National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for describes suggested non-mandatory

  1. ARM - VAP Suggestion Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Suggestion Form Showcase Data ARM Best Estimate Data Products (ARMBE) This is a collection of data products that represents "best estimates" derived from several instruments andor...

  2. Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica Los Alamos National Laboratory has unveiled a video where they challenged staff scientist Nina Lanza of LANL's Space and Remote Sensing group describe her upcoming trip to Antarctica to hunt for meteorites in just 60 seconds. December 11, 2015 Science in 60: Lanza describes meteorite hunt in Antarctica Lanza describes meteor hunt in Antarctica Science in 60: Lanza describes

  3. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the...

  4. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the...

  5. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Markets New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle...

  6. Suggested Approaches for Probabilistic Flooding Hazard Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Suggested Approaches for Probabilistic Flooding Hazard Assessment Ahmed “Jemie” Dababneh, Ph.D., P.E. and Jeffrey Oskamp, E.I.T. Presentation for U.S. Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Meeting October 22, 2014

  7. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print Wednesday, 24 June 2009 00:00 To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known...

  8. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print Wednesday, 24 June 2009 00:00 To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins

  9. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  10. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  11. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  12. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins recruit and deposit helicases has remained unclear. To better understand this

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monitoring stations, canyons Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental monitoring stations, canyons Stations supporting Santa Fe water utility returned to service September 18, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to

  14. ARM - Evaluation Product - Critical soil quantities for describing land

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties ProductsCritical soil quantities for describing land properties ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Critical soil quantities for describing land properties The ARMBELAND is a subset of the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) products for supporting community land-atmospheric research and

  15. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid

  16. NREL Releases Report Describing Guidelines for PV Manufacturer Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assurance - News Releases | NREL Releases Report Describing Guidelines for PV Manufacturer Quality Assurance International task force aims to toughen standards, ensure reliability of PV technologies April 14, 2015 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has released an updated proposal that will establish an international quality standard for photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing. The document is intended for immediate use by PV manufacturers when producing

  17. The application of strategic environmental assessment in a non-mandatory context: Regional transport planning in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGimpsey, Paul; Morgan, Richard K.

    2013-11-15

    There is no legal mandate for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in New Zealand. However, a requirement to consider environmental and sustainability issues is a key feature of many statutes, including that relating to regional transport planning. Given this, the research sought to determine whether SEA could be used to improve the incorporation of environmental and sustainability aspects into the regional transport planning process in New Zealand. Existing practice was evaluated, examining what factors currently limiting the consideration of environmental and sustainability issues and to what extent elements of SEA are currently being used. The research culminated in the development of a conceptual model where SEA elements could be incorporated into the existing framework to promote improved consideration of environmental and sustainability issues. The results provide some reassurance about the value of SEA even where its application is not legally mandated. However, it also highlighted some ongoing issues around the integration of SEA in existing frameworks and around the scope of SEA as a decision-aiding tool. -- Highlights: • The research examined whether SEA can provide benefits even where it is not mandated. • The research examined the extent to which SEA elements are currently being used. • A conceptual model was developed to incorporate necessary SEA elements into an existing framework.

  18. Fermilab | Fermilab at Work | Web Form | FAW Website Suggestions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAW Website Suggestions Submit your FAW website suggestion using the form below. All fields are required. Which FAW page is this suggestion for? Main FAW page Work Resources...

  19. FEMP SUGGESTED ESPC MILESTONE PLAN | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SUGGESTED ESPC MILESTONE PLAN FEMP SUGGESTED ESPC MILESTONE PLAN Document provides the Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP's) suggested energy savings performance contract (ESPC) milestones from task order development to award process. File ph1_suggestedespcmilestonplan_10.docx More Documents & Publications FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide ESPC ENABLE NOTICE OF INTENT TO AWARD GUIDE AND TEMPLATE FEMP Comprehensive ESPC Workshop Presentations

  20. Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour PDF icon Suggested Talking Points for Hydrogen Road Tour More Documents & Publications Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Power for the 21st Century: Fact Sheet State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2010 State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2012

  1. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked...

