National Library of Energy BETA

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  1. ARM - VAP Suggestion Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Suggestion Form Showcase Data ARM Best Estimate Data Products (ARMBE) This is a collection of data products that represents "best estimates" derived from several instruments and/or VAPs. We are interested in your feedback; please contact us. VAP Update Information on new, existing, and future value-added products for July l-September 30, 2015 is now available. Have a VAP idea? Use this form to let us know. Datastream Status Further details on the status of VAPs being processed or

  2. FEMP Suggested ESPC Milestone Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Document provides the Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP's) suggested energy savings performance contract (ESPC) milestones from task order development to award process.

  3. Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica Los Alamos National Laboratory has unveiled a video where they challenged staff scientist Nina Lanza of LANL's Space and Remote Sensing group describe her upcoming trip to Antarctica to hunt for meteorites in just 60 seconds. December 11, 2015 Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica Lanza describes meteor hunt in Antarctica Science in 60: Lanza describes

  4. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Markets New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle...

  5. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the...

  6. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the...

  7. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print Wednesday, 24 June 2009 00:00 To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known...

  8. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print Wednesday, 24 June 2009 00:00 To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins

  9. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets - Sandia ... Thorough system requirements & cost assessments are needed to quantify the benefits ...

  10. ARM - Evaluation Product - Critical soil quantities for describing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsCritical soil quantities for describing land properties ARM Data Discovery Browse ... Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Critical soil ...

  11. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  12. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  13. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  14. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monitoring stations, canyons Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental monitoring stations, canyons Stations supporting Santa Fe water utility returned to service September 18, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to

  16. Method for describing fractures in subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-01-01

    The configuration and directional orientation of natural or induced fractures in subterranean earth formations are described by introducing a liquid explosive into the fracture, detonating the explosive, and then monitoring the resulting acoustic emissions with strategically placed acoustic sensors as the explosion propagates through the fracture at a known rate.

  17. NREL Releases Report Describing Guidelines for PV Manufacturer Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assurance - News Releases | NREL Releases Report Describing Guidelines for PV Manufacturer Quality Assurance International task force aims to toughen standards, ensure reliability of PV technologies April 14, 2015 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has released an updated proposal that will establish an international quality standard for photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing. The document is intended for immediate use by PV manufacturers when producing

  18. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid

  19. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  20. Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2014-08-15

    The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of electromagnetic field and of gravitational field can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic) dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory.

  1. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  2. Fermilab | Fermilab at Work | Web Form | FAW Website Suggestions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAW Website Suggestions Submit your FAW website suggestion using the form below. All fields are required. Which FAW page is this suggestion for? Main FAW page Work Resources...

  3. DOE Policy for Digital Research Data Management: Suggested Elements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan DOE Policy for Digital Research Data Management: Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan The Principal Investigator or other ...

  4. Suggested Elements for an EERE Data Management Plan | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Services Funding Digital Data Management Suggested Elements for an EERE Data Management Plan Suggested Elements for an EERE Data Management Plan The principal investigator ...

  5. Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services Funding Digital Data Management Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan The principal investigator should ...

  6. Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour (113.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact Sheet State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2010 State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2012

  7. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were ...

  8. Suggested Elements for an EERE Data Management Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page lists the suggested elements of an EERE data management plan including data types and sources, content and format, sharing and preservation, protection and rationale.

  9. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked...

  10. Structural and functional analysis of Nup120 suggests ring formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Structural and functional analysis of Nup120 suggests ring formation of the Nup84 complex Authors: Seo, Hyuk-Soo ; Ma, Yingli ; Debler, Erik W. ; Wacker, Daniel ; Kutik, ...

  11. Simulations by PPPL physicists suggest that external magnetic fields can

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    calm plasma instabilities | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Simulations by PPPL physicists suggest that external magnetic fields can calm plasma instabilities By Raphael Rosen August 15, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Magnetic Perturbations (Photo by Gerrit Kramer) Magnetic Perturbations Physicists led by Gerrit Kramer at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have conducted simulations that suggest that applying magnetic fields to

  12. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Wednesday, 26 January 2011 00:00 Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked

  13. Simulations by PPPL physicists suggest that external magnetic fields can

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    calm plasma instabilities | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Simulations by PPPL physicists suggest that external magnetic fields can calm plasma instabilities By Raphael Rosen August 15, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Magnetic Perturbations (Photo by Gerrit Kramer) Magnetic Perturbations Physicists led by Gerrit Kramer at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have conducted simulations that suggest that applying magnetic fields to

  14. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  15. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  16. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  17. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  18. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  19. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  20. Development of a Composite Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Model Describing Plutonium Sorption to Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, B A; Kersting, A; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-10-28

    ) and upscaled for use in CAU models (Stoller-Navarro, 2008) includes surface complexation constants for U, Am, Eu, Np and Pu (Zavarin and Bruton, 2004). Generally, between 15 to 30 datasets were used to develop the constants for each radionuclide. However, the constants that describe Pu sorption to aluminosilicates were developed using only 10 datasets, most of which did not specify the oxidation state of Pu in the experiment. Without knowledge or control of the Pu oxidation state, a high degree of uncertainty is introduced into the model. The existing Pu surface complexation model (e.g. Zavarin and Bruton, 2004) drastically underestimates Pu sorption and, thus, will overestimate Pu migration rates (Turner, 1995). Recent HST simulations at Cambric (Carle et al., 2006) suggest that the existing surface complexation model may underpredict Pu K{sub d}s by as much as 3 orders of magnitude. In order to improve HST and CAU-scale transport models (and, as a result, reduce the conservative nature Pu migration estimates), sorption experiments were performed over a range of solution conditions that brackets the groundwater chemistry of the Nevada National Security Site. The aluminosilicates examined were gibbsite, silica, and montmorillonite.

  1. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer and demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.

  2. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer andmore » demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.« less

  3. Fourier heat conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the second law

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesudason, Christopher G.

    2014-12-10

    The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically 'reversible' which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S where for any reversible closed path C, ∮{sub C} dS = 0 based on an infinite number of concatenated Carnot engines that approximated the said path and where for each engine ΔQ{sub 1}/T{sub 1}+ΔQ{sub 2}/T{sub 2} = 0 where the Q's and T's are the heat absorption increments and temperature respectively with the subscripts indicating the isothermal paths (1;2) where for the Carnot engine, the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. Since 'heat' has been defined as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference and a corollary of the Clausius statement of the Second law is that it is impossible for heat to be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir with no other effect on the environment, these statements suggested that the local mode of transfer of 'heat' in the isothermal segments of the pathway does imply a Fourier heat conduction mechanism (to conform to the definition of 'heat') albeit of a 'reversible' kind, but on the other hand, the Fourier mechanism is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the material involved in the conveyance of the heat energy. These and several other considerations lead Benofy and Quay (BQ) to postulate the Fourier heat conduction phenomenon to be an ancillary principle in thermodynamics, with this principle being strictly local in nature, where the global Second law statements could not be applied to this local process. Here we present equations that model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process where due to the belief in mechanical time reversible symmetry, thermodynamical reversibility has been

  4. What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? 2012.02.24 Chief Scientist Jim Bray discusses the motion of atoms, the classical laws of physics and the forces associated with the big bang theory. 1

  5. HARBEC's $52,000 Annual Energy Savings under SEP Described in New Case

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study | Department of Energy Superior Energy Performance » HARBEC's $52,000 Annual Energy Savings under SEP Described in New Case Study HARBEC's $52,000 Annual Energy Savings under SEP Described in New Case Study September 18, 2014 - 4:40pm Addthis Photo of HARBEC, Inc.'s specialty plastics manufacturing facility in upstate New York, courtesy of HARBEC. A new case study details how HARBEC, Inc. improved the energy performance of its specialty plastics manufacturing plant in upstate New York

  6. FALDO: A semantic standard for describing the location of nucleotide and protein feature annotation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bolleman, Jerven T.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Strozzi, Francesco; Baran, Joachim; Dumontier, Michel; Bonnal, Raoul J. P.; Buels, Robert; Hoehndorf, Robert; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; et al

    2016-06-13

    In this study, nucleotide and protein sequence feature annotations are essential to understand biology on the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic level. Using Semantic Web technologies to query biological annotations, there was no standard that described this potentially complex location information as subject-predicate-object triples. Here, we have developed an ontology, the Feature Annotation Location Description Ontology (FALDO), to describe the positions of annotated features on linear and circular sequences. FALDO can be used to describe nucleotide features in sequence records, protein annotations, and glycan binding sites, among other features in coordinate systems of the aforementioned “omics” areas. Using the same datamore » format to represent sequence positions that are independent of file formats allows us to integrate sequence data from multiple sources and data types. The genome browser JBrowse is used to demonstrate accessing multiple SPARQL endpoints to display genomic feature annotations, as well as protein annotations from UniProt mapped to genomic locations. In conclusion, our ontology allows users to uniformly describe – and potentially merge – sequence annotations from multiple sources. Data sources using FALDO can prospectively be retrieved using federalised SPARQL queries against public SPARQL endpoints and/or local private triple stores.« less

  7. FALDO: a semantic standard for describing the location of nucleotide and protein feature annotation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bolleman, Jerven T.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Strozzi, Francesco; Baran, Joachim; Dumontier, Michel; Bonnal, Raoul J. P.; Buels, Robert; Hoehndorf, Robert; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; et al

    2016-06-13

    Nucleotide and protein sequence feature annotations are essential to understand biology on the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic level. Using Semantic Web technologies to query biological annotations, there was no standard that described this potentially complex location information as subject-predicate-object triples. In this paper, we have developed an ontology, the Feature Annotation Location Description Ontology (FALDO), to describe the positions of annotated features on linear and circular sequences. FALDO can be used to describe nucleotide features in sequence records, protein annotations, and glycan binding sites, among other features in coordinate systems of the aforementioned “omics” areas. Using the same data formatmore » to represent sequence positions that are independent of file formats allows us to integrate sequence data from multiple sources and data types. The genome browser JBrowse is used to demonstrate accessing multiple SPARQL endpoints to display genomic feature annotations, as well as protein annotations from UniProt mapped to genomic locations. Our ontology allows users to uniformly describe – and potentially merge – sequence annotations from multiple sources. Finally, data sources using FALDO can prospectively be retrieved using federalised SPARQL queries against public SPARQL endpoints and/or local private triple stores.« less

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL Describes to U.S. Senate Role National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Labs Play in Sustainable Transportation Innovation Describes to U.S. Senate Role National Labs Play in Sustainable Transportation Innovation January 26, 2016 On Thursday, January 21, 2016, NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center Director Chris Gearhart provided a testimony on new technologies in the automobile industry before the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. Members of the committee are currently evaluating a bipartisan bill that will include several

  9. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joao C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-10-10

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary.The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu) project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergymore » production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. We review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.« less

  10. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joao C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-10-10

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary.The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu) project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. We review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  11. Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" The program leader in PPPL's Science Education office will be honored as a "woman of excellence" by the YWCA Princeton By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe February 1, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Shannon Greco (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Shannon Greco Gallery: Greco and the "Orange Power" Lego robotics team she coached jump for joy during a practice

  12. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  13. Distribution coefficient values describing iodine, neptunium, selenium, technetium, and uranium sorption to Hanford sediments. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    Burial of vitrified low-level waste (LLW) in the vadose zone of the Hanford Site is being considered as a long-term disposal option. Regulations dealing with LLW disposal require that performance assessment (PA) analyses be conducted. Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site LLW PA were conducted to evaluate the potential health risk of a number of radionuclides, including Ac, Am, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cs, Eu, 1, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Ru, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, and Zr (Piepho et al. 1994). The radionuclides, {sup 129}I, {sup 237}Np, {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 234,235,238}U, were identified as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations were very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorbed to the subsurface matrix, described as a distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The literature-derived K{sub d} values used in these simulations were conservative, i.e., lowest values within the range of reasonable values used to provide an estimate of the maximum health threat. Thus, these preliminary modeling results reflect a conservative estimate rather than a best estimate of what is likely to occur. The potential problem with providing only a conservative estimate is that it may mislead us into directing resources to resolve nonexisting problems.

  14. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-06-15

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)approx(t-T){sup -O}MEGA, with OMEGA positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n{sup '}(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.

  15. Ensemble density functional theory method correctly describes bond dissociation, excited state electron transfer, and double excitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-05-14

    State-averaged (SA) variants of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, SA-REKS and state-interaction (SI)-SA-REKS, implement ensemble density functional theory for variationally obtaining excitation energies of molecular systems. In this work, the currently existing version of the SA-REKS method, which included only one excited state into the ensemble averaging, is extended by adding more excited states to the averaged energy functional. A general strategy for extension of the REKS-type methods to larger ensembles of ground and excited states is outlined and implemented in extended versions of the SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS methods. The newly developed methods are tested in the calculation of several excited states of ground-state multi-reference systems, such as dissociating hydrogen molecule, and excited states of donor–acceptor molecular systems. For hydrogen molecule, the new method correctly reproduces the distance dependence of the lowest excited state energies and describes an avoided crossing between the doubly excited and singly excited states. For bithiophene–perylenediimide stacked complex, the SI-SA-REKS method correctly describes crossing between the locally excited state and the charge transfer excited state and yields vertical excitation energies in good agreement with the ab initio wavefunction methods.

  16. Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A; Puckett, Anthony D; Todd, Michael D

    2011-01-24

    The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

  17. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  18. Analytical solutions describing the operation of a rotating magnetic field transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savin, A.; Grimberg, R.; Mihalache, O.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the analytical solutions describing the operation of a rotating magnetic field transducer used in the eddy current defectoscopy for detecting the long flaws situated parallelly to the inspected piece generatrix. The method uses the expanding of the real transducer`s three-phase system into an infinite sequence of axial and longitudinal currents whose intensity is given by a Fourier expansion, estimating the electromotive voltage induced in the transducer. By solving the equation of diffusion for the three media and considering the boundary conditions, the vector magnetic potential is determined for each medium. This work also presents the most important theoretical parameters of the transducer, as well as the experimental graphs obtained for concrete cases of the transducer`s applications.

  19. A flowing plasma model to describe drift waves in a cylindrical helicon discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Corr, C. S.

    2011-04-15

    A two-fluid model developed originally to describe wave oscillations in the vacuum arc centrifuge, a cylindrical, rapidly rotating, low temperature, and confined plasma column, is applied to interpret plasma oscillations in a RF generated linear magnetized plasma [WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence)], with similar density and field strength. Compared to typical centrifuge plasmas, WOMBAT plasmas have slower normalized rotation frequency, lower temperature, and lower axial velocity. Despite these differences, the two-fluid model provides a consistent description of the WOMBAT plasma configuration and yields qualitative agreement between measured and predicted wave oscillation frequencies with axial field strength. In addition, the radial profile of the density perturbation predicted by this model is consistent with the data. Parameter scans show that the dispersion curve is sensitive to the axial field strength and the electron temperature, and the dependence of oscillation frequency with electron temperature matches the experiment. These results consolidate earlier claims that the density and floating potential oscillations are a resistive drift mode, driven by the density gradient. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed physics model of flowing plasmas in the diffusion region away from the RF source. Possible extensions to the model, including temperature nonuniformity and magnetic field oscillations, are also discussed.

  20. Describing excited state relaxation and localization in TiO2 nanoparticles using TD-DFT

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berardo, Enrico; Hu, Han -Shi; van Dam, Hubertus J. J.; Shevlin, Stephen A.; Woodley, Scott M.; Kowalski, Karol; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2014-02-26

    We have investigated the description of excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) with three common hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) potentials; B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and BHLYP. Use of TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP yields qualitatively similar results for all structures, which are also consistent with predictions of coupled cluster theory for small particles. TD-B3LYP, in contrast, is found to make rather different predictions; including apparent conical intersections for certain particles that are not observed with TD-CAM-B3LYP nor with TD-BHLYP. In line with our previous observations for vertical excitations, the issue with TD-B3LYP appears to be themore » inherent tendency of TD-B3LYP, and other XC potentials with no or a low percentage of Hartree-Fock Like Exchange, to spuriously stabilize the energy of charge-transfer (CT) states. Even in the case of hydrated particles, for which vertical excitations are generally well described with all XC potentials, the use of TD-B3LYP appears to result in CT-problems for certain particles. We hypothesize that the spurious stabilization of CT-states by TD-B3LYP even may drive the excited state optimizations to different excited state geometries than those obtained using TD-CAM-B3LYP or TD-BHLYP. In conclusion, focusing on the TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP results, excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles is predicted to be associated with a large Stokes’ shift.« less

  1. A technical framework to describe occupant behavior for building energy simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner , William; Hong , Tianzhen

    2013-12-20

    Green buildings that fail to meet expected design performance criteria indicate that technology alone does not guarantee high performance. Human influences are quite often simplified and ignored in the design, construction, and operation of buildings. Energy-conscious human behavior has been demonstrated to be a significant positive factor for improving the indoor environment while reducing the energy use of buildings. In our study we developed a new technical framework to describe energy-related human behavior in buildings. The energy-related behavior includes accounting for individuals and groups of occupants and their interactions with building energy services systems, appliances and facilities. The technical framework consists of four key components: i. the drivers behind energy-related occupant behavior, which are biological, societal, environmental, physical, and economical in nature ii. the needs of the occupants are based on satisfying criteria that are either physical (e.g. thermal, visual and acoustic comfort) or non-physical (e.g. entertainment, privacy, and social reward) iii. the actions that building occupants perform when their needs are not fulfilled iv. the systems with which an occupant can interact to satisfy their needs The technical framework aims to provide a standardized description of a complete set of human energy-related behaviors in the form of an XML schema. For each type of behavior (e.g., occupants opening/closing windows, switching on/off lights etc.) we identify a set of common behaviors based on a literature review, survey data, and our own field study and analysis. Stochastic models are adopted or developed for each type of behavior to enable the evaluation of the impact of human behavior on energy use in buildings, during either the design or operation phase. We will also demonstrate the use of the technical framework in assessing the impact of occupancy behavior on energy saving technologies. The technical framework presented is

  2. Examining the consistency relations describing the three-point functions involving tensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreenath, V.; Sriramkumar, L. E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} characterizing the scalar bi-spectrum can be expressed in terms of the scalar spectral index in the squeezed limit, a property that is referred to as the consistency relation. In contrast to the scalar bi-spectrum, the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors and the tensor bi-spectrum have not received adequate attention, which can be largely attributed to the fact that the tensors had remained undetected at the level of the power spectrum until very recently. The detection of the imprints of the primordial tensor perturbations by BICEP2 and its indication of a rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio, if confirmed, can open up a new window for understanding the tensor perturbations, not only at the level of the power spectrum, but also in the realm of non-Gaussianities. In this work, we consider the consistency relations associated with the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors as well as the tensor bi-spectrum in inflationary models driven by a single, canonical, scalar field. Characterizing the cross-correlations in terms of the dimensionless non-Gaussianity parameters C{sub NL}{sup R} and C{sub NL}{sup γ} that we had introduced earlier, we express the consistency relations governing the cross-correlations as relations between these non-Gaussianity parameters and the scalar or tensor spectral indices, in a fashion similar to that of the purely scalar case. We also discuss the corresponding relation for the non-Gaussianity parameter h{sub NL} used to describe the tensor bi-spectrum. We analytically establish these consistency relations explicitly in the following two situations: a simple example involving a specific case of power law inflation and a non-trivial scenario in the so-called Starobinsky model that is governed by a linear potential with a sharp change in its slope. We also numerically verify the consistency relations in three types of inflationary

  3. A novel parameter to describe the glass-forming ability of alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, E. S.; Ryu, C. W.; Kim, W. T.; Kim, D. H.

    2015-08-14

    In this paper, we propose a new parameter for glass-forming ability (GFA) based on the combination of thermodynamic (stability of stable and metastable liquids by ΔT{sub m} = T{sub m}{sup mix} − T{sub l} and ΔT{sub x} = T{sub x} − T{sub g}, respectively) and kinetic (resistance to crystallization by T{sub x}) aspects for glass formation. The parameter is defined as ε = (ΔT{sub m} + ΔT{sub x} + T{sub x})/T{sub m}{sup mix} without directly adding T{sub g} while considering the whole temperature range for glass formation up to T{sub m}{sup mix}, which reflects the relative position of crystallization curve in continuous cooling transformation diagram. The relationship between the ε parameter and critical cooling rate (R{sub c}) or maximum section thickness for glass formation (Z{sub max}) clearly confirms that the ε parameter exhibits a better correlation with GFA than other commonly used GFA parameters, such as ΔT{sub x} (=T{sub x} − T{sub g}), K (=[T{sub x} − T{sub g}]/[T{sub l} − T{sub x}]), ΔT*(=(T{sub m}{sup mix} − T{sub l})/T{sub m}{sup mix}), T{sub rg} (=T{sub g}/T{sub l}), and γ (=[T{sub x}]/[T{sub l} + T{sub g}]). The relationship between the ε parameter and R{sub c} or Z{sub max} is also formulated and evaluated in the study. The results suggest that the ε parameter can effectively predict R{sub c} and Z{sub max} for various glass-forming alloys, which would permit more widespread uses of these paradigm-shifting materials in a variety of industries.

  4. DOE-HDBK-1108-2002

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Radiological Safety Training for Accelerator Facilities Reaffirmation with Change Notice 2 (July 2013) This non-mandatory Handbook describes a recommended implementation process for conducting the radiation safety training required by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Radiation Protection, (10 CFR 835) Subpart J and as outlined in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1098-99, Radiological Control (RCS).

  5. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EVALUATION OF EMPLOYEE SUGGESTION/INVENTION,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    50.2 (11-96) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EVALUATION OF EMPLOYEE SUGGESTION/INVENTION, ADOPTION, AND APPROVAL OF AWARD EVALUATION OF IDEA (Use plain paper for continuation sheet if needed) REFERENCE DATA 1. Servicing Personnel Office: 2. Name of Evaluator: 3. Organization: (Include symbol) 4. Building/Room No.: Suggestion No: Date Received: Organization: Suggester or Inventor: (Complete Payroll Name) 5. Employee idea is applicable to this organization. Expected benefits are summarized as follows:

  6. Direct nucleonemission from hot and dense regions described in the hydrodynamical model of relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barz, H.W.; Csernai, L.P.; Greiner, W.

    1982-08-01

    The collision process is described by hydrodynamical equations. The escape of nucleons which do not take part in the thermal equilibrium are considered by including drain terms in these equations. The energy spectra of the escaped nucleons and of nucleons evaporated after the break up of the fluid are compared.

  7. VALUES OF I AND I{sub adj} SUGGESTED BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VALUES OF I AND Isub adj SUGGESTED BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE Authors: Turner, J. E. Publication Date: 1964-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 4887411 ...

  8. Incentives on Oil Barely Help U.S., Study Suggests | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Incentives on Oil Barely Help U.S., Study Suggests Back to the OSTI News Listing for 2006 ... only a tiny increase in production of oil that could cost as much as 80 a barrel. ...

  9. Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan Funding Opportunities Funding Opportunities Home Grants & Contracts Support Award Search / Public Abstracts Find Funding Early Career Research Program Statement on Digital Data Management Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan Frequently Asked Questions Resources at the Office of Science User Facilities Acknowledgements of Federal Support Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  10. 2009-03 "Consideration of Suggestions Contained in the Kerr Lab Report of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3-30-09" | Department of Energy 3 "Consideration of Suggestions Contained in the Kerr Lab Report of 3-30-09" 2009-03 "Consideration of Suggestions Contained in the Kerr Lab Report of 3-30-09" The intent of this recommendation is to provide the DOE and LANS EM with independent expert technical evaluations and recommendations from EPA to assist in their efforts to implement the best possible groundwater monitoring program. Rec 2009-03 - May 14, 2009 (98.32

  11. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Technical Basis Guide Describing How to Perform Safety Margin Configuration Risk Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen; Bentley Harwood

    2013-08-01

    The INL has carried out a demonstration of the RISMC approach for the purpose of configuration risk management. We have shown how improved accuracy and realism can be achieved by simulating changes in risk as a function of different configurations in order to determine safety margins as the plant is modified. We described the various technical issues that play a role in these configuration-based calculations with the intent that future applications can take advantage of the analysis benefits while avoiding some of the technical pitfalls that are found for these types of calculations. Specific recommendations have been provided on a variety of topics aimed at improving the safety margin analysis and strengthening the technical basis behind the analysis process.

  13. Praise and suggestions for fusion research from a utility industry think

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tank | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Praise and suggestions for fusion research from a utility industry think tank By John Greenwald November 21, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Interior of the National Spherical Torus Experiment at PPPL. (Photo by Elle Starkman, Office of Communications, PPPL) Interior of the National Spherical Torus Experiment at PPPL. Research to develop fusion energy has shown "significant progress" in many areas, according to a new report

  14. Computational Investigations of Trichoderma Reesei Cel7A Suggest New Routes for Enzyme Activity Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckham, G. T.; Payne, C. M.; Bu, L.; Taylor, C. B.; McCabe, C.; Chu, J. W.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellulase (Cel7A) is a key industrial enzyme in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a multi-modular enzyme with a Family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, a flexible O-glycosylated linker, and a large catalytic domain. We have used simulation to elucidate new functions for the 3 sub-domains, which suggests new routes to increase the activity of this central enzyme. These findings include new roles for glycosylation, which we have shown can be used to tune the binding affinity. We have also examined the structures of the catalytically-active complex of Cel7A and its non-processive counterpart, Cel7B, engaged on cellulose, which suggests allosteric mechanisms involved in chain binding when these cellulases are complexed on cellulose. Our computational results also suggest that product inhibition varies significantly between Cel7A and Cel7B, and we offer a molecular-level explanation for this observation. Finally, we discuss simulations of the absolute and relative binding free energy of cellulose ligands and various mutations along the CD tunnel, which will affect processivity and the ability of Cel7A (and related enzymes) to digest cellulose. These results highlight new considerations in protein engineering for processive and non-processive cellulases for production of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  15. The role of pyrimidine and water as underlying molecular constituents for describing radiation damage in living tissue: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuss, M. C.; Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; Blanco, F.; Muoz, A.; Limo-Vieira, P.; Garca, G.

    2015-06-07

    Water is often used as the medium for characterizing the effects of radiation on living tissue. However, in this study, charged-particle track simulations are employed to quantify the induced physicochemical and potential biological implications when a primary ionising particle with energy 10?keV strikes a medium made up entirely of water or pyrimidine. Note that pyrimidine was chosen as the DNA/RNA bases cytosine, thymine, and uracil can be considered pyrimidine derivatives. This study aims to assess the influence of the choice of medium on the charged-particle transport, and identify how appropriate it is to use water as the default medium to describe the effects of ionising radiation on living tissue. Based on the respective electron interaction cross sections, we provide a model, which allows the study of radiation effects not only in terms of energy deposition (absorbed dose and stopping power) but also in terms of the number of induced molecular processes. Results of these parameters for water and pyrimidine are presented and compared.

  16. Describing excited state relaxation and localization in TiO2 nanoparticles using TD-DFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berardo, Enrico; Hu, Han -Shi; van Dam, Hubertus J. J.; Shevlin, Stephen A.; Woodley, Scott M.; Kowalski, Karol; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2014-02-26

    We have investigated the description of excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) with three common hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) potentials; B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and BHLYP. Use of TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP yields qualitatively similar results for all structures, which are also consistent with predictions of coupled cluster theory for small particles. TD-B3LYP, in contrast, is found to make rather different predictions; including apparent conical intersections for certain particles that are not observed with TD-CAM-B3LYP nor with TD-BHLYP. In line with our previous observations for vertical excitations, the issue with TD-B3LYP appears to be the inherent tendency of TD-B3LYP, and other XC potentials with no or a low percentage of Hartree-Fock Like Exchange, to spuriously stabilize the energy of charge-transfer (CT) states. Even in the case of hydrated particles, for which vertical excitations are generally well described with all XC potentials, the use of TD-B3LYP appears to result in CT-problems for certain particles. We hypothesize that the spurious stabilization of CT-states by TD-B3LYP even may drive the excited state optimizations to different excited state geometries than those obtained using TD-CAM-B3LYP or TD-BHLYP. In conclusion, focusing on the TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP results, excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles is predicted to be associated with a large Stokes shift.

