise growth of publications, country-wise distribution of publications, activity index of top countries, highly productive institutes, language-wise distribution of publications, distribution of publications as per document type, highly preferred journals and identification of highly cited publications on molten salts.

Ganesh Surwase; Lalit Mohan; B. S. Kademani; K. Bhanumurthy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect

As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario resulted in the delivery of radionuclidecontaminated brine to the surface, where a portion was diverted to culinary salt for direct ingestion by the existing population. Consequence analyses indicated calculated human doses that would be highly deleterious. Additional analyses indicated that doses well above background would occur from such a scenario t even if it occurred a million years into the future. The way to preclude such an intrusion is for continued control over the repository sitet either through direct institutional control or through the effective passive transfer of information. A secondary aspect of the specific human intrusion scenario involved a breach through the side of the salt dome t through which radionuclides migrated via the ground-water system to the accessible environment. This provided a demonstration of the geotransport methodology that AEGIS can use in actual site evaluations, as well as the WRIT program's capabilities with respect to defining the source term and retardation rates of the radionuclides in the repository. This reference site analysis was initially published as a Working Document in December 1979. That version was distributed for a formal peer review by individuals and organizations not involved in its development. The present report represents a revisiont based in part on the responses received from the external reviewers. Summaries of the comments from the reviewers and responses to these comments by the AEGIS staff are presented. The exercise of the AEGIS methodology was successful in demonstrating the methodologyt and thus t in providing a basis for substantive peer review, in terms of further development of the AEGIS site-applications capability and in terms of providing insight into the potential for consequential human intrusion into a salt dome repository.

Harwell,, M. A.; Brandstetter,, A.; Benson,, G. L.; Bradley,, D. J.; Serne,, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole,, C. R.; Deutsch,, W. J.; Gupta,, S. K.; Harwell,, C. C.; Napier,, B. A.; Reisenauer,, A. E.; Prater,, L. S.; Simmons,, C. S.; Strenge,, D. L.; Washburn,, J. F.; Zellmer,, J. T.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect

As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario resulted in the delivery of radionuclidecontaminated brine to the surface, where a portion was diverted to culinary salt for direct ingestion by the existing population. Consequence analyses indicated calculated human doses that would be highly deleterious. Additional analyses indicated that doses well above background would occur from such a scenario t even if it occurred a million years into the future. The way to preclude such an intrusion is for continued control over the repository sitet either through direct institutional control or through the effective passive transfer of information. A secondary aspect of the specific human intrusion scenario involved a breach through the side of the salt dome t through which radionuclides migrated via the ground-water system to the accessible environment. This provided a demonstration of the geotransport methodology that AEGIS can use in actual site evaluations, as well as the WRIT program's capabilities with respect to defining the source term and retardation rates of the radionuclides in the repository. This reference site analysis was initially published as a Working Document in December 1979. That version was distributed for a formal peer review by individuals and organizations not involved in its development. The present report represents a revisiont based in part on the responses received from the external reviewers. Summaries of the comments from the reviewers and responses to these comments by the AEGIS staff are presented. The exercise of the AEGIS methodology was sUGcessful in demonstrating the methodologyt and thus t in providing a basis for substantive peer review, in terms of further development of the AEGIS site-applications capability and in terms of providing insight into the potential for consequential human intrusion into a salt dome repository.

Harwell,, M. A.; Brandstetter,, A.; Benson,, G. L.; Raymond,, J. R.; Brandley,, D. J.; Serne,, R. J.; Soldat,, J. K.; Cole,, C. R.; Deutsch,, W. J.; Gupta,, S. K.; Harwell,, C. C.; Napier,, B. A.; Reisenauer,, A. E.; Prater,, L. S.; Simmons,, C. S.; Strenge,, D. L.; Washburn,, J. F.; Zellmer,, J. T.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Salt Effect Model for Aqueous Solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-Dodecane-Nitric Acid-Water Biphasic System at 298.2 K  

SciTech Connect

The solubilities of nonelectrolytes in aqueous electrolyte solutions have traditionally been modeled by using the Setschenow equation for salt effect. The aqueous solubility of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) during operating conditions of the Purex process is an important parameter for safety considerations. Use of the Setschenow equation for aqueous solubility of TBP under limited conditions has been reported in the literature. However, there is no general model available to account for the presence of the diluent and for the case of multicomponent electrolyte solutions in which only some electrolytes are solvated and extracted by TBP. An extended salt effect model is proposed for predicting the aqueous solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-dodecane-nitric acid-water biphasic system at 298.2 K. The literature data on TBP solubility were correlated to aqueous acid concentration, diluent concentration in the solvents, and an interaction parameter for electrolytic solutes (extracted or not extracted by TBP)

Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, Sudhir Babu [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (India)

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850��������C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys���¢�������� weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in t

Kumar Sridharan; Mark Anderson; Todd Allen; Michael Corradini

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

337

Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research May 20, 2013 - 12:52pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC - The U.S. Department of Energy recently joined with the U.S. Embassy in Prague and the Czech Republic's Ministry of Industry and Trade to complete the transfer of 75 kilograms of fluoride salt from the Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Czech Nuclear Research Institute Řež for experiments at Řež's critical test facility. This partnership builds on a strong history of U.S.-Czech energy collaboration and follows President Obama's speech in Prague in April 2009, where he laid out the importance of international

338

Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration Abstract Surface indicators of geothermal activity are often present above blind or concealed geothermal systems in the Great Basin, but their expressions are sometimes subtle. When mapped in detail, these indicators yield valuable information on the location, structural controls, and potential subsurface reservoir temperatures of geothermal fluids. An example is provided by the Salt Wells geothermal system in Churchill County, Nevada, USA, where

339

BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Projects Energy Projects Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Colleen Sievers Published U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada, 09/28/2011 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Citation Colleen Sievers. BLM Approves Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects [Internet]. 09/28/2011. Carson City, NV. U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada. [updated 2011/09/28;cited 2013/08/21]. Available from: http://www.blm.gov/nv/st/en/fo/carson_city_field/blm_information/newsroom/2011/september/blm_approves_salt.html

340

Magnetotellurics At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Magnetotellurics At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Magnetotellurics Activity Date 2008 - 2008 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Vulcan increased exploration efforts in the summer and fall of 2008, during which time the company drilled two temperature gradient holes (86-15 O on Pad 1 and 17-16 O on Pad 3); conducted seismic, gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; and drilled deep exploration wells at Pads 6 and 8 and binary wells at Pads 1, 2, 4, and 7. Notes Data from these wells is proprietary, and so were unavailable for inclusion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Bureau of Land Management Published U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City Field Office, Nevada, 07/22/2011 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement Citation Bureau of Land Management. Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement [Internet]. 07/22/2011. Carson City, NV. U.S. Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management, Carson City

342

DOE Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site DOE Issues Salt Waste Determination for the Savannah River Site January 18, 2006 - 10:49am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued the waste determination for the treatment and stabilization of low activity salt-waste at the Savannah River Site allowing for significant reductions in environmental and health risks posed by the material. Stored in forty-nine underground tanks, approximately 36 million gallons of radioactive waste is left over from plutonium production during the Cold War. In addition, the department issued an amended Record of Decision and Implementation Plan to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. "Today's announcement clears the way for the removal and treatment of this