  2. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Wednesday, 26 January 2011 00:00 Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked

  3. Integrative Analysis of Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Suggests

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New Metabolic Control Mechanisms for Monolignol Biosynthesis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Integrative Analysis of Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Suggests New Metabolic Control Mechanisms for Monolignol Biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrative Analysis of Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Suggests New Metabolic Control Mechanisms for Monolignol Biosynthesis Authors: Yun,Lee ; Fang,Chen ; Lina,Gallego-Giraldo ; Richard A.,Dixon ; Eberhard

  4. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  5. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  6. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  7. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  8. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  9. Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topoisomerase II Structure Suggests Novel DNA Cleavage Mechanism Print Type II topoisomerases are molecular machines that regulate DNA supercoiling and separate interlocked chromosomes. These enzymes are also exploited clinically as targets of antibiotics and anticancer therapeutics. Researchers at ALS Beamline 8.3.1 imaged type II topoisomerase's ordinarily short-lived state in which it is linked to a DNA's nucleic acid segment through its active site tyrosine, cleaving the DNA. Details of this

  10. A mutational signature in gastric cancer suggests therapeutic strategies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Leung, Suet Yi; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-10-29

    Targeting defects in the DNA repair machinery of neoplastic cells, for example, those due to inactivating BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutations, has been used for developing new therapies in certain types of breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. Recently, a mutational signature was associated with failure of double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination based on its high mutational burden in samples harbouring BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In pancreatic cancer, all responders to platinum therapy exhibit this mutational signature including a sample that lacked any defects in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Here, we examine 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 types of cancer andmore » demonstrate that, in addition to breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, gastric cancer is another cancer type that exhibits this mutational signature. Furthermore, our results suggest that 7–12% of gastric cancers have defective double-strand DNA break repair by homologous recombination and may benefit from either platinum therapy or PARP inhibitors.« less

  11. Development of a Composite Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Model Describing Plutonium Sorption to Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, B A; Kersting, A; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-10-28

    Due to their ubiquity in nature and chemical reactivity, aluminosilicate minerals play an important role in retarding actinide subsurface migration. However, very few studies have examined Pu interaction with clay minerals in sufficient detail to produce a credible mechanistic model of its behavior. In this work, Pu(IV) and Pu(V) interactions with silica, gibbsite (Aloxide), and Na-montmorillonite (smectite clay) were examined as a function of time and pH. Sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to gibbsite and silica increased with pH (4 to 10). The Pu(V) sorption edge shifted to lower pH values over time and approached that of Pu(IV). This behavior is apparently due to surface mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV). Surface complexation constants describing Pu(IV)/Pu(V) sorption to aluminol and silanol groups were developed from the silica and gibbsite sorption experiments and applied to the montmorillonite dataset. The model provided an acceptable fit to the montmorillonite sorption data for Pu(V). In order to accurately predict Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite, the model required inclusion of ion exchange. The objective of this work is to measure the sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to silica, gibbsite, and smectite (montmorillonite). Aluminosilicate minerals are ubiquitous at the Nevada National Security Site and improving our understanding of Pu sorption to aluminosilicates (smectite clays in particular) is essential to the accurate prediction of Pu transport rates. These data will improve the mechanistic approach for modeling the hydrologic source term (HST) and provide sorption Kd parameters for use in CAU models. In both alluvium and tuff, aluminosilicates have been found to play a dominant role in the radionuclide retardation because their abundance is typically more than an order of magnitude greater than other potential sorbing minerals such as iron and manganese oxides (e.g. Vaniman et al., 1996). The sorption database used in recent HST models (Carle et al., 2006) and upscaled for use in CAU models (Stoller-Navarro, 2008) includes surface complexation constants for U, Am, Eu, Np and Pu (Zavarin and Bruton, 2004). Generally, between 15 to 30 datasets were used to develop the constants for each radionuclide. However, the constants that describe Pu sorption to aluminosilicates were developed using only 10 datasets, most of which did not specify the oxidation state of Pu in the experiment. Without knowledge or control of the Pu oxidation state, a high degree of uncertainty is introduced into the model. The existing Pu surface complexation model (e.g. Zavarin and Bruton, 2004) drastically underestimates Pu sorption and, thus, will overestimate Pu migration rates (Turner, 1995). Recent HST simulations at Cambric (Carle et al., 2006) suggest that the existing surface complexation model may underpredict Pu K{sub d}s by as much as 3 orders of magnitude. In order to improve HST and CAU-scale transport models (and, as a result, reduce the conservative nature Pu migration estimates), sorption experiments were performed over a range of solution conditions that brackets the groundwater chemistry of the Nevada National Security Site. The aluminosilicates examined were gibbsite, silica, and montmorillonite.