  17. Ribonuclease A suggests how proteins self-chaperone against amyloid fiber formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Poh K.; Anderson, Natalie J.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Sawaya, Michael R.; Sambashivan, Shilpa; Eisenberg, David (UCB)

    2012-05-29

    Genomic analyses have identified segments with high fiber-forming propensity in many proteins not known to form amyloid. Proteins are often protected from entering the amyloid state by molecular chaperones that permit them to fold in isolation from identical molecules; but, how do proteins self-chaperone their folding in the absence of chaperones? Here, we explore this question with the stable protein ribonuclease A (RNase A). We previously identified fiber-forming segments of amyloid-related proteins and demonstrated that insertion of these segments into the C-terminal hinge loop of nonfiber-forming RNase A can convert RNase A into the amyloid state through three-dimensional domain-swapping, where the inserted fiber-forming segments interact to create a steric zipper spine. In this study, we convert RNase A into amyloid-like fibers by increasing the loop length and hence conformational freedom of an endogenous fiber-forming segment, SSTSAASS, in the N-terminal hinge loop. This is accomplished by sandwiching SSTSAASS between inserted Gly residues. With these inserts, SSTSAASS is now able to form the steric zipper spine, allowing RNase A to form amyloid-like fibers. We show that these fibers contain RNase A molecules retaining their enzymatic activity and therefore native-like structure. Thus, RNase A appears to prevent fiber formation by limiting the conformational freedom of this fiber-forming segment from entering a steric zipper. Our observations suggest that proteins have evolved to self-chaperone by using similar protective mechanisms.

  18. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siyam, Arwa; Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 ; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D'Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  19. The application of strategic environmental assessment in a non-mandatory context: Regional transport planning in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGimpsey, Paul; Morgan, Richard K.

    2013-11-15

    There is no legal mandate for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in New Zealand. However, a requirement to consider environmental and sustainability issues is a key feature of many statutes, including that relating to regional transport planning. Given this, the research sought to determine whether SEA could be used to improve the incorporation of environmental and sustainability aspects into the regional transport planning process in New Zealand. Existing practice was evaluated, examining what factors currently limiting the consideration of environmental and sustainability issues and to what extent elements of SEA are currently being used. The research culminated in the development of a conceptual model where SEA elements could be incorporated into the existing framework to promote improved consideration of environmental and sustainability issues. The results provide some reassurance about the value of SEA even where its application is not legally mandated. However, it also highlighted some ongoing issues around the integration of SEA in existing frameworks and around the scope of SEA as a decision-aiding tool. -- Highlights: • The research examined whether SEA can provide benefits even where it is not mandated. • The research examined the extent to which SEA elements are currently being used. • A conceptual model was developed to incorporate necessary SEA elements into an existing framework.

  20. Safety Reports Series No. 11, Developing Safety Culture in Nuclear Activities: Practical Suggestions to Assist Progress, International Atomic Energy Agency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Safety Reports Series No. 11, Developing Safety Culture in Nuclear Activities: Practical Suggestions to Assist Progress, International Atomic Energy Agency

  1. Manhattan Project: Suggested Readings

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A volume of the Army's legendary "Green Series" of Second World War histories. Smyth, Henry DeWolf. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: The Official Report on the Development of ...

  2. NREL Discovers Novel Protein Interaction in Green Algae that Suggests New Strategies to Improve Hydrogen Photoproduction (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A research team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered a specific interaction between the protein ferredoxin - responsible for distributing reductants from photosynthesis to different metabolic pathways - and the HYDA2 hydrogenase, suggesting a role for HYDA2 in photohydrogen production.

  3. On the existence of astationary measure for the stochastic system of the Lorenz model describing abaroclinic atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klevtsova, Yu Yu

    2013-09-30

    The paper is concerned with a nonlinear system of partial differential equations with parameters. This system describes the two-layer quasi-solenoidal Lorenz model for abaroclinic atmosphere on arotating two-dimensional sphere. The right-hand side of the system is perturbed by white noise. Sufficient conditions on the parameters and the right-hand side are obtained for the existence of astationary measure. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  4. Photovoltaic systems are often described and marketed in terms of the DC power rating of their modules, expressed in $'s/Watt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rd IEEE PVSC, San Diego, CA 2008 1 COMPARISON OF PV SYSTEM PERFORMANCE-MODEL PREDICTIONS WITH MEASURED PV SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Christopher P. Cameron, William E. Boyson, Daniel M. Riley Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy has supported development of the Solar Advisor Model (SAM) to provide a common platform for evaluation of the solar energy technologies being developed with the support of the Department. This report describes a detailed

  5. Evaluation of and Suggested Improvements to the WSM6 Microphysics in WRF- ARW Using Synthetic and Observed GOES-13 Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, Lewis; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Clark, Adam; Bikos, Dan; Dembek, Scott R.

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic satellite imagery can be employed to evaluate simulated cloud fields. Past studies have revealed that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6) microphysics in WRF-ARW produces less upper level ice clouds within synthetic images compared to observations. Synthetic Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 imagery at 10.7 ?m of simulated cloud fields from the 4 km National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) WRF-ARW is compared to observed GOES-13 imagery. Histograms suggest that too few points contain upper level simulated ice clouds. In particular, side-by-side examples are shown of synthetic and observed convective anvils. Such images illustrate the lack of anvil cloud associated with convection produced by the NSSL WRF-ARW. A vertical profile of simulated hydrometeors suggests that too much cloud water mass may be converted into graupel mass, effectively reducing the main source of ice mass in a simulated anvil. Further, excessive accretion of ice by snow removes ice from an anvil by precipitation settling. Idealized sensitivity tests reveal that a 50% reduction of the conversion of cloud water mass to graupel and a 50% reduction of the accretion rate of ice by snow results in a significant increase in anvil ice of a simulated storm. Such results provide guidance as to which conversions could be reformulated, in a more physical manner, to increase simulated ice mass in the upper troposphere.

  6. Method for describing and evaluating coal mine wastes for coal recovery: a case history from the historical longwall district in the northeastern Illinois coal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, L.A.; Berggren, D.J.

    1984-12-01

    A method for describing and evaluating coal mine wastes evolved in 1982 from studies at more than 100 historic longwall mine sites conducted by the Illinois State Geological Survey and partially funded by the Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council (IAMLRC). The primary purpose was to locate and identify different types of waste materials at these sites and to evaluate them for future reclamation. The method which involves geologic characterization, sampling, standard analyses, and evaluation tests, can be used to determine the potential of a mine waste deposit for secondary recovery of coal. It yields data relating to three factors involved in secondary recovery: quality (ash content, heating value), quantity (recoverable tonnages), and the net effect of the recovery operation (product value relative to operations costs; social and environmental assets relative to liabilities). The longwall study did not directly address the question of recoverable tonnages of coal but provided information that can be used to make this evaluation, minimize the amount of drilling required for accurate forecasts of profitability, and measure the economic and environmental benefits of secondary recovery steps in a reclamation plan.

  7. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  8. The Conformation of Bound GMPPNP Suggests a Mechanism for Gating the Active Site of the SRP GTPase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Freymann, D.

    2010-03-08

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a phylogenetically conserved ribonucleoprotein that mediates cotranslational targeting of secreted and membrane proteins to the membrane. Targeting is regulated by GTP binding and hydrolysis events that require direct interaction between structurally homologous 'NG' GTPase domains of the SRP signal recognition subunit and its membrane-associated receptor, SR{alpha}. Structures of both the apo and GDP bound NG domains of the prokaryotic SRP54 homolog, Ffh, and the prokaryotic receptor homolog, FtsY, have been determined. The structural basis for the GTP-dependent interaction between the two proteins, however, remains unknown. We report here two structures of the NG GTPase of Ffh from Thermus aquaticus bound to the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog GMPPNP. Both structures reveal an unexpected binding mode in which the {beta}-phosphate is kinked away from the binding site and magnesium is not bound. Binding of the GTP analog in the canonical conformation found in other GTPase structures is precluded by constriction of the phosphate binding P loop. The structural difference between the Ffh complex and other GTPases suggests a specific conformational change that must accompany movement of the nucleotide from an inactive to an active binding mode. Conserved side chains of the GTPase sequence motifs unique to the SRP subfamily may function to gate formation of the active GTP bound conformation. Exposed hydrophobic residues provide an interaction surface that may allow regulation of the GTP binding conformation, and thus activation of the GTPase, during the association of SRP with its receptor.

  9. The genome of the xerotolerant mold Wallemia sebi reveals adaptations to osmotic stress and suggests cryptic sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajabeen, Padamsee; Kumas, T. K. Arun; Riley, Robert; Binder, Manfred; Boyd, Alex; Calvo, Ann M.; Furukawa, Kentaro; Hesse, Cedar; Hohmann, Stefan; James, Tim Y.; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Miller, Kari; Shantappa, Sourabha; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.; McLaughlin, David J.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Aime, Mary C.

    2011-09-03

    Wallemia (Wallemiales, Wallemiomycetes) is a genus of xerophilic Fungi of uncertain phylogenetic position within Basidiomycota. Most commonly found as food contaminants, species of Wallemia have also been isolated from hypersaline environments. The ability to tolerate environments with reduced water activity is rare in Basidiomycota. We sequenced the genome of W. sebi in order to understand its adaptations for surviving in osmotically challenging environments, and we performed phylogenomic and ultrastructural analyses to address its systematic placement and reproductive biology. W. sebi has a compact genome (9.8 Mb), with few repeats and the largest fraction of genes with functional domains compared with other Basidiomycota. We applied several approaches to searching for osmotic stress-related proteins. In silico analyses identied 93 putative osmotic stress proteins; homology searches showed the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) pathway to be mostly conserved. Despite the seemingly reduced genome, several gene family expansions and a high number of transporters (549) were found that also provide clues to the ability of W. sebito colonize harsh environments. Phylogenetic analyses of a 71-protein dataset support the position of Wallemia as the earliest diverging lineage of Agaricomycotina, which is conrmed by septal pore ultrastructure that shows the septal pore apparatus as a variant of the Tremella-type. Mating type gene homologs were idented although we found no evidence of meiosis during conidiogenesis, suggesting there may be aspects of the life cycle of W. sebi that remain cryptic

  10. Simulations of cellulose translocation in the bacterial cellulose synthase suggest a regulatory mechanism for the dimeric structure of cellulose

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knott, Brandon C.; Crowley, Michael F.; Himmel, Michael E.; Zimmer, Jochen; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-01-29

    The processive cycle of the bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs) includes the addition of a single glucose moiety to the end of a growing cellulose chain followed by the translocation of the nascent chain across the plasma membrane. The mechanism of this translocation and its precise location within the processive cycle are not well understood. In particular, the molecular details of how a polymer (cellulose) whose basic structural unit is a dimer (cellobiose) can be constructed by adding one monomer (glucose) at a time are yet to be elucidated. Here, we have utilized molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations tomore » the shed light on these questions. We find that translocation forward by one glucose unit is quite favorable energetically, giving a free energy stabilization of greater than 10 kcal mol-1. In addition, there is only a small barrier to translocation, implying that translocation is not rate limiting within the Bcs processive cycle (given experimental rates for cellulose synthesis in vitro). Perhaps most significantly, our results also indicate that steric constraints at the transmembrane tunnel entrance regulate the dimeric structure of cellulose. Namely, when a glucose molecule is added to the cellulose chain in the same orientation as the acceptor glucose, the terminal glucose freely rotates upon forward motion, thus suggesting a regulatory mechanism for the dimeric structure of cellulose. We characterize both the conserved and non-conserved enzyme-polysaccharide interactions that drive translocation, and find that 20 of the 25 residues that strongly interact with the translocating cellulose chain in the simulations are well conserved, mostly with polar or aromatic side chains. Our results also allow for a dynamical analysis of the role of the so-called 'finger helix' in cellulose translocation that has been observed structurally. Taken together, these findings aid in the elucidation of the translocation steps of the Bcs processive

  11. Complete Phase I Tests As Described in the Multi-lab Test Plan for the Evaluation of CH3I Adsorption on AgZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S. H.; Jubin, R. T.

    2014-09-30

    Silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) has been identified as a potential sorbent for iodine present in the off-gas streams of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In such a facility, both elemental and organic forms of iodine are released from the dissolver in gaseous form. These species of iodine must be captured with high efficiency for a facility to avoid radioactive iodine release above regulatory limits in the gaseous effluent of the plant. Studies completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) examined the adsorption of organic iodine in the form of CH3I by AgZ. Upon breakthrough of the feed gas through the sorbent bed, elemental iodine was observed in the effluent stream, despite the fact that the only source of iodine in the system was the CH3I in the feed gas.1 This behavior does not appear to have been reported previously nor has it been independently confirmed. Thus, as a result of these prior studies, multiple knowledge gaps relating to the adsorption of CH3I by AgZ were identified, and a multi-lab test plan, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), INL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories, was formulated to address each in a systematic way.2 For this report, the scope of work for ORNL was further narrowed to three thin-bed experiments that would characterize CH3I adsorption onto AgZ in the presence of water, NO, and NO2. Completion of these three-thin bed experiments demonstrated that organic iodine in the form of CH3I was adsorbed by reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z) to a 50% higher loading than that of I2 when adsorbed from a dry air stream. Adsorption curves suggest different adsorption mechanisms for I2 and CH3I. In the presence of NO and NO2 gas, the loading of CH3I onto Ag0Z is suppressed and may be reversible. Further, the presence of NO and NO2 gas appears to oxidize CH3I to I2; this is indicated by an adsorption curve similar to that of I2 on Ag0Z. Finally, the loss of organic iodine loading

  12. Propane Supply & Infrastructure Suggested Slides

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration, Thomson Reuters, data through March, 2013 PADD 2 ... Administration, Thomson Reuters, data through October 3, 2014 Price spread (Conway - Mt. ...

  13. DOE-HDBK-1108-2002

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Radiological Safety Training for Accelerator Facilities Change Notice No 1. | Reaffirmation (January 2007) This non-mandatory Handbook describes a recommended implementation process for conducting the radiation safety training required by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Radiation Protection, (10 CFR 835) Subpart J and as outlined in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1098-99, Radiological Control (RCS). The Handbook is to assist those individuals, both within the Department of Energy (DOE) and Managing and Operating (M&O) contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the training required by 10 CFR 835 and recommended by the RCS

  14. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-10-15

    The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

  15. Suggestion of typical phases of in-vessel fuel-debris by thermodynamic calculation for decommissioning technology of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)

  16. A 1.9 Crystal Structure of the HDV Ribozyme Precleavage Suggests both Lewis Acid and General Acid Mechanisms Contribute to Phosphodiester Cleavage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jui-Hui; Yajima, Rieko; Chadalavada, Durga M.; Chase, Elaine; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Golden, Barbara L.

    2010-11-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and HDV-like ribozymes are self-cleaving RNAs found throughout all kingdoms of life. These RNAs fold into a double-nested pseudoknot structure and cleave RNA, yielding 2{prime},3{prime}-cyclic phosphate and 5{prime}-hydroxyl termini. The active site nucleotide C75 has a pK{sub a} shifted >2 pH units toward neutrality and has been implicated as a general acid/base in the cleavage reaction. An active site Mg{sup 2+} ion that helps activate the 2{prime}-hydroxyl for nucleophilic attack has been characterized biochemically; however, this ion has not been visualized in any previous structures. To create a snapshot of the ribozyme in a state poised for catalysis, we have crystallized and determined the structure of the HDV ribozyme bound to an inhibitor RNA containing a deoxynucleotide at the cleavage site. This structure includes the wild-type C75 nucleotide and Mg{sup 2+} ions, both of which are required for maximal ribozyme activity. This structure suggests that the position of C75 does not change during the cleavage reaction. A partially hydrated Mg{sup 2+} ion is also found within the active site where it interacts with a newly resolved G {center_dot} U reverse wobble. Although the inhibitor exhibits crystallographic disorder, we modeled the ribozyme-substrate complex using the conformation of the inhibitor strand observed in the hammerhead ribozyme. This model suggests that the pro-RP oxygen of the scissile phosphate and the 2{prime}-hydroxyl nucleophile are inner-sphere ligands to the active site Mg{sup 2+} ion. Thus, the HDV ribozyme may use a combination of metal ion Lewis acid and nucleobase general acid strategies to effect RNA cleavage.

  17. Analysis of mutational signatures in exomes from B-cell lymphoma cell lines suggest APOBEC3 family members to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary effusion lymphoma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wagener, R.; Alexandrov, L. B.; Montesinos-Rongen, M.; Schlesner, M.; Haake, A.; Drexler, H. G.; Richter, J.; Bignell, G. R.; McDermott, U.; Siebert, R.

    2015-02-04

    Here, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare large B-cell neoplasm particularly affecting immunodeficient hosts with an increased incidence in young or middle-aged males infected with the HIV.1 The clinical outcome of patients with PEL is unfavorable with a median survival of <6 months.1 PEL has been closely associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8, previously called Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus) infection.1 In some cases a coinfection of HHV8 with the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) has been described.1 HHV8 encodes various genes homologous to cellular genes that have proliferative and anti-apoptotic functions.2 Although HHV8 is supposed to be a major driver ofmore » PEL, it alone is not sufficient for a full-blown lymphomagenesis.2 PEL usually shows complex karyotypes with many chromosomal aberrations.3 This chromosomal complexity might be driven by the viral infection and lead to genetic alterations cooperating with HHV8 in PEL lymphomagenesis.4« less

  18. Analysis of mutational signatures in exomes from B-cell lymphoma cell lines suggest APOBEC3 family members to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary effusion lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagener, R.; Alexandrov, L. B.; Montesinos-Rongen, M.; Schlesner, M.; Haake, A.; Drexler, H. G.; Richter, J.; Bignell, G. R.; McDermott, U.; Siebert, R.

    2015-02-04

    Here, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare large B-cell neoplasm particularly affecting immunodeficient hosts with an increased incidence in young or middle-aged males infected with the HIV.1 The clinical outcome of patients with PEL is unfavorable with a median survival of <6 months.1 PEL has been closely associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8, previously called Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus) infection.1 In some cases a coinfection of HHV8 with the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) has been described.1 HHV8 encodes various genes homologous to cellular genes that have proliferative and anti-apoptotic functions.2 Although HHV8 is supposed to be a major driver of PEL, it alone is not sufficient for a full-blown lymphomagenesis.2 PEL usually shows complex karyotypes with many chromosomal aberrations.3 This chromosomal complexity might be driven by the viral infection and lead to genetic alterations cooperating with HHV8 in PEL lymphomagenesis.4

  19. Project Completion/Closeout Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-10-26

    The guide provides nonmandatory approaches for implementing the requirements of DOE O 413.3B. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-16.

  20. Risk Management Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7A, Risk Management Guide by John Makepeace Functional areas: Risk Management, Safety and Security This Guide provides non-mandatory risk management approaches for implementing the...

  1. Project Completion/Closeout Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6A, Project CompletionCloseout Guide by Brian Huizenga Functional areas: Program Management, Program Planning and Management, Project Management The guide provides nonmandatory...

  2. Research Directed at Developing a Classical Theory to Describe Isotope Separation of Polyatomic Molecules Illuminated by Intense Infrared Radiation. Final Report for period May 7, 1979 to September 30, 1979; Extension December 31, 1997

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lamb, W. E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories.

  3. On some operations suggested by genome evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dassow, J.; Mitrana, V.

    1996-12-31

    Three operations involved in the genome evolution namely, inversion, transposition and duplication, are considered as operations on strings and languages. We show that, for any pair of these operations, there is a language family which is closed under one of the operations and not closed under the second one; however, under some mild conditions the closure of a language family under one of the operations implies that it also closed with respect to another one. 15 refs.

  4. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ring to thread the strand through the hole). With structural information about DnaC, Mott et al. have contributed to a better understanding of the significance of the...

  5. Suggested Approaches for Probabilistic Flooding Hazard Assessment |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Success Stories Success Stories RSS August 4, 2016 BEMOSS deployment in Equipment Bureau building in Arlington, VA, for control of lighting circuits. Photo Courtesy: BEMOSS team, Virginia Tech EERE Success Story-Software Platform Offers Underserved Smaller Buildings Sector an Innovative Solution for Cutting Energy Costs and Waste For the past two years, a team of professors and graduate students at Virginia Tech, in close consultation with industry, have been developing BEMOSS through a DOE

  6. Propane Supply & Infrastructure Suggested Slides

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Winter 2014-15: Propane Supply & Infrastructure For State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) Workshop October 8, 2014 | Washington, DC By T. Mason Hamilton, Petroleum Markets Analyst U.S. Energy Information Administration Winter 2014-15 takeaways and potential issues- propane * Primary propane stocks in the Gulf Coast and Midwest are currently 10 million barrels (17%) above this time last year * Propane production from natural gas plants is up and is projected to average 970,000 bbl/d

  7. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    number of the Lab's 200-plus automated stormwater samplers - field crews are still ... Although the stormwater moved a large amount of sediment down previously cleaned-up ...

  9. This fact sheet describes the repository design activities the...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... water and moisture from the cell for treatment and disposal during cell construction. ... To reduce the amount of dust in the air from construction, water trucks are used to dampen ...

  10. Importance of Correctly Describing Charge-Transfer Excitations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Moore, Justin E. ; Morton, Seth M. ; Jensen, Lasse Publication Date: 2012-09-06 OSTI Identifier: 1222160 DOE Contract Number: AC05-76RL01830 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  11. Describing Current & Potential Markets for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy, and Safety Data" on alternative fuels and alternative-fuel vehicles. No specific projects are currently underway. Some related data may be developed as part of the EPACT...

  12. Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    change research at Los Alamos Lab "PBS NEWSHOUR" covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive The Guardian:"Landscapes we don't want to lose: New...

  13. Abstract - This paper describes the latest generic wind turbine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind turbine generator models of types 3 and 4 developed for implementation in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) base cases. Key Words - Generic wind turbine ...

  14. Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... After graduation, she spent a few years traveling around the world. When she wasn't ... the American Physical Society's expo on how to explain states of matter to young people. ...

  15. Describing Current & Potential Markets for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,904 Not-at-homes 60 Total 4,344 Total 2,616 Misc. Problems 21 a Total 1,904 Language, illness, or hearing problems. a Of the 4,344 numbers, 1,638 were non-households...

  16. DOE Report Describes Progress in the Deployment of Synchrophasor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grid The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is pleased to announce the publication of a new report from the Smart Grid...

  17. Describing Current & Potential Markets for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Provider Fleet Vehicles Fleet Vehicle Miles Traveled Propane Provider Survey In the analysis of annual vehicle miles traveled, the diesel vehicles tended to stand out. On...

  18. This fact sheet describes the environmental cleanup activities...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The original Monticello mill was built in 1942 to provide an additional supply of vanadium during World War II. Vanadium, an element used to strengthen steel, and uranium were ...

  19. Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Brian D.

    2000-09-26

    Representing samll-scale features can be a challenge when one wants to model unsaturated flow in large domains. In this report, the various upscaling techniques are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: stochastic methods, renormalization methods, volume averaging and homogenization methods. In addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed.

  20. Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BD Wood

    2000-09-26

    The representation of small-scale features can be a challenge when attempting to model unsaturated flow in large domains. Upscaling methods offer the possibility of reducing the amount of resolution required to adequately simulate such a problem. In this report, the various upscaling techniques that are discussed in the literature are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: (1) stochastic methods, (2) renormalization methods, and (3) volume averaging and homogenization methods; in addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed. Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. The trade-off is a reduction in accuracy in favor of a method that is easier to employ. For practical applications, the most reasonable approach appears to be one in which any of the upscaling methods identified above maybe suitable for upscaling in regions where the variations in the parameter fields are small. For regions where the subsurface structure is more complex, only the homogenization and volume averaging methods are probably suitable. With the continual increases in computational capacity, fill-resolution numerical modeling may in many instances provide a tractable means of solving the flow problem in unsaturated systems.

  1. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization Describing the Recovery Act Period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report characterizes the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) during the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) period. This research was one component of the Recovery Act evaluation of WAP. The report presents the results of surveys administered to Grantees (i.e., state weatherization offices) and Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies). The report also documents the ramp up and ramp down of weatherization production and direct employment during the Recovery Act period and other challenges faced by the Grantees and Subgrantees during this period. Program operations during the Recovery Act (Program Year 2010) are compared to operations during the year previous to the Recovery Act (Program Year 2008).

  2. An observational study suggesting clinical benefit for adjuvant postoperative chemoradiation in a population of over 500 cases after gastric resection with D2 nodal dissection for adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sung; Lim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeeyun; Kang, Won Ki . E-mail: wkkang@smc.samsung.co.kr; MacDonald, John S.; Park, Chan Hyung; Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Kihyun; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Won Seog; Jung, Chul Won; Park, Young Suk; Im, Young-Hyuck; Sohn, Tae Sung; Noh, Jae Hyung; Heo, Jin Seok; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Chul Keun; Park, Keunchil

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in D2-resected gastric-cancer patients has not been defined yet. We investigated the effect of postoperative chemoradiotherapy on the relapse rate and survival rate of patients with D2-resected gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: From August 1995 to April 2001, 544 patients received postoperative CRT after curative D2 resection. During the same period of time, 446 patients received surgery without further adjuvant treatment. The adjuvant CRT consisted of 400 mg/m{sup 2} of fluorouracil plus 20 mg/m{sup 2} of leucovorin for 5 days, followed by 4,500 cGy of radiotherapy for 5 weeks, with fluorouracil and leucovorin on the first 4 and the last 3 days of radiotherapy. Two 5-day cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin were given 4 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Results: The median duration of overall survival was significantly longer in the CRT group than in the comparison group (95.3 months vs. 62.6 months), which corresponds to a hazard ratio for death of 0.80 (p = 0.0200) or a reduction of 20% in the risk of death in the CRT group. The 5-year survival rates were consistently longer in the CRT group at Stages II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV than those in the comparison group. The CRT was associated with increases in the median duration of relapse-free survival (75.6 months vs. 52.7 months; hazard ratio for relapse, 0.80, p = 0.0160). Conclusion: Our results highly suggest that the postoperative chemoradiotherapy in D2-resected gastric-cancer patients can prolong survival and decrease recurrence.

  3. Risk Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-01-18

    This Guide provides non-mandatory risk management approaches for implementing the requirements of DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-7.

  4. Attachment F: Summary Checklist of Model AIP Provisions and Program Policies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In response to concerns expressed by DOE and State AIP program representatives, the Office of Environmental Activities has developed a list of mandatory and non-mandatory model language provisions...

  5. NREL Study Suggests Cost Gap for Western Renewables Could Narrow...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transmission and integration costs-with the cost of energy from a new natural gas-fired generator built near ... within the three-state market, unless environmental or ...

  6. Suggest a New Product Category | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    If you want to propose a new product category to be designated by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), send the following information to FEMP. The product category you ...

  7. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  8. Suggested Practices for Avian Protection on Power Lines | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with federal laws protecting and enhancing avian populations, and maintaining the reliability of electric power networds. Author Avian Power Line Interaction Committee...

  9. Council on Women and Girls Suggested Report Template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy's Council on Women and Girls Page 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S COUNCIL ON WOMEN AND GIRLS 6/30/2010 ANNUAL REPORT: PROGRAMS AND INITIATIVES AT THE DOE "The Department of Energy can lead the federal government in enhancing the competitiveness of women-owned businesses and in increasing the presence of women in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics." - Dr. Kristina M. Johnson, U.S. Under Secretary of Energy U.S. Department of Energy's Council on Women

  10. Suggestions for a Strong Loan Guarantee Application (June 2016)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) experience with previous loan guarantee solicitation processes has yielded useful lessons. Where possible, DOE has tried to incorporate these lessons into new solicitations in order to make the application process transparent and robust, yet efficient. Stronger applications will enable DOE to process loan guarantee applications more efficiently, significantly reducing the administrative and resource burdens on the applicant as well. To that end, DOE has compiled this non-exhaustive list of features that have historically distinguished particularly strong applications from weaker ones.

  11. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex ... Subject: 59; 37; ABUNDANCE; COMPARTMENTS; INDUCTION; LATEX; MACROPHAGES; MEMBRANES; ...

  12. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia National Laboratories, supported by the DOE’s Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices, recently released the workshop report “Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles.” Held in September 2014, the workshop considered common opportunities and challenges in expanding the use of hydrogen and natural gas as transportation fuels.

  13. Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Describe Ancestry on Tour with Department Officials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – Leaders of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, whose ancestral homelands include the 890 square miles containing the DOE's Idaho Site, shared the spiritual and historical importance of the site to the Tribes in a recent cultural resources tour with EM Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Mark Whitney.