343

Salt River Project Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt River Project Smart Grid Project Salt River Project Smart Grid Project Jump to: navigation, search Project Lead Salt River Project Country United States Headquarters Location Tempe, Arizona Recovery Act Funding $56,859,359.00 Total Project Value $114,003,719.00 Coverage Area Coverage Map: Salt River Project Smart Grid Project Coordinates 33.414768°, -111.9093095° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

344

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Penn Salt Manufacturing Co Whitemarsh  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Penn Salt Manufacturing Co Penn Salt Manufacturing Co Whitemarsh Research Laboratories - PA 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: PENN SALT MANUFACTURING CO., WHITEMARSH RESEARCH LABORATORIES (PA.20) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Penn Salt Company PA.20-1 Location: Philiadelphia , Pennsylvania PA.20-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 PA.20-1 Site Operations: Conducted process studies for recovery of uranium from fluoride scrap. PA.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - AEC licensed operation. Potential for residual radioactive contamination considered remote due to limited quantities and scope of operations. PA.20-2 PA.20-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium PA.20-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated

345

Project Profile: Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Abengoa, under the Baseload CSP FOA, will demonstrate a 100-megawatt electrical (MWe) central receiver plant using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator.

346

Supramolecular structures and physicochemical properties of norfloxacin salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seven new molecular salts of norfloxacin were synthesized and structurally elucidated by single-crystal structure analysis. Physical and chemical properties were evaluated by a variety of analytical techniques.

Xu, Y.

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study is to convert carboxylate salts (e.g. calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) into carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, and butyric acids).… (more)

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants Common to the Southwest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With sharply increasing costs of providing potable water, many communities in the Southwest are attempting to utilize non-potable saline water for irrigating large landscapes. This publication provides the information related to salt effects...

Miyamoto, S.

349

Project Profile: Long-Shafted Molten Salt Pump | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CSP R&D FOA, is validating the manufacturability of a large-scale molten salt receiver panel and then confirming its operation in prototypic solar flux. This work is an...

350

Modeling of activity coefficients of aqueous solutions of quaternary ammonium salts with the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

@nd.edu #12;2 Abstract Ionic liquids (ILs) have been studied recently as potential "green" solvents due to their negligible vapor pressure. Modeling their phase behavior with water and organic solvents to air pollution. Much work has focused on their ability to serve as solvents for reactions

Stadtherr, Mark A.

351

Screening Evaluation of Alternate Sorbents and Methods for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of three different titanium-containing sorbents, crystalline silicotitanate (CST) manufactured by UPO, SrTreat(R) offered by Fortum Engineering, sodium nonatitanate developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. We also report results from an alternate removal method, coprecipitation.

Hobbs, D.T.

2001-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

352

Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

Hobbs, D.T.

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

353

Propylene/Propane Separation with a Gas/Liquid Membrane Contactor Using a Silver Salt Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pavan Chilukuri ,† Karlijn Rademakers ,† Kitty Nymeijer ,‡ Louis van der Ham ,† and Henk van den Berg *† ...

Pavan Chilukuri; Karlijn Rademakers; Kitty Nymeijer; Louis van der Ham; Henk van den Berg

2007-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

Hydrogen Generation in Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis Cells Using a Heat-Regenerated Salt Solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that discharge into the ocean, as the wastewater can first serve as a source of organic matter energy recovery.2 A renewable source of the electrical power is needed for applying this added voltage into electrical power. The RED stack consists of a series of alternating anion exchange membranes (AEMs

355

Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

Mark Anderson; Kumar Sridhara; Todd Allen; Per Peterson

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

356

Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a solution of polyacrylic acid (PAA) will reduce the crystallization pressure. #12;Warping Experiment Experiment Sample Size ~ 10 x 2.5 x 1.0 cm 1. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) treatment 2. Dried at 105�C 3 Crystal cP L Ld #12;Warping Sample Sets PAA treatments No PAA 0.75% PAA solution 1.5% PAA solution 3

Petta, Jason

357

Vertebrate survey of a dredge spoil salt marsh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]ect: Wildlife and Fisheries Science VERTEBRATE SURVEY OF A DREDGE SPOIL SALT MARSH A Thesis by BETTY JO LEE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT Vertebrate Survey... of this ecotone are salinity, amount of fresh water, agitation by tides and currents, temperatut'e, wind, and industrial pollutants (Odum 1971). Clark (1974) points out the environmental importance of salt marshes to the waters of estuaries and bays by acting...

Lee, Betty Jo

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Analysis of salt concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYSIS OF SALT CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN, TEXAS A Thesis by CHARLES KEITH GANZE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering Analysis of Salt Concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas A Thesis by CHARLES KEITH GANZE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A. Wurbs (Chair of Committee) James S. Bonner...

Ganze, Charles Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

359

Comparison of linear and nonlinear acoustic probing of rock salt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMPARISON OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR ACOUSTIC PROBING OF ROCK SALT A Thesis by ALBERT MIN-HAO WANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1980 Major Subject: Geophysics COMPARISON OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR ACOUSTIC PROBING OF ROCK SALT A Thesis by ALBERT MIN-HAO 'RANG Approved as to style and content by: l('-/c~k~&(. Chairman o Comm ' ee Member) Member / I Member Head...

Wang, Albert Min-Hao

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

A procedure to screen cucumber for salt tolerance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A PROCEDURE TO SCREEN CUCUMBER FOR SALT TOLERANCE A Thesis by LEONARD FRANK YOURMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A1IM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major... Subject: Horticulture A PROCEDURE TO SCREEN CUCUMBER FOR SALT TOLERANCE A Thesis by LEONARD FRANK VOURMAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) 0ugust 1979 ABSTRACT A Procedure...

Yourman, Leonard Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A screening technique for salt tolerance in onion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by MARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major... Subject: Horticulture A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by NARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairma f Cp 'ttee) 'eg C. Cobb (Member) Ron Newton (Member) . Grant Vest (Head...

Wannamaker, Mary Jordon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

362

The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 425 MAY, 1931 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE....: ~gricultural Engineering J. IT. KNOX, M. S., Animal IIushandry A. K. MACKEY, M. S., Animnl Hrrshondry *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of May 1. 1931. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. A statement of the percentage of salt...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Synthesis and analysis of streamflow and salt loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW AND SALT LOADS A Thesis ISHTIAQUE SALEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August ] 993... Major Subject: Civil Engineering SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW AND SALT LOADS A Thesis by ISHTIAQUE SALEH Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A. Wurbs (Chair of Committee) 'Og Juan B. Valdes (Member) Tep Sastri (Member) ames T...

Saleh, Ishtiaque

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

364

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility- August 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development.

365

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility- April 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems

366

Selective Solid-Liquid Extraction of Lithium Halide Salts Using a Ditopic Macrobicyclic Receptor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane and membrane transport, almost all reported efforts have focused on the transfer of lithium salts from this by binding the salts as contact ion pairs. Receptor 1 can also transport alkali metal halide salts out

Smith, Bradley D.