  12. Fourier heat conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the second law

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesudason, Christopher G.

    2014-12-10

    The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically 'reversible' which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S where for any reversible closed path C, ∮{sub C} dS = 0 based on an infinite number of concatenated Carnot engines that approximated the said path and where for each engine ΔQ{sub 1}/T{sub 1}+ΔQ{sub 2}/T{sub 2} = 0 where the Q's and T's are the heat absorption increments and temperature respectively with the subscripts indicating the isothermal paths (1;2) where for the Carnot engine, the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. Since 'heat' has been defined as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference and a corollary of the Clausius statement of the Second law is that it is impossible for heat to be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir with no other effect on the environment, these statements suggested that the local mode of transfer of 'heat' in the isothermal segments of the pathway does imply a Fourier heat conduction mechanism (to conform to the definition of 'heat') albeit of a 'reversible' kind, but on the other hand, the Fourier mechanism is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the material involved in the conveyance of the heat energy. These and several other considerations lead Benofy and Quay (BQ) to postulate the Fourier heat conduction phenomenon to be an ancillary principle in thermodynamics, with this principle being strictly local in nature, where the global Second law statements could not be applied to this local process. Here we present equations that model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process where due to the belief in mechanical time reversible symmetry, thermodynamical reversibility has been unfortunately linked to mechanical reversibility, that has discouraged such an association. The modeling is based on an application of a 'recoverable transition', defined and developed earlier on ideas derived from thermal desorption of particles from a surface where the Fourier heat conduction process is approximated as a series of such desorption processes. We recall that the original Carnot engine required both adiabatic and isothermal steps to complete the zero entropy cycle, and this construct lead to the consequent deduction that any Second law statement that refers to heat-work conversion processes are only globally relevant. Here, on the other hand, we examine Fourier heat conduction from MD simulation and model this process as a zero-entropy forward scattering process relative to each of the atoms in the lattice chain being treated as a system where the Carnot cycle can be applied individually. The equations developed predicts the 'work' done to be equal to the energy transfer rate. The MD simulations conducted shows excellent agreement with the theory. Such views and results as these, if developed to a successful conclusion could imply that the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion and that irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible, (ii) reversible, (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes.

  13. What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? 2012.02.24 Chief Scientist Jim Bray discusses the motion of atoms, the classical laws of physics and the forces associated with the big bang theory. 0

  14. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL Describes to U.S. Senate Role National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Labs Play in Sustainable Transportation Innovation Describes to U.S. Senate Role National Labs Play in Sustainable Transportation Innovation January 26, 2016 On Thursday, January 21, 2016, NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center Director Chris Gearhart provided a testimony on new technologies in the automobile industry before the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. Members of the committee are currently evaluating a bipartisan bill that will include several

  15. NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL Describes to U.S. Senate Role National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Labs Play in Sustainable Transportation Innovation Describes to U.S. Senate Role National Labs Play in Sustainable Transportation Innovation January 26, 2016 On Thursday, January 21, 2016, NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center Director Chris Gearhart provided a testimony on new technologies in the automobile industry before the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. Members of the committee are currently evaluating a bipartisan bill that will include several

  16. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joao C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-10-10

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary.The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu) project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. We review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  17. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joao C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-10-10

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary.The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu) project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergymore » production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. We review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.« less

  18. Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" The program leader in PPPL's Science Education office will be honored as a "woman of excellence" by the YWCA Princeton By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe February 1, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Shannon Greco (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications ) Shannon Greco Gallery: Greco and the "Orange Power" Lego robotics team she coached jump for joy during a practice

  19. Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Shannon Greco: a self-described "STEM education zealot" The program leader in PPPL's Science Education office will be honored as a "woman of excellence" by the YWCA Princeton By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe February 1, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Shannon Greco (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Shannon Greco Gallery: Greco and the "Orange Power" Lego robotics team she coached jump for joy during a practice