  14. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization - Describing the Pre-ARRA Progam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensch, Ingo; Keene, Ashleigh; Cowan, Claire; Koski, Karen

    2014-09-01

    This report characterizes the Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) as it was administered in Program Year 2008. WAP has supported energy efficiency improvements to the homes of low-income households in the United States since 1976. The program provides grants, guidance, and other support to grantees: weatherization programs administered by each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia and some Native American tribes. Although there have been studies of some grantee-administered weatherization programs, the overall effectiveness of the national weatherization program has not been formally evaluated since Program Year 1989. Since that time, the program has evolved significantly, with an increased focus on baseload electric usage, continued evolution of diagnostic tools, new guidelines and best practices for heating-related measures, and adjustments in program rules. More recently, the program has also adjusted to large, temporary funding increases and changes in federal rules spurred by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Because the Weatherization Assistance Program of today is dramatically different from the one evaluated in 1989, DOE determined to undertake a new comprehensive evaluation of the national program. This new national evaluation is managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Under a competitive solicitation process, ORNL selected APPRISE, Inc., Blasnik & Associates, Dalhoff Associates and the Energy Center of Wisconsin to conduct the evaluation. The national evaluation comprises two independent evaluations. The first evaluation of which this report is a part focuses on Program Year 2008 (PY08). The second evaluation focuses on the ARRA-funded years of 2009 through 2011. This report, together with its companion the Eligible Population Study addresses specific program characterization goals established for the greater evaluation. The Energy Center led grantee and subgrantee data collection efforts, administering surveys to 51 grantees and 851 of the approximately 900 subgrantees that were slated to receive DOE weatherization funds in PY08. In all, seven different data collection instruments were used to gather the needed data two instruments for grantees and five for subgrantees. See Table 1 for a list of these survey instruments. These surveys were used to determine, among other things: Structure and funding of weatherization programs Training and staff development of service providers How weatherization services are delivered Clients served

  15. This fact sheet describes wetlands in and around Monticello, Utah, and what the

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    wetlands in and around Monticello, Utah, and what the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is doing to restore wetlands that are adversely affected by Monticello cleanup project activities. The purpose of the Monticello cleanup projects is to minimize risks to the public and the environment from exposure to uranium mill tailings and radon gas. The cleanup is being performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund.

  16. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  17. Fact sheet produced by the U.S. Department of Energy describing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Developing safe, reliable, compact, and cost-effective hydrogen ... A light-duty fuel cell vehicle will carry approximately 4-10 kg of hydrogen on board (depending on the size and ...

  18. Alfven waves in dusty plasmas with plasma particles described by anisotropic kappa distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Juli, M. C. de

    2012-12-15

    We utilize a kinetic description to study the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating parallelly to the ambient magnetic field in a dusty plasma, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles, which is due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. We consider a plasma in which the velocity distribution functions of the plasma particles are modelled as anisotropic kappa distributions, study the dispersion relation for several combinations of the parameters {kappa}{sub Parallel-To} and {kappa}{sub Up-Tack }, and emphasize the effect of the anisotropy of the distributions on the mode coupling which occurs in a dusty plasma, between waves in the branch of circularly polarized waves and waves in the whistler branch.

  19. Tara O'Toole Memo to CSO describing the announcement of the DOE VPP program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In her January 26, 1994, memorandum to the Cognizant Secretarial Officers and Operations Office managers, Secretary O'Leary formally announced a new initiative, "the Department of Energy Voluntary...

  20. HARBEC's $52,000 Annual Energy Savings under SEP Described in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Related Articles Advanced Manufacturing Office Update, September 2014 General Dynamics and Nissan Case Studies Highlight Benefits of Superior Energy Performance Cummins ...

  1. Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shannon Brescher Shea About Us Shannon Brescher Shea - Senior Writer/Editor, Office of Science Shannon Brescher Shea is a senior writer/editor in the Office of Science's Office of Science Communication and Public Affairs. As the content team lead, she writes and edits feature stories covering the Office of Science's discovery research. She also manages the Science Public Outreach Community (SPOC), the community of practice for communicators in the fundamental research area. Previously, she was a

  2. how is the growth of the Smart Grid described | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    example, I've also seen this metric associated with the internet of things and the adoption rate of intelligent devices like Nest meters and Tesla home batteries. Is there a...

  3. Bottom-up coarse-grained models that accurately describe the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average ... CORRELATIONS; DENSITY; ENERGY DENSITY; EQUILIBRIUM; FLUCTUATIONS; HEPTANE; LIQUIDS; ...

  4. DOE-HDBK-1139-2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chemical Management This non-mandatory Handbook is designed to assist Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor managers in assessing chemical hazard management and is approved for use by all DOE Components and their contractors. Examples of best practices needed to institute high-quality chemical management within the context of a site's Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) are provided.

  5. Introduction to the Emergency Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    The guide provides non-mandatory guidance for the implementation of the requirements pertaining to the DOE comprehensive EMS. Volume 1 is an introduction to the program. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-1A. Does not cancel other directives.

  6. Assessment report for Hanford analytical services quality assurance plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report documents the assessment results of DOE/RL-94-55, Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan. The assessment was conducted using the Requirement and Self-Assessment Database (RSAD), which contains mandatory and nonmandatory DOE Order statements for the relevant DOE orders.

  7. Bubble Density Dependent Functionals to Describe Deformation and Stress Equilibrium Evolution for In-Reactor Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, Ray B.

    2008-07-01

    Future designs of nuclear fuels require an increased understanding of fission gas bubble density evolution. Derivations will be provided for a generic Boltzmann bubble density evolution equation, a bubble density deformation field equation, and a Cauchy stress/bubble-pressure equilibrium equation. (author)

  8. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses

    2014-04-08

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a U2 element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function ?. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.

  9. Coupling a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model with a Reactive Transport Model to Describe In Situ Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Fang, Yilin; Garg, Srinath; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-03-01

    Quantitative numerical simulation codes known as reactive transport models are widely used for simulating the hydrologic transport and geochemical speciation of dissolved constituents in the subsurface (Steefel et al., 2005). Because the activity of microorganisms strongly influences the fate of many constituents, both organic and inorganic, such models often include microbially-mediated reactions in their reaction networks (Hunter et al., 1998; Burgos et al., 2002; Fang et al., 2006; Scheibe et al., 2006; Yabusaki et al., 2007). However, the canonical form and stoichiometry of microbial reactions, reaction rate formulations and parameters, and biomass growth yield coefficients are prescribed a priori and applied over the entire range of simulated conditions. This approach does not account for the fact that fundamental microbial functions vary in response to local variations in environmental conditions(Stewart and Franklin, 2008). Multiple alternative reaction pathways are encoded in microbial genomes; specific pathways become active or inactive in response to, for example, nutrient limitation. Recent advances in genomic analysis allow us to define cellular metabolic networks, and accurate predictions of active pathways and reaction fluxes have been made using constraint-based metabolic models (Mahadevan et al., 2002; Price et al., 2003; Reed and Palsson, 2003; Mahadevan et al., 2006). Here, we demonstrate for the first time a methodology of coupling constraint-based metabolic models with reactive transport models. Our approach integrates advanced microbiological characterization, hydrology, and geochemistry in a powerful manner that will significantly improve subsurface reactive transport models.

  10. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  11. VALUES OF I AND I{sub adj} SUGGESTED BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Turner, J. E. ...

  12. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Go, D. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  13. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  14. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  15. TSSGNEO suggestions for refinement of safety criteria for dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savich, A. I.; Gaziev, E. G.

    2013-09-15

    Analysis of radial-displacements of the dam, measured by direct and inverted plumb lines, indicates that curves of the variation in radial displacements of the dam at different elevations make it possible to plot diagrams of increases in the radial displacement over the entire height of the dam, i.e., inclines of the axis of the dam to the vertical.

  16. A functional role of Rv1738 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence suggested by racemic protein crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bunker, Richard D.; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Bashiri, Ghader; Chaston, Jessica J.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Lott, J. Shaun; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Baker, Edward N.

    2015-04-07

    Racemic protein crystallography was used to determine the X-ray structure of the predicted Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv1738, which had been completely recalcitrant to crystallization in its natural L-form. Native chemical ligation was used to synthesize both L-protein and D-protein enantiomers of Rv1738. Crystallization of the racemic {D-protein + L-protein} mixture was immediately successful. The resulting crystals diffracted to high resolution and also enabled facile structure determination because of the quantized phases of the data from centrosymmetric crystals. The X-ray structure of Rv1738 revealed striking similarity with bacterial hibernation factors, despite minimal sequence similarity. As a result, we predict that Rv1738,more » which is highly up-regulated in conditions that mimic the onset of persistence, helps trigger dormancy by association with the bacterial ribosome.« less

  17. Crystal Structures of Aureochrome1 LOV Suggest New Design Strategies for Optogenetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitra, Devrani; Yang, Xiaojing; Moffat, Keith

    2014-10-02

    Aureochrome1, a signaling photoreceptor from a eukaryotic photosynthetic stramenopile, confers blue-light-regulated DNA binding on the organism. Its topology, in which a C-terminal LOV sensor domain is linked to an N-terminal DNA-binding bZIP effector domain, contrasts with the reverse sensor-effector topology in most other known LOV-photoreceptors. How, then, is signal transmitted in Aureochrome1? The dark- and light-state crystal structures of Aureochrome1 LOV domain (AuLOV) show that its helical N- and C-terminal flanking regions are packed against the external surface of the core {beta} sheet, opposite to the FMN chromophore on the internal surface. Light-induced conformational changes occur in the quaternary structure of the AuLOV dimer and in Phe298 of the H{beta} strand in the core. The properties of AuLOV extend the applicability of LOV domains as versatile design modules that permit fusion to effector domains via either the N- or C-termini to confer blue-light sensitivity.

  18. Plan for the next energy emergency. [National energy-preparedness board suggested

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, F.A.

    1981-09-01

    The prevailing mood of optimism in the United States about the oil glut may blind us to the economic perils that lie ahead - perils that the 1970s should have prepared the country to face. One of the worst is the potential for another cutoff in our oil supply fom the Persian Gulf. Mr. Lindsay argues that the capacity of the United States for dealing with the next crisis is not better and may be worse, than during the last oil embargo. He proposes practical moves private industry might take - moves necessary to minimize the eventual impact in business and on US society as a whole. Most important, he calls for a partnership between business and government to prepare for the next energy crisis through creation of a national energy-preparedness board. Such a board is necessary, he claims, if the United States is to avoid repeating the mistakes it made in 1973 - when the crisis was neither as long nor as damaging as the next one probably will be.

  19. Lab scientists shed light on heavy electrons, suggest new view of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    superconductivity Scientists shed light on heavyd electrons Lab scientists shed light on heavy electrons Their findings hold the potential to provide new insight into superconductivity that could dramatically change the efficiency, for example, of power generation and storage. July 31, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience,

  20. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Begovich, John M; Ferrada, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  1. EXTRACT: Interactive extraction of environment metadata and term suggestion for metagenomic sample annotation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra; Pereira, Emiliano; Schnetzer, Julia; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, wellmore » documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Here the comparison of fully manual and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15–25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.« less

  2. EXTRACT: Interactive extraction of environment metadata and term suggestion for metagenomic sample annotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra; Pereira, Emiliano; Schnetzer, Julia; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Here the comparison of fully manual and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15–25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.

  3. The Structure of a Soluble Chemoreceptor Suggests a Mechanism for Propagating Conformational Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollard, Abiola M.; Bilwes, Alexandrine M.; Crane, Brian R.; Cornell

    2009-09-02

    Transmembrane chemoreceptors, also known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), translate extracellular signals into intracellular responses in the bacterial chemotaxis system. MCP ligand binding domains control the activity of the CheA kinase, situated {approx}200 {angstrom} away, across the cytoplasmic membrane. The 2.17 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a Thermotoga maritima soluble receptor (Tm14) reveals distortions in its dimeric four-helix bundle that provide insight into the conformational states available to MCPs for propagating signals. A bulge in one helix generates asymmetry between subunits that displaces the kinase-interacting tip, which resides more than 100 {angstrom} away. The maximum bundle distortion maps to the adaptation region of transmembrane MCPs where reversible methylation of acidic residues tunes receptor activity. Minor alterations in coiled-coil packing geometry translate the bulge distortion to a >25 {angstrom} movement of the tip relative to the bundle stalks. The Tm14 structure discloses how alterations in local helical structure, which could be induced by changes in methylation state and/or by conformational signals from membrane proximal regions, can reposition a remote domain that interacts with the CheA kinase.

  4. 2009-03 "Consideration of Suggestions Contained in the Kerr Lab...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Rec 2009-03 - May 14, 2009 More Documents & Publications NNMCAB Board Minutes: May 2009 Santa Fe 2009-10 "Convene a Panel of Water Quality Experts" 2009-12 "Hold a Planned ...

  5. Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan | U.S. DOE Office...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... recognize proprietary interests, business confidential information, and intellectual property rights; and avoid significant negative impact on innovation, and U.S. competitiveness. ...

  6. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, R.T. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM.

  7. Guide to the Management of Scientific and Technical Information

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-11-23

    This Guide to the management of scientific and technical information (STI) provides nonmandatory guidelines for implementing the objective, requirements, and responsibilities of Department of Energy (DOE) O 241.1A, Scientific and Technical Information Management. Cancels DOE G 241.1-1. Canceled by DOE N 251.83. Best practices, instructions, and additional information are now accessible at www.osti.gov/stip.

  8. Cancellation of Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-16

    Cancellation of DOE G 241.1-1A, Guide to the Management of Scientific and Technical Information, dated 11-23-01. This Guide provided nonmandatory guidelines for implementing the objective, requirements, and responsibilities of Department of Energy (DOE) O 241.1A, Scientific and Technical Information Management. Best practices, instructions, and additional information are now accessible at www.osti.gov/stip.

  9. Certification for DOE G 414.1-1B

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-11-18

    This certification was reviewed by the Executive Steering Committee for the Quality Assurance (QA) Directives reform and the Guide was found to be relevant, appropriate and necessary. The Guide provides the Department with non-mandatory approaches for implementing Criteria 9, Management Assessment, and Criteria 10, Independent Assessment, for DOE O 414.1C, as well as found in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830, Subpart A.

  10. Modeling of plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH{sub 3} cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge described using the one-dimensional fluid model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physical Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The keynote of our research is to study the gas phase chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH{sub 3} cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge, which is very important to produce the iron-nitride magnetic fluid. For this purpose, a home-made one dimensional fluid model with the Scharfetter-Gummel method has been developed. The equations solved are the particle balances, assuming a drift-diffusion approximation for the fluxes, and the electron energy equation. The self-consistent electric field is obtained by the simultaneous solution of Poisson's equation. The simulations were carried out for the different ammonia concentrations (2%, 3.5%, and 7%), at a voltage of 1 kV, and a driving frequency of 20 kHz. It concluded that the major ion products of Ar are Ar{sup +} and Ar{sub 2}{sup +}. Ar{sup +} is the most important positive ions, followed by Ar{sub 2}{sup +}. It is shown that the NH{sup +} density is smaller than that of the other ammonia ions. The density of NH{sub 4}{sup +} is more than that of the other ammonia ions when the ammonia concentration increased. The diffuse mode can be established after the discharge was ignited, and the mode changes to filamentary mode with an increase in ammonia concentration.

  11. The United States Department of Energy Announces the Availability of Four Public Documents Describing the Next Phase of the Weldon Spring Quarry Cleanup.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  12. Evaluation of conceptual, mathematical and physical-and-chemical models for describing subsurface radionuclide transport at the Lake Karachai Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Sindalovsky, L.N.; Boronina, A.V.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pozdniakov, S.P.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this work was to develop the methodology and to improve understanding of subsurface radionuclide transport for application to the Lake Karachai Site and to identify the influence of the processes and interactions involved into transport and fate of the radionuclides. The report is focused on two sets of problems, which have to do both with, hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical aspects of the contaminant transport.

  13. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  14. The KTOI Ecosystem Project Relational Database : a Report Prepared by Statistical Consulting Services for KTOI Describing the Key Components and Specifications of the KTOI Relational Database.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafii, Bahman

    2009-09-24

    Data are the central focus of any research project. Their collection and analysis are crucial to meeting project goals, testing scientific hypotheses, and drawing relevant conclusions. Typical research projects often devote the majority of their resources to the collection, storage and analysis of data. Therefore, issues related to data quality should be of foremost concern. Data quality issues are even more important when conducting multifaceted studies involving several teams of researchers. Without the use of a standardized protocol, for example, independent data collection carried out by separate research efforts can lead to inconsistencies, confusion and errors throughout the larger project. A database management system can be utilized to help avoid all of the aforementioned problems. The centralization of data into a common relational unit, i.e. a relational database, shifts the responsibility for data quality and maintenance from multiple individuals to a single database manager, thus allowing data quality issues to be assessed and corrected in a timely manner. The database system also provides an easy mechanism for standardizing data components, such as variable names and values uniformly across all segments of a project. This is particularly an important issue when data are collected on a number of biological/physical response and explanatory variables from various locations and times. The database system can integrate all segments of a large study into one unit, while providing oversight and accessibility to the data collection process. The quality of all data collected is uniformly maintained and compatibility between research efforts ensured. While the physical database would exist in a central location, access will not be physically limited. Advanced database interfaces are created to operate over the internet utilizing a Web-based relational database, allowing project members to access their data from virtually anywhere. These interfaces provide users with the ability to upload, download, edit, and search data remotely, creating a dynamic system that is continually updated with the most recent information. At the same time, data are protected through user access restrictions, by implementing user profiles and password protected security. This accessibility could be set to any combination of read/write/edit abilities from an administrator capacity with full access to all data, to a highly restricted public access capability limited to general project information. Generation of customized summary reports and basic graphical routines could also be obtained through a Web-based interference. Using these types of features, users could produce summary tables, track trends of specified response variables over time or location, and compare results from various disciplines. Exploration of data in this manner can help users to better define and clarify their research goals and provide a means of integrating various aspects of a larger research project.

  15. The crystal structure of escherichia coli MoaB suggests a probable role in molybdenum cofactor synthesis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanishvili, R.; Beasley, S.; Skarina, T; Glesne, D; Joachimiak, A; Edwards, A; Savchenko, A.; Univ. Health Network; Univ. of Toronto

    2004-10-01

    The crystal structure of Escherichia coli MoaB was determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing and refined at 1.6 Angstrom resolution. The molecule displayed a modified Rossman fold. MoaB is assembled into a hexamer composed of two trimers. The monomers have high structural similarity with two proteins, MogA and MoeA, from the molybdenum cofactor synthesis pathway in E. Coli, as well as with domains of mammalian gephyrin and plant Cnx1, which are also involved in molybdopterin synthesis. Structural comparison between these proteins and the amino acid conservation patterns revealed a putative active site in MoaB. The structural analysis of this site allowed to advance several hypothesis which can be tested in further studies.

  16. A functional role of Rv1738 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence suggested by racemic protein crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunker, Richard D.; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Bashiri, Ghader; Chaston, Jessica J.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Lott, J. Shaun; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Baker, Edward N.

    2015-04-07

    Racemic protein crystallography was used to determine the X-ray structure of the predicted Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv1738, which had been completely recalcitrant to crystallization in its natural L-form. Native chemical ligation was used to synthesize both L-protein and D-protein enantiomers of Rv1738. Crystallization of the racemic {D-protein + L-protein} mixture was immediately successful. The resulting crystals diffracted to high resolution and also enabled facile structure determination because of the quantized phases of the data from centrosymmetric crystals. The X-ray structure of Rv1738 revealed striking similarity with bacterial hibernation factors, despite minimal sequence similarity. As a result, we predict that Rv1738, which is highly up-regulated in conditions that mimic the onset of persistence, helps trigger dormancy by association with the bacterial ribosome.

  17. Altered microRNA expression patterns in irradiated hematopoietic tissues suggest a sex-specific protective mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Zemp, Franz J.; Koturbash, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-12-05

    To investigate involvement of miRNAs in radiation responses we used microRNAome profiling to analyze the sex-specific response of radiation sensitive hematopoietic lymphoid tissues. We show that radiation exposure resulted in a significant and sex-specific deregulation of microRNA expression in murine spleen and thymus tissues. Among the regulated miRNAs, we found that changes in expression of miR-34a and miR-7 may be involved in important protective mechanisms counteracting radiation cytotoxicity. We observed a significant increase in the expression of tumor-suppressor miR-34a, paralleled by a decrease in the expression of its target oncogenes NOTCH1, MYC, E2F3 and cyclin D1. Additionally, we show that miR-7 targets the lymphoid-specific helicase LSH, a pivotal regulator of DNA methylation and genome stability. While miR-7 was significantly down-regulated LSH was significantly up-regulated. These cellular changes may constitute an attempt to counteract radiation-induced hypomethylation. Tissue specificity of miRNA responses and possible regulation of miRNA expression upon irradiation are discussed.

  18. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hlander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2015-03-01

    In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of spermidine synthase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5?-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS.

  19. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  20. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  1. DOE Forms National Center for Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services » Forms » DOE Forms Management FAQ's DOE Forms Management FAQ's Facts.jpg What types of forms are there? Departmental Form: for use department-wide by DOE personnel only Headquarters (HQ) Form: developed or managed by a DOE Headquarters organization and generally for use by HQ or within an HQ element Local Form: for use within a specific DOE Field Office Optional Form: developed by a Federal agency for use by two or more agencies, or non-mandatory Government-wide use and approved by

  2. DOE Forms Management FAQ's | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Forms » DOE Forms Management FAQ's DOE Forms Management FAQ's Facts.jpg What types of forms are there? Departmental Form: for use department-wide by DOE personnel only Headquarters (HQ) Form: developed or managed by a DOE Headquarters organization and generally for use by HQ or within an HQ element Local Form: for use within a specific DOE Field Office Optional Form: developed by a Federal agency for use by two or more agencies, or non-mandatory Government-wide use and approved by

  3. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  4. A.12d1 Management letter when auditing financial statements of a nonpublic entity (excluding FDICIA engagements)-suggested format (Rev. 9/10)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Financial Statement Audit OAI-FS-16-04 January 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Attachment 1 December 11, 2015 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and The Department of Energy, Office of Inspector General Ladies and Gentlemen: In planning and performing our audit of the financial statements of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (the Commission or FERC), as of and for the years ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, in accordance

  5. A.12d1 Management letter when auditing financial statements of a nonpublic entity (excluding FDICIA engagements)-suggested format (Rev. 9/10)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 OAI-FS-16-06 January 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections KPMG LLP Suite 12000 1801 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 KPMG LLP is a Delaware limited liability partnership, the U.S. member firm of KPMG International Cooperative ("KPMG International"), a Swiss entity. Attachment MANAGEMENT LETTER December 16, 2015 Mr. Rickey R. Hass Acting Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC

  6. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σE-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Johnson, Rudd; Nguyen, Nhu T.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; et al

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor ?E is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by ?E in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition ?E regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved inmoreSalmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by ?E in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that ?E up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, ?E is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between ?E and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of ?E, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.less

  7. Suggested data-gathering methods for the assessment of attitudes of Nevada citizens toward location of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradbury, J A

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a variety of methods that could be used by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project to assess the attitudes of Nevada citizens toward the location of a repository at Yucca Mountain. The paper is divided into three chapters: Chapter 1 provides a background discussion; Chapter 2 discusses different social science methods and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each; and Chapter 3 outlines a conceptual approach to integrating several methods into one overall strategy for assessment. An assessment of the attitudes of persons who may be affected by repository activities will (1) enhance the NNWSI Project`s ability to conduct the social impact assessment that can be included in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); (2) provide an information base for understanding and anticipating public responses; (3) allow the NNWSI Project to scope and prioritize issues that arise in the public debate that may occur over the repository location; and (4) help to facilitate communication and cooperation between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and state and local entities in the process of conducting the study. 114 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σE-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Johnson, Rudd; Nguyen, Nhu T.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; et al

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor σE is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by σE in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition σE regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved inmore » Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by σE in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that σE up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, σE is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between σE and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of σE, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.« less

  9. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σE-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Johnson, Rudd; Nguyen, Nhu T.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor σE is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by σE in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition σE regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved in Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by σE in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that σE up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, σE is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between σE and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of σE, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.

  10. Measuring features of the fluence at the far field of a CO/sub 2/ pulsed laser: an issue study with suggestions on how to do it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.G. Jr.; Phelan, R.J. Jr.; Boyle, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    This study examines the problems for measuring the energy density incident on targets where the energy is from a pulse of high energy at CO2 wavelengths and where the targets are located at the far field. The analysis considers two targets--first, a ground-based target for testing and calibration of the measurement systems and second, a drone towed behind an airplane from which the energy distribution information is telemetered to the ground station. Although certain design limits are assumed, the results are general and therefore specific data about the laser sources is not supplied. This study traces each stage of the measurement system from the reception of the incident laser pulse on the drone to the pulse-coded transmission of the sampled data to a ground-based computer.

  11. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  12. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  13. Management Challenges at the Department of Energy … Fiscal Year...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... These suggestions are more fully described in a previous management challenges report, available at: http:energy.govsitesprodfilesIG-0858.pdf. Recent Department of ...

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century Best Practices: Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-06-01

    Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH – non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 – Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate “should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory” it specifically indicates that it is intended to “provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.” The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that pro-vide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories.

  15. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  16. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  17. RFI Well Integrity 06 JUL 1400

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint report entitled "Well Integrity During Shut - In Operations: DOE/DOI Analyses" describes risks and suggests risk management recommendations associated with shutting in the well.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-09-23

    This guide identifies key PB elements, development processes, and practices; describes the context in which DOE PB development occurs; and suggests ways of addressing the critical elements in PB development. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-5.

  19. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIX. The Identification of Sucrose Phosphate in Sugar Beet Leaves

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Buchanan, J. G.

    1952-09-01

    The recognition and characterization of a sucrose phosphate as an intermediate in sucrose by synthesis by green plants is described. A tentative structure for this phosphate is proposed and its mode of formation suggested.

  20. U.S Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-09-23

    This guide identifies key Performance Baseline (PB) elements, development processes, and practices; describes the context in which DOE PB development occurs; and suggests ways of addressing the critical elements in PB development.

  1. Descriptive Morphology Terms For MAMA software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    The table on the following pages lists a set of morphology terms for describing materials. We have organized these terms by categories. Software uses are welcome to suggest other terms that are needed to accurately describe materials. This list is intended as a initial starting point to generating a consensus terminology list.

  2. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  4. Thomson scattering for core plasma on DEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhin, E. E.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Bukreev, I. M.; Chernakov, P. V.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval, A. N.; Litvinov, A. E.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Razdobarin, A. G.; Semenov, V. V.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Andrew, P.

    2014-08-21

    This paper describes the challenges of Thomson scattering implementation for core plasma on DEMO and evaluates the capability to measure extremely high electron temperature range 0.5-40keV. A number of solutions to be developed for ITER diagnostics are suggested in consideration of their realization for DEMO. New approaches suggested for DEMO may also be of interest to ITER and currently operating magnetic confinement devices.

  5. Searching for tiny black holes during cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, T. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    A previous technical note suggests that cold fusion is a small-scale simulation of events that occur in cold stars far-away in the universe. Therefore, it is expected that tiny black holes might be produced during cold fusion. In this paper, a search for tiny black holes whose traces might have been recorded on nuclear emulsions is described. Several traces suggesting the production and evaporation of tiny black holes have been successfully observed.

  6. The three dimensional X-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, D. Juul; Poulsen, H.F.

    2012-10-15

    This introductory tutorial describes the so called 3 dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) technique, which allows bulk non-destructive structural characterizations of crystalline materials. The motivations and history behind the development of this technique are described and its potentials are sketched. Examples of the use of the technique are given and future trends and developments are suggested. The primary aim of the paper is to give 3DXRD novices an easy introduction to the technique and to describe a way from a dream to reality and new results.

  7. Handbook for the marketing of conservation and solar-energy programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mick, C K; Callahan, D

    1980-07-09

    A process-oriented approach is described for encouraging community level energy conservation and planning programs. The approach is designed to augment existing energy programs by focusing on the major barriers to changing current energy-related behavior and attitudes. A variety of concepts, tools and techniques which can be used to overcome these barriers are described. Suggestions are offered on how to design community energy campaign based on the concepts, tools and techniques described. Some brief case studies are provided as examples. (LEW)

  8. Geometry of coexistence in the interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Isacker, P.; Frank, A.; Vargas, C.E.

    2004-09-13

    The Interacting Boson Model (IBM) with configuration mixing is applied to describe the phenomenon of coexistence in nuclei. The analysis suggests that the IBM with configuration mixing, used in conjunction with a (matrix) coherent-state method, may be a reliable tool for the study of geometric aspects of shape coexistence in nuclei.

  9. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  10. Some measurements for determining strangeness matrix elements in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J.; Ying, S. ); Frederico, T. , Sao Jose dos Campos, SP . Inst. de Estudos Avancados); Krein, . Inst. de Fisica Teorica); Williams, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Some experiments to measure strangeness matrix elements of the proton are proposed. Two of these suggestions are described in some detail, namely electro-production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering for isospin zero targets such as deuterium.

  11. Some measurements for determining strangeness matrix elements in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, E.M.; Pollock, S.J.; Ying, S.; Frederico, T.; Krein,; Williams, A.G.

    1991-12-31

    Some experiments to measure strangeness matrix elements of the proton are proposed. Two of these suggestions are described in some detail, namely electro-production of phi mesons and the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering for isospin zero targets such as deuterium.