367

Paleoarchaic Surface Assemblages in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Northwestern Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

desert scrubs, such as sagebrush, shadscale, horsebrush, snake- PALEOARCHAIC ASSEMBLAGES IN THE GREAT SALT

Arkush, Brooke S; Pitblado, Bonnie L

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan; William M. Goodman

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification MST Solids Sample  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 7 processing. The Marcrobatch 7 material was received with visible fine particulate solids, atypical for these samples. The as received material was allowed to settle for a period greater than 24 hours. The supernatant was then decanted and utilized as our clarified feed material. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test using the clarified feed material. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake after filtration from H-Tank Farm (HTF) feed salt solution. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

370

Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report Kurt D. Gerdes Harry D. Harmon Herbert G. Sutter Major C. Thompson John R. Shultz Sahid C. Smith July 13, 2009 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 ii This page intentionally left blank SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 iii SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 iii Signatures SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment July 13, 2009 iv This page intentionally left blank SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility

371

Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier Proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 Regulate Salt Stress Responses in Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Salt Stress Responses in Arabidopsis [W] Lucio Conti Gillian Price Elizabeth ODonnell Benjamin Schwessinger 1 Peter Dominy Ari...reveals a requirement for RUB modification for control of ethylene biosynthesis and proper induction of basic chitinase and PDF1...

Lucio Conti; Gillian Price; Elizabeth O'Donnell; Benjamin Schwessinger; Peter Dominy; Ari Sadanandom

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

372

EIS-0099: Remedial Actions at the Former Vitro Chemical Company Site, South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of various scenarios associated with the cleanup of those residues remaining at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site located in South Salt Lake, Utah.

373

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Salt Lake City Fuels Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas on AddThis.com... May 14, 2011 Salt Lake City Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas W atch how Salt Lake City fuels vehicles with liquefied and compressed

374

Viscosity of polymer solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Viscosity of polymer solutions ... Abstracts for Volume 5A, Number 2. This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions". ...

Gary L. Bertrand

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1980, pp.l4-20 THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION Stephen SelkowitzEEB-W·-80-19 W-74 THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION Stephen Selkowitz

Selkowitz, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

DETERMINATION OF CORROSION INHIBITOR CRITERIA FOR TYPE III IIIA TANKS DURING SALT DISSOLUTION OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Preparation of high level waste for vitrification involves in part the dissolution of salt cake from the carbon steel storage tanks. The salt crystals composing this cake are high in nitrate concentration with the interstitial liquid being high in hydroxide and nitrite concentration. During the salt dissolution process, a stage is reached in which the inhibitors, hydroxide and nitrite, are insufficient to prevent nitrate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fall outside the requirements of the corrosion control program. Additional inhibitors, which are necessary to meet the requirements, may be counterproductive to the efficiency of the process and waste minimization. Corrosion testing was initiated to better characterize the necessary inhibitor concentration for high nitrate waste during salt dissolution processing. A four-phase test program is being conducted: (1) electrochemical characterization, (2) accelerated or polarized U-bend testing, (3) long-term (non-polarized) U-bend testing and (4) vapor space U-bend tests. Electrochemical testing, which included cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and open-circuit potential (OCP) measurements, was performed to identify stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, to characterize pitting resistance and to determine the general corrosion rate. Polarized U-bend tests were utilized to assess the effect of minimum inhibitor concentrations and heat treatment on SCC and to determine test parameters for future long-term U-bend testing. Results from CPP, LPR and OCP tests demonstrated that carbon steel formed a protective oxide film and the potential became electropositive during exposure to the waste at all inhibitor concentrations. The tenacity of this film improved as the inhibitor concentration level was increased and the temperature was decreased. This passive film increased the resistance to localized corrosion significantly. Therefore if any of these inhibitor levels are selected for storage of dissolved salt solutions, no changes to the service life estimates that were based on general corrosion are necessary. The breakdown potential for SCC as well as the other electrochemical parameters were independent of nitrate concentration (4.5-8.5 M). The breakdown potential, however, was strongly affected by temperature (i.e., 25 and 50 C) and inhibitor concentration. These results indicate that for this nitrate concentration range a critical inhibitor level is necessary for minimizing the occurrence of SCC. The polarized U-bend tests were in good agreement with the electrochemical tests. The U-bend testing clearly demonstrated that the heat treating of the samples clearly improved the SCC resistance of A537 carbon steel even at the low inhibitor concentration (0.01 M hydroxide and 0.01 M nitrite). This concentration was insufficient to prevent cracking for any tested nitrate concentration (4.5-8.5 M). At a 7 M nitrate concentration, SCC was prevented for inhibitor concentrations as low as 0.3 M hydroxide and 0.1 M nitrite. The current inhibitor requirements for a waste containing 7 M nitrate are 0.6 M hydroxide and 1.1 M hydroxide and nitrite. Thus, a considerable reduction in the amount of inhibitor necessary may be attained. It will also be recommended that the temperature of the dissolved salt solution be maintained below 50 C.

Wiersma, B

2008-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

377

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

378

Nuclear waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect

As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of the temperature range. Although such treatment contributes to uncertainty in model outputs, the model validation test cases indicate that the model, with its associated uncertainty, is valid for its intended use. The intended use of this model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period.

P. Mariner

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward  

SciTech Connect

Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Mixed-convective, conjugate heat transfer during molten salt quenching of small parts  

SciTech Connect

It is common in free quenching immersion heat treatment calculations to locally apply constant or surface-averaged heat-transfer coefficients obtained from either free or forced steady convection over simple shapes with small temperature differences from the ambient fluid. This procedure avoids the solution of highly transient, non-Boussinesq conjugate heat transfer problems which often involve mixed convection, but it leaves great uncertainty about the general adequacy of the results. In this paper we demonstrate for small parts (dimensions of the order of inches rather than feet) quenched in molten salt, that it is feasible to calculate such nonuniform surface heat transfer from first principles without adjustable empirical parameters. We use literature physical property salt data from the separate publications of Kirst et al., Nissen, Carling, and Teja, et al. for T<1000 F, and then extrapolate it to the initial part temperature. The reported thermal/chemical breakdown of NaNO{sub 2} for T>800 F is not considered to be important due to the short time the surface temperature exceeds that value for small parts. Similarly, for small parts, the local Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers are below the corresponding critical values for most if not all of the quench, so that we see no evidence of the existence of significant turbulence effects, only some large scale unsteadiness for brief periods. The experimental data comparisons from the open literature include some probe cooling-rate results of Foreman, as well as some cylinder thermal histories of Howes.

Chenoweth, D.R.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Role of dopant counter-anion functionality in polyaniline salts/blends and implications to morphology  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, wide and small angle X-ray scattering techniques (i.e., WAXS and SAXS) and light microscopy are used to characterize the influence of the dopant`s structure on the morphology of both polyaniline salt and blend. In an attempt to modify the morphology of the PANI-ES, the authors have evaluated a number of doping acids (i.e., methane sulfonic acid (HMSA), butane sulfonic acid (HBSA), dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (HDBSA) and camphor sulfonic acid (HCSA)) that vary in size and polarity to better understand the role of the acid in PANI-ES`s morphology and the resulting electrical conductivity. These salts were solution blended with polycaprolactam using hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as a solvent. The other goal was to investigate the effect of the counter-anion structure on the nature of the phase separated PANI-ES network. The shape of the PANI-ES network in the host polycaprolactam has important implications on the nature of conduction behavior and the final electrical conductivity of the blend.

Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Basheer, R.A. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Polymers Dept.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Financing Solutions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solution Center Financing Solutions Financing Solutions Transitioning to a clean energy economy requires innovative financing solutions that enable state, local, and tribal...

386

3-D physical modeling of a complex salt canopy  

SciTech Connect

Recent drilling has confirmed both significant reservoir potential and the presence of commercial hydrocarbons below salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico. Obtaining definitive seismic images with standard processing schemes beneath these salt structures is very difficult if not impossible. Because of the complicated seismic behavior of these structures, full volume 3-D prestack depth migration is required. Unfortunately, carrying out the multitude of calculations needed to create a proper image requires the largest and fastest supercomputers and rather complex numerical algorithms. Furthermore, developing and testing the imaging algorithms is quite involved and requires appropriate test data sets. To better understand the problems and issues of subsalt imaging, Marathon Oil Company and Louisiana Land and Exploration Company contracted with the University of Houston`s Allied Geophysical Laboratories (AGL) to construct a salt canopy physical model. The model is patterned after the SEG/EAEG Salt Model and is made from synthetic materials. It is a full three-dimensional model with an irregularly shaped, lateral salt structure embedded in five distinct sedimentary layers. The model was used to acquire a multi-offset 3-D marine-style survey. These data are being used to address problems of subsalt imaging. In addition to standard processing techniques, the authors investigate algorithms for multiple removal and prestack depth migration.

Wiley, R.W. [Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States); Sekharan, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Allied Geophysical Labs.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

388

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Method for making a uranium chloride salt product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

390

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » Services » Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet Salt Waste Processing Facility Fact Sheet Nuclear material production operations at SRS resulted in the generation of liquid radioactive waste that is being stored, on an interim basis, in 49 underground waste storage tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms. SWPF Fact Sheet More Documents & Publications EIS-0082-S2: Amended Record of Decision Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report EIS-0082-S2: Record of Decision Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Tank Waste and Waste Processing Waste Disposition Packaging and Transportation Site & Facility Restoration Deactivation & Decommissioning (D&D)

392

Savannah River Site - Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW November 22, 2006 Conducted by: Harry Harmon, Team Lead Civil/Structural Sub Team Facility Safety Sub Team Engineering Sub Team Peter Lowry, Lead James Langsted, Lead George Krauter, Lead Robert Kennedy Chuck Negin Art Etchells Les Youd Jerry Evatt Oliver Block Loring Wyllie Richard Stark Tim Adams Tom Anderson Todd LaPointe Stephen Gosselin Carl Costantino Norman Moreau Patrick Corcoran John Christian Ken Cooper Kari McDaniel _____________________________ Harry D. Harmon ITR Team Leader SPD-SWPF-217 SPD-SWPF-217: Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review 11/22/2006 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The ITR Team wishes to thank Shari Clifford of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for

393

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Stress measurements in rock salt using hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing was applied in horizontal drillholes in the Salado salt formation near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Testing took place approximately 650 m below surface in order to support the design of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense activities of the United States. Hydraulic fracturing was performed primarily to determine whether the virgin in situ stress state at the WIPP site is isotropic and whether the magnitudes of the the virgin in situ stresses correspond to the weight of the overburden. Beyond these limited objectives, measurements are being analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of hydraulic fracturing in salt formations in general. Such measurements are desirable to determine stresses induced by mining and to monitor time-dependent stress changes around underground excavations in salt masses. Hydraulic fracturing measurements are also relevant to the evaluation of allowable pressures before fracturing is induced in pressurized boreholes and storage caverns.

Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Analytical methods for determining the reactivity of pyrochemical salts  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical processes used for the purification of plutonium have generated quantities of residue that contain varying amounts of reactive metals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. These residues are currently considered hazardous and are being managed under RCRA because of the reactivity characteristic. This designation is based solely on process knowledge. Currently there is no approved procedure for determining the reactivity of a solid with water. A method is being developed to rapidly evaluate the reactivity of pyrochemical salts with water by measuring the rate of hydrogen generation. The method was initially tested with a magnesium containing pyrochemical salt. A detection limit of approximately 0.004 g of magnesium was established. A surrogate molten salt extraction residue was also tested. Extrapolation of test data resulted in a hydrogen generation rate of 4.4 mg/(g min).

Phillips, A.G.; Stakebake, J.L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (3) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure Operating Power Plants: 0 No geothermal plants listed.

397

Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl[sub 2] and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750 C to about 850 C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl[sub 2] having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO[sub 2]. The Ca metal and CaCl[sub 2] is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including MgCl[sub 2] to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy. 2 figs.

Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.

1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

398

Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

399

Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

Munson, Darrell E.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Heat driven heat pump using paired ammoniated salts  

SciTech Connect

A cycle for a heat driven heat pump using two salts CaCl/sup 2/.8NH/sup 3/, and ZnCl/sup 2/.4NH3 which may reversibly react with ammonia with the addition or evolution of heat. These salts were chosen so that both ammoniation processes occur at the same temperature so that the heat evolved may be used for comfort heating. The heat to drive the system need only be slightly hotter than 122 C. The low temperature source need only be slightly warmer than 0 C.

Dunlap, R.M.

1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Geology of the Salt Creek area, Mason County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and to the entrapment of. surface water in the fractures. GEOLXiBPBOLOGY The Salt Creek area in @aeon County, Texas is located on the southwestern flank of the Llano Uplift, a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes.... STSUCT "SALCEOL00Y IIegional Structure The Llano region, which includes the Salt Creek area, is a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes. The dose is roughly elliptical with a maximum diameter...

Harwood, William Eugene

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radar investigation of the Cote Blanche salt dome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PADAR IiVVESTICATIOH CF THE COZE ELANCHR SALT DO&: A Thests EOHEET DOSAED SZEVAET Subm-'tt. ii' to the Crsduete Coilege of Ter: s AVi', i;nlu xsity in partfal fulfi' line?t of th ': quiremen fc z' tht degree o %P t S "t Clt. 'iCE iugust. l...HIC major Sub jest: Ceoohysfes RADAR INVESTIGATION OP THE COTE BLANCHE SALT DOME A Thesis by ROBERT DONALD STEWART Approved as to style and nor. tent by: (Chairman of Comml ee) ( Ir~c" (Head of De rtment ? Member) (Member) August 1974 ABSTRACT...

Stewart, Robert Donald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

403

A mechanical model of early salt dome growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988... Major Subject: Geology A MECHANICAL MODEL OF EARLY SALT DOME GROWTH A Thesis by FRANK ALBERT IRWIN Approved as to style and content by: aymond C. Fletcher (Chair of Committee) John H. Spang (Member) Wi tamR. B ant (Mem ) John H. Sp g (Head...