  20. Ensemble density functional theory method correctly describes bond dissociation, excited state electron transfer, and double excitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-05-14

    State-averaged (SA) variants of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, SA-REKS and state-interaction (SI)-SA-REKS, implement ensemble density functional theory for variationally obtaining excitation energies of molecular systems. In this work, the currently existing version of the SA-REKS method, which included only one excited state into the ensemble averaging, is extended by adding more excited states to the averaged energy functional. A general strategy for extension of the REKS-type methods to larger ensembles of ground and excited states is outlined and implemented in extended versions of the SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS methods. The newly developed methods are tested in the calculation of several excited states of ground-state multi-reference systems, such as dissociating hydrogen molecule, and excited states of donor–acceptor molecular systems. For hydrogen molecule, the new method correctly reproduces the distance dependence of the lowest excited state energies and describes an avoided crossing between the doubly excited and singly excited states. For bithiophene–perylenediimide stacked complex, the SI-SA-REKS method correctly describes crossing between the locally excited state and the charge transfer excited state and yields vertical excitation energies in good agreement with the ab initio wavefunction methods.

  1. Distribution coefficient values describing iodine, neptunium, selenium, technetium, and uranium sorption to Hanford sediments. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    Burial of vitrified low-level waste (LLW) in the vadose zone of the Hanford Site is being considered as a long-term disposal option. Regulations dealing with LLW disposal require that performance assessment (PA) analyses be conducted. Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site LLW PA were conducted to evaluate the potential health risk of a number of radionuclides, including Ac, Am, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cs, Eu, 1, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Ru, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, and Zr (Piepho et al. 1994). The radionuclides, {sup 129}I, {sup 237}Np, {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 234,235,238}U, were identified as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations were very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorbed to the subsurface matrix, described as a distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The literature-derived K{sub d} values used in these simulations were conservative, i.e., lowest values within the range of reasonable values used to provide an estimate of the maximum health threat. Thus, these preliminary modeling results reflect a conservative estimate rather than a best estimate of what is likely to occur. The potential problem with providing only a conservative estimate is that it may mislead us into directing resources to resolve nonexisting problems.

  2. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-06-15

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)approx(t-T){sup -O}MEGA, with OMEGA positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n{sup '}(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.

  3. Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A; Puckett, Anthony D; Todd, Michael D

    2011-01-24

    The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

  4. DOE-HDBK-1211-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Activity-Level Work Planning and Control Implementation This Handbook describes non-mandatory approaches for implementing Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for activity-level work planning and control (WP&C).

  5. A flowing plasma model to describe drift waves in a cylindrical helicon discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Corr, C. S.

    2011-04-15

    A two-fluid model developed originally to describe wave oscillations in the vacuum arc centrifuge, a cylindrical, rapidly rotating, low temperature, and confined plasma column, is applied to interpret plasma oscillations in a RF generated linear magnetized plasma [WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence)], with similar density and field strength. Compared to typical centrifuge plasmas, WOMBAT plasmas have slower normalized rotation frequency, lower temperature, and lower axial velocity. Despite these differences, the two-fluid model provides a consistent description of the WOMBAT plasma configuration and yields qualitative agreement between measured and predicted wave oscillation frequencies with axial field strength. In addition, the radial profile of the density perturbation predicted by this model is consistent with the data. Parameter scans show that the dispersion curve is sensitive to the axial field strength and the electron temperature, and the dependence of oscillation frequency with electron temperature matches the experiment. These results consolidate earlier claims that the density and floating potential oscillations are a resistive drift mode, driven by the density gradient. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed physics model of flowing plasmas in the diffusion region away from the RF source. Possible extensions to the model, including temperature nonuniformity and magnetic field oscillations, are also discussed.