  12. Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25 Years.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2015-09-01

    This article was requested by Cryogas International, which is celebrating its 25th anniversary this year. At the title suggests, the article identifies hydrogen consumption in the U.S., broken out by the major contributors to total production. Explanatory information is provided describing the causes underlying the significant changes seen in the summary data.

  13. Bile Duct Disruption Following Radiofrequency Ablation: Successful Repair Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Philip M.; Hare, Christopher M.B. Lees, William R.

    2004-08-15

    Persistent biliary leaks, whether iatrogenic or secondary to malignancy, often present a difficult management problem. Recent reports have suggested a role for covered metallic stents in this context. We describe the successful use of a covered stent to seal a persistent biliary leak following radiofrequency ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

  14. Lighting Retrofit Workbook: A Practical "How To" Guide for the National Park Service Visitor Centers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Workbook describes ways to maximize lighting energy savings while maintaining, or improving the lighting quality in national parks. It guides people through a lighting audit, assists in determining problem areas, and recommends a course of action. The workbook offers assistance in the development of an overall plan, suggests mechanisms for design and financial assistance, and recommends a routine maintenance program.

  15. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump. This tip sheet describes the advantages of magnetically coupled ASDs and provides suggested actions.

  16. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews - Geothermal. Supplement to Volume 4, The environment. 3. Impact: air quality data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-12-01

    The results of sampling for SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, mercury, and radon are presented and discussed. The difficulties in differentiating the effects of the well HGP-A from the background of volcanism are described. Soil and water mercury analyses as techniques for geothermal exploration are suggested. (MHR)

  17. Excited nucleon as a van der Waals system of partons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Muskeyev, A. O. Yezhov, S. N.

    2012-06-15

    Saturation in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is associated with a phase transition between the partonic gas, typical of moderate x and Q{sup 2}, and partonic fluid appearing at increasing Q{sup 2} and decreasing Bjorken x. We suggest the van der Waals equation of state to describe properly this phase transition.

  18. Comparison between a spectral and PDF model for turbulent reacting flows.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaithianathan, T.; Collins, L. R.; Ulitsky, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares the performance of a probability density function (PDF) model and a spectral model (known as the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian or EDQNM model) for the case of two initially unmixed reactants undergoing a finite-rate bimolecular reaction. The two models were chosen because they involve complimentary treatments of the nonlinearities and mixing terms. That is, nonlinearities are exactly treated in the PDF and mixing is modeled, whereas the opposite is true for EDQNM. The predictions of the two models are compared to direct numerical simulations. The results show that the PDF model is capable of describing the mixing of the major species reasonably well, but fails to describe the correlations between the reactants and the products even qualitatively. This suggests that the mixing model in the PDF is adequate for describing mixing between major species, but is incapable of describing mixing of the more spatially segregated product species. The EDQNM model does a slightly better job of describing the mixing of reactant species and a much better job of describing mixing of the product species. Presumably the improvement is associated with the more accurate description of the interscale dynamics that are especially important for the segregated products. The implication is that a model that combines the strengths of the EDQNM for describing mixing and the PDF for describing the nonlinearities would yield the best of both worlds.

  19. Thermoplastic deformation of silicon surfaces induced by ultrashort pulsed lasers in submelting conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsibidis, G. D.; Stratakis, E.; Aifantis, K. E.

    2012-03-01

    A hybrid theoretical model is presented to describe thermoplastic deformation effects on silicon surfaces induced by single and multiple ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation in submelting conditions. An approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation is adopted to describe the laser irradiation process. The evolution of the induced deformation field is described initially by adopting the differential equations of dynamic thermoelasticity while the onset of plastic yielding is described by the von Mises stress. Details of the resulting picometre sized crater, produced by irradiation with a single pulse, are discussed as a function of the imposed conditions and thresholds for the onset of plasticity are computed. Irradiation with multiple pulses leads to ripple formation of nanometre size that originates from the interference of the incident and a surface scattered wave. It is suggested that ultrafast laser induced surface modification in semiconductors is feasible in submelting conditions, and it may act as a precursor of the incubation effects observed at multiple pulse irradiation of materials surfaces.

  20. Stepping motor control processor reference manual. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloway, F.W.; VanArsdall, P.J.; Suski, G.J.; Gant, R.G.; Rash, M.

    1980-06-06

    This manual is intended to serve several purposes. The first goal is to describe the capabilities and operation of the SMC processor package from an operator or user point of view. Secondly, the manual will describe in some detail the basic hardware elements and how they can be used effectively to implement a step motor control system. Practical information on the use, installation and checkout of the hardware set is presented in the following sections along with programming suggestions. Available related system software is described in this manual for reference and as an aid in understanding the system architecture. Section two presents an overview and operations manual of the SMC processor describing its composition and functional capabilities. Section three contains hardware descriptions in some detail for the LLL-designed hardware used in the SMC processor. Basic theory of operation and important features are explained.

  1. $50 and up underground house book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehler, M.

    1981-01-01

    Earth-sheltered housing can be livable, compatible with nature, and inexpensive. Plans and designs for low-cost houses that are integrated with their environment make up most of this book. The author begins by outlining 23 advantages of underground housing and describing the histories of several unconventional buildings in the $50 to $500 price range. He also suggests where building materials can be bought and scrounged, describes construction techniques, and explains how to cope with building codes. Sketches, floorplans, and photographs illustrate the text. 8 references, 4 tables. (DCK)

  2. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  3. Fossil generation restructuring in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galambas, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Ukrainian electrical system as it was in 1991, defines the need for restructuring, outlines the restructuring process, identifies a number of major obstacles that are hindering the implementation of the fossil generation, restructuring process, and points out major problems in the coal procurement system. It describes the visits to several Ukrainian power plants, defines restructuring success to date, makes suggestions for improved restructuring progress, highlights lessons learned, and enlightens the audience on the opportunities of investing in the Ukrainian power generation industry. The primary focus is on the Fossil Generator Advisor task, which was carried out under the direction of Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. (Hagler Bailly).

  4. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  5. Neutron Exposure Parameters for the Dosimetry Capsule in the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Tenth Irradiation Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Baldwin; F.B.K. Kam; I. Remec

    1998-10-01

    This report describes the computational methodology for the least-squares adjustment of the dosimetry data from the HSSI 10.OD dosimetry capsule with neutronics calculations. It presents exposure rates at each dosimetry location for the neutron fluence greater than 1.0 MeV, fluence greater than 0.1 MeV, and displacements per atom. Exposure parameter distributions are also described in terms of three- dimensional fitting functions. When fitting functions are used it is suggested that an uncertainty of 6% (1 o) should be associated with the exposure rate values. The specific activity of each dosimeter at the end of irradiation is listed in the Appendix.

  6. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  7. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming

    2014-10-15

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived.

  8. New energy-conserving passive solar single-family homes. Cycle 5, Category 2 HUD solar heating and cooling demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 91 new single-family, energy-conserving passive solar homes described represent award winning designs of the series of five demonstration cycles of the HUD program. Information is presented to help builders and lenders to understand passive solar design, to recognize passive solar buildings, and to provide specific design, construction, and marketing suggestions and details. The first section describes the concept of passive solar energy, explains the various functions which passive solar systems must perform, and discusses the various types of passive systems found in the Cycle 5 projects. The second section discusses each of the 91 solar homes. The third section details the issues of climate requirements and site design concerns, gives examples of building construction, and suggests how to market solar homes. The appendices address more technical aspects of the design and evaluation of passive solar homes.

  9. Telemedicine system interoperability architecture: concept description and architecture overview.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, Richard Layne, II

    2004-05-01

    In order for telemedicine to realize the vision of anywhere, anytime access to care, it must address the question of how to create a fully interoperable infrastructure. This paper describes the reasons for pursuing interoperability, outlines operational requirements that any interoperability approach needs to consider, proposes an abstract architecture for meeting these needs, identifies candidate technologies that might be used for rendering this architecture, and suggests a path forward that the telemedicine community might follow.

  10. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nitrides of iridium and palladiums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Sadigh, B.; Zaug, J.M.; Aberg, D.; Meng, Yue; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2008-08-14

    We describe the synthesis of nitrides of iridium and palladium using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We have used the in situ techniques of x-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering to characterize these compounds and have compared our experimental findings where possible to the results of first-principles theoretical calculations. We suggest that palladium nitride is isostructural with pyrite, while iridium nitride has a monoclinic symmetry and is isostructural with baddeleyite.

  12. Review of the England and Wales trading arrangements: The proposal to cure the ills by euthanasia of the pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neushloss, J.; Woolf, F.

    1999-12-01

    Rather than the extreme remedy that has been proposed, some fairly simple changes might go a long way toward reducing the possibilities of gaming, exercise of market power, and the problems associated with the interplay between gas and electricity markets. This article briefly describes the Pool and OFGEM's proposals. The authors then examine OFGEM's assertion that the suggested new trading arrangements will lead to better results and ask whether these arrangements are the only way to achieve the desired outcomes.

  13. A large scanning radiometer for characterizing fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Klems, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1987-11-01

    A large scanning radiometer for measuring the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration systems and components is described. Examples of measured data obtained for simple non-specular samples using the radiometer are presented. A method of obtaining the overall bidirectional properties of systems by calculation from scanning radiometer measurements of components is suggested. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method appears promising.

  14. Compression of ground-motion data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  15. Variable pressure supercritical Rankine cycle for integrated natural gas and power production from the geopressured geothermal resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsberry, F.L.

    1982-03-01

    A small-scale power plant cycle that utilizes both a variable pressure vaporizer (heater) and a floating pressure (and temperature) air-cooled condenser is described. Further, it defends this choice on the basis of classical thermodynamics and minimum capital cost by supporting these conclusions with actual comparative examples. The application suggested is for the geopressured geothermal resource. The arguments cited in this application apply to any process (petrochemical, nuclear, etc.) involving waste heat recovery.

  16. Recent results from CERN-WA98

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stankus, P.; WA98 Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    The CERN experiment WA98 is a general-survey, open-spectrometer experiment designed to examine 160 A GeV/c Pb+A collisions at the CERN-SPS. The experiment has a broad physics agenda, as suggested by its many different subsystems. A diagram of the experiment as it stood in 1995 is shown in the report. Detectors whose results are presented here are described briefly.

  17. Security Metricsfor Process Control Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metricsfor Process Control Systems Security Metricsfor Process Control Systems This document describes the foundations of metrics, discusses application of these metrics to control system environments, introduces a metrics taxonomy, and suggests usage of metrics to achieve operational excellence. Security Metrics for Process Control Systems (1.9 MB) More Documents & Publications Report of the Cyber Security Research Needs for Open Science Workshop Visualization & Controls Program Peer

  18. Photon annd pion production in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blann, M.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper we describe different formulations for treating the nucleon-nucleon transport physics. These will all be semi-classical treatments; however considerable work has been done considering the relationship between quantal and semi-classical formulations. We discuss additional input specific to calculation of pion and photon yields, and present comparisons between calculated and experimental results, mostly for high energy photons. Conclusions and suggestions for future work are presented in the last section. 65 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Nkei, Bertrand [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  20. Search for Polarization Effects in the Antiproton Production Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Oelert, W.; Diermaier, M.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Głowacz, B.; Moskal, P.; Zieliński, M.; Wolke, M.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Carmignotto, M.; Horn, T.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Asaturyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Eyrich, W.; Hauenstein, F.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    For the production of a polarized antiproton beam, various methods have been suggested including the possibility that antiprotons may be produced polarized which will be checked experimentally. The polarization of antiprotons produced under typical conditions for antiproton beam preparation will be measured at the CERN/PS. If the production process creates some polarization, a polarized antiproton beam could be prepared by a rather simple modification of the antiproton beam facility. The detection setup and the expected experimental conditions are described.

  1. Energy plantations in the Republic of the Philippines. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.

  2. Nonlinearity sensing via photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred

    2011-11-15

    We propose photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy as an adequate tool to describe the optical response of a nonlinear system. To this end we suggest to use optical excitation with varying photon statistics as another spectroscopic degree of freedom to gather information about the system in question. The responses of several simple model systems to excitation beams with different photon statistics are discussed. Possible spectroscopic applications in terms of identifying lasing operation are pointed out.

  3. An Experiment on the Limits of Quantum Electro-dynamics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Barber, W. C.; Richter, B.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; O'Neill, G. K.; Gittelman, B.

    1959-06-01

    The limitations of previously performed or suggested electrodynamic cutoff experiments are reviewed, and an electron-electron scattering experiment to be performed with storage rings to investigate further the limits of the validity of quantum electrodynamics is described. The foreseen experimental problems are discussed, and the results of the associated calculations are given. The parameters and status of the equipment are summarized. (D.C.W.)

  4. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  5. New directions for QA in basic research: The Fermilab/DOE-CH experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-09-01

    This paper addresses the underlying problems involved in developing institution-wide QA programs at DOE funded basic research facilities, and suggests concrete ways in which QA professionals and basic researchers can find common ground in describing and analyzing those activities to the satisfaction of both communities. The paper is designed to be a springboard into workshop discussions which can define a path for developing institution-wide QA programs based on the experience gained with DOE-CH and Fermilab.

  6. Power-law spatial dispersion from fractional Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-10-15

    A microscopic model in the framework of fractional kinetics to describe spatial dispersion of power-law type is suggested. The Liouville equation with the Caputo fractional derivatives is used to obtain the power-law dependence of the absolute permittivity on the wave vector. The fractional differential equations for electrostatic potential in the media with power-law spatial dispersion are derived. The particular solutions of these equations for the electric potential of point charge in this media are considered.

  7. NUCLEAR FISSION CHAIN REACTING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, H.L.; Brown, H.S.

    1961-06-27

    The patent describes a reactor consisting of a plurality of tubes passing through a body of heavy water or graphite, a heat exchanger, means for flowing UF/sub 6/ through the tubes and the heat exchangar, and means for bleeding off some of the UF/sub 6/ and separating plutonium therefrom. A specific suggestion contained is that the amount of the UF/sub 6/ outside the reaction unit be a multiple of that within it.

  8. Self-generation of dissipative solitons in magnonic quasicrystal active ring resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grishin, S. V. Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2014-02-07

    Self-generation of dissipative solitons in the magnonic quasicrystal (MQC) active ring resonator is studied theoretically and experimentally. The developed magnonic crystal has quasiperiodic Fibonacci type structure. Frequency selectivity of the MQC together with the parametric three-wave decay of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) leads to the dissipative soliton self-generation. The transfer matrix method is used to describe MQC transmission responses. Besides, the model of MQC active ring resonator is suggested. The model includes three coupled differential equations describing the parametric decay of MSSW and two differential equations of linear oscillators describing the frequency selectivity of MQC. Numerical simulation results of dissipative soliton self-generation are in a fair agreement with experimental data.

  9. Evaluation of systems and components for hybrid optical firing sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landry, M.J.; Rupert, J.W.; Mittas, A.

    1989-06-01

    High-energy density light appears to be a unique energy form that may be used to enhance the nuclear safety of weapon systems. Hybrid optical firing sets (HOFS) utilize the weak-link/strong-link exclusion region concept for nuclear safety; this method is similar to present systems, but uses light to transmit power across the exclusion region barrier. This report describes the assembling, operating, and testing of fourteen HOFS. These firing sets were required to charge a capacitor-discharge unit to 2.0 and 2.5 kV (100 mJ) in less than 1 s. First, we describe the components, the measurement techniques used to evaluate the components, and the different characteristics of the measured components. Second, we describe the HOFS studied, the setups used for evaluating them, and the resulting characteristics. Third, we make recommendations for improving the overall performance and suggest the best HOFS for packaging. 36 refs., 145 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Chris R; Peterson, Dean E; Leung, Eddie M

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  11. Obstacles to the use of exterior fenestration and daylighting control systems in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweitzer, G.; Johnson, R.

    1984-03-01

    Exterior fenestration and daylighting control systems can provide excellent control of solar gain and glare and still be visually satisfying elements in the design of building envelopes. However, US building industry experience with exterior fenestration and daylighting control systems suggests that durability and proper function of these systems is often unsatisfactory. Yet in Western Europe, exterior systems are a proven, cost-effective, and aesthetically accepted fenestration design element. It is suggested that these contrasting operating experiences reflect differences in prevailing US/Western European approaches to building design, construction, and operation. Three representative US building case studies are examined, each describing the application of exterior fenestration/daylighting control components previously untested as a system, and some unsatisfactory consequences. Several changes that may assist in increasing the acceptance and success of these systems in the US building industry are suggested.

  12. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-08-15

    A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This guide regarding energy recovery is one in a series on best practices for laboratories. It was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs 21'), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH - non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 - Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate 'should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory' it specifically indicates that it is intended to 'provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.' The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that provide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories. Various types of energy recovery

  15. Report on the value engineering workshop on APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-01-01

    A formal value engineering evaluation process was developed to address the front end components of the beamlines for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This process (described in Section 2) involved an information phase, a creative phase, a judgment phase, a development phase, and a recommendation phase. Technical experts from other national laboratories and industry were invited to a two-day Value Engineering Workshop on November 5-6, 1992. The results of this Workshop are described in Section 4. Following the Workshop, various actions by the APS staff led to the redesign of the front end components, which are presented in Sections 5 and 6. The cost benefit analysis is presented in Section 7. It is important of realize that an added benefit of the Workshop was to obtain numerous design evaluations and enhancements of the front end components by experts in the field. As the design work proceeds to Title II completion, the APS staff is including many of these suggestions.

  16. LDRD final report : first application of geospatial semantic graphs to SAR image data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brost, Randolph C.; McLendon, William Clarence,

    2013-01-01

    Modeling geospatial information with semantic graphs enables search for sites of interest based on relationships between features, without requiring strong a priori models of feature shape or other intrinsic properties. Geospatial semantic graphs can be constructed from raw sensor data with suitable preprocessing to obtain a discretized representation. This report describes initial work toward extending geospatial semantic graphs to include temporal information, and initial results applying semantic graph techniques to SAR image data. We describe an efficient graph structure that includes geospatial and temporal information, which is designed to support simultaneous spatial and temporal search queries. We also report a preliminary implementation of feature recognition, semantic graph modeling, and graph search based on input SAR data. The report concludes with lessons learned and suggestions for future improvements.

  17. Implementing Best Practices for Data Quality Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.; McCormack, P.

    2011-04-01

    Effective solar radiation measurements for research and economic analyses require a strict protocol for maintenance, calibration, and documentation to minimize station downtime and data corruption. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data includes guidelines for operating a solar measurement station. This paper describes a suite of automated and semi-automated routines based on the best practices handbook as developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project. These routines allow efficient inspection and data flagging to alert operators of conditions that require immediate attention. Although the handbook is targeted for concentrating solar power applications, the quality-assessment procedures described are generic and should benefit many solar measurement applications. The routines use data in one-minute measurement resolution, as suggested by the handbook, but they could be modified for other time scales.

  18. One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: from Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, R. Keith; Kunszt, Zoltan; Melnikov, Kirill; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2012-09-01

    The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.

  19. Evaluating anaerobic digestion for reduction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    A small-scale anaerobic digestion test has been developed for monitoring start-up work with inoperative digesters. The test is described and variables critical to its consistent operation are detailed. The method has been used in many anaerobic digestion studies, including evaluation of the digestibility of various municipal solid wastes like grass and hedge clippings, garbage and newspapers. Digestion rates are expressed in terms of the rate of production of combustible gas and the retention time needed for a fixed degree of volatile solids destruction. An example shows the advantage of digesting selected combined charges, and it is suggested that this approach might be fruitful with many toxic organic materials. Application of this test to find the digestion rates of some high-yield biomass crops is also described.

  20. Hyperelastic tension of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saavedra Flores, E. I.; Ajaj, R. M.; Adhikari, S.; Dayyani, I.; Friswell, M. I.; Castro-Triguero, Rafael

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we investigate the hyperelastic tensile behaviour of single layer graphene sheets (SLGSs). A one-term incompressible Ogden-type hyperelastic model is chosen to describe the mechanical response of C-C bonds. By establishing equality between the Ogden strain-energy and the variation of the Tersoff-Brenner interatomic potential, three different geometries of SLGSs are studied under tensile loading. We compute the Young's modulus, the finite-deformation Poisson's ratio, ultimate strains, total reactions, and the variation of the potential energy per carbon atom for large strains. Numerical simulations are compared with results obtained by molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations, finite elements, continuum mechanics theory, and experiments. Our predictions are validated, revealing the potential predictive capabilities of the present hyperelastic framework for the analysis of graphene in the context of infinitesimal and large deformations. The good agreement found between our calculations and the published data suggests that graphene may be described as a hyperelastic material.

  1. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, N

    2002-07-05

    This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

  2. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume II. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayadev, J S; Roessner, D eds.

    1980-01-01

    Priorities for basic research important to the future developments of solar energy are idenified, described, and recommended. SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas-and, within each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the description of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  3. Study of J/??pp? and J/??nn?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-08-31

    The decays J/??pp? and J/??nn? have been investigated with a sample of 225.210? J/? events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e?e? collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/??pp?)=(2.1120.0040.031)10? and B(J/??nn?)=(2.070.010.17)10?. Distributions of the angle ? between the proton or antineutron and the beam direction are well described by the form 1+?cos??, and we find ?=0.5950.0120.015 for J/??pp? and ?=0.500.040.21 for J/??nn?. Our branching-fraction results suggest a large phase angle between the strong and electromagnetic amplitudes describing the J/??NN decay.

  4. Early anisotropic hydrodynamics and thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss puzzles in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2010-08-15

    We address the problem of whether the early thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) puzzles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may be solved by the assumption that the early dynamics of the produced matter is locally anisotropic. The hybrid model describing the purely transverse hydrodynamic evolution followed by the perfect-fluid hydrodynamic stage is constructed. The transition from the transverse to perfect-fluid hydrodynamics is described by the Landau matching conditions applied at a fixed proper time {tau}{sub tr}. The global fit to the RHIC data reproduces the soft hadronic observables (the pion, kaon, and the proton spectra, the pion and kaon elliptic flow, and the pion HBT radii) with the accuracy of about 20%. These results indicate that the assumption of the very fast thermalization may be relaxed. In addition, the presented model suggests that a large part of the inconsistencies between the theoretical and experimental HBT results may be removed.

  5. New technologies for item monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  6. Self-organization of pulsing and bursting in a CO{sub 2} laser with opto-electronic feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freire, Joana G.; Meucci, Riccardo; Arecchi, Fortunato Tito; and others

    2015-09-15

    We report a detailed investigation of the stability of a CO{sub 2} laser with feedback as described by a six-dimensional rate-equations model which provides satisfactory agreement between numerical and experimental results. We focus on experimentally accessible parameters, like bias voltage, feedback gain, and the bandwidth of the feedback loop. The impact of decay rates and parameters controlling cavity losses are also investigated as well as control planes which imply changes of the laser physical medium. For several parameter combinations, we report stability diagrams detailing how laser spiking and bursting is organized over extended intervals. Laser pulsations are shown to emerge organized in several hitherto unseen regular and irregular phases and to exhibit a much richer and complex range of behaviors than described thus far. A significant observation is that qualitatively similar organization of laser spiking and bursting can be obtained by tuning rather distinct control parameters, suggesting the existence of unexpected symmetries in the laser control space.

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  8. Intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, J.; Hofler, T.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-07-01

    Certain thermoacoustic effects are described which form the basis for a heat engine that is intrinsically irreversible in the sense that it requires thermal lags for its operation. After discussing several acoustical heating and cooling effects, including the behavior of a new structure called a ''thermoacoustic couple,'' we discuss structures that can be placed in acoustically resonant tubes to produce both substantial heat pumping effects and, for restricted heat inputs, large temperature differences. The results are analyzed quantitatively using a second-order thermoacoustic theory based on the work of Rott. The qualities of the acoustic engine are generalized to describe a class of intrinsically irreversible heat engines of which the present acoustic engine is a special case. Finally the results of analysis of several idealized intrinsically irreversible engines are presented. These suggest that the efficiency of such engines may be determined primarily by geometry or configuration rather than by temperature.

  9. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-11-09

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

  10. Lagrangian formulation of irreversible thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glavatskiy, K. S.

    2015-05-28

    We show that the equations which describe irreversible evolution of a system can be derived from a variational principle. We suggest a Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called “mirror-image” system. The Lagrangian is symmetric in time and therefore compatible with microscopic reversibility. The evolution equations in the normal and mirror-imaged systems are decoupled and describe therefore independent irreversible evolution of each of the systems. The second law of thermodynamics follows from a symmetry of the Lagrangian. Entropy increase in the normal system is balanced by the entropy decrease in the mirror-image system, such that there exists an “integral of evolution” which is a constant. The derivation relies on the property of local equilibrium, which states that the local relations between the thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium are the same as in equilibrium.

  11. Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Trujillo, Juan J.

    2013-07-15

    Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media.

  12. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation and Completion of Episodic Information.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, James Bradley; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Vineyard, Craig Michael; Verzi, Stephen Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus region of the brain is a neurobiological process that is believed to contribute to the brain's advanced abilities in complex pattern recognition and cognition. Here, we describe how realistic scale simulations of the neurogenesis process can offer both a unique perspective on the biological relevance of this process and confer computational insights that are suggestive of novel machine learning techniques. First, supercomputer based scaling studies of the neurogenesis process demonstrate how a small fraction of adult-born neurons have a uniquely larger impact in biologically realistic scaled networks. Second, we describe a novel technical approach by which the information content of ensembles of neurons can be estimated. Finally, we illustrate several examples of broader algorithmic impact of neurogenesis, including both extending existing machine learning approaches and novel approaches for intelligent sensing.

  13. Environmental surveillance plan for the Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Englert, J.P.; Hinnefeld, S.L.

    1981-09-09

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) is a United States Department of Energy owned facility used for the storage of low-level radioactive residues. The site occupies 190 acres of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works and is located in the Niagara County town of Lewiston, in western New York State. The city of Niagara Falls is approximately eight (8) miles south of the NFSS. The purpose of this report is to describe environmental monitoring programs presently operated by NLO, and to suggest programs and revisions which should be implemented as a result of NLO's remedial actions at the NFSS.

  14. Materials technology assessment for a 1050 K Stirling Space Engine design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheuermann, C.M.; Dreshfield, R.L.; Gaydosh, D.J.; Kiser, J.D.; MacKay, R.A.; McDanels, D.L.; Petrasek, D.W.; Vannucci, R.D.; Bowles, K.J.; Watson, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    An assessment of materials technology and proposed materials selection was made for the 1050 K (superalloy) Stirling Space Engine design. The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate previously proposed materials selections, evaluate the current state-of-the-art materials, propose potential alternate materials selections and identify research and development efforts needed to provide materials that can meet the stringent system requirements. This assessment generally reaffirmed the choices made by the contractor; however, in many cases alternative choices were described and suggestions for needed materials and fabrication research and development were made.

  15. Fabrication and test of short helical solenoid model based on YBCO tape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, M.; Lombardo, V.; Lopes, M.L.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2011-03-01

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) is a new technique proposed for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams. To achieve the optimal cooling rate, the high field section of HCC need to be developed, which suggests using High Temperature Superconductors (HTS). This paper updates the parameters of a YBCO based helical solenoid (HS) model, describes the fabrication of HS segments (double-pancake units) and the assembly of six-coil short HS model with two dummy cavity insertions. Three HS segments and the six-coil short model were tested. The results are presented and discussed.

  16. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford Smith

    2003-09-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.

  17. Process of e⁺e⁻ → ππX (3823) in the soft pion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voloshin, M. B.

    2015-06-23

    The production of the resonance X(3823), identified as the charmonium ³D₂ state, in the process e⁺e⁻ → ππX(3823) has been recently reported by BESIII. Here it is pointed out that this process is fully described, up to one overall coupling constant, in the soft pion limit. An interpretation of the available and possible future data within the discussed theoretical framework may reveal new features of the charmoniumlike states. In particular, the observed relative yield for this process at different energies strongly suggests a very significant enhancement of the amplitude at the charmoniumlike peak near 4.36 GeV.

  18. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1993-12-21

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers are described. The in situ reactions: AgNO[sub 3] + RCHO [yields] Ag + RCOOH and R[sub 3]M [yields] M + 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R[sub 3]M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrone.

  19. A user`s guide to LUGSAN II. A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, W.N.

    1998-03-01

    LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.

  20. Manual for training reclamation inspectors in the fundamentals of hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, W.R.; Dyer, K.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This handbook is intended to be a desk reference to help nonhydrologists achieve a basic understanding of hydrology as it relates to surface mining and reclamation. Surface coal mining and reclamation inspectors and other staff will find it useful in implementing regulatory programs. The handbook is not meant to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The handbook can be used in the training of surface-mining and reclamation inspectors, both Federal and State, and as a basic reference for inspectors in carrying out their assigned duties. The handbook describes clues and indicators of potential problems, suggests ways to prevent or mitigate them, and discusses various observation and sampling techniques.