Irwin, Frank Albert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

Study of maximizing acoustic energy coupling to salt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STUDY OF MAXIMIZING ACOUSTIC ENERGY COUPLING TO SALT A Thesis by YNG-JOV HNANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major... Subject: Geophysics STUDY OF &MAXIMIZING ACOUSTIC ENERGY COUPLING TO SALT A Thesis by YNG-JOU HWANG Approved as to style and content by: C arrman o ommit e em er em e er Hea o epartment December 1979 ABSTRACT Study of Haximizing Acoustic Energy...

Hwang, Yng-Jou

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Salt-stone Oxidation Study: Leaching Method - 13092  

SciTech Connect

Cementitious waste forms can be designed to chemically stabilize selected contaminants, such as Tc{sup +7} and Cr{sup +6}, by chemically reduction to lower valance states, Tc{sup +4} and Cr{sup +3}, respectively, and precipitation of these species in alkaline media as low solubility solid phases. Data for oxidation of this type of cementitious waste form cured under field conditions as a function of time is required for predicting the performance of the waste form and disposal facility. The rate of oxidation (oxidation front advancement) is an important parameter for predicting performance because the solubilities of some radionuclide contaminants, e.g., technetium, are a function of the oxidation state. A non-radioactive experiment was designed for quantifying the oxidation front advancement using chromium, as an approximate redox-sensitive surrogate (Cr{sup +6} / Cr{sup +3}) for technetium (Tc{sup +7} / Tc{sup +4}). Nonradioactive cementitious waste forms were prepared in the laboratory and cured under both laboratory and 'field conditions'. Laboratory conditions were ambient temperature and sealed sample containers. Field conditions were approximated by curing samples in open containers which were placed inside a plastic container stored outdoors at SRS. The container had a lid and was instrumented with temperature and humidity probes. Sub-samples as thin as 0.2 mm were taken as a function of distance from the exposed surface of the as-cast sample. The sub-samples were leached and the leachates were analyzed for chromium, nitrate, nitrite and sodium. Nitrate, nitrite, and sodium concentrations were used to provide baseline data because these species are not chemically retained in the waste form matrix to any significant extent and are not redox sensitive. 'Effective' oxidation fronts for Cr were measured for samples containing 1000, 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr added as soluble sodium chromate, Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. For a sample cured for 129 days under field conditions, leachable Cr (assumed to be the oxidized form, i.e., Cr{sup +6} was detected in the top 15 to 20 mm of the sample spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr. Below about 20 mm, the Cr concentrations in leachates were below the detection limit (< 0.010 mg/L) which indicates that the oxidation as the result of exposure to air was limited to the top 20 mm of the sample after exposure for 129 days and that the bulk of the waste form was not affected, i.e., the Cr was stabilized and insoluble. For samples cured in the laboratory, leachable Cr was detected in the top 8 mm of the Cr 1000 sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days. Between 8 and 14 mm, the concentration Cr in the leachate dropped by a factor of about 20 to just above the detection limit. These depth of penetration results indicate that the rate of advancement of the oxidation front for samples spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr cured under 'field conditions' for 129 days is less than that for the sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days, i.e., 0.156 and 0.216 mm/day, respectively. Additional data are presented for samples spiked with 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr. In summary, cementitious waste forms are porous solids with a network of interconnected pores ranging in diameter from 10 E-10 m to greater than a few mm. The oxidation process is assumed to occur as the result of oxygen transport through the interconnected porosity which may be filled with air, aqueous salt solution, or both. Upon oxidation, the Cr becomes soluble and can be transported in solution through aqueous pore fluid or leachate. (authors)

Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Thermodynamics of dilute solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics of dilute solutions ... The development of the necessary thermodynamic equations directly in terms of molality is not common ... ...

Gabor Jancso; David V. Fenby

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Microbiological and Physical Properties of Salt Marsh and Microecosystem Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MES. ATP in the high marsh was found to be significantly...sediment properties (r = 0.539, s = 0...sampled in the high marsh. r witha: Variable Ma...PROPERTIES OF SALT MARSH AND MES SEDIMENTS 667 9. Fallon, R. D., and F. K...

Michael Reichgott; L. Harold Stevenson

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

A Study on Natural Radioactivity in Khewra Salt Mines, Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was calculated...salt mines (Excluding Uranium) of some other countries...and Excess Life Time Cancer Risk (%) in the Khewra...than the other non-uranium mines.5) The average...and Excess Life Time Cancer Risk (100%) are calculated......

Muzahir Ali Baloch; Aziz Ahmed Qureshi; Abdul Waheed; Muhammad Ali; Nawab Ali; Muhammad Tufail; Saima Batool; Muhammad Akram; Poonam Iftikhar; Hamza Qayyum; Shahid Manzoor; Hameed Ahmed Khan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Acoustic propagation characteristics of the estuarine salt wedge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge—a layer of denser seawater advected by the rising tide under fresh water discharged by the river. The nature of the stratification is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance river discharge volumetric flow rate and river mouth morphology. The competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed present the question: Is the salt wedge acoustically observable? Using temperature and salinity profiles collected in situ numerical results show that the salt wedge can impact acoustic propagation. Acoustically this environment consists of two isospeed layers separated by a thin gradient. While this three-layer very shallow water acoustic waveguide is typically dominated by high angle multipath propagation refraction occurring in the gradient layer allows some low-angle energy from near-surface sources to be trapped in the upper layer. Acoustic fluctuations observed at an upstream or downstream receiver depend upon the interaction between the advancing and receding tide and the river discharge which can include the presence of internal waves propagating along the top of the salt wedge.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Acoustic propagation characteristics of the estuarine salt wedge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estuarine environment often hosts a salt wedge-a layer of denser seawater advected by the rising tide under fresh water discharged by the river. The nature of the stratification is a function of the tide's range and speed of advance river discharge volumetric flow rate and river mouth morphology. The competing effects of temperature and salinity on sound speed present the question: Is the salt wedge acoustically observable? Using temperature and salinity profiles collected in situ numerical results show that the salt wedge can impact acoustic propagation. Acoustically this environment can be approximated by two isospeed layers separated by a thin gradient. While this three-layer very shallow water acoustic waveguide is typically dominated by high angle multipath propagation refraction occurring in the gradient layer allows low-angle energy from near-surface sources to be trapped above the gradient and creates a shadow zone below the gradient. Energy from near-bottom sources is refracted to higher angles and attenuated more quickly. Acoustic fluctuations observed at an upstream/downstream receiver depend upon the presence/absence of bedforms and the interaction between the advancing/receding tide and the river discharge which can include the presence of internal waves propagating along the top of the salt wedge.