  6. Describing excited state relaxation and localization in TiO2 nanoparticles using TD-DFT

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berardo, Enrico; Hu, Han -Shi; van Dam, Hubertus J. J.; Shevlin, Stephen A.; Woodley, Scott M.; Kowalski, Karol; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2014-02-26

    We have investigated the description of excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) with three common hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) potentials; B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and BHLYP. Use of TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP yields qualitatively similar results for all structures, which are also consistent with predictions of coupled cluster theory for small particles. TD-B3LYP, in contrast, is found to make rather different predictions; including apparent conical intersections for certain particles that are not observed with TD-CAM-B3LYP nor with TD-BHLYP. In line with our previous observations for vertical excitations, the issue with TD-B3LYP appears to be themore » inherent tendency of TD-B3LYP, and other XC potentials with no or a low percentage of Hartree-Fock Like Exchange, to spuriously stabilize the energy of charge-transfer (CT) states. Even in the case of hydrated particles, for which vertical excitations are generally well described with all XC potentials, the use of TD-B3LYP appears to result in CT-problems for certain particles. We hypothesize that the spurious stabilization of CT-states by TD-B3LYP even may drive the excited state optimizations to different excited state geometries than those obtained using TD-CAM-B3LYP or TD-BHLYP. In conclusion, focusing on the TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP results, excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles is predicted to be associated with a large Stokes’ shift.« less

  7. A technical framework to describe occupant behavior for building energy simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner , William; Hong , Tianzhen

    2013-12-20

    Green buildings that fail to meet expected design performance criteria indicate that technology alone does not guarantee high performance. Human influences are quite often simplified and ignored in the design, construction, and operation of buildings. Energy-conscious human behavior has been demonstrated to be a significant positive factor for improving the indoor environment while reducing the energy use of buildings. In our study we developed a new technical framework to describe energy-related human behavior in buildings. The energy-related behavior includes accounting for individuals and groups of occupants and their interactions with building energy services systems, appliances and facilities. The technical framework consists of four key components: i. the drivers behind energy-related occupant behavior, which are biological, societal, environmental, physical, and economical in nature ii. the needs of the occupants are based on satisfying criteria that are either physical (e.g. thermal, visual and acoustic comfort) or non-physical (e.g. entertainment, privacy, and social reward) iii. the actions that building occupants perform when their needs are not fulfilled iv. the systems with which an occupant can interact to satisfy their needs The technical framework aims to provide a standardized description of a complete set of human energy-related behaviors in the form of an XML schema. For each type of behavior (e.g., occupants opening/closing windows, switching on/off lights etc.) we identify a set of common behaviors based on a literature review, survey data, and our own field study and analysis. Stochastic models are adopted or developed for each type of behavior to enable the evaluation of the impact of human behavior on energy use in buildings, during either the design or operation phase. We will also demonstrate the use of the technical framework in assessing the impact of occupancy behavior on energy saving technologies. The technical framework presented is part of our human behavior research, a 5-year program under the U.S. - China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency.

  8. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EVALUATION OF EMPLOYEE SUGGESTION/INVENTION...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VALUE SCOPE OF APPLICATION LABOR MATERIALS 6. Is the idea within the suggester's job ... AWARD RECOMMENDATION (Based on DOE Monetary Award Scales) 9. Award Based on Tangible ...

  9. Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan Funding Opportunities Funding Opportunities Home Grants & Contracts Support Award Search / Public Abstracts Find Funding Early Career Research Program Statement on Digital Data Management Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan Frequently Asked Questions Resources at the Office of Science User Facilities Acknowledgements of Federal Support Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  10. Direct nucleonemission from hot and dense regions described in the hydrodynamical model of relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barz, H.W.; Csernai, L.P.; Greiner, W.

    1982-08-01

    The collision process is described by hydrodynamical equations. The escape of nucleons which do not take part in the thermal equilibrium are considered by including drain terms in these equations. The energy spectra of the escaped nucleons and of nucleons evaporated after the break up of the fluid are compared.

  11. Structural and functional analysis of Nup120 suggests ring formation of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nup84 complex (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structural and functional analysis of Nup120 suggests ring formation of the Nup84 complex Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural and functional analysis of Nup120 suggests ring formation of the Nup84 complex Authors: Seo, Hyuk-Soo ; Ma, Yingli ; Debler, Erik W. ; Wacker, Daniel ; Kutik, Stephan ; Blobel, Günter ; Hoelz, André [1] + Show Author Affiliations (HHMI) Publication Date: 2015-02-09 OSTI Identifier: 1169996 Resource

  12. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  13. Praise and suggestions for fusion research from a utility industry think