  1. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  2. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.

    2011-03-11

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  3. Radiolysis to knock-on damage transition in zeolites under electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ugurlu, O.; Haus, J.; Gunawan, A. A.; Maheshwari, S.; Tsapatsis, M.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Thomas, M. G.

    2011-03-15

    The electron-beam-induced damage in a zeolite under 60-200 keV energy beam irradiation has both radiolitic and knock-on components and can be described by linear superposition of these two processes. Theoretical predictions supported by experiments at 60 keV suggest that for electron beam energies smaller than 70 keV, the damage to the specimen follows a radiolitic path. For energies larger than 200 keV, knock-on based sputtering of the material will dominate, while considerable radiolitic movement of the atoms will still be present.

  4. Surface relief produced by diffusion induced boundary migration in Cu-Zn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Y.S.; Meyrick, G.; Shewmon, P.G.

    1984-03-01

    Experimental observations are presented that demonstrate that diffusion induced grain boundary migration in copper foils exposed to zinc vapor, from a Cu-15 pct Zn alloy, can be studied directl after treatment without etching. The general characteristics of migration are in accord with previous investigations, but novel changes in the surface topography are described. Pits were formed on the surface of areas swept by boundary migration; also, the surface was often converted into a series of corrugations. The formation of pits suggests that the grain boundary diffusivity of zinc exceeds that of copper. The corrugations are believed to indicate that boundaries sometimes move in an intermittent manner.

  5. Our Universe from the cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrau, Aurlien; Linsefors, Linda E-mail: linda.linsefors@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2014-12-01

    The issue of the origin of the Universe and of its contents is addressed in the framework of bouncing cosmologies, as described for example by loop quantum gravity. If the current acceleration is due to a true cosmological constant, this constant is naturally conserved through the bounce and the Universe should also be in a (contracting) de Sitter phase in the remote past. We investigate here the possibility that the de Sitter temperature in the contracting branch fills the Universe with radiation that causes the bounce and the subsequent inflation and reheating. We also consider the possibility that this gives rise to a cyclic model of the Universe and suggest some possible tests.

  6. Content Analysis for Proactive Intelligence: Marshaling Frame Evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Boek, Annie M.; Cowell, Amanda K.; Posse, Christian; Pouchard, Line C.

    2007-07-22

    Modeling and simulation have great potential as technologies capable of aiding analysts in making accurate predictions of future situations to help provide competitive advantage and avoid strategic surprise. However, to make modeling and simulation effective, an evidence marshaling process is needed that addresses the information needs of the modeling task, as detailed by subject matter experts. We suggest that such an evidence marshaling process can be obtained by combining natural language processing and content analysis techniques to provide quantified qualitative content assessments, and describe a case study with specific reference to the acquisition and marshaling of frames from unstructured text.

  7. Content Analysis for Proactive Intelligence: Marshaling Frame Evidence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio; Cowell, Andrew; Pouchard, Line Catherine

    2007-07-01

    Modeling and simulation have great potential as technologies capable of aiding analysts in making accurate predictions of future situations to help provide competitive advantage and avoid strategic surprise. However, to make modeling and simulation effective, an evidence-marshaling process is needed that addresses the information needs of the modeling task, as detailed by subject matter experts. We suggest that such an evidence-marshaling process can be obtained by combining natural language processing and content analysis techniques to provide quantified qualitative content assessments, and describe a case study on the acquisition and marshaling of frames from unstructured text.

  8. Lightning strike at Bryan, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, B. E.

    1980-02-01

    A week before the 29 August 1979 dedication of the photovoltaic power system at daytime AM radio station WBNO, in Bryan, Ohio, a lightning superbolt struck the FM radio tower, one of two towers at the station. Minor damage to the station and to components of the photovoltaic system, the latter designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under US Department of Energy sponsorship, is described. This rare strike suggested the need for increased protection and more voltage-transient suppressors were added to those already in place as a preventive measure in the event that such a phenomenon reoccurs.

  9. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: Lessons and opportunities from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.N.; Meidinger, E.E.; Miller, G.; Rayner, J.; Layseca, M.

    1998-09-01

    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more activity engaged in the creation and evaluation of policy. In this paper, the authors summarize the literature and experience in how Canada, Mexico, and the United States approach the integration of science and policy; the authors describe some apparent barriers and lessons; and they suggest some issues that may prove fruitful for discussion and future collaboration.

  10. The second generation of electronic diesel fuel injection systems - Investigation with a rotary pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, K.; Oshizawa, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes concepts of the next generation of electronic diesel fuel injection (EDFI) systems, and the test results of the prototype, named ''Model-1.'' Important characteristics of the next generation of EDFI will be; mechanical simplicity, direct control and pump intelligence. Direct spill control using a high speed solenoid valve for injection regulation and pump mounted electronic circuits were used in the ''Model-1'' system. The test results demonstrate the advantages of this system, and suggest possibilities of new function such as individual cylinder control, pilot injection and multi fuel usage.

  11. Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Blanchard, W. R.; Krstic, P. S.; Kugel, H. W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2010-12-09

    A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

  12. Numerically Solvable Model for Resonant Collisions of Electronswith Diatomic Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houfek, Karel; Rescigno, T.N.; McCurdy, C.W.

    2006-01-27

    We describe a simple model for electron-molecule collisions that has one nuclear and one electronic degree of freedom and that can be solved to arbitrarily high precision, without making the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, by employing a combination of the exterior complex scaling method and a finite-element implementation of the discrete variable representation. We compare exact cross sections for vibrational excitation and dissociative attachment with results obtained using the local complex potential approximation as commonly applied in the ''boomerang'' model, and suggest how this two-dimensional model can be used to test the underpinnings of contemporary nonlocal approximations to resonant collisions.

  13. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  14. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

  15. Analysis of RFQ vacuum system for HINS tests at MDB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The arrangement of RFQ vacuum system is briefly described. The projections of the vacuum level using standard out-gassing rates for the RFQ major components are compared with measurements. The permeation of water through the Viton O-rings of the LCW manifold inside the RFQ vacuum vessel is analyzed and compared with RGA data. A model where the out-gassing water from the vanes inner surfaces affects seriously RFQ operation is devised and compared with RFQ performance. The rate of a hydrogen gas spill from the LEBT into the RFQ vacuum space is also projected. Suggestions to correct and improve RFQ operation are presented.

  16. Area C borrow Site Habitat Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2009-12-04

    A habitat quality assessment was performed within selected portions of the proposed Area C Borrow Source. The previously identified Bitterbrush / Indian ricegrass stabilized dune element occurrence was determined to be better described as a sagebrush /needle-and-thread grass element occurrence of fair to good quality. A new habitat polygon is suggested adjacent to this element occurrence, which would also be sagebrush/needle-and-thread grass, but of poor quality. The proposed site of initial borrow site development was found to be a very low quality community dominated by cheatgrass.

  17. Plasma lens and plume divergence in the Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruchtman, A.; Cohen-Zur, A.

    2006-09-11

    The effect of magnetic field curvature on the plume divergence in the Hall thruster is analyzed. The two-dimensional plasma flow and electric field are determined self-consistently within the paraxial approximation in this plasma lens, a nearly axial electric field perpendicular to the curved magnetic field lines. The ion radial velocity along the thruster is described analytically. The authors suggest positioning the ionization layer near the zero of the magnetic field in a reversing-direction field configuration for a minimal beam divergence. They also show that an additional emitting electrode can reduce plume divergence.

  18. Radiological Aspects of Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid Waste in a Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, H F; Blink, J A; Farmer, J C; Karmer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Zhao, P

    2008-11-25

    The quantity, radioactivity, and isotopic characteristics of the spent fission fuel from a hybrid fusion-fission system capable of extremely high burnups are described. The waste generally has higher activity per unit mass of heavy metal, but much lower activity per unit energy generated. The very long-term radioactivity is dominated by fission products. Simple scaling calculations suggest that the dose from a repository containing such waste would be dominated by {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, and {sup 242}Pu. Use of such a system for generating energy would greatly reduce the need for repository capacity.

  19. Survey of Technologies to Support Reuse of Gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader; P. A. Pinson.

    1998-11-01

    This report is a summary of ideas and technologies available to support reuse of plutonium gloveboxes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). This work is the second of two deliverables in the task to enhance glovebox design for longevity and reusability at TA-55. The report presents several design change suggestions to be evaulated for their feasibility by LANL glovebox designers. The report also describes some techniques to be evaluated by LANL for their usefulness in reducing glovebox waste.

  20. Los Alamos lab director to link science education, national security in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TEDxABQ talk Lab director to link science education, national security in talk Los Alamos lab director to link science education, national security in TEDxABQ talk McMillan will describe the events that led to his career in science and share suggestions on how non-scientists can inspire young people to STEM careers and scientific literacy. September 5, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan Los Alamos National Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan Contact Fred deSousa

  1. A quantum measure of the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.

  2. MOONSHINER I: personal fuel production. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the research and design of a self-controlling cellulose to liquid fuel conversion reactor. Initial research suggested the possibility of utilization of a bacterium named Clostridium thermocellum as a conversion agent due to its unique metabolism. Further research showed that work at other locations supported that possibility. Work was begun on the apparatus and techniques necessary for completion. Bad technique, design or supplies resulted in many months of ineffectual work while progress was being made on similar research elsewhere. Other projects' data was used to continue the information collection and design stages of this effort.

  3. CRC handbook of radiology. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    The care and testing of measurement and diagnostic instruments are described in detail. Difficulties encountered with therapeutic and diagnostic calibrations are explored and solutions are suggested. Volume I: Measurement of exposure and calibration of ion chambers. Radiation detectors in radiotherapy. The assay of beta and gamma sources in medicine and biology. Statistical and error analysis in medical physics. Calibration of low energy x-ray units (10 to 100 KV). Calibration of medium energy x-ray and Co-60 units used in radiotherapy. Calibration of megavoltage electron radiotherapy beams. Routine clinical dosimetry. Brachytherapy dosimetry. Neutrons and heavy charged particles used in radiation therapy. Time, dose fractionation and volume relationships in radiotherapy. Index.

  4. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented.

  5. Simple interpretation of shape evolution in Pt isotopes without intruder states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCutchan, E.A.; Casten, R.F.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-06-01

    The most commonly accepted interpretation of the light Pt isotopes invokes the coexistence and mixing with proton intruder states from above the Z = 82 shell gap. Using an alternative description, interacting boson model (IBA) calculations are performed for the Pt isotopes with a simple, single configuration, two-parameter Hamiltonian. Excellent agreement is obtained for energies and electromagnetic transition strengths over the entire isotopic chain, spanning a wide variety of structures, and suggesting that these nuclei can be described more simply without the introduction of an intruder configuration. The Pt nuclei close to midshell are found to lie close to a region of phase/shape coexistence.

  6. Optical-Fiber-Based, Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectrometer for Thin-Film Absorber Characterization and Analysis of TRPL Data for CdS/CdTe Interface: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuciauskas, D.; Duenow, J. N.; Kanevce, A.; Li, J. V.; Young, M. R.; Dippo, P.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the design of a time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectrometer for rapid semiconductor absorber characterization. Simplicity and flexibility is achieved by using single optical fiber to deliver laser pulses and to collect photoluminescence. We apply TRPL for characterization of CdS/CdTe absorbers after deposition, CdCl2 treatment, Cu doping, and back contact formation. Data suggest this method could be applied in various stages of PV device processing. Finally, we show how to analyze TRPL data for CdS/CdTe absorbers by considering laser light absorption depth and intermixing at CdS/CdTe interface.

  7. Glucose Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Nanocomposite Film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Chong M.; Wang, Donghai; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-09-01

    The bionanocomposite film consisting of glucose oxidase/Pt/functional graphene sheets/chitosan (GOD/Pt/FGS/chitosan) for glucose sensing was described. With the electrocatalytic synergy of FGS and Pt nanoparticles to hydrogen peroxide, a sensitive biosensor with detection limit of 0.6 µM glucose was achieved. The biosensor also had good reproducibility, long term stability and negligible interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid comparing to the response to glucose. The large surface area and good conductivity of graphene suggests that graphene is a potential candidate for sensor material. The hybrid nanocomposite glucose sensor provides new opportunity for clinical diagnosis and point-of-care applications.

  8. Detection probabilities for random inspection in variable flow situations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ming-Shih

    1994-03-01

    Improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of inventory-change verification are necessary at certain nuclear facilities, of which one example is low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facilities. The Safeguards Criteria suggested carrying out interim inventory-change verifications with randomized inspections. This paper describes randomized inspection schemes for inventory change verifications and evaluates the achievable detection probabilities for realistic plant receipt and shipment schedules and stratum residence times as a. function of the inspection frequency and effort and compares these with the existing inspection strategies.

  9. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  10. Activities of HPS standards committee in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stencel, J.R.; Chen, S.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) develops American National Standards in the area of radiation protection using methods approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Two of its sections, Environmental Health Physics and Contamination Limits, have ongoing standards development which are important to some environmental remediation efforts. This paper describes the role of the HPS standards process and indicates particular standards under development which will be of interest to the reader. In addition, the authors solicit readers to participate in the voluntary standards process by either joining active working groups (WG) or suggesting appropriate and relevant topics which should be placed into the standards process.

  11. Hot waste-to-energy flue gas treatment using an integrated fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes an innovative process to increase superheated steam temperatures in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. This solution is mainly characterised by a fluidised bed reactor in which hot flue gas is treated both chemically and mechanically. This approach, together with gas recirculation, increases the energy conversion efficiency, and raises the superheated steam temperature without decreasing the useful life of the superheater. This paper presents new experimental data obtained from the test facility installed at the Hera S.p.A. WTE plant in Forli, Italy; discusses changes that can be implemented to increase the duration of experimental testing; offers suggestions for the design of an industrial solution.

  12. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Eric Haseltine

    2010-01-08

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  13. Early AEC safeguards and TSO beginnings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higinbotham, W.A. )

    1989-07-01

    In 1967, a committee at Brookhaven National Laboratory suggested that the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) should establish a safeguards technical support organization at a national laboratory. In February 1968, the AEC established the Technical Support Organization (TSO) at Brookhaven. The AEC 1968 safeguards R and D program and the first TSO task assignments are summarized. To illustrate the nature of the national safeguards activities of TSO during the following 20 years, some of the many field exercises, systems studies, special project, and technical assistance on implementing safeguards measures are described briefly.

  14. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  15. Nonlinear simulations to optimize magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, Daniel B. Weaver, John B.

    2014-03-10

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is an attractive emerging cancer treatment, but the acting microscopic energy deposition mechanisms are not well understood and optimization suffers. We describe several approximate forms for the characteristic time of Néel rotations with varying properties and external influences. We then present stochastic simulations that show agreement between the approximate expressions and the micromagnetic model. The simulations show nonlinear imaginary responses and associated relaxational hysteresis due to the field and frequency dependencies of the magnetization. This suggests that efficient heating is possible by matching fields to particles instead of resorting to maximizing the power of the applied magnetic fields.

  16. The fusion rate in the transmission resonance model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaendel, M. )

    1992-03-01

    Resonant transmission of deuterons through a chain of target deuterons in a metal matrix has been suggested as an explanation for the cold fusion phenomena. In this paper the fusion rate in such transmission resonance models is estimated, and the basic physical constraints are discussed. The dominating contribution to the fusion yield is found to come from metastable states. The fusion rate is well described by the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin approximation and appears to be much too small to explain the experimental anomalies.

  17. On nuclear reactions in defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienes, J.K. )

    1991-05-01

    The variability of results concerning cold fusion, together with the difficulty of explaining the observations, suggests that some nonstandard processes may be occurring. One such possibility is that nuclear reactions occur in defects of a deuterated lattice as a result of transient motions that momentarily bring deuterium atoms into close proximity. In this paper a mechanism involving shear of a one-dimensional lattice is described that illustrates this possibility. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the expected fusion rate is not inconsistent with some experiments.

  18. Thermometry and thermal management of carbon nanotube circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayle, Scott; Gupta, Tanuj; Davis, Sam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Shafraniuk, Serhii

    2015-05-21

    Monitoring of the intrinsic temperature and the thermal management is discussed for the carbon nanotube nano-circuits. The experimental results concerning fabricating and testing of a thermometer able to monitor the intrinsic temperature on nanoscale are reported. We also suggest a model which describes a bi-metal multilayer system able to filter the heat flow, based on separating the electron and phonon components one from another. The bi-metal multilayer structure minimizes the phonon component of the heat flow, while retaining the electronic part. The method allows one to improve the overall performance of the electronic nano-circuits due to minimizing the energy dissipation.

  19. Feasibility of on-line fuel-condition monitoring. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, D.A.; Osetek, D.J.; Croucher, D.W.; Hartwell, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between fuel rod damage and fission product release is investigated to assess the feasibility of using on-line gamma spectroscopy of reactor coolant to estimate not only numbers of detected fuel rods, but also the type of core damage which may occur during an accident or off-normal transient. Fission product release signatures for various fuel conditions and accident scenarios are compared, and unique indicators of fuel damage, ranging from cladding pinholes to severely damaged fuel rods, are suggested, The configuration of monitoring hardware and data analysis soft ware are described, and the benefits, development needs, and usefulness of the envisaged power plant system are discussed.

  20. Institutional barriers to solar energy: early HUD demonstration experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mara, G.; Engel, D.

    1980-03-01

    After briefly describing the Residential Solar Demonstration Program of HUD, several of the program experiences are discussed. The HUD program found that, in practice, most institutions presented only minor problem for active solar heating and cooling of homes. Demonstration experiences suggest solutions to problems which may arise outside the program, particularly as solar applications other than heating and cooling becomemore widespread. The HUD program will continue to study institutional problems for the program's passive solar grants and will focus on areas like the cities, where institutional concerns are more complex.

  1. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  2. Atmospheric sciences transfer between research advances and energy-policy assessments (ASTRAEA). Final report, 1 April 1996--31 December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1997-12-10

    Consistent with the prime goal of the ASTRAEA project, as given in its peer-reviewed proposal, this final report is an informal report to DOE managers about a perceived DOE management problem, specifically, lack of vision in DOE`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). After presenting a review of relevant, current literature, the author suggests a framework for conceiving new visions for ACP, namely, multidisciplinary research for energy policy, tackling tough (e.g., nonlinear) problems as a team, ahead of political curves. Two example visions for ACP are then described, called herein the CITIES Project (the Comprehensive Inventory of Trace Inhalants from Energy Sources Project) and the OCEAN Project (the Ocean-Circulation Energy-Aerosol Nonlinearities Project). Finally, the author suggests methods for DOE to provide ACP with needed vision.

  3. Identification campaign of supernova remnant candidates in the Milky Way. II. X-ray studies of G38.7-1.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R. H. H.; Wu, J. H. K.; Kong, A. K. H.; Hui, C. Y.; Seo, K. A.; Trepl, L.

    2014-04-20

    We report on XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the Galactic supernova remnant candidate G38.7-1.4, together with complementary radio, infrared, and γ-ray data. An approximately elliptical X-ray structure is found to be well correlated with a radio shell as seen by the Very Large Array. The X-ray spectrum of G38.7-1.4 can be well described by an absorbed collisional ionization equilibrium plasma model, which suggests the plasma is shock heated. Based on the morphology and the spectral behavior, we suggest that G38.7-1.4 is indeed a supernova remnant belonging to a mix-morphology category.

  4. Sdssj103913.70+533029.7: a super star cluster in the outskirts of a galaxy merger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, Gillian R.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schlegel, David J.; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Wilhelm, Ron; Lupton, Robert H.; Gunn, James E.; Niederste-Ostholt, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Covey, Kevin; Seth, Anil; Ivezic, Zeljko; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Helmboldt, Joe; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Kleinman, Scot J.; Long, Dan; /Princeton U. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /Michigan State U. /Texas U., McDonald Observ. /Texas Tech. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /New Mexico State U. /Princeton U. /Apache Point Observ. /Mt. Suhora Observ., Cracow /Tokyo U., ICRR

    2005-11-01

    We describe the serendipitous discovery in the spectroscopic data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of a star-like object, SDSSJ103913.70+533029.7, at a heliocentric radial velocity of +1012 km s{sup -1}. Its proximity in position and velocity to the spiral galaxy NGC 3310 suggests an association with the galaxy. At this distance, SDSSJ103913.70+533029.7 has the luminosity of a super star cluster and a projected distance of 17 kpc from NGC 3310. Its spectroscopic and photometric properties imply a mass of > 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}} and an age close to that of the tidal shells seen around NGC 3310, suggesting that it formed in the event which formed the shells.

  5. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO's is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today's cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  6. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO`s is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today`s cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  7. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste potential market implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, H.T.D.; Mooij, H.P.

    1985-08-01

    A 10-day retention time experiment determined digester biogas production and overall digester performance for comparison with previous experiments using 12- and 18-day retention. The authors describe the experiments, compare the results, and discuss general operation and start-up of the three experiments. The results show that the 10-day retention time produces a high level of biogas with substantially lower retention times. The data suggest that as sludge is used and the problem of leaks is addressed, gas production rate can be increased as well as the extent of bio-conversion. They also suggest that a seven-day retention time is physically feasible, and that similar values for gas production and bio-conversion can be maintained. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  10. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  11. Electronic and magnetic properties of epitaxial perovskite SrCrO3(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Du, Yingge; Sushko, Petr; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Guixin; Gai, Zheng; Sallis, Shawn; Piper, L.F.J.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-06-24

    We have investigated the intrinsic properties of SrCrO3 epitaxial thin films synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. We find compelling evidence that SrCrO3 is a correlated metal. X-ray photoemission valence band and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a strongly hybridized Cr3d-O2p state crossing the Fermi level, leading to metallic behavior. Comparison between valence band spectra near the Fermi level and the densities of states calculated using density functional theory (DFT) also suggests the presence of coherent and incoherent states and points to a strong electron-electron correlation effects. The magnetic susceptibility can be described by Pauli paramagnetism at temperatures above 100 K, but reveals antiferromagnetic behavior at lower temperatures resulting from orbital ordering as suggested by Ortega-San-Martin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 255701 (2007)].

  12. Combining Electron Crystallography and X-ray Crystallography to Study the MlotiK1 Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Potassium Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, G.; Aller, S; Wang, J; Unger, V; Morais-Cabral, J

    2009-01-01

    We have recently reported the X-ray structure of the cyclic nucleotide-regulated potassium channel, MlotiK1. Here we describe the application of both electron and X-ray crystallography to obtain high quality crystals. We suggest that the combined application of these techniques provides a useful strategy for membrane protein structure determination. We also present negative stain projection and cryo-data projection maps. These maps provide new insights about the properties of the MlotiK1 channel. In particular, a comparison of a 9 {angstrom} cryo-data projection with calculated model maps strongly suggests that there is a very weak interaction between the pore and the S1-S4 domains of this 6 TM tetrameric cation channel and that the S1-S4 domains can adopt multiple orientations relative to the pore.

  13. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Wilson, Cathy; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-03-24

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  14. Variational perturbation theory and nonperturbative calculations in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovtsova, O. P.

    2013-10-15

    A nonperturbative approach based on the variational perturbation theory in quantum chromodynamics is developed. The variational series is different from the conventional perturbative expansion and can be used to go beyond the weak-coupling regime. The approach suggested takes into account the summation of threshold singularities and the involvement of nonperturbative light quark masses. Phenomenological applications of this approach to describe physical quantities connected with the hadronic {tau}-decay data: the R{sub {tau}} ratio, the light-quark Adler function, and the smeared R{sub {Delta}} function are presented. The description of examined quantities includes an infrared region and, therefore, they cannot be directly calculated within the standard perturbation theory. It is shown that in spite of this fact the approach suggested gives a rather good result for these quantities down to the lowest energy scale.

  15. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  16. Materials experience of the public domain portions of Tube Bank E' during Test Series A2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The tube banks at the Grimethorpe pressurized fluidized bed combustion facility are discussed. Tube Bank E'' was designed for operation as the in bed heat exchanger during Test Series A2 at the Grimethorpe PFBC Establishment between March and November 1987. The supply of the tube bank resulted from an agreement between Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC), the US Department of Energy, and the Operating Agent for the British Coal/CEGB Joint Programme on PFBC. The tube bank incorporated features, designed to produce acceptable and predictable wastage characteristics, suggested by both FWDC and BCC/CEGB interests. As part of the agreement between the various parties, it was agreed only data from 55% of the tube bank would enter the public domain. This report describes the tube bank, and describes and discusses the public domain wastage results following a total operating period approaching 1450 hours. It is concluded that although conditions varied throughout Test Series A2, there were no major differences in the aggressiveness of the bed. Armouring devices suggested by FWDC were not successful, but their chromised coatings offered promise. The results from UK proprietary parts of the tube bank indicated that the tube bank metal wastage need not be a life limiting problem for PFBC in-bed heat exchangers. 5 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Technical evaluation of software for gamma-ray logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report contains results of a technical review of software, identified as LGCALC, that processes data collected by a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole logging system. The software presently operates within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Department of Geosciences, to process data collected by the Radionuclide Logging System. The software has been reviewed for its suitability for processing data to be collected by new high-resolution gamma-ray logging trucks scheduled to begin operational tests within Westinghouse Tank Waste Remediation Systems during 1994. Examination of the program code and hands-on operational tests have shown that this software is suitable for its intended use of processing high-resolution gamma-ray data obtained from borehole logging. Most of the code requires no changes, but in a few limited cases, suggestions have been made to correct errors or improve operation. Section 4 describes these changes. The technical review has confirmed the appropriateness, correctness, completeness, and coding accuracy of algorithms used to process spectral gamma-ray data, leading to a calculation of subsurface radionuclide contaminants. Running the program with test data from calibration models has confirmed that the program operates correctly. Comparisons with hand calculations have shown the correctness of the output from the program, based on known input data. Section 3 describes these tests. The recommended action is to make the near term programming changes suggested in Section 4.1 and then use the LGCALC analysis program with the new high-resolution logging systems once they have been properly calibrated.

  18. Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens metasurfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2015-01-28

    In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity dielectric cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometrymorein a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole resonances to achieve local behavior. These properties are confirmed through the multipolar expansion and show that the use of geometries suggested by perturbation theory is a viable route to achieve purely dipole resonances for metamaterial applications such as wave-front manipulation with Huygens metasurfaces. Our results are fully scalable across any frequency bands where high-permittivity dielectric materials are available, including microwave, THz, and infrared frequencies.less

  19. Equation of State Model Quality Study for Ti and Ti64.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, Ann Elisabet; Sanchez, Jason James

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and the titanium alloy Ti64 (6% aluminum, 4% vanadium and the balance ti- tanium) are materials used in many technologically important applications. To be able to computationally investigate and design these applications, accurate Equations of State (EOS) are needed and in many cases also additional constitutive relations. This report describes what data is available for constructing EOS for these two materials, and also describes some references giving data for stress-strain constitutive models. We also give some suggestions for projects to achieve improved EOS and constitutive models. In an appendix, we present a study of the 'cloud formation' issue observed in the ALEGRA code. This issue was one of the motivating factors for this literature search of available data for constructing improved EOS for Ti and Ti64. However, the study shows that the cloud formation issue is only marginally connected to the quality of the EOS, and, in fact, is a physical behavior of the system in question. We give some suggestions for settings in, and improvements of, the ALEGRA code to address this computational di culty.

  20. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  2. New thermal model with distinct freeze-out temperatures for baryons and mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Assis, Leonardo P. G.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Chiapparini, Marcelo; Hirsch, Luciana R.; Delfino, Antonio Jr.

    2013-05-06

    A significant amount of experimental data for particle production in high-energy heavy ion collisions (10 - 200 GeV/A at center of mass) has been accumulated during last years. Many different theoretical attempts have tried to describe these data using thermal models in the approximation of global thermal equilibrium considering only one freeze-out temperature. However the thermal models often are not able to describe adequately the whole multiplicities of hadrons. For instance, the abundance of strange particles is overestimate and the pion yields are underestimated. In this work is presented a thermal hadronic model with two different temperatures in order to describe the baryonic and mesonic chemical freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model is used to fit the particle population ratios of the hadrons produced in the reaction. The proposal is not merely to incorporate one additional degree of freedom in the adjustment procedure of data, but to present and alternative scenario for the freeze out stage in the collisional proces s. This new reformulated version of thermal model was applied to a set of data, offering a rather good improvement in the fitting of the calculated particle ratios to the data. The results suggest that the introduced model makes the thermal approach more robust to handle with a larger number of colliding systems and a more comprehensive set of reaction observables.

  3. A variational model of disjoining pressure: Liquid film on a nonplanar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Virnovsky, G.