D. B. Reeder

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The membrane area available for ion transport was 11.4 cm2 . Platinum mesh electrodes that spanned the crossS1 Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane resistance in reverse-814-867-1847 #12;S2 Membrane resistance measurement Without a concentration difference Membrane resistance

413

Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], and a very old building, the South City campus of Salt Lake Community College. This paper describes the measures and savings results from the CC® process at the Community College. The energy savings amounted to 15% of the annual utility bill. While most...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Hood, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Thermohaline convection with nonlinear salt profiles N. J. Balmfortha)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of tem- perature and salinity; the background temperature gradient is constant, while the salt profile tangent profile is presented. It is shown that nonlinearity in the background salinity profile leads of temperature and salinity. Hence we need to jus- tify our study of the stability of this background

Julien, Keith

415

Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEPA filtration. On April 11, 2014, in anticipation of investigation of the source of a radiological on the possibility that a container of inadequately remediated nitrate salt bearing waste had caused the release and is the most Page 1 of 17 #12;likely source of the release. Further investigation is underway to determine

Napp, Nils

417

Salt structures and hydrocarbons in the Pricaspian basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...could be used unrefined to fuel diesel-engine Russian armored vehicles during...4a). This folding and the more general Early Jurassic (Cimmerian) uplift...Figure 4b) and so is found in the general region of salt overhangs (Figure...

Yuri Volozh; Christopher Talbot; Alik Ismail-Zadeh

418

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Michigan. This opportunity to complete a research program allowed me to pursue my career as an associate receptors 17 3. Research program 19 3.1. VDR in biliary-type liver diseases 20 3.2. VDR in fatty liverBile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology by Dr. Nicolas Chignard

Boyer, Edmond

420

Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

Stokes, Sandra R.

1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

TGS measurements of pyrochemical salts at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect

A new skid-mounted tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) was designed to assist in the decommissioning of Rocky Flats Building 37 1, This instrument was used to assay pyrochemical salts as a prerequisite for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The following paper discusses measurement challenges and results from the first year of operation of the instrument.

Mercer, D. J. (David J.); Hansen, J. S. (J. Steven); Lestone, J. P. (John P.); Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

Waldrip, Karen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Kerley, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

423

Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation The 3rd U.S./German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation was held in Albuquerque and Carlsbad, New Mexico on October 8-11, 2012. Approximately 60 salt research scientists from Germany and the United States met to discuss repository science state of the art. Workshop topics included: 1) Safety case for heat-generating waste disposal in salt; 2) Benchmark modeling in preparation for thermomechanical field-scale tests; and 3) Reconsolidation of granular salt. Collaboration being pursued by U.S. and German salt repository researchers is presented in the report.

424

Vegetation Change in Salt Marshes of Cape Cod National Seashore (Massachusetts, USA) Between 1984 and 2013  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vegetation patterns in salt marshes are largely based on elevation in relation to tidal flooding. In New England salt marshes, vegetation is distinctly zoned into species that occur in the high marsh (elevatio...

Stephen M. Smith

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Physiological Diversity of the Rhizosphere Diazotroph Assemblages of Selected Salt Marsh Grasses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from the rhizosphere of salt marsh grasses, abstr. N-208 . Bally R. Thomas-Bauzon D. Heulin...W. Gas transport in the marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora. . Turner R. E. Geographic variations in salt marsh macrophyte production: a...

Christopher E. Bagwell; Yvette M. Piceno; Amy Ashburne-Lucas; Charles R. Lovell

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Abstract: It is well known that the stability of...

427

Effects of Nutrient Additions on Three Coastal Salt Marsh Plants Found in Sunset Cove, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Eutrophication, particularly due to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) input, has been massively altered by anthropogenic activities. Thus it is important to understand the impact on salt marsh plants; however studies on salt marsh plants within...

Rulon, Leslie

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

428

Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, salt-based nanofluid based on solar salt and SiO2...nanoparticles prepared by the Shin and Banerjee method was investigated. The optimal nanoparticle concentration was found and the stability of the...

Patricia Andreu-Cabedo; Rosa Mondragon; Leonor Hernandez…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Salt deformation history and postsalt structural trends, offshore southern Gabon, West Africa  

SciTech Connect

Salt deformation in offshore southern Gabon is represented by mobilization of an Aptian salt layer in reaction to Tertiary clastic progradation. Seismic mapping of salt bodies and associated faulting has resulted in increased understanding of the types and distribution of these salt bodies, their associated faulting patterns, and some aspects of their origin. Away from the Tertiary depocenter, the growth history of salt swells or pillows can be determined by examining onlapping and draping seismic reflectors. Significant Tertiary clastic progradation into the area mobilized the salt and resulted in a series of linear, deep salt walls and asymmetric, basinward-dipping salt rollers, commonly associated with significant up-to-basin faulting dominates the southern Gabon subbasin. The expansion history of associated sediments suggests that these faults expanded episodically throughout the Tertiary, continuing to present-day bathymetric fault scarps. The bias toward up-to-basin faults, to the apparent exclusion of down-to-basin expansion faults, remains enigmatic.

Liro, L.M. [Texaco Exploration and Production Technology Dept., Houston, TX (United States); Coen, R. [British Gas, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

Molten Salt Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage and Concentrated Solar Power Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal efficiency from 54 percent to 63 percent. However, very few thermal storage materials are compatible for these high temperatures. Molten salts are thermally stable up to 600 degrees C and beyond. Using the molten salts as the TES materials...

Shin, Donghyun

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

431

Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases...

Benoit, Mark David

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

432

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution salt Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

salt Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution salt Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Contact: Lori M. Quillen, Director of...

433

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.  

SciTech Connect

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

437

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids lead salts Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid ammonium salt Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Arabidopsis salt overly sensitive 4 Mutants Uncover a Critical Role for Vitamin B6 in Plant Salt Tolerance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and development in many different ways. Excess salt causes ion toxicity inside the cell...Phosphate 69-65-8 Mannitol 7439-93-2 Lithium 7440-09-7 Potassium 7440-23-5...Regulation, Plant Genetic Complementation Test Lithium metabolism pharmacology Mannitol pharmacology...

Huazhong Shi; Liming Xiong; Becky Stevenson; Tiegang Lu; Jian-Kang Zhu

2002-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

442

Comparison of Nitrogen Fixation Activity in Tall and Short Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...North Carolina salt marshes. Ecology 44:445-456. 2. Brooks, R. H., P. L. Brezonik...of a Virginia salt marsh. Chesapeake Sci...Marsho, T. V., R. P. Burchard, and...limitation in salt marsh vegetation, p. 547-563. In R. J. Reimold and...

Roger B. Hanson

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Enumeration of Particle-Bound and Unattached Respiring Bacteria in the Salt Marsh Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Respiring Bacteria in the Salt Marsh Environment R. W. Harvey L. Y. Young...Respiring Bacteria in the Salt Marsh Environment R. W. HARVEY AND L. Y...and particulates in salt marsh surface water. Appl...6. Hobbie, J. E., R. J. Daley, and S...

R. W. Harvey; L. Y. Young

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator Nicolás del Pozo 1 , Rebecca Dunn. Specifically, the objective was to research the behaviour of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the SG4, this initial investigation suggests that the use of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the ANU 500 m2

445

Genome Sequence of Lentibacillus jeotgali GrbiT, Isolated from Traditional Korean Salt-Fermented Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from Traditional Korean Salt-Fermented Seafood Mi-Ja Jung Seong Woon Roh Min-Soo...a traditional Korean salt-fermented seafood, is a strictly aerobic, Gram-positive...Jeotgal is a traditional Korean fermented seafood made from salted marine organisms, including...