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tank | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Praise and suggestions for fusion research from a utility industry think tank By John Greenwald November 21, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Interior of the National Spherical Torus Experiment at PPPL. (Photo by Elle Starkman, Office of Communications, PPPL) Interior of the National Spherical Torus Experiment at PPPL. Research to develop fusion energy has shown "significant progress" in many areas, according to a new report

  14. New analyses reveal higher Four Corners methane emissions than suggested by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA Higher methane emissions at Four Corners Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New analyses reveal higher Four Corners methane emissions than suggested by EPA Looking at fossil mining industry as a whole is key December 1, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory equipment measuring Four Corners area power plant emissions. The station is located near the community of Waterflow at

  15. NREL Study Suggests Cost Gap for Western Renewables Could Narrow by 2025 -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL NREL Study Suggests Cost Gap for Western Renewables Could Narrow by 2025 August 23, 2013 A new Energy Department study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicates that by 2025 wind and solar power electricity generation could become cost-competitive without federal subsidies, if new renewable energy development occurs in the most productive locations. The report, "Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Technical Basis Guide Describing How to Perform Safety Margin Configuration Risk Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen; Bentley Harwood

    2013-08-01

    The INL has carried out a demonstration of the RISMC approach for the purpose of configuration risk management. We have shown how improved accuracy and realism can be achieved by simulating changes in risk as a function of different configurations in order to determine safety margins as the plant is modified. We described the various technical issues that play a role in these configuration-based calculations with the intent that future applications can take advantage of the analysis benefits while avoiding some of the technical pitfalls that are found for these types of calculations. Specific recommendations have been provided on a variety of topics aimed at improving the safety margin analysis and strengthening the technical basis behind the analysis process.

  17. The role of pyrimidine and water as underlying molecular constituents for describing radiation damage in living tissue: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuss, M. C.; Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; Blanco, F.; Muoz, A.; Limo-Vieira, P.; Garca, G.

    2015-06-07

    Water is often used as the medium for characterizing the effects of radiation on living tissue. However, in this study, charged-particle track simulations are employed to quantify the induced physicochemical and potential biological implications when a primary ionising particle with energy 10?keV strikes a medium made up entirely of water or pyrimidine. Note that pyrimidine was chosen as the DNA/RNA bases cytosine, thymine, and uracil can be considered pyrimidine derivatives. This study aims to assess the influence of the choice of medium on the charged-particle transport, and identify how appropriate it is to use water as the default medium to describe the effects of ionising radiation on living tissue. Based on the respective electron interaction cross sections, we provide a model, which allows the study of radiation effects not only in terms of energy deposition (absorbed dose and stopping power) but also in terms of the number of induced molecular processes. Results of these parameters for water and pyrimidine are presented and compared.

  18. Describing excited state relaxation and localization in TiO2 nanoparticles using TD-DFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berardo, Enrico; Hu, Han -Shi; van Dam, Hubertus J. J.; Shevlin, Stephen A.; Woodley, Scott M.; Kowalski, Karol; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2014-02-26

    We have investigated the description of excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) with three common hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) potentials; B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and BHLYP. Use of TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP yields qualitatively similar results for all structures, which are also consistent with predictions of coupled cluster theory for small particles. TD-B3LYP, in contrast, is found to make rather different predictions; including apparent conical intersections for certain particles that are not observed with TD-CAM-B3LYP nor with TD-BHLYP. In line with our previous observations for vertical excitations, the issue with TD-B3LYP appears to be the inherent tendency of TD-B3LYP, and other XC potentials with no or a low percentage of Hartree-Fock Like Exchange, to spuriously stabilize the energy of charge-transfer (CT) states. Even in the case of hydrated particles, for which vertical excitations are generally well described with all XC potentials, the use of TD-B3LYP appears to result in CT-problems for certain particles. We hypothesize that the spurious stabilization of CT-states by TD-B3LYP even may drive the excited state optimizations to different excited state geometries than those obtained using TD-CAM-B3LYP or TD-BHLYP. In conclusion, focusing on the TD-CAM-B3LYP and TD-BHLYP results, excited state relaxation in naked and hydrated TiO2 nanoparticles is predicted to be associated with a large Stokes shift.