    2009-06-01

    Variational methods have been successfully used in modelling thin liquid films in numerous theoretical studies of wettability. In this paper, the variational model of the disjoining pressure is extended to the general case of a two-dimensional solid surface. The Helmgoltz free energy functional depends both on the disjoining pressure isotherm and the shape of the solid surface. The augmented Young-Laplace equation (AYLE) is a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation. A number of solutions describing wetting films on spherical grains have been obtained. In the case of cylindrical films, the phase portrait technique describes the entire variety of mathematically feasible solutions. It turns out that a periodic solution, which would describe wave-like wetting films, does not satisfy the Jacobi's condition of the classical calculus of variations. Therefore, such a solution is nonphysical. The roughness of the solid surface significantly affects liquid film stability. AYLE solutions suggest that film rupture is more likely at a location where the pore-wall surface is most exposed into the pore space and the curvature is positive.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  5. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Deployments at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Cook, Christopher B.; Titzler, P. Scott; Moursund, Russell A.

    2002-11-12

    This report describes short-term studies conducted in late November and early December 2001 to optimize hydroacoustic sampling techniques for John Day Dam before the 2002 fish passage efficiency (FPE) study. Knowledge gained in this study should significantly improve hydroacoustic sampling and the accuracy of estimates of fish passage at two locations that have presented problems in past studies. The spillway has been most problematic because many fish detected there were not entrained. Without correction, non-commitment of fish can result in multiple detections and overestimation of fish passage and FPE. Trash-rack-mounted, down-looking transducers for sampling unguided fish at a submerged traveling screen (STS) also have posed problems because the beam was aimed so far downstream that researchers had concerns about fish aspect and detectability. The deployments, aiming angles, and ping rates described here should eliminate all problems encountered in previous studies. This report describes hydroacoustic evaluations. The spill-bay deployment identified in this study should completely eliminate multiple detections of fish by limiting the sample volume for counting fish to the deep high-discharge volume adjacent to the gate. Results from testing of transducers deployed in a turbine intake with an STS suggest that, after testing in 2002, it may be possible to cut the number of powerhouse transducers sampling STS units by 50% or to double the spatial sampling coverage with the same number of transducers, all while improving detectability.

  6. Wind energy conversion system analysis model (WECSAM) computer program documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downey, W T; Hendrick, P L

    1982-07-01

    Described is a computer-based wind energy conversion system analysis model (WECSAM) developed to predict the technical and economic performance of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The model is written in CDC FORTRAN V. The version described accesses a data base containing wind resource data, application loads, WECS performance characteristics, utility rates, state taxes, and state subsidies for a six state region (Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana). The model is designed for analysis at the county level. The computer model includes a technical performance module and an economic evaluation module. The modules can be run separately or together. The model can be run for any single user-selected county within the region or looped automatically through all counties within the region. In addition, the model has a restart capability that allows the user to modify any data-base value written to a scratch file prior to the technical or economic evaluation. Thus, any user-supplied data for WECS performance, application load, utility rates, or wind resource may be entered into the scratch file to override the default data-base value. After the model and the inputs required from the user and derived from the data base are described, the model output and the various output options that can be exercised by the user are detailed. The general operation is set forth and suggestions are made for efficient modes of operation. Sample listings of various input, output, and data-base files are appended. (LEW)

  7. Transport of synthetic colloids through single saturated fractures: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1995-07-01

    Colloids having the same surface charge sign as the bulk of the geologic media in a groundwater system may be able to travel through the system faster than soluble species because they will follow fluid streamlines more closely and they should have less tendency to diffuse into pores or dead spaces in the media than soluble species. Synthetic colloids with uniform, controlled properties may be ideal for serving as {open_quotes}worst-case{close_quotes} tracers that provide lower-bound estimates of contaminant travel times in hydrologic systems. This report discusses a review of the literature pertaining to colloid transport in single saturated natural fractures. After a brief background discussion to put the literature review in perspective, the phenomenon of colloid transport in saturated fractures is divided into three major topics, each of which is reviewed in detail: (1) saturated fluid flow through fractures; (2) colloid transport by convection, diffusion, and force fields; and (3) colloid interactions with surfaces. It is suggested that these phenomena be accounted for in colloid transport models by using (1) lubrication theory to describe water flow through fractures, (2) particle tracking methods to describe colloid transport in fractures, and (3) a kinetic boundary layer approximation to describe colloid interactions with fracture walls. These methods offer better computational efficiency and better experimental accessibility to model parameters than rigorously solving the complete governing equations.

  8. Mapping the evolution of scientific ideas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, David; Herrera, Mark; Gulbahce, Natali

    2009-01-01

    Despite the apparent conceptual boundaries of scientific fields, a formal description for their evolution is lacking. Here we describe a novel approach to study the dynamics and evolution of scientific fields using a network-based analysis. We build an idea network consisting of American Physical Society PACS numbers as nodes representing scientific concepts. Two PACS numbers are linked if there exist publications that reference them simultaneously. We locate scientific fields using Cfinder, an overlapping community finding algorithm, and describe the time evolution of these fields using a community evolution method over the course of 1985-2006. The communities we identify map to known scientific fields, and their age strongly depends on t.heir size, impact and activity. Our analysis further suggests that communities that redefine themselves by merging and creating new groups of ideas tend to have more fitness as measured by the impact per paper, and hence communities with a higher fitness tend to be short-lived. The described approach to quantify the evolution of ideas may be relevant in making predictions about the future of science and how to guide its development.

  9. The extension of solar magnetic fields into interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The flow of coronal plasma into interplanetary space results in outward transport of the solar magnetic field. The prevailing open'' interplanetary magnetic field is rooted in the corona and wraps up into a spiral due to the rotation of the Sun. This simple configuration, however, is disrupted by magnetically distinct coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which erupt from the solar corona into interplanetary space. Observations of CMEs at 1 AU reveal electron signatures indicating a closed magnetic topology, postulated to be: (1) magnetic bottles,'' tied to the corona at both ends; (2) plasmoids that are completely disconnected from the Sun; or (3) flux ropes which have topologies intermediate between (1) and (2). With either the magnetic-bottle or flux rope hypothesis, the inward and outward flux at 1 AU should increase indefinitely as CMEs continue to erupt. Using a new techniques to calculate the 2-D flux through 1 AU from single spacecraft measurements, we show that while there is a solar cycle variation to the magnetic flux, it clearly does not grow without bound. This suggests that either CMEs are closed plasmoids which add to no new flux to the interplanetary medium, or that the opening of new flux by CMEs is balanced via reconnection elsewhere in the corona. We suggest that the this latter process may be dominant and describe observation from the Solar Maximum Mission coronagraph which are consistent with reconnection above helmet streamers in the corona. Such disconnections would serve to return closed field arches to the Sun and release open. U-shaped structures into the solar wind. Coronal disconnections appear in some cases to be triggered by pressure pulses caused by CME eruption elsewhere, suggesting a dynamic flux-balance process. We describe a class of solar wind structures, called heat flux dropouts, in which the solar wind electron heat flux, driven by magnetic connection to the hot corona, is absent or greatly reduced.

  10. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  11. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D.; Waldhauer, Ann

    2015-08-18

    Method of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  12. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  13. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  14. Oblique incidence effects in direct x-ray detectors: A first-order approximation using a physics-based analytical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badano, Aldo; Freed, Melanie; Fang Yuan

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the modifications to a previously developed analytical model of indirect CsI:Tl-based detector response required for studying oblique x-ray incidence effects in direct semiconductor-based detectors. This first-order approximation analysis allows the authors to describe the associated degradation in resolution in direct detectors and compare the predictions to the published data for indirect detectors. Methods: The proposed model is based on a physics-based analytical description developed by Freed et al. [''A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems,'' Med. Phys. 37(6), 2593-2605 (2010)] that describes detector response functions for indirect detectors and oblique incident x rays. The model, modified in this work to address direct detector response, describes the dependence of the response with x-ray energy, thickness of the transducer layer, and the depth-dependent blur and collection efficiency. Results: The authors report the detector response functions for indirect and direct detector models for typical thicknesses utilized in clinical systems for full-field digital mammography (150 {mu}m for indirect CsI:Tl and 200 {mu}m for a-Se direct detectors). The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in a semiconductor detector differs from that in indirect detectors in two ways: The direct detector model produces a sharper overall PRF compared to the response corresponding to the indirect detector model for normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction compared to that found in indirect detectors with respect to the response at normal incidence angles. Conclusions: Compared to the effect seen in indirect detectors, the direct detector model exhibits a sharper response at normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction with respect to the blur in the

  15. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from year to

  16. SOLAR PUMPED LASER MICROTHRUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenchik, A M; Beach, R; Dawson, J; Siders, C W

    2010-02-05

    The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.

  17. Comment on "Mode Conversion of Waves In The Ion-Cyclotron Frequency Range in Magnetospheric Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun

    2014-02-28

    Recently, Kazakov and Fulop [1] studied mode conversion (MC) at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance in planetary magnetospheric plasmas by simplifying the dispersion relation of the fast wave (FW) modes to describe a cutoff-resonance (CR) pair near the IIH resonance, which can be reduced to a Budden problem. They suggested that when the IIH resonance frequency (?S) approaches the crossover frequency (?cr), and the parallel wavenumber (k?) is close to the critical wavenumber k? ?(?S = ?cr), MC can be efficient for arbitrary heavy ion density ratios. In this Comment, we argue that (a) the FW dispersion relation cannot be simplified to the CR pair especially near ?cr because in many parameter regimes there is a cutoff-resonance-cutoff (CRC) triplet that completely changes the wave absorption; and (b) the maximum MC efficiency does not always occur near k? ?#25; k???.

  18. Nodal to nodeless superconducting energy gap structure change concomitant with Fermi surface reconstruction in the heavy-fermion CeCoIn?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Petrovic, C.; Tanatar, M. A.; Flint, R.; Hu, Rongwei; White, B. D.; Lum, I. K.; Maple, M. B.; Prozorov, R.

    2015-01-15

    The London penetration depth ?(T) was measured in single crystals of Ce1xRxCoIn?, R=La, Nd, and Yb down to Tmin ? 50 mK (Tc/Tmin ~50) using a tunnel-diode resonator. In the cleanest samples ??(T) is best described by the power law, ??(T) ? Tn, with n ~ 1, consistent with line nodes. Substitutions of Ce with La, Nd, and Yb lead to similar monotonic suppressions of Tc, however, the effects on ??(T) differ. While La and Nd dopings lead to increase of the exponent n and saturation at n ~ 2, as expected for a dirty nodal superconductor, Yb doping leadsmoreto n > 3, suggesting a change from nodal to nodeless superconductivity. This superconducting gap structure change happens in the same doping range where changes of the Fermi surface topology were reported, implying that the nodal structure and Fermi surface topology are closely linked.less

  19. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Donev, E. U.; Suh, J. Y.; Lopez, R.; Feldman, L. C.; Haglund, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less

  20. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  1. Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-07-01

    During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

  2. Unconventional Electronic Reconstruction in Undoped (Ba,Sr)Fe2As2 Across the Spin Density Wave Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, M.

    2010-06-02

    Through a systematic high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission study of the iron pnictide compounds (Ba,Sr)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, we show that the electronic structures of these compounds are significantly reconstructed across the spin density wave transition, which cannot be described by a simple folding scenario of conventional density wave ordering. Moreover, we find that LDA calculations with an incorporated suppressed magnetic moment of 0.5{mu}{sub B} can match well the details in the reconstructed electronic structure, suggesting that the nature of magnetism in the pnictides is more itinerant than local, while the origin of suppressed magnetic moment remains an important issue for future investigations.

  3. [S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John H.; Turner, Jean L.; Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt; Crosthwaite, Lucian P.

    2012-08-10

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 {mu}m line of S{sup +3} at 3.8 km s{sup -1} spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s{sup -1} and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s{sup -1} centered {approx}20 km s{sup -1} to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

  4. A Methodology for Calculating Radiation Signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Marc Louis; Wilcox, Trevor; Bathke, Charles G.; James, Michael R.

    2015-05-01

    A rigorous formalism is presented for calculating radiation signatures from both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) as well as radiological sources. The use of MCNP6 in conjunction with CINDER/ORIGEN is described to allow for the determination of both neutron and photon leakages from objects of interest. In addition, a description of the use of MCNP6 to properly model the background neutron and photon sources is also presented. Examinations of the physics issues encountered in the modeling are investigated so as to allow for guidance in the user discerning the relevant physics to incorporate into general radiation signature calculations. Furthermore, examples are provided to assist in delineating the pertinent physics that must be accounted for. Finally, examples of detector modeling utilizing MCNP are provided along with a discussion on the generation of Receiver Operating Curves, which are the suggested means by which to determine detectability radiation signatures emanating from objects.

  5. Si-based RF MEMS components.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D.; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-01-01

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.

  6. RELAP5/MOD2 assessment simulation of semiscale MOD-2C test S-NH-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megahed, M M

    1987-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the RELAP5/MOD2/Cycle 36.05 thermal hydraulic computer code for a simulation of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident transient (SBLOCA). The experimental data base for the evaluation is the results of Test S-NH-3 performed in the Semiscale MOD-2C test facility. The test modeled a 0.5% SBLOCA with an accompanying failure of the high-pressure injection emergency core cooling system. The test facility and RELAP5/MOD2 model used in the calculations are described. Evaluations of the accuracy of the calculations are presented in the form of comparisons of measured and calculated histories of selected parameters associated with the primary and secondary systems. A conclusion was reached that the code is capable of making SBLOCA calculations efficiently. However, some of the SBLOCA-related phenomena were not properly predicted by the code, suggesting a need for code improvement.

  7. A Search for Direct CP Violation in Two-Body Cabibbo-Suppressed Decays of Neutral Charmed Mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flacco, Christian Julienne

    2007-11-12

    Presented are the results of a search for direct CP violation in Cabibbo-suppressed decays of D{sup 0} to two charged daughters. The analysis described was performed on {approx}230 fb{sup -1} of the BABAR data sample, recorded at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and using the PEP-II electron storage rings. We measure CP asymmetries for decay to the KK and {pi}{pi} final states, as well as for the branching ratio, and develop a new technique for tagging-efficiency correction using the Cabibbo-favored K{pi} final state. We find some evidence for CP violation in decays to the KK final state and results that suggest CP violation in the {pi}{pi} final state as well.

  8. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: A Program Studying Multi-sector Opportunities and Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gossett, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the major transitions occurring within the U.S. energy economy, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) and Stanford University's Precourt Institute for Energy (PIE) engaged energy system stakeholders from government, industry, academia, and the environmental community in a discussion about the priority issues for a program of rigorous research relating to natural gas. Held December 10-11, 2012 on the Golden, CO campus of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the workshop provided invited experts opportunity to describe the state of current knowledge in defined topic areas, and to suggest analytic priorities for that topic area. Following discussion, all stakeholders then contributed potential research questions for each topic, and then determined priorities through an interactive voting process. This record of proceedings focuses on the outcomes of the discussion.

  9. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation of a Large Centrally Located Hepatocellular Adenoma in a Woman with a Pregnancy Wish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheffer, Hester J. Melenhorst, Marleen C. A. M. Tilborg, Aukje A. J. M. van; Nielsen, Karin; Nieuwkerk, Karin M. van Vries, Richard A. de; Tol, Petrousjka van den; Meijerink, Martijn R.

    2015-08-15

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel image-guided ablation technique that is rapidly gaining popularity in the treatment of malignant liver tumors located near large vessels or bile ducts. We describe a 28-year-old female patient with a 5 cm large, centrally located hepatocellular adenoma who wished to get pregnant. Regarding the risk of growth and rupture of the adenoma caused by hormonal changes during pregnancy, treatment of the tumor was advised prior to pregnancy. However, due to its central location, the tumor was considered unsuitable for resection and thermal ablation. Percutaneous CT-guided IRE was performed without complications and led to rapid and impressive tumor shrinkage. Subsequent pregnancy and delivery went uncomplicated. This case report suggests that the indication for IRE may extend to the treatment of benign liver tumors that cannot be treated safely otherwise.

  10. UNIVERSALITY OF PHASE TRANSITION DYNAMICS: TOPOLOGICAL DEFECTS FROM SYMMETRY BREAKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Del Campo, Adolfo

    2014-02-13

    In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defects in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.

  11. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-23

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot “mix” may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields — not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or “grains” of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation, and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. Finally, we describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulationsmore » and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.« less

  12. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  13. Hanford Tank Ventilation System Condensates and Headspace Vapors: An Assessment of Potential Dermal Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, James L.; Springer, David L.

    2006-04-24

    This study considers the question of whether potential dermal exposures to Hanford high-level radioactive waste tank headspace vapors and their condensates could result in significant exposure to workers. Three types of potential exposures were evaluated; dermal contact with aqueous condensate, organic condensate, and direct contact with head space vapors. The dermal absorption rates from aqueous and organic condensates were estimated for selected chemicals using a model described by EPA (1992) with a modified correlation for dermal permeability suggested by Wilschut et al. (1995). Dermal absorption rates of vapors were estimated using a model given by AIHA (2000). Results were compared to an ''equivalent inhalation dose'' calculated by multiplying the inhalation occupational exposure limit by a nominal daily inhalation rate. The results should provide guidance for industrial hygienists to prepare specific recommendations based on specific scenarios.

  14. Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

    1994-08-08

    This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

  15. Reversibility and criticality in amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regev, Ido; Weber, John; Reichhardt, Charles; Dahmen, Karin A.; Lookman, Turab

    2015-11-13

    The physical processes governing the onset of yield, where a material changes its shape permanently under external deformation, are not yet understood for amorphous solids that are intrinsically disordered. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and mean-field theory, we show that at a critical strain amplitude the sizes of clusters of atoms undergoing cooperative rearrangements of displacements (avalanches) diverges. We compare this non-equilibrium critical behaviour to the prevailing concept of a ‘front depinning’ transition that has been used to describe steady-state avalanche behaviour in different materials. We explain why a depinning-like process can result in a transition from periodic to chaotic behaviour and why chaotic motion is not possible in pinned systems. As a result, these findings suggest that, at least for highly jammed amorphous systems, the irreversibility transition may be a side effect of depinning that occurs in systems where the disorder is not quenched.

  16. Reversibility and criticality in amorphous solids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regev, Ido; Weber, John; Reichhardt, Charles; Dahmen, Karin A.; Lookman, Turab

    2015-11-13

    The physical processes governing the onset of yield, where a material changes its shape permanently under external deformation, are not yet understood for amorphous solids that are intrinsically disordered. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and mean-field theory, we show that at a critical strain amplitude the sizes of clusters of atoms undergoing cooperative rearrangements of displacements (avalanches) diverges. We compare this non-equilibrium critical behaviour to the prevailing concept of a ‘front depinning’ transition that has been used to describe steady-state avalanche behaviour in different materials. We explain why a depinning-like process can result in a transition from periodic to chaoticmore » behaviour and why chaotic motion is not possible in pinned systems. As a result, these findings suggest that, at least for highly jammed amorphous systems, the irreversibility transition may be a side effect of depinning that occurs in systems where the disorder is not quenched.« less

  17. Low-Potential Stable NADH Detection at Carbon-Nanotube-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musameh, Mustafa; Wang, Joseph; Merkoci, Arben; Lin, Yuehe )

    2002-11-22

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT) modified glassy-carbon electrodes exhibiting strong and stable electrocatalytic response toward NADH are described. A substantial (490 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the NADH oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is observed using single-wall and multi-wall carbon-nanotube coatings, with oxidation starting at ca.?0.05V (vs. Ag/AgCl; pH 7.4). Furthermore, the NADH amperometric response of the coated electrodes is extremely stable, with 96 and 90% of the initial activity remaining after 60min stirring of 2x10-4M and 5x10-3M NADH solutions, respectively (compared to 20 and 14% at the bare surface). The CNT-coated electrodes thus allow highly-sensitive, low-potential, stable amperometric sensing. Such ability of carbon-nanotubes to promote the NADH electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for dehydrogenase-based amperometric biosensors.

  18. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  19. Design and operation of a solar fired biomass flash pyrolysis reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antal, M.J.; Hofmann, L.; Brown, C.T.; Steenblick, R.

    1981-01-01

    The results of continuing research on the radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass as a source of fluid fuels, industrial feedstocks, and chemicals are described. Bench-scale sources of intense, visible radiant energy were used to simulate the concentrated solar flux available at the focus of solar towers. Windowed transport reactors were developed, which act as cavity receivers for the focused radiant energy and provide a means for direct use of the radiation to rapidly pyrolyze the entering biomass. Detailed result of both bench scale experiments and experiments using the Georgia Tech 400 kW (thermal) solar furnace are presented. These results suggest the use of concentrated radiant energy as a selective means for the production of either a hydrocarbon-rich synthesis gas or sugar related syrups from biomass by flash pyrolysis. Sawdust, ground corncobs, and powdered microcrystal cellulose were the biomass feedstocks in this work.

  20. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; Li, Huina

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflushmore » compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.« less

  1. Wrench fault tectonics in northern New Guinea basin, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trumbly, N.I.; Pigott, J.D.

    1984-04-01

    New Guinea lies on the northern Australian plate boundary and has been a sensitive tectonic recorder of Cenozoic plate interactions between the Australian and Pacific plates. The specific plate interactions are documented by the evolution of the Northern New Guinea fault system and the basin it overprints, the Northern New Guinea basin. Consideration of plate kinematics suggests convergence became increasingly oblique during the Cenozoic. Hydrocarbon exploration strategies within the Northern New Guinea basin must address not only sedimentation, but also must deal with the basin's complex structural and tectonic evolution. A static tectonic classification will not adequately define the Northern New Guinea basin. It is better described as an evolving basin being overprinted by wrenching.

  2. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  3. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  4. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  5. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. . Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  6. Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Mycotic Aneurysm of the Common Iliac Artery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mofidi, R. Bhat, R.; Nagy, J.; Griffiths, G. D.; Chakraverty, S.

    2007-09-15

    This report describes the case of a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the left common iliac artery, successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafting. A 64-year-old woman underwent diagnostic coronary angiography complicated by an infected hematoma of the left groin. Seven days later, she developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus septicemia and CT scan evidence of perivascular inflammation around the left common iliac artery. This was followed by rupture of a mycotic aneurysm of the left common iliac artery. The lesion was successfully treated with a stent-graft and prolonged antibiotic therapy, and the patient remains free of infection 10 months later. Accumulating evidence suggests that endovascular repair can be used safely for the repair of ruptured infected aneurysms.

  7. Solar Pumped Laser Microthruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenchik, A. M.; Beach, R.; Dawson, J.; Siders, C. W.

    2010-10-08

    The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.

  8. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Sherrell R; Flanagan, George F; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  9. Acoustoelectric photoresponse in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, T.; Bandhu, L.; Nash, G. R.

    2015-03-30

    The acoustoelectric current in graphene has been investigated as a function of illumination, using blue (450?nm) and red (735?nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and surface acoustic wave (SAW) intensity and frequency. The measured acoustoelectric current increases with illumination, more than the measured change in the conductivity of the graphene, whilst retaining a linear dependence on the SAW intensity. The latter is consistent with the interaction between the carriers and SAWs being described by a relatively simple classical relaxation model suggesting that the change in the acoustoelectric current is caused by the effect of the illumination on the electronic properties of the graphene. The increase in the acoustoelectric current is greatest under illumination with the blue LED, consistent with the creation of a hot electron distribution.

  10. A model of poetic comprehension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, K.

    1996-12-31

    This article introduces an account of aesthetic comprehension and experience together with an implemented miniature which generates analogical interpretations from a semi-automatic parse of Wordsworth`s {open_quotes}Lines Written in Early Spring{close_quotes}. In our account, a poem serves as an analogy teaching machine by using formal structure to cue the formation of novel analogies. This account builds on an analogical model of comprehension previously applied to large corpora of newspaper summaries. In the miniature, an automatic grammatical and semantic analysis of the text is augmented with information about rhyme and rhythm. These formal cues allow the system to determine analogies which it would not otherwise consider. The article describes the comprehension framework, the annotated piece, and the matcher`s performance on the piece. It closes with a discussion of possible objections to aspects of the thesis or experiment and suggested directions for future work.

  11. Photovoltaic procurement strategies: an assessment of supply issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posner, D.; Costello, D.

    1980-02-01

    This review report presents the results of an analysis of alternative approaches to the design of a federal photovoltaics procurement program. Advantages and disadvantages of large purchases at fixed prices and smaller purchases for testing and demonstrating the technology are presented. The objectives and possible impacts of these purchase programs on the photovoltaic industry are described. The reactions of the industry to alternative purchase programs were assessed using personal interviews with selected companies currently active in photovoltaics. The report begins with a review of the impacts of federal procurements on other innovations, including the electronics industry, and suggests the relation of these procurements to photovoltaics. The methodology for conducting the interviews is presented next. The results of the interviews are summarized into possible scenarios of future developments in the industry and into discussions of key issues in the design of a procurement program. An appendix on the current structure of the photovoltaic industry is provided.

  12. Analytic studies of dispersive properties of shear Alfvn and acoustic wave spectra in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavdarovski, Ilija; Zonca, Fulvio; Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati

    2014-05-15

    The properties of the low frequency shear Alfvn and acoustic wave spectra in toroidal geometry are examined analytically and numerically considering wave particle interactions with magnetically trapped and circulating particles, using the theoretical model described in [I. Chavdarovski and F. Zonca, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 115001 (2009)] and following the framework of the generalized fishbone-like dispersion relation. Effects of trapped particles as well as diamagnetic effects on the frequencies and damping rates of the beta-induced Alfvn eigenmodes, kinetic ballooning modes and beta-induced Alfvn-acoustic eigenmodes are discussed and shown to be crucial to give a proper assessment of mode structure and stability conditions. Present results also demonstrate the mutual coupling of these various branches and suggest that frequency as well as mode polarization are crucial for their identification on the basis of experimental evidence.

  13. On the Virial Theorem for Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D

    2007-09-24

    An attempt has been made to derive a version of the virial integral that would describe average properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is suggested to eliminate the (large) contribution of stellar matter by introducing 'exclusion zones' surrounding stars. Such an approach leads to the appearance of several types of additional surface integrals in the general expression. Their contribution depends on the rate of energy and matter exchange between the stars and ISM. If this exchange is weak, one can obtain a desired virial integral for ISM. However, the presence of intermittent large-scale energetic events significantly constrains the applicability of the virial theorem. If valid, the derived virial integral is dominated by cold molecular/atomic clouds, with only minor contribution of the global magnetic field and low-density warm part.

  14. CN ANOMALIES IN THE HALO SYSTEM AND THE ORIGIN OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carollo, Daniela; Martell, Sarah L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Freeman, Ken C. E-mail: smartell@aao.gov.au E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au

    2013-06-01

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of red giants in the halo system of the Milky Way that are thought to have formed in globular clusters based on their anomalously strong UV/blue CN bands. The orbital parameters of the CN-strong halo stars are compared to those of the inner- and outer-halo populations as described by Carollo et al., and to the orbital parameters of globular clusters with well-studied Galactic orbits. The CN-strong field stars and the globular clusters both exhibit kinematics and orbital properties similar to the inner-halo population, indicating that stripped or destroyed globular clusters could be a significant source of inner-halo field stars, and suggesting that both the CN-strong stars and the majority of globular clusters are primarily associated with this population.

  15. Mexico City air quality research initiative: An overview and some statistical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, R.A.; Streit, G.E. ); Guzman, F. )

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican Petroleum Institute (Institute Mexicano del Petroleo, IMP) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are in the first year of a three-year jointly funded project to examine the air quality in Mexico City and to provide techniques to evaluate the impact of proposed mitigation options. The technical tasks include modeling and simulation; monitoring and characterization; and strategic evaluation. Extensive measurements of the atmosphere, climate, and meteorology are being made as part of the study. This presentation provides an overview of the total project plan, reports on the current status of the technical tasks, describes the data collection methods, presents examples of the data analysis and graphics, and suggest roles for statistical analysis in this and similar environmental studies. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Molecular dynamics of a dilute solution of hydrogen in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, L. R.; Eckert, J.

    1989-06-15

    Molecular-dynamics results on a dilute solution of H in Pd are presentedand compared with available incoherent inelastic neutron-scattering results.The embedded-atom model adopted here does a good job of describing the H-Pdatomic forces probed by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. The timecorrelation functions associated with the computed spectra are strongly dampedand indicative of the anharmonicity that has been suggested as the principalcontribution to the anomalous isotope dependence of the superconductingtransition temperature in PdH. These results highlight the fact that the H-atomvibrations in Pd-H solutions are low-frequency, large-amplitude vibrationsrelative to vibrations of H atoms in usual covalent interactions. The rmsdisplacement of the H atom from its mean position in the center of the Pdoctahedron compares favorably with the available neutron-diffraction results.

  17. Pressure-Induced Structural Phase Transition in CeNi: X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies and First-Principles Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirmelstein, A.; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Ehlers, Georg; Kerbel, O.; Matvienko, V.; Sefat, A. S.; Saporov, B.; Halder, G. J.; Tobin, J. G.