Mi-Ja Jung; Seong Woon Roh; Min-Soo Kim; Tae Woong Whon; Jin-Woo Bae

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Genome Sequence of Brachybacterium squillarum M-6-3T, Isolated from Salt-Fermented Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...M-6-3T, Isolated from Salt-Fermented Seafood Seong-Kyu Park Seong Woon Roh Tae Woong...M-6-3T was isolated from salt-fermented seafood in Korea and belongs to the Dermabacteraceae...nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol...

Seong-Kyu Park; Seong Woon Roh; Tae Woong Whon; Jin-Woo Bae

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

On the biogeography of salt limitation: A study of ant communities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Taxonomic decomposition of salt use across 17 ant communities...trophic level decreases salt recruitment. We did so...Arizona 4 Stateline 9 Warm desert 389 4 31.95 N 109...Green 32.5 Florida 6 Scrub 11 Pine scrub 4 4 27.59...the same way that “salt licks” increase the...

Michael Kaspari; Stephen P. Yanoviak; Robert Dudley

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488  

SciTech Connect

A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

Nelson, Roger A. [DOE, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad NM (United States); Buschman, Nancy [DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

450

Rheological Behavior of Xanthan Gum Solution Related to Shear Thinning Fluid Delivery for Subsurface Remediation  

SciTech Connect

Xanthan gum, a biopolymer, forms shear thinning fluids which can be used as delivery media to improve the distribution of remedial amendments injected into heterogeneous subsurface environments. The rheological behavior of the shear thinning solution needs to be known to develop an appropriate design for field injection. In this study, the rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions were obtained under various chemical and environmental conditions relevant to delivery of remedial amendments to groundwater. Higher xanthan concentration raised the absolute solution viscosity and increased the degree of shear thinning. Addition of remedial amendments (e.g., phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate) caused the dynamic viscosity of xanthan gum to decrease, but the solutions maintained shear-thinning properties. Use of simple salt (e.g. Na+, Ca2+) to increase the solution ionic strength also decreased the dynamic viscosity of xanthan and the degree of shear thinning, although the effect is a function of xanthan gum concentration and diminished as the xanthan gum concentration was increased. At high xanthan concentration, addition of salt to the solution increased dynamic viscosity. In the absence of sediments, xanthan gum solutions maintain their viscosity properties for months. However, xanthan gum solutions were shown to lose dynamic viscosity over a period of days to weeks when contacted with saturated site sediment. Loss of viscosity is attributed to physical and biodegradation processes.

Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Solution deposition assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 19 figs.

Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Desalination using electrodialysis as a function of voltage and salt concentration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrodialysis is a process that competes with reverse osmosis for desalination and the removal of specific inorganic contaminants. Desalination experiments were carried out on aqueous solutions containing 5 and 10 g/L NaCl to determine the optimum operating conditions of an electrodialysis (ED) system. Further desalination of aqueous solutions containing 1, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 35 g/L NaCl at an optimum applied voltage of 12 V was conducted to determine the influence of initial salt concentration on the desalination process. The possibility of removing fluoride and nitrate from a groundwater containing about 4.3 g/L NaCl, as well as 2.8 and 31.3 mg/L of fluoride and nitrate respectively, as a function of applied voltage was also investigated. A laboratory electrodialysis stack containing seven cation-exchange membranes and six anion-exchange membranes of 56 cm2 effective area was used. From these studies it is demonstrated that electrodialysis is an effective method for the removal of fluoride and nitrate from brackish groundwater and that real groundwater showed a slower desalination behaviour. Fouling of the membranes was observed.

Laura J. Banasiak; Thomas W. Kruttschnitt; Andrea I. Schäfer

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Solution 3 - Spring 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neglecting air resistance, find the maximum height above the roadway which the particle can reach. Solution: (by Shuhao Cao, Graduate student, Mathematics).

455

Influences of salt structures on reservoir rocks in block L-2, Dutch continental shelf  

SciTech Connect

In the subsurface of the Netherlands Continental Shelf, thick layers of Zechstein salt have developed into salt domes and ridges that pierce through the overlying formations. To measure the range of lateral influence of the salt in these structures on the sandstone reservoir rocks of the Mesozoic sequence, a cementation model was developed. The target area, Block L-2, was chosen for the presence of salt domes, wells, and reservoir rocks. The L-2 case study has been performed on two Triassic sandstone intervals. The lower, Volpriehausen, sandstone showed halite cementation in one well, located within several 100 m from a salt dome. Four other wells, located more than 1.5 km from a salt structure, did not show any signs of halite cementation. Therefore, the lateral influence of salt domes on the surrounding reservoir rock is, in this case, limited to less than 1.5 km at 3-4 km depth. A slightly shallower Triassic sandstone (Detfurth) shows more frequent halite cementation. This cementation can be attributed to early seepage from overlying Rot salt brines.Triassic Rot salt is present above depletion areas of the Zechstein salt structures, and in such a way the seepage can be seen as an indirect influence of the salt structures.

Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)); Remmelts, G. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Salt Lake City, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Salt Lake City, UT) (Redirected from Salt Lake City, UT) Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.7607793°, -111.8910474° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7607793,"lon":-111.8910474,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

457

Salt River Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt River Electric Coop Corp Salt River Electric Coop Corp Place Kentucky Utility Id 16587 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 100 (Decorative Underground) HPS 48 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 100 Watt HPS 48 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 175 Watt MV 75 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 175 Wattage (Underground) MV 75 kWh (without pole) Lighting 250 Watt HPS 104 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting 400 Watt HPS 165 kWh Outdoor Lighting Lighting Cogeneration and small power production power purchase rate schedule less

458

Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Development Roadmap  

SciTech Connect

Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics and fully passive safety. This paper provides an overview of a technology development pathway for expeditious commercial deployment of first-generation FHRs. The paper describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. First-generation FHRs do not appear to require any technology breakthroughs, but will require significant technology development and demonstration. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, the development roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant; the lack of an approved licensing framework; the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials; and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL] [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Facility; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Takahashi, N. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Systems Div.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "desiccant salt solutions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B  

SciTech Connect

A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

Wyatt, D.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

467

Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a review of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants, which may be used as a primary coolant within a nuclear reactor or heat transport medium from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to a processing plant, for example, a hydrogen-production plant. Thermodynamic properties of four types of molten salts, including LiF-BeF2 (67 and 33 mol%, respectively; also known as FLiBe), LiF-NaF-KF (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, also known as FLiNaK), and KCl-MgCl2 (67 and 33 mol%), and sodium nitrate-sodium nitrite-potassium nitrate (NaNO3–NaNO2–KNO3, (7-49-44 or 7-40-53 mol%) have been investigated. Limitations of existing correlations to predict density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, surface tension, and thermal conductivity, were identified. The impact of thermodynamic properties on the heat transfer, especially Nusselt number was also discussed. Stability of the molten salts with structural alloys and their compatibility with the structural alloys was studied. Nickel and alloys with dense Ni coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides but not so in chlorides. Of the chromium containing alloys, Hastelloy N appears to have the best corrosion resistance in fluorides, while Haynes 230 was most resistant in chloride. In general, alloys with increasing carbon and chromium content are increasingly subject to corrosion by the fluoride salts FLiBe and FLiNaK, due to attack and dissolution of the intergranular chromium carbide. Future research to obtain needed information was identified.