  19. Ribonuclease A suggests how proteins self-chaperone against amyloid fiber formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Poh K.; Anderson, Natalie J.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Sawaya, Michael R.; Sambashivan, Shilpa; Eisenberg, David (UCB)

    2012-05-29

    Genomic analyses have identified segments with high fiber-forming propensity in many proteins not known to form amyloid. Proteins are often protected from entering the amyloid state by molecular chaperones that permit them to fold in isolation from identical molecules; but, how do proteins self-chaperone their folding in the absence of chaperones? Here, we explore this question with the stable protein ribonuclease A (RNase A). We previously identified fiber-forming segments of amyloid-related proteins and demonstrated that insertion of these segments into the C-terminal hinge loop of nonfiber-forming RNase A can convert RNase A into the amyloid state through three-dimensional domain-swapping, where the inserted fiber-forming segments interact to create a steric zipper spine. In this study, we convert RNase A into amyloid-like fibers by increasing the loop length and hence conformational freedom of an endogenous fiber-forming segment, SSTSAASS, in the N-terminal hinge loop. This is accomplished by sandwiching SSTSAASS between inserted Gly residues. With these inserts, SSTSAASS is now able to form the steric zipper spine, allowing RNase A to form amyloid-like fibers. We show that these fibers contain RNase A molecules retaining their enzymatic activity and therefore native-like structure. Thus, RNase A appears to prevent fiber formation by limiting the conformational freedom of this fiber-forming segment from entering a steric zipper. Our observations suggest that proteins have evolved to self-chaperone by using similar protective mechanisms.

  20. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siyam, Arwa; Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 ; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D'Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  1. Safety Reports Series No. 11, Developing Safety Culture in Nuclear Activities: Practical Suggestions to Assist Progress, International Atomic Energy Agency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Safety Reports Series No. 11, Developing Safety Culture in Nuclear Activities: Practical Suggestions to Assist Progress, International Atomic Energy Agency

  2. NREL Discovers Novel Protein Interaction in Green Algae that Suggests New Strategies to Improve Hydrogen Photoproduction (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A research team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered a specific interaction between the protein ferredoxin - responsible for distributing reductants from photosynthesis to different metabolic pathways - and the HYDA2 hydrogenase, suggesting a role for HYDA2 in photohydrogen production.

  3. Photovoltaic systems are often described and marketed in terms of the DC power rating of their modules, expressed in $'s/Watt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rd IEEE PVSC, San Diego, CA 2008 1 COMPARISON OF PV SYSTEM PERFORMANCE-MODEL PREDICTIONS WITH MEASURED PV SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Christopher P. Cameron, William E. Boyson, Daniel M. Riley Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 ABSTRACT The U.S. Department of Energy has supported development of the Solar Advisor Model (SAM) to provide a common platform for evaluation of the solar energy technologies being developed with the support of the Department. This report describes a detailed

  4. On the existence of astationary measure for the stochastic system of the Lorenz model describing abaroclinic atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klevtsova, Yu Yu

    2013-09-30

    The paper is concerned with a nonlinear system of partial differential equations with parameters. This system describes the two-layer quasi-solenoidal Lorenz model for abaroclinic atmosphere on arotating two-dimensional sphere. The right-hand side of the system is perturbed by white noise. Sufficient conditions on the parameters and the right-hand side are obtained for the existence of astationary measure. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  5. Evaluation of and Suggested Improvements to the WSM6 Microphysics in WRF- ARW Using Synthetic and Observed GOES-13 Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, Lewis; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Clark, Adam; Bikos, Dan; Dembek, Scott R.

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic satellite imagery can be employed to evaluate simulated cloud fields. Past studies have revealed that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6) microphysics in WRF-ARW produces less upper level ice clouds within synthetic images compared to observations. Synthetic Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 imagery at 10.7 ?m of simulated cloud fields from the 4 km National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) WRF-ARW is compared to observed GOES-13 imagery. Histograms suggest that too few points contain upper level simulated ice clouds. In particular, side-by-side examples are shown of synthetic and observed convective anvils. Such images illustrate the lack of anvil cloud associated with convection produced by the NSSL WRF-ARW. A vertical profile of simulated hydrometeors suggests that too much cloud water mass may be converted into graupel mass, effectively reducing the main source of ice mass in a simulated anvil. Further, excessive accretion of ice by snow removes ice from an anvil by precipitation settling. Idealized sensitivity tests reveal that a 50% reduction of the conversion of cloud water mass to graupel and a 50% reduction of the accretion rate of ice by snow results in a significant increase in anvil ice of a simulated storm. Such results provide guidance as to which conversions could be reformulated, in a more physical manner, to increase simulated ice mass in the upper troposphere.