    2015-08-03

    The pressure-induced structural phase transition in the intermediate-valence compound CeNi has been investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction techniques. It is shown that the structure of the pressure-induced CeNi phase (phases) can be described in terms of the Pnma space group. Equations of state for CeNi on both sides of the phase transition are derived and an approximate P-T phase diagram is suggested for P<8 GPa and T<300 K. The observed Cmcm→Pnma structural transition is then analyzed using density functional theory calculations, which successfully reproduce the ground state volume, the phase transition pressure, and the volume collapse associated with the phase transition.

  18. Non-Kondo zero-bias anomaly in disordered quantum wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Chong-Shian; Hsiao, J. H.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-02-14

    We investigated the behavior of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum wires that were embedded with impurities. The linear conductance G can exhibit cusp features that evolve with the positions of the impurities, and these features can be continuously changed using a combination of spit-gate and top-gate voltages. ZBA is observed regardless of the presence of impurity. Kondo model is inadequate for describing the behaviors of both G and ZBA. Despite the presence of impurity scattering, various ZBA behaviors that resemble those reported in clean quantum wires can be observed. Our results suggest that ZBA is an intrinsic phenomenon in a quantum wire, and its temperature and magnetic field dependence does not pertain to the Kondo correlations in quantum dot.

  19. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of spin-polarized H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markic, L. Vranjes; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.

    2007-02-01

    The ground-state properties of spin polarized hydrogen H{down_arrow} are obtained by means of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. Using the most accurate to date ab initio H{down_arrow}-H{down_arrow} interatomic potential we have studied its gas phase, from the very dilute regime until densities above its freezing point. At very small densities, the equation of state of the gas is very well described in terms of the gas parameter {rho}a{sup 3}, with a the s-wave scattering length. The solid phase has also been studied up to high pressures. The gas-solid phase transition occurs at a pressure of 173 bar, a much higher value than suggested by previous approximate descriptions.

  20. Hydration of DNA by tritiated water and isotope distribution: a study by /sup 1/H, /sup 2/H, and /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur-De Vre, R.; Grimee-Declerck, R.; Lejeune, P.; Bertinchamps, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    The hydration layer of DNA (0.75%) in tritiated water represents 3.5% of solvent /sup 3/HHO. The combined effects of temperature (-6 to -40/sup 0/C) and H/sub 2/O//sup 2/H/sub 2/O solvent composition on the spin-lattice relaxation times of water protons and deuterons suggest selective distribution of isotopes in the hydration layer. The ''hydration isotope'' effect and the localization of tritiated water molecules in the hydration layer of DNA have important implications in describing the radiobiological effects of tritiated water because the initial molecular damage caused by /sup 3/HHO (internal radiation source) localizes close to /sup 3/H due to the short range and low energy of /sup 3/H ..beta.. rays.

  1. Control of copper smelter fugitive emissions. Final report Mar 76-Oct 79

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devitt, T.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report deals with fugitive emissions from copper smelting and with related emission control measures. The study involved evaluation of the controls now used in the copper smelting industry and development of suggestions for alternative control devices and practices. A brief overview of copper smelting processes is followed by a more detailed analysis of the conventional processes identifying portions of the operating cycle that produce fugitive emissions. Emphasis is placed on Pierce-Smith Converting which is one of the major emission sources in copper smelting. Some alternate processes now in limited use in the U.S. are described including estimations of fugitive emissions from these conventional and alternative copper smelting processes. A specific report on the utilization of the Hoboken Converter is being prepared at the time of this report. The USEPA should be contacted if a copy of this report is desired.

  2. Optimal bispectrum constraints on single-field models of inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Gemma J.; Regan, Donough; Seery, David E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk

    2014-07-01

    We use WMAP 9-year bispectrum data to constrain the free parameters of an 'effective field theory' describing fluctuations in single-field inflation. The Lagrangian of the theory contains a finite number of operators associated with unknown mass scales. Each operator produces a fixed bispectrum shape, which we decompose into partial waves in order to construct a likelihood function. Based on this likelihood we are able to constrain four linearly independent combinations of the mass scales. As an example of our framework we specialize our results to the case of 'Dirac-Born-Infeld' and 'ghost' inflation and obtain the posterior probability for each model, which in Bayesian schemes is a useful tool for model comparison. Our results suggest that DBI-like models with two or more free parameters are disfavoured by the data by comparison with single-parameter models in the same class.

  3. SOLAR POLAR X-RAY JETS AND MULTIPLE BRIGHT POINTS: EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-02-15

    We present an analysis of X-ray bright points (BPs) and X-ray jets observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope on 2007 November 2-4, within the solar northern polar coronal hole. After selecting small subregions that include several BPs, we followed their brightness evolution over a time interval of a few hours, when several jets were observed. We find that most of the jets occurred in close temporal association with brightness maxima in multiple BPs: more precisely, most jets are closely correlated with the brightening of at least two BPs. We suggest that the jets result from magnetic connectivity changes that also induce the BP variability. We surmise that the jets and implied magnetic connectivity we describe are small-scale versions of the active-region-scale phenomenon, whereby flares and eruptions are triggered by interacting bipoles.

  4. Learning to live with OPEC oil: the Arab view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Either OPEC or a similar Middle East organizaiton will recapture the dominant role in oil market as non-OPEC oil sources are depleted. An interview with Ali Ahmed Attiga of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) suggests the possibility of another embargo, but emphasizes the common bond that both oil-importing and oil-exporting countries have if they become over-dependent on oil. Attiga points out that OAPEC will produce 40% of the energy consumed at the end of 10 years. He credits the 1973 embargo with reminding the US of its vital interest in the Arab world, but admits it did not accomplish the withdrawal of Israel from occupied territory. In response to other questions Attiga doubts other producers will join OPEC, explains OPEC pricing and production policies, and describes its development programs. 1 figure.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2003 through August 2003. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Major accomplishments included: Development of an emission profile for an integrated coke production facility and simulations using PMCAMx for a two week period during July 2001. The emissions from the coke facility are dominated by carbonaceous compounds. Forty seven percent of the organic carbon mass was identified on a compound level basis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the dominant organic compound class in the coke emissions. Initial comparisons with the data collected in Pittsburgh suggest good agreement between the model predictions and observations. Single particle composition data appear useful for identifying primary sources. An example of this unique approach is illustrated using the Fe and Ce particle class with appear associated with steel production.

  6. Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, A.J. ); Portilla, O. )

    1994-05-23

    The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

  7. Extension of the flow-rate-of-strain tensor formulation of plasma rotation theory to non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, W. M.; Bae, C.

    2015-06-15

    A systematic formalism for the calculation of rotation in non-axisymmetric tokamaks with 3D magnetic fields is described. The Braginskii Ωτ-ordered viscous stress tensor formalism, generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry, and the resulting fluid moment equations provide a systematic formalism for the calculation of toroidal and poloidal rotation and radial ion flow in tokamaks in the presence of various non-axisymmetric “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. The relation among rotation velocities, radial ion particle flux, ion orbit loss, and radial electric field is discussed, and the possibility of controlling these quantities by producing externally controllable toroidal and/or poloidal currents in the edge plasma for this purpose is suggested for future investigation.

  8. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  9. Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-10-13

    Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. Specifically, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists andmore » experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.« less

  10. Mathematical model and calculation algorithm of micro and meso levels of separation process of gaseous mixtures in molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umarova, Zhanat; Botayeva, Saule; Yegenova, Aliya; Usenova, Aisaule

    2015-05-15

    In the given article, the main thermodynamic aspects of the issue of modeling diffusion transfer in molecular sieves have been formulated. Dissipation function is used as a basic notion. The differential equation, connecting volume flow with the change of the concentration of catchable component has been derived. As a result, the expression for changing the concentration of the catchable component and the coefficient of membrane detecting has been received. As well, the system approach to describing the process of gases separation in ultra porous membranes has been realized and micro and meso-levels of mathematical modeling have been distinguished. The non-ideality of the shared system is primarily taken into consideration at the micro-level and the departure from the diffusion law of Fick has been taken into account. The calculation method of selectivity considering fractal structure of membranes has been developed at the meso level. The calculation algorithm and its software implementation have been suggested.

  11. Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2016-02-22

    We investigate the spin injection and the spin transport in paramagnetic insulators described by simple Heisenberg interactions using auxiliary particle methods. Some of these methods allow access to both paramagnetic states above magnetic transition temperatures and magnetic states at low temperatures. It is predicted that the spin injection at an interface with a normal metal is rather insensitive to temperatures above the magnetic transition temperature. On the other hand below the transition temperature, it decreases monotonically and disappears at zero temperature. We also analyze the bulk spin conductance. We show that the conductance becomes zero at zero temperature as predictedmore » by linear spin wave theory but increases with temperature and is maximized around the magnetic transition temperature. These findings suggest that the compromise between the two effects determines the optimal temperature for spintronics applications utilizing magnetic insulators.« less

  12. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  13. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  14. In-Well Sediment Incubators to Evaluate Microbial Community Stability and Dynamics following Bioimmobilization of Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Gan, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Smithgall, A. N.; Pfiffner, S.; Freifeld, Barry M.; White, D. C.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-09-23

    An in-situ incubation device (ISI) was developed in order to investigate the stability and dynamics of sediment associated microbial communities to prevailing subsurface oxidizing or reducing conditions. Here we describe the use of these devices at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. During the 7 month deployment oxidized Rifle aquifer background sediments (RABS) were deployed in previously biostimulated wells under iron reducing conditions, cell densities of known iron reducing bacteria including Geobacteraceae increased significantly showing the microbial community response to local subsurface conditions. PLFA profiles of RABS following in situ deployment were strikingly similar to those of adjacent sediment cores suggesting ISI results could be extrapolated to the native material of the test plots. Results for ISI deployed reduced sediments showed only slight changes in community composition and pointed toward the ability of the ISIs to monitor microbial community stability and response to subsurface conditions.

  15. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Truong X.; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio; School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  16. Modelling Residential-Scale Combustion-Based Cogeneration in Building Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, A.; Kelly, N.; Weber, A.; Griffith, B.

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development, calibration and validation of a combustion-cogeneration model for whole-building simulation. As part of IEA Annex 42, we proposed a parametric model for studying residentialscale cogeneration systems based on both Stirling and internal combustion engines. The model can predict the fuel use, thermal output and electrical generation of a cogeneration device in response to changing loads, coolant temperatures and flow rates, and control strategies. The model is now implemented in the publicly-available EnergyPlus, ESP-r and TRNSYS building simulation programs. We vetted all three implementations using a comprehensive comparative testing suite, and validated the model's theoretical basis through comparison to measured data. The results demonstrate acceptable-to-excellent agreement, and suggest the model can be used with confidence when studying the energy performance of cogeneration equipment in non-condensing operation.

  17. Dynamics of energy distribution in three channel alpha helix protein based on Davydov’s ansatz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Faozan; Alatas, Husin

    2015-04-16

    An important aspect of many biological processes at molecular level is the transfer and storage mechanism of bioenergy released in the reaction of the hydrolysis of Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) by biomacromolecule especially protein. Model of Soliton Davydov is a new break-through that could describe that mechanism. Here we have reformulated quantum mechanical the Davydov theory, using least action principle. Dynamical aspect of the model is analyzed by numerical calculation. We found two dynamical cases: the traveling and pinning soliton that we suggest they are related to the energy transfer and storage mechanism in the protein. Traveling and pinning soliton can be controlled by strength of coupling. In 3- channel approach, we found the breather phenomena in which its frequency is determined by interchannel coupling parameter.

  18. Note: On the generation of sub-300 keV flash-X-rays using rod-pinch diode: An experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyanarayana, N.; Rajawat, R. K.; Basu, Shibaji; Rao, A. Durga Prasad; Mittal, K. C.

    2014-09-15

    Generation of flash X-rays (FXRs) at less than 500 keV is described with emphasis on experimental investigation. The pulser is a Tesla transformer-Water transmission line based pulsed power generator operating in double resonance mode to power a rod-pinch diode. The configuration of aspect ratio reported here falls much below the normally reported ratios for the rod-pinch diode operation. Experimental investigation at such low pulsed voltage has revealed “flowering” of the anode tip and “pitting” of the perspex window. A possible explanation in terms of Lorentz body force is discussed rather than the pinch mechanism generally suggested in literature. The experimental investigation for the FXR generation is corroborated by measuring the radiation dose using CaSO{sub 4} (Dy) thermo luminescent dosimeters.

  19. Regular perturbation solution of the Elenbaas-Heller equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, B.D.

    2006-02-01

    The Elenbaas-Heller equation is nondimensionalized and solved using regular perturbation theory to provide closed-form analytical solutions to describe structures of cylindrically symmetrical steady electric arc discharges with negligible radiant heat transfer. Based on available data, it is assumed that the electrical conductivity varies with the heat-flux potential in an Arrhenius fashion. The leading-order solution is equivalent to an asymptotic solution proposed by Kuiken [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1833 (1991)]. Higher-order terms are also derived in the present paper, and it is shown that quantitatively accurate analytical solutions can be developed when higher-order terms are included. Analysis shows that appreciable Joule heating is restricted to an inner zone when a dimensionless parameter is large relative to unity, leading to arc-channel models suggested by previous investigators.

  20. Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-10-13

    Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. Specifically, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists and experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.

  1. Nonlinear evolution of dark matter subhalos and applications to warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Benson, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    We describe the methodology to include nonlinear evolution, including tidal effects, in the computation of subhalo distribution properties in both cold (CDM) and warm (WDM) dark matter universes. Using semi-analytic modeling, we include effects from dynamical friction, tidal stripping, and tidal heating, allowing us to dynamically evolve the subhalo distribution. We calibrate our nonlinear evolution scheme to the CDM subhalo mass function in the Aquarius N-body simulation, producing a subhalo mass function within the range of simulations. We find tidal effects to be the dominant mechanism of nonlinear evolution in the subhalo population. Finally, we compute the subhalo mass function for m {sub χ} = 1.5 keV WDM including the effects of nonlinear evolution, and compare radial number densities and mass density profiles of subhalos in CDM and WDM models. We show that all three signatures differ between the two dark matter models, suggesting that probes of substructure may be able to differentiate between them.

  2. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  3. Pressure-Induced Structural Phase Transition in CeNi: X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies and First-Principles Calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mirmelstein, A.; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Ehlers, Georg; Kerbel, O.; Matvienko, V.; Sefat, A. S.; Saporov, B.; Halder, G. J.; Tobin, J. G.

    2015-08-03

    The pressure-induced structural phase transition in the intermediate-valence compound CeNi has been investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction techniques. It is shown that the structure of the pressure-induced CeNi phase (phases) can be described in terms of the Pnma space group. Equations of state for CeNi on both sides of the phase transition are derived and an approximate P-T phase diagram is suggested for P<8 GPa and T<300 K. The observed Cmcm→Pnma structural transition is then analyzed using density functional theory calculations, which successfully reproduce the ground state volume, the phase transition pressure, and the volume collapse associated withmore » the phase transition.« less

  4. Invariant patterns in crystal lattices: Implications for protein folding algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HART,WILLIAM E.; ISTRAIL,SORIN

    2000-06-01

    Crystal lattices are infinite periodic graphs that occur naturally in a variety of geometries and which are of fundamental importance in polymer science. Discrete models of protein folding use crystal lattices to define the space of protein conformations. Because various crystal lattices provide discretizations of the same physical phenomenon, it is reasonable to expect that there will exist invariants across lattices related to fundamental properties of the protein folding process. This paper considers whether performance-guaranteed approximability is such an invariant for HP lattice models. The authors define a master approximation algorithm that has provable performance guarantees provided that a specific sublattice exists within a given lattice. They describe a broad class of crystal lattices that are approximable, which further suggests that approximability is a general property of HP lattice models.

  5. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiO{sub x} resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehonic, Adnan E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J. E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David

    2015-03-28

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  6. Review of existing reactive transport software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glassley, W., LLNL

    1998-02-03

    Simulations of thermal and hydrological evolution following the potential emplacement of a subterranean nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV provide data that suggest the inevitability of dependent, simultaneous chemical evolution in this system. These chemical changes will modify significantly both the magnitude and structure of local porosity and permeability; hence, they will have a dynamic feedback effect on the evolving thermal and hydrological regime. Yet, despite this intimate interdependence of transport and chemical processes, a rigorous quantitative analysis of the post- emplacement environment that incorporates this critical feedback mechanism has not been completed to date. As an initial step in this direction, the present document outlines the fundamental chemical and transport processes that must be accounted for in such an analysis, and reviews the inventory of existing software that encodes these processed in explicitly coupled form. A companion report describes the prioritization of specific capabilities that are needed for modeling post-emplacement reactive transport at Yucca Mountain.

  7. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  8. The primary test of measuremental system for the actual emittance of relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Fu; Tai-bin Du; Xin Chen

    1995-12-31

    Recent, a new measuremental system has been established basically in Tsinghua University PRA. This system is able to measure the lower emittance of the electron beams from the RF accelerators for the FEL. It consists of a scanning magnetic field, a slit, a fluorescent screen, and a TV camera, an image processing system, a CAD 386 computer. Using it an actual phase diagram is obtained for 4-10 Mev electron beams, The principle and structure of the facility were reported in the Proceeding of the 15th FEL Conference. This paper describes the performance of the main components and the results of first measurement for the electron gun and 4Mev standing wave LINAC, Some new suggests are related too.

  9. An analysis of axial compressor fouling and a blade cleaning method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarabrin, A.P.; Schurovsky, V.A.; Bodrov, A.I.; Stalder, J.P.

    1998-04-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of axial compressor fouling due to aerosols contained in the air. Key parameters having effect on the level of fouling are determined. A mathematical model of a progressive compressor fouling using the stage-by-stage calculation method is developed. Calculation results on the influence of fouling on the compressor performance are presented. A new index of sensitivity of axial compressors to fouling is suggested. The paper gives information about Turbotect`s deposit cleaning method of compressor blading and the results of its application on an operating industrial gas turbine. Regular on-line and off-line washings of the compressor flow path made it possible to maintain a high level of engine efficiency and output.

  10. Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-10-13

    Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. In particular, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theoristsmoreand experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.less

  11. Alloy 825 and 718 gasket corrosion in deep water (500 m) connections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amen, C.; Howl, R.; Oldfield, J.W.

    1999-11-01

    Corrosion has been observed on a number of alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and alloy 825 (UNS N08825) gaskets from subsea connections. The gaskets were in contact with either weld overlaid alloy 625 (UNS N06625) or super duplex stainless steel hubs (UNS S32750). A few hubs also showed some limited corrosion in regions where severe gasket corrosion had occurred. Corrosion was more prevalent on jumpers that had been exposed to sea water for a few months at alloy 718 (UNS N07718) gaskets in contact with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay. General observations were that short term exposures of up to 20 days did not result in corrosion but longer exposures of 40--50 days resulted in severe attack. A program of work was carried out to determine the reason for the observed attack and to suggest ways of avoiding it in the future. This paper describes the findings of the study.

  12. Galvanostatic interruption of lithium insertion into magnetite: Evidence of surface layer formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nicholas W. Brady; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Knehr, K. W.; Cama, Christina A.; Lininger, Christianna N.; Lin, Zhou; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; West, Alan C.

    2016-05-05

    Magnetite is a known lithium intercalation material, and the loss of active, nanocrystalline magnetite can be inferred from the open-circuit potential relaxation. Specifically, for current interruption after relatively small amounts of lithium insertion, the potential first increases and then decreases, and the decrease is hypothesized to be due to a formation of a surface layer, which increases the solid-state lithium concentration in the remaining active material. Comparisons of simulation to experiment suggest that the reactions with the electrolyte result in the formation of a thin layer of electrochemically inactive material, which is best described by a nucleation and growth mechanism.more » Simulations are consistent with experimental results observed for 6, 8 and 32-nm crystals. As a result, simulations capture the experimental differences in lithiation behavior between the first and second cycles.« less

  13. On exact statistics and classification of ergodic systems of integer dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guralnik, Zachary Guralnik, Gerald; Pehlevan, Cengiz

    2014-06-01

    We describe classes of ergodic dynamical systems for which some statistical properties are known exactly. These systems have integer dimension, are not globally dissipative, and are defined by a probability density and a two-form. This definition generalizes the construction of Hamiltonian systems by a Hamiltonian and a symplectic form. Some low dimensional examples are given, as well as a discretized field theory with a large number of degrees of freedom and a local nearest neighbor interaction. We also evaluate unequal-time correlations of these systems without direct numerical simulation, by Pad approximants of a short-time expansion. We briefly speculate on the possibility of constructing chaotic dynamical systems with non-integer dimension and exactly known statistics. In this case there is no probability density, suggesting an alternative construction in terms of a Hopf characteristic function and a two-form.

  14. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  15. Towards risk-based management of critical infrastructures : enabling insights and analysis methodologies from a focused study of the bulk power grid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Bryan T.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Cook, Benjamin Koger

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes research on a holistic analysis framework to assess and manage risks in complex infrastructures, with a specific focus on the bulk electric power grid (grid). A comprehensive model of the grid is described that can approximate the coupled dynamics of its physical, control, and market components. New realism is achieved in a power simulator extended to include relevant control features such as relays. The simulator was applied to understand failure mechanisms in the grid. Results suggest that the implementation of simple controls might significantly alter the distribution of cascade failures in power systems. The absence of cascade failures in our results raises questions about the underlying failure mechanisms responsible for widespread outages, and specifically whether these outages are due to a system effect or large-scale component degradation. Finally, a new agent-based market model for bilateral trades in the short-term bulk power market is presented and compared against industry observations.

  16. Band Structure of InGaAsN Alloys and Effects of Presure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allerman, A.A.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.; Modine, N.A.; Tozer, S.T.; Wei, X.; Wright, A.F.

    1999-01-20

    InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. the excited We report measurements of the low temperature photoluminescence of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We also describe a simple, density- functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity state.

  17. Defective fuel rod detection in operating pressurized water reactors during periods of continuously decreasing fuel rod integrity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanker, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Periods of continuously decreasing levels of fuel rod integrity due to debris-induced cladding damage, vibration-induced fretting wear of the cladding, etc. cause difficulties in the assessment of fuel rod performance from coolant activity data. The calculational models currently in use for this purpose in nuclear power plants are not sufficiently capable of indicating cases in which they are invalid. This can mislead reactor operators by misinterpretation of the coolant activity data, especially in situations where fast reactions are necessary. A quick test of validity is suggested to check the applicability of the currently available calculational models for estimating the number and average size of fuel rod defects. This paper describes how to recognize immediately periods of continuously decreasing levels of fuel rod integrity in order to prevent complications in routine power plant maintenance as well as accident situations caused by more severe fuel rod degradation.

  18. Hybrid neural net and rule based system for boiler monitoring and diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraft, T.; Okagaki, K.; Ishii, R.; Surko, P. ); Brandon, A.; DeWeese, A.; Peterson, S.; Bjordal, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A fully recurrent neural net is coupled with a rule-based expert system in this operator adviser system. The neural net has been trained to recognize normal high-efficiency operating behavior of the power plant boiler, and the rule-based expert system diagnoses problems and suggests maintenance and/or operator actions when the boiler strays outside the envelope of normal operating conditions. The fully recurrent neural net provides an accurate model of a boiler even when the load demand is changing rapidly and the boiler operating conditions varying over a wide range. The hybrid system has been quicker and easier to generate than a strictly rule-based one, and has been designed to be more easily portable to other units This paper describes the ongoing development work for monitoring SDGE and E's South Bay Plant, Unit. 1.

  19. Dark matter as a ghost free conformal extension of Einstein theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss ghost free models of the recently suggested mimetic dark matter theory. This theory is shown to be a conformal extension of Einstein general relativity. Dark matter originates from gauging out its local Weyl invariance as an extra degree of freedom which describes a potential flow of the pressureless perfect fluid. For a positive energy density of this fluid the theory is free of ghost instabilities, which gives strong preference to stable configurations with a positive scalar curvature and trace of the matter stress tensor. Instabilities caused by caustics of the geodesic flow, inherent in this model, serve as a motivation for an alternative conformal extension of Einstein theory, based on the generalized Proca vector field. A potential part of this field modifies the inflationary stage in cosmology, whereas its rotational part at the post inflationary epoch might simulate rotating flows of dark matter.

  20. Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I.; Beall, C.; Vora, N.; DeHart, C.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dippo, P.; To, B.; Mann, J.; Hsu, W. C.; Goodrich, A.; Noufi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

  1. SARP-II: Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program, Revised

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempf, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A computer code, SARP (Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program) which will generate and maintain at-facility safeguards accounting records, and generate IAEA safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user, was completed in 1990 by the Safeguards, Safety, and Nonproliferation Division (formerly the Technical Support Organization) at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a task under the US Program of Technical Support to IAEA safeguards. The code was based on a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) for off-load refueled power reactor facilities, with model facility and safeguards accounting regime as described in IAEA Safeguards Publication STR-165. Since 1990, improvements in computing capabilities and comments and suggestions from users engendered revision of the original code. The result is an updated, revised version called SARP-II which is discussed in this report.

  2. An Assessment of Visual Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2004-11-01

    In response to increasing interest from nuclear utilities in replacing some volumetric examinations of nuclear reactor components with remote visual testing, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has examined the capabilities of remote visual testing for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes visual testing and explores the visual acuities of the camera systems used to examine nuclear reactor components. The types and sizes of cracks typically found in nuclear reactor components are reviewed. The current standards in visual testing are examined critically, and several suggestions for improving these standards are proposed. Also proposed for future work is a round robin test to determine the effectiveness of visual tests and experimental studies to determine the values for magnification and resolution needed to reliably image very tight cracks.

  3. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  4. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, the inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  5. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  6. Nonlinear system vibration---The appearance of chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, N.F. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper begins with an examination of the differential equation for a single degree of freedom force excited oscillator and considers the state space behavior of linear, nonlinear, and chaotic single degree of freedom systems. The fundamental characteristics of classical chaos are reviewed: sensitivity to initial conditions, positive Lyapunov exponents, complex Poincare maps, fractal properties of motion in the state space, and broadening of the power spectrum of the system response. Illustrated examples of chaotic behavior include motion in a two well potential -- the chaos beam described in Moon and a hardening base excited Duffing system. Chaos-like phenomenon which occur with nonperiodic forcing are examined in the context of the two well potential and hardening Duffing systems. The paper concludes with some suggestions for detecting and modelling nonlinear or chaotic behavior. 19 refs., 19 figs.

  7. Extended use of superconducting magnets for bio-medical development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoynev, Stoyan E.

    2015-05-19

    Magnetic fields interact with biological cells affecting them in variety of ways which are usually hard to predict. Among them, it was observed that strong fields can align dividing cells in a preferred direction. It was also demonstrated that dividing cancer cells are effectively destroyed by applying electric fields in vivo with a success rate dependent on the cell-to-field orientation. Based on these facts, the present note aims to suggest the use of magnetic and electric fields for improved cancer treatment. Several possibilities of generating the electric fields inside the magnetic field volume are reviewed, main tentative approaches are described and discussed. Most if not all of them require special magnet configuration research which can be based on existing magnet systems in operation or in development.

  8. Damping of thermoacoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P.V.

    1982-01-01

    The design criteria for the damping mechanism required to suppress thermoacoustic oscillation is discussed. The theory is presented with formulas stated. Incident acoustic wave generation is illustrated with the pipes and damper positions indicated. Capillary and surge tank functions are described with illustrations and formulas relevant to the thermoacoustic oscillation process. Porous solid dampers were introduced which used glass wool. The problem of damping of the thermoacoustic oscillation appears to be solvable in many applications through the use of an orifice and surge tank. This device can be installed either as a termination in an oscillating pipe or in a branch. It is suggested that such a device be incorporated into cryogenic systems whenever thermoacoustic oscillations could cause a problem.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: Mechanisms of its synergistic regulation by growth factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xiaoling

    2011-12-01

    My research is on the synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β. The mechanism of synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β are addressed. Methods are described for effective identification of RNA accessible sites for antisense oligodexoxynucleotides (ODNs) and siRNA. In this study effective AS-ODN sequences for both Lcn2 and Bcl2 were identified by in vitro tiled microarray studies. Our results suggest that hybridization of ODN arrays to a target mRNA under physiological conditions might be used as a rapid and reliable in vitro method to accurately identify targets on mRNA molecules for effective antisense and potential siRNA activity in vivo.