Manohar S. Sohal; Matthias A. Ebner; Piyush Sabharwall; Phil Sharpe

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

Tyndall, R.L.

1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

469

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 101 2007-Jan 01/05 109 01/12 107 01/19 96 01/26 91 2007-Feb 02/02 78 02/09 63 02/16 52 02/23 54 2007-Mar 03/02 59 03/09 58 03/16 64 03/23 70 03/30 78 2007-Apr 04/06 81 04/13 80 04/20 80 04/27 83 2007-May 05/04 85 05/11 88 05/18 92 05/25 97 2007-Jun 06/01 100 06/08 101 06/15 102 06/22 102 06/29 102

470

Calculations on seismic coupling of underground explosions in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report details the results of a theoretical study of seismic coupling and decoupling of underground explosions in a salt medium. A series of chemical and nuclear explosions was carried out years ago in salt domes for the Cowboy and the Dribble programs to provide experimental data on seismic coupling for both tamped explosions and explosions in cavities. The Cowboy program consisted of a series of chemical explosions, and the Dribble program consisted of the tamped nuclear Salmon event, the Sterling nuclear event in the Salmon cavity, and an associated site calibration effort. This report presents the results of extensive computer calculations, which are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The calculations were extended to give general results on seismic coupling in salt. The measure of seismic coupling for most of this work was the residual reduced displacement potential (residual RDP). The decoupling associated with a shot in a cavity was expressed as the ratio of the resulting residual RDP to that of an equal-sized tamped shot.

Heusinkveld, M.E.

1981-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

471

Preliminary study on high temperature transport technology for molten salt in pyroprocessing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyroprocessing technology is one of the most promising technologies for an advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. In pyroprocessing technology, the development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a crucial prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. Three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated, a suction pump transport method was selected for molten salt transport owing to its flexibility. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high temperature molten salt transport technology. About 2 kg of LiCl–KCl eutectic salt was prepared by mixing 99.0%, LiCl and \\{KCl\\} and drying in a convection dry oven at 200 °C for 1 h. Predissolution tests of the prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt using the melting reactor of the experimental apparatus was carried out to investigate the dissolution behavior of the prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt. From the results of the pre-dissolution test, it was found that prepared LiCl–KCl eutectic salt was well dissolved at 500 °C. High temperature molten salt transport experiments by suction are currently being performed using the prepared LiC–KCl eutectic salt. The preliminary experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 m torr–10 torr at 500 °C.

Sung Ho Lee; Hansoo Lee; Jeong-Guk Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Savannah River Site - Salt Waste Processing Facility: Briefing on the Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review Harry Harmon January 9, 2007 2 U.S. Department of Energy Outline * SWPF Process Overview * Major Risks * Approach for Conducting Review * Discussion of Findings * Conclusions 3 U.S. Department of Energy Salt Waste Processing Facility 4 U.S. Department of Energy SWPF Process Overview Alpha Finishing Process CSSX Alpha Strike Process MST/ Sludge Cs Strip Effluent DSS 5 U.S. Department of Energy BOTTOM LINE The SWPF Project is ready to move into final design. 6 U.S. Department of Energy Major Risks * Final geotechnical data potentially could result in redesign of the PC-3 CPA base mat and structure. * Cost and schedule impacts arising from the change from ISO-9001 to NQA-1 quality assurance requirements. * The "de-inventory, flush, and then hands-on

473

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Water table controlled syndepositional alteration textures and fabrics in salt pan halite: Modern analogues and ancient examples  

SciTech Connect

At the Devil's Golf Course, Death Valley, CA, vadose zone and phreatic zone alteration of subaqueously accumulated halite produces characteristic textures and fabrics that are recognizable in ancient salt pan halite (Late Permian Salado Formation) exposed in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Water table depth and duration control fabric type. The crystal size of surficial halite is reduced by hygroscopic alteration. Efflorescent crusts extend the capillary fringe to the surface along vertical permeability pathways. When the water table is shallow, planar dissolution in the vadose zone removes all or most halite from successive thin depositional sequences and progressively disrupts strata consisting of clay or sulfate into irregular strata, stringers, isolated blebs, and, ultimately, 'blebby' laminae. With a deeper water table, point dissolution occurs along vertically oriented permeability pathways (e.g., polygonal margins) producing characteristic textures. Vertical pits, pipes, and macropores form first. Then the surface becomes slightly hummocky as point solution pathways to the water table widen and coalesce. A complex terrain of spires, hummocks, and columns develops and exhibits characteristic pods and lenses of fine halite surrounded by and containing solution lags of insoluble material. Relief is reduced by solution, and lenses and pods of fine halite become smaller and less common. Ultimately, halite is entirely removed leaving only insoluble material. Halite cements grow in the phreatic zone. Halite passively fills voids in more mechanically competent halite. Displacive halite cements dilate fabrics within less competent bedded halite. These textures can be integrated into an idealized lithologic sequence for ancient salt pan halite.

Holt, R.M. (IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Powers, D.W.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results.

Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Waste Technology Repository Isolation Systems

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Growth faults and salt tectonics in Houston diapir province: relative timing and exploration significance  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas accumulation in Gulf Coast Tertiary strata is contolled mainly by regional growth faults and by salt-related structures. Salt forms the most prominent set of structures in the Houston diapir province of southeast Texas. Recent work in three study areas shows that the Tertiary growth-fault trends, so well displayed along strike to the south-west, continue through this salt basin as well, but they have been deformed by later salt movement. In the Katy area, seismic data disclose early (pre-Wilcox) salt pillows downdip of the Cretaceous reef trend. Salt stocks were injected upward from the pillows during Clayborne deposition, and were flanked by deep withdrawal basins and turtle structures. In Brazoria County, a major lower Frio growth-fault trend affecting the Houston delta system, was deformed by later salt domes, by a salt-withdrawal basin, and by a possible turtle structure at Chocolate Bayou. A productive geopressured aquifer exists in the salt-withdrawal basin bounded by the previously formed growth faults. In Jefferson County, in contrast, salt-tectonic activity and growth faulting appear to have been coeval. Early salt-cored ridges continued to rise throughout Frio deposition; growth faults occur both updip and downdip. Hydrocarbons accumulated over the salt domes in growth-fault anticlines and in stratigraphic traps. Recognition that shelf-margin growth faulting preceded the development of the present pattern of domes and basins has important implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Growth faults may be migration paths for hydrocarbons; furthermore, early formed traps, distorted by salt movement, may still be found to contain hydrocarbons.

Ewing, T.E.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Future Climate Engineering Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering Associations from around the world are part of the project `Future Climate - Engineering Solu- tions'. Within the project the participating associations have been developing national climate plansFuture Climate Engineering Solutions Joint report 13 engineering participating engeneering

478

Selected Solution 7  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selected Solutions. Math 341 Homework 7*. November 4, 2014. 1. (Alternating Series Test.) Take zn = 1/n2. Show that s2n = (z1 ? z2)+(z3 ? z4) + ··· + z2n?1 ...

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

479