  6. The genome of the xerotolerant mold Wallemia sebi reveals adaptations to osmotic stress and suggests cryptic sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajabeen, Padamsee; Kumas, T. K. Arun; Riley, Robert; Binder, Manfred; Boyd, Alex; Calvo, Ann M.; Furukawa, Kentaro; Hesse, Cedar; Hohmann, Stefan; James, Tim Y.; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Miller, Kari; Shantappa, Sourabha; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.; McLaughlin, David J.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Aime, Mary C.

    2011-09-03

    Wallemia (Wallemiales, Wallemiomycetes) is a genus of xerophilic Fungi of uncertain phylogenetic position within Basidiomycota. Most commonly found as food contaminants, species of Wallemia have also been isolated from hypersaline environments. The ability to tolerate environments with reduced water activity is rare in Basidiomycota. We sequenced the genome of W. sebi in order to understand its adaptations for surviving in osmotically challenging environments, and we performed phylogenomic and ultrastructural analyses to address its systematic placement and reproductive biology. W. sebi has a compact genome (9.8 Mb), with few repeats and the largest fraction of genes with functional domains compared with other Basidiomycota. We applied several approaches to searching for osmotic stress-related proteins. In silico analyses identied 93 putative osmotic stress proteins; homology searches showed the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) pathway to be mostly conserved. Despite the seemingly reduced genome, several gene family expansions and a high number of transporters (549) were found that also provide clues to the ability of W. sebito colonize harsh environments. Phylogenetic analyses of a 71-protein dataset support the position of Wallemia as the earliest diverging lineage of Agaricomycotina, which is conrmed by septal pore ultrastructure that shows the septal pore apparatus as a variant of the Tremella-type. Mating type gene homologs were idented although we found no evidence of meiosis during conidiogenesis, suggesting there may be aspects of the life cycle of W. sebi that remain cryptic

  7. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  8. The Conformation of Bound GMPPNP Suggests a Mechanism for Gating the Active Site of the SRP GTPase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Freymann, D.

    2010-03-08

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a phylogenetically conserved ribonucleoprotein that mediates cotranslational targeting of secreted and membrane proteins to the membrane. Targeting is regulated by GTP binding and hydrolysis events that require direct interaction between structurally homologous 'NG' GTPase domains of the SRP signal recognition subunit and its membrane-associated receptor, SR{alpha}. Structures of both the apo and GDP bound NG domains of the prokaryotic SRP54 homolog, Ffh, and the prokaryotic receptor homolog, FtsY, have been determined. The structural basis for the GTP-dependent interaction between the two proteins, however, remains unknown. We report here two structures of the NG GTPase of Ffh from Thermus aquaticus bound to the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog GMPPNP. Both structures reveal an unexpected binding mode in which the {beta}-phosphate is kinked away from the binding site and magnesium is not bound. Binding of the GTP analog in the canonical conformation found in other GTPase structures is precluded by constriction of the phosphate binding P loop. The structural difference between the Ffh complex and other GTPases suggests a specific conformational change that must accompany movement of the nucleotide from an inactive to an active binding mode. Conserved side chains of the GTPase sequence motifs unique to the SRP subfamily may function to gate formation of the active GTP bound conformation. Exposed hydrophobic residues provide an interaction surface that may allow regulation of the GTP binding conformation, and thus activation of the GTPase, during the association of SRP with its receptor.

  9. Method for describing and evaluating coal mine wastes for coal recovery: a case history from the historical longwall district in the northeastern Illinois coal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, L.A.; Berggren, D.J.

    1984-12-01

    A method for describing and evaluating coal mine wastes evolved in 1982 from studies at more than 100 historic longwall mine sites conducted by the Illinois State Geological Survey and partially funded by the Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council (IAMLRC). The primary purpose was to locate and identify different types of waste materials at these sites and to evaluate them for future reclamation. The method which involves geologic characterization, sampling, standard analyses, and evaluation tests, can be used to determine the potential of a mine waste deposit for secondary recovery