  10. HYDROGEL TRACER BEADS: THE DEVELOPMENT, MODIFICATION, AND TESTING OF AN INNOVATIVE TRACER FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LNAPL TRANSPORT IN KARST AQUIFERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda Laskoskie, Harry M. Edenborn, and Dorothy J. Vesper

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this specific research task is to develop proxy tracers that mimic contaminant movement to better understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in karst aquifers. Hydrogel tracer beads are transported as a separate phase than water and can used as a proxy tracer to mimic the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). They can be constructed with different densities, sizes & chemical attributes. This poster describes the creation and optimization of the beads and the field testing of buoyant beads, including sampling, tracer analysis, and quantitative analysis. The buoyant beads are transported ahead of the dissolved solutes, suggesting that light NAPL (LNAPL) transport in karst may occur faster than predicted from traditional tracing techniques. The hydrogel beads were successful in illustrating this enhanced transport.

  11. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λ{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ>100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  12. Ionospheric modification by rocket effluents. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernhardt, P.A.; Price, K.M.; da Rosa, A.V.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes experimental and theoretical studies related to ionospheric disturbances produced by rocket exhaust vapors. The purpose of our research was to estimate the ionospheric effects of the rocket launches which will be required to place the Satellite Power System (SPS) in operation. During the past year, we have developed computational tools for numerical simulation of ionospheric changes produced by the injection of rocket exhaust vapors. The theoretical work has dealt with (1) the limitations imposed by condensation phenomena in rocket exhaust; (2) complete modeling of the ionospheric depletion process including neutral gas dynamics, plasma physics, chemistry and thermal processes; and (3) the influence of the modified ionosphere on radio wave propagation. We are also reporting on electron content measurements made during the launch of HEAO-C on Sept. 20, 1979. We conclude by suggesting future experiments and areas for future research.

  13. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; et al

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, themore » inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.« less

  14. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  15. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, R.J.; Dabkowski, J.; Hauth, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

  16. Command and control in new nuclear states: Implications for stability. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    Command and control systems of new nuclear states are likely to fail when placed under stress. This thesis will demonstrate that such failures can dramatically affect regional or international stability. Describing the current argument over the consequences of nuclear proliferation between proliferation pessimists and deterrence optimists, this thesis shows how C2 is in fact the crux of the debate. This thesis develops an analytical tool that may be applied to new nuclear states in order to classify their C2 systems and to predict when and how these evolving systems might fail. To show the tool's usefulness, it is applied to Ukraine, an important new nuclear state. This thesis also suggests several implications for U.S. foreign policy. Nuclear weapons, Command and control, Proliferation, Arms control, Regional stability, Russia, United States, Ukraine, Nuclear capabilities, U.S. Security policy.

  17. Crystallographic Identification and Functional Characterization of Phospholipids as Ligands for the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Steroidogenic Factor-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yong; Choi, Mihwa; Cavey, Greg; Daugherty, Jennifer; Suino, Kelly; Kovach, Amanda; Bingham, Nathan C.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Xu, H.Eric

    2010-11-10

    The orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) regulates the differentiation and function of endocrine glands. Although SF-1 is constitutively active in cell-based assays, it is not known whether this transcriptional activity is modulated by ligands. Here, we describe the 1.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of the SF-1 ligand binding domain in complex with an LXXLL motif from a coregulator protein. The structure reveals the presence of a phospholipid ligand in a surprisingly large pocket ({approx}1600 {angstrom}{sup 3}), with the receptor adopting the canonical active conformation. The bound phospholipid is readily exchanged and modulates SF-1 interactions with coactivators. Mutations designed to reduce the size of the SF-1 pocket or to disrupt hydrogen bonds with the phospholipid abolish SF-1/coactivator interactions and significantly reduce SF-1 transcriptional activity. These findings provide evidence that SF-1 is regulated by endogenous ligands and suggest an unexpected relationship between phospholipids and endocrine development and function.

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  19. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.

    2006-01-01

    A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.

  20. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  1. A modern look at the petroleum geology of the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, K.W.; Croft, G.D.

    1995-06-05

    The Maracaibo basin of western Venezuela is one of the world`s most important oil producing basins, with a cumulative production of more than 35 billion bbl. The reasons for this great wealth of hydrocarbons are a combination of source beds of excellent quality, thick reservoirs with high porosity and permeability, and a series of sealing shales, faults, and unconformities, which provide large and numerous traps. Recent discoveries combined with Venezuela`s opening to international investment suggest that the story of this basin is far from over. Surprisingly little exploration has taken place in large parts of the basin, especially southwest of Lake Maracaibo and in the southern part of the lake. This paper describes the history of the basin, stratigraphy, structure, oil fields, and its future prospects.

  2. Development of a high temperature microbial fermentation process for butanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. St.; Reed, David W.; Daubaras, Dayna L.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2015-08-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost-competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to the U.S. future energy and chemical needs. Butanol production by microbial fermentation for chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process could decrease energy costs, capital cost, give higher butanol production, and allow for continuous fermentation. In this paper, we describe our approach to genetically transform Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus, using a pUCG18 plasmid, for potential insertion of a butanol production pathway. Transformation methods tested were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli donor and helper strains, and protoplast fusion. These methods have not been successful using the current plasmid. Growth controls show cells survive the various methods tested, suggesting the possibility of transformation inhibition from a DNA restriction modification system in G. caldoxylosiliticus, as reported in the literature.

  3. The surfdyn concept: An attempt to solve (or rename) the puzzles of cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glueck, P. )

    1993-08-01

    The lack of reproducibility of the cold fusion experiments, aggravated by the great diversity and inconsistency of the positive results, implies that these nuclear phenomena are hypersensitive, i.e., correlated to a [open quotes]chaotic[close quotes] factor. All the factors considered so far, such as structure, transformations, or defects of the crystal lattice; bubbles of deuterium; dendrites, etc., are insufficiently chaotic to explain the known facts. Experimental data suggest that nuclear reactions take place in active sites on the surface of the lattice, that they are stimulated by dynamics factors, and that they represent an extreme form of heterogeneous catalysis. Consequently, according to modern ideas concerning catalysis, the desired chaotic factor is the surface dynamics of some metallic deuterides (hydrides). This hypothesis, called the surfdyn concept, is compatible with all published data, explains the peculiarities of cold fusion, and must be supported by an adequate theory describing the nature and mechanisms of the different nuclear processes. 44 refs.

  4. DRY FLUORINE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-05-19

    Preparation and separation of U/sup 233/ by irradiation of ThF/sub 4/ is described. During the neutron irradiation to produce Pa/sup 233/ a fluorinating agent such as HF, F/sub 2/, or HF + F/sub 2/ is passed through the ThF/sub 4/ powder to produce PaF/sub 5/. The PaF/sub 5/, being more volatile, is removed as a gas and allowed to decay radioactively to U/sup 233/ fluoride. A batch procedure in which ThO/sub 2/ or Th metal is irradiated and fluorinated is suggested. Some Pa and U fluoride volatilizes away. Then the remainder is fluorinated with F/sub 2/ to produce very volatile UF/sub 6/ which is recovered. (T.R.H.)

  5. The Effects of Nitrogen on the Interface State Density Near the Conduction Band Edge in 4H and 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, G.Y.; Tin, C.C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.; Williams, J.R.; McDonald, K.; DiVentra, M.; Pantelides, S.T.; Feldman, L.C.; Weller, R.A.; Holland, O.W.

    2000-06-12

    Results are reported for the passivation of interface states near the conduction band edge in SiO{sub 2}/SiC MOS capacitors using post-oxidation anneals in nitric oxide, ammonia and forming gas (N{sub 2}5%H{sub 2}). Anneals in nitric oxide and ammonia reduce the interface state density significantly for 4H-SiC, while forming gas anneals are largely ineffective. Results suggest that interface states in SiO{sub 2}/SiC and SiO{sub 2}/SiC have different origins, and a model is described for interface state passivation by nitrogen in the SiO{sub 2}/SiC system. The peak inversion channel mobility measured for lateral 4H-SiC MOSFETs increases following NO passivation.

  6. Electronic structure and weak itinerant magnetism in metallic Y2Ni7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, David J.

    2015-11-03

    We describe a density functional study of the electronic structure and magnetism of Y₂Ni₇. The results show itinerant magnetism very similar to that in the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni₃Al. The electropositive Y atoms in Y₂Ni₇ donate charge to the Ni host mostly in the form of s electrons. The non-spin-polarized state shows a high density of states at the Fermi level, N (EF), due to flat bands. This leads to a ferromagnetic instability. However, there are also several much more dispersive bands crossing E(F), which should promote the conductivity. Spin fluctuation effects appear to be comparable to or weaker than Ni₃Al, based on comparison with experimental data. Y₂Ni₇ provides a uniaxial analog to cubic Ni₃Al, for studying weak itinerant ferromagnetism, suggesting detailed measurements of its low temperature physical properties and spin fluctuations, as well as experiments under pressure.

  7. Electronic structure and weak itinerant magnetism in metallic Y2Ni7

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, David J.

    2015-11-03

    We describe a density functional study of the electronic structure and magnetism of Y₂Ni₇. The results show itinerant magnetism very similar to that in the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni₃Al. The electropositive Y atoms in Y₂Ni₇ donate charge to the Ni host mostly in the form of s electrons. The non-spin-polarized state shows a high density of states at the Fermi level, N (EF), due to flat bands. This leads to a ferromagnetic instability. However, there are also several much more dispersive bands crossing E(F), which should promote the conductivity. Spin fluctuation effects appear to be comparable to or weaker thanmore » Ni₃Al, based on comparison with experimental data. Y₂Ni₇ provides a uniaxial analog to cubic Ni₃Al, for studying weak itinerant ferromagnetism, suggesting detailed measurements of its low temperature physical properties and spin fluctuations, as well as experiments under pressure.« less

  8. Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons in Ba3Cr2O8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaime, Marcelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kohama, Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aczel, A [MCMASTER UNIV; Ninios, K [UNIV OF FL; Chan, H [UNIV OF FL; Balicas, L [NHMFL; Dabkowska, H [MCMASTER UNIV; Like, G [MCMASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    By performing heat capacity, magnetocaloric effect, torque magnetometry and force magnetometry measurements up to 33 T, we have mapped out the T-H phase diagram of the S = 1/2 spin dimer compound Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We found evidence for field-induced magnetic order between H{sub cl} = 12.52(2) T and H{sub c2} = 23.65(5) T, with the maximum transition temperature T{sub c} {approx} 2.7 K at H {approx} 18 T. The lower transition can likely be described by Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons theory, and this is consistent with the absence of any magnetization plateaus in our magnetic torque and force measurements. In contrast, the nature of the upper phase transition appears to be quite different as our measurements suggest that this transition is actually first order.

  9. Facing America's trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    One coherent MSW (municipal solid waste) policy is that trash touches virtually all the threads of the social fabric. Products and packaging, yard waste all eventually become part of the MSW stream. The system that produces MSW is so complex and dynamic that no single option is guaranteed in and of itself to solve MSW problems. In fact, it is not clear that there is a single given combination of options that is best. What is clear, however, is that unless there is development of a more comprehensive approach, the Nation will continue to have problems with capacity, siting, and costs for MSW management. Many of the options described in this paper have been suggested before. They have not been acted on, however, and problems have worsened.

  10. Combinatorial density functional theory-based screening of surface alloys for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley, J.; Norskov, J.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Technical Univ. of Denmark

    2009-03-26

    A density functional theory (DFT) -based, combinatorial search for improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts is presented. A descriptor-based approach to estimate the ORR activity of binary surface alloys, wherein alloying occurs only in the surface layer, is described, and rigorous, potential-dependent computational tests of the stability of these alloys in aqueous, acidic environments are presented. These activity and stability criteria are applied to a database of DFT calculations on nearly 750 binary transition metal surface alloys; of these, many are predicted to be active for the ORR but, with few exceptions, they are found to be thermodynamically unstable in the acidic environments typical of low-temperature fuel cells. The results suggest that, absent other thermodynamic or kinetic mechanisms to stabilize the alloys, surface alloys are unlikely to serve as useful ORR catalysts over extended periods of operation.

  11. An electron microscopy study of the microstructure and microarchitecture of the Strombus gigas shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieke, P.C.; Laraia, V.J. ); Heuer, A.H. ); Aindow, M. )

    1989-11-01

    A scanning and transmission electron microscopy study is presented of the microstructure of the Strombus gigas shell. The hierarchical nature of this crossed-lamellar structure and the defect content of the mineral component are described. The mineral component consists of small single crystal grains of aragonite, the metastable orthorhombic polymorph of CaCO{sub 3}. The habit and morphology of the grains discussed here have not been determined previously. The observed habit and defect structure suggest that the organic matrix exerts a high degree of control over the crystal growth of the mineral phase and is responsible for the long range order in the microarhitecture. Electron beam heating of the mineral component leads to certain phase changes and these are discussed. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Status of the Magma Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The current magma energy project is assessing the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy directly from crustal magma bodies. The estimated size of the US resource (50,000 to 500,000 quads) suggests a considerable potential impact on future power generation. In a previous seven-year study, we concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers that would invalidate the magma energy concept. Several concepts for drilling, energy extraction, and materials survivability were successfully demonstrated in Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The present program is addressing the engineering design problems associated with accessing magma bodies and extracting thermal energy for power generation. The normal stages for development of a geothermal resource are being investigated: exploration, drilling and completions, production, and surface power plant design. Current status of the engineering program and future plans are described. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Resistive switching phenomena in TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers for memory applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goren, Emanuelle; Tsur, Yoed; Ungureanu, Mariana; Zazpe, Raul; Rozenberg, Marcelo; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Flix; Stoliar, Pablo

    2014-10-06

    Electrical characteristics of a Co/ TiO{sub x}/Co resistive memory device, fabricated by two different methods, are reported. In addition to crystalline TiO{sub 2} layers fabricated via conventional atomic layer deposition (ALD), an alternative method has been examined, where TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers were fabricated via sol-gel. The different devices have shown different hysteresis loops with a unique crossing point for the sol-gel devices. A simple qualitative model is introduced to describe the different current-voltage behaviours by suggesting only one active metal-oxide interface for the ALD devices and two active metal-oxide interfaces for the sol-gel devices. Furthermore, we show that the resistive switching behaviour could be easily tuned by proper interface engineering and that despite having a similar active material, different fabrication methods can lead to dissimilar resistive switching properties.

  14. Semantic Features for Classifying Referring Search Terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Chandler J.; Henry, Michael J.; McGrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.; Marshall, Eric J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-05-11

    When an internet user clicks on a result in a search engine, a request is submitted to the destination web server that includes a referrer field containing the search terms given by the user. Using this information, website owners can analyze the search terms leading to their websites to better understand their visitors needs. This work explores some of the features that can be used for classification-based analysis of such referring search terms. We present initial results for the example task of classifying HTTP requests countries of origin. A system that can accurately predict the country of origin from query text may be a valuable complement to IP lookup methods which are susceptible to the obfuscation of dereferrers or proxies. We suggest that the addition of semantic features improves classifier performance in this example application. We begin by looking at related work and presenting our approach. After describing initial experiments and results, we discuss paths forward for this work.

  15. The distributed utility: A new electric utility planning and pricing paradigm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinstein, C.D.; Orans, R.; Chapel, S.W.

    1997-12-31

    The distributed utility concept provides an alternate approach to guide electric utility expansion. The fundamental idea within the distributed utility concept is that particular local load increases can be satisfied at least cost by avoiding or delaying the more traditional investments in central generation capacity, bulk transmission expansion, and local transmission and distribution upgrades. Instead of these investments, the distributed utility concept suggests that investments in local generation, local storage, and local demand-side management technologies can be designed to satisfy increasing local demand at lower total cost. Critical to installation of distributed assets is knowledge of a utility system`s area- and time-specific costs. This review introduces the distributed utility concept, describes an application of ATS costs to investment planning, discusses the various motivations for further study of the concept, and reviews relevant literature. Future research directions are discussed.

  16. User Group 2010 Business Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Suggestions for workshopssymposia gg p y p Suggestions for instruments... Workshop suggestions are a little more diverse - no recurring themes and all p gg g seem ...

  17. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  18. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  19. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. I. WHICH ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GALAXY EVOLUTION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Cameron, Ewan; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-10-20

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ∼1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ∼10{sup 12.5-14.5} M{sub ☉} within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ∼40% of <10{sup 13.5} M{sub ☉} groups, from which we estimate that ∼15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ∼30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III.

  20. Analytical modeling of localized surface plasmon resonance in heterostructure copper sulfide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, Andrew H.; Ha, Don-Hyung; Robinson, Richard D.; Ding, Xiaoyue

    2014-10-28

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals is a relatively new field of investigation that promises greater tunability of plasmonic properties compared to metal nanoparticles. A novel process by which the LSPR in semiconductor nanocrystals can be altered is through heterostructure formation arising from solution-based cation exchange. Herein, we describe the development of an analytical model of LSPR in heterostructure copper sulfide-zinc sulfide nanocrystals synthesized via a cation exchange reaction between copper sulfide (Cu{sub 1.81}S) nanocrystals and Zn ions. The cation exchange reaction produces dual-interface, heterostructure nanocrystals in which the geometry of the copper sulfide phase can be tuned from a sphere to a thin disk separating symmetrically-grown sulfide (ZnS) grains. Drude model electronic conduction and Mie-Gans theory are applied to describe how the LSPR wavelength changes during cation exchange, taking into account the morphology evolution and changes to the local permittivity. The results of the modeling indicate that the presence of the ZnS grains has a significant effect on the out-of-plane LSPR mode. By comparing the results of the model to previous studies on solid-solid phase transformations of copper sulfide in these nanocrystals during cation exchange, we show that the carrier concentration is independent of the copper vacancy concentration dictated by its atomic phase. The evolution of the effective carrier concentration calculated from the model suggests that the out-of-plane resonance mode is dominant. The classical model was compared to a simplified quantum mechanical model which suggested that quantum mechanical effects become significant when the characteristic size is less than ∼8 nm. Overall, we find that the analytical models are not accurate for these heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals, indicating the need for new model development for this emerging field.

  1. Nanostructured aluminium titanate (Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}) particles and nanofibers: Synthesis and mechanism of microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azarniya, Abolfazl; Azarniya, Amir; Hosseini, Hamid Reza Madaah; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2015-05-15

    In this study, aluminium titanate (AT) particles and nanofibers were synthesized through citrate sol gel and sol gel-assisted electrospinning methods in both nanostructured powder and nanofiber forms. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis showed that the synthetic products benefit a nanostructured nature with a grain size less than 70 nm. The optimal values for time and temperature at which a roughly pure AT is attained were determined as 2 h and 900 °C, respectively. It was found that the sol gel precursor bears an amorphous structure till 700 °C and begins to be crystallized to alumina, anatase and AT at higher temperatures. Moreover, AT tends to decompose into rutile and alumina at temperatures higher than 900 °C and its degradation rate reaches a maximum at temperatures near to 1100 °C. In this synthesis, citric acid was used as a chelating agent for Al{sup 3} {sup +} and Ti{sup 4} {sup +} ions and it was shown that a low citric acid-to-metal cation ratio leads to larger numbers of nuclei during crystallization and smaller grain size. Finally, a model was suggested to describe the microstructural evolution of AT compound based on a nucleation and growth regime. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We synthesized aluminium titanate ceramic in both powder and nanofiber forms. • The methods in use were citrate sol gel and sol gel-assisted electrospinning. • Powders and nanofibers bear a nanostructured nature with a grain size less than 70 nm. • A model is suggested to describe microstructural evolution of synthetic products.

  2. Hazardous waste cleanup: the preliminaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, K.

    1985-08-01

    This article describes the lengthiness and cost of the preliminary steps in a hazardous waste cleanup. The article describes the S-Area lawsuit, an area near Niagara Falls, New York which was an inactive chemical dump. Contaminated sludge was found at a nearby water treatment plant and was traced back to S-Area. In the past five years, S-Area negotiations have cost the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency two million dollars for advice on how work should proceed for the plant and the landfill. This lawsuit was one of the first in the U.S. against a chemical company for endangering the public through unsound waste disposal practices. Negotiation was selected instead of a trial for several reasons which are outlined. S-Area may serve as a model for other such settlements, as it provides for a flexible plan, open to consideration of alternate technologies that may be developed in the future. It contains a phased approach to both defining and evaluating existing problems, then suggesting remedies. It also requires monitoring for at least 35 years or until no danger remains.

  3. Momentum space dipole amplitude for DIS and inclusive hadron production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, E. A.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; De Oliveira, E. G.

    2013-03-25

    We show how the AGBS model, originally developed for deep inelastic scattering applied to HERA data on the proton structure function, can also describe the RHIC data on single inclusive hadron yield for d+Au and p+p collisions through a new simultaneous fit. The single inclusive hadron production is modeled through the color glass condensate, which uses the quark(and gluon) condensate amplitudes in momentum space. The AGBS model is also a momentum space model based on the asymptotic solutions of the BK equation, although a different definition of the Fourier transform is used. This description entirely in transverse momentum of both processes arises for the first time. The small difference between the simultaneous fit and the one for HERA data alone suggests that the AGBS model describes very well both kind of processes and thus emerges as a good tool to investigate the inclusive hadron production data. We use this model for predictions at LHC energies, which agree quite well with available experimental data.

  4. Roles of Vacancy/Interstitial Diffusion and Segregation in the Microchemistry at Grain Boundaries of Irradiated Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ying; Field, Kevin G.; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2016-02-23

    A detailed analysis of the diffusion fluxes near and at grain boundaries of irradiated Fe–Cr–Ni alloys, induced by preferential atom-vacancy and atom-interstitial coupling, is presented. The diffusion flux equations were based on the Perks model formulated through the linear theory of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The preferential atom-vacancy coupling was described by the mobility model, whereas the preferential atom-interstitial coupling was described by the interstitial binding model. The composition dependence of the thermodynamic factor was modeled using the CALPHAD approach. The calculated fluxes up to 10 dpa suggested the dominant diffusion mechanism for chromium and iron is via vacancy,more » while that for nickel can swing from the vacancy to the interstitial dominant mechanism. The diffusion flux in the vicinity of a grain boundary was found to be greatly modified by the segregation induced by irradiation, leading to the oscillatory behavior of alloy compositions in this region.« less

  5. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

  6. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  7. Hadronic resonances above the QCD phase transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaschke, D.

    2005-06-14

    We describe matter formed in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions within a generalized Hagedorn resonance gas model where hadrons have a vanishing width below the Hagedorn temperature TH and a Hagedorn spectrum-like width above TH. Such an approach not only eliminates the divergence of the thermodynamic functions above TH, but it is able to successfully describe the lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) data on the energy density. It also allows to explain the absence of heavy resonance contributions in the fit of the experimentally measured particle ratios at SPS and RHIC energies. We present an application of the approach to the description of the NA50 experiment which suggests that the anomalous suppression of J/{psi} production may be explained by the increase of the effective number of degrees of freedom at the Hagedorn temperature. We estimate the shear viscosity of the generalized Hagedorn resonance gas model and find remarkable agreement with the perfect liquid bound {eta}/s {>=} 1/(4{pi})

  8. Development of a robust modeling tool for radiation-induced segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying; Field, Kevin G; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels in Light Water Reactor (LWR) components has been linked to changes in grain boundary composition due to irradiation induced segregation (RIS). This work developed a robust RIS modeling tool to account for thermodynamics and kinetics of the atom and defect transportation under combined thermal and radiation conditions. The diffusion flux equations were based on the Perks model formulated through the linear theory of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Both cross and non-cross phenomenological diffusion coefficients in the flux equations were considered and correlated to tracer diffusion coefficients through Manning’s relation. The preferential atomvacancy coupling was described by the mobility model, whereas the preferential atom-interstitial coupling was described by the interstitial binding model. The composition dependence of the thermodynamic factor was modeled using the CALPHAD approach. Detailed analysis on the diffusion fluxes near and at grain boundaries of irradiated austenitic stainless steels suggested the dominant diffusion mechanism for chromium and iron is via vacancy, while that for nickel can swing from the vacancy to the interstitial dominant mechanism. The diffusion flux in the vicinity of a grain boundary was found to be greatly influenced by the composition gradient formed from the transient state, leading to the oscillatory behavior of alloy compositions in this region. This work confirms that both vacancy and interstitial diffusion, and segregation itself, have important roles in determining the microchemistry of Fe, Cr, and Ni at irradiated grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steels.

  9. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB 50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum ofmoreSAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. Thus, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.less

  10. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  11. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the summore » of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.« less

  13. The role of membrane fluidization in the gel-assisted formation of giant polymersomes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, Adrienne C.; Henderson, Ian M.; Gomez, Andrew; Paxton, Walter F.; VanDelinder, Virginia; Bachand, George D.; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-07-13

    Polymersomes are being widely explored as synthetic analogs of lipid vesicles based on their enhanced stability and potential uses in a wide variety of applications in (e.g., drug delivery, cell analogs, etc.). Controlled formation of giant polymersomes for use in membrane studies and cell mimetic systems, however, is currently limited by low-yield production methodologies. Here, we describe for the first time, how the size distribution of giant poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(butadiene) (PEO-PBD) polymersomes formed by gel-assisted rehydration may be controlled based on membrane fluidization. We first show that the average diameter and size distribution of PEO-PBD polymersomes may be readily increased bymore » increasing the temperature of the rehydration solution. Further, we describe a correlative relationship between polymersome size and membrane fluidization through the addition of sucrose during rehydration, enabling the formation of PEO-PBD polymersomes with a range of diameters, including giant-sized vesicles (>100 μm). This correlative relationship suggests that sucrose may function as a small molecule fluidizer during rehydration, enhancing polymer diffusivity during formation and increasing polymersome size. Altogether the ability to easily regulate the size of PEO-PBD polymersomes based on membrane fluidity, either through temperature or fluidizers, has broadly applicability in areas including targeted therapeutic delivery and synthetic biology.« less

  14. The accurate assessment of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, Thomas D.; Luft, Joseph R.; Carter, Lester G.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Martel, Anne; Snell, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    A set of quantitative techniques is suggested for assessing SAXS data quality. These are applied in the form of a script, SAXStats, to a test set of 27 proteins, showing that these techniques are more sensitive than manual assessment of data quality. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has grown in popularity in recent times with the advent of bright synchrotron X-ray sources, powerful computational resources and algorithms enabling the calculation of increasingly complex models. However, the lack of standardized data-quality metrics presents difficulties for the growing user community in accurately assessing the quality of experimental SAXS data. Here, a series of metrics to quantitatively describe SAXS data in an objective manner using statistical evaluations are defined. These metrics are applied to identify the effects of radiation damage, concentration dependence and interparticle interactions on SAXS data from a set of 27 previously described targets for which high-resolution structures have been determined via X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The studies show that these metrics are sufficient to characterize SAXS data quality on a small sample set with statistical rigor and sensitivity similar to or better than manual analysis. The development of data-quality analysis strategies such as these initial efforts is needed to enable the accurate and unbiased assessment of SAXS data quality.

  15. Basic research needs and priorities in solar energy. Volume I. Executive summary. Technology crosscuts for DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayadev, T S; Roessner, D eds.

    1980-01-01

    This report identifies, describes, and recommends priorities for basic research important to the future development of solar energy. In response to a request from the US Department of Energy, SERI surveyed more than 120 leading scientists who were engaged in or knowledgeable of solar-related research. SERI scientists relied heavily on the opinions of scientists polled, but weighted their own recommendations and opinions equally. The result is an amalgam of national scientific opinion representing the views of key researchers in relevant disciplines and of SERI staff members. The Scientific disciplines included in the report are: chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering and mathematics, and the social and behavioral sciences. Each discipline is subdivided into two to five topical areas and, wintin each topical area, research needs are described and ranked according to the priorities suggested in the survey. Three categories of priority were established: Crucial, important, and needed. A narrative accompanying the descripton of research needs in each topical area discusses the importance of research in the area for solar energy development and presents the bases for the priority rankings recommended.

  16. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  17. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING THE B[e] PHENOMENON. IV. MODELING OF IRAS 00470+6429

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Miroshnichenko, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States); Bjorkman, J. E., E-mail: carciofi@usp.b [Ritter Observatory, M.S. 113, Deptartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    FS CMa type stars are a recently described group of objects with the B[e] phenomenon which exhibits strong emission-line spectra and strong IR excesses. In this paper, we report the first attempt for a detailed modeling of IRAS 00470+6429, for which we have the best set of observations. Our modeling is based on two key assumptions: the star has a main-sequence luminosity for its spectral type (B2) and the circumstellar (CS) envelope is bimodal, composed of a slowly outflowing disklike wind and a fast polar wind. Both outflows are assumed to be purely radial. We adopt a novel approach to describe the dust formation site in the wind that employs timescale arguments for grain condensation and a self-consistent solution for the dust destruction surface. With the above assumptions we were able to satisfactorily reproduce many observational properties of IRAS 00470+6429, including the H I line profiles and the overall shape of the spectral energy distribution. Our adopted recipe for dust formation proved successful in reproducing the correct amount of dust formed in the CS envelope. Possible shortcomings of our model, as well as suggestions for future improvements, are discussed.

  18. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.

  19. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  20. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-05-10

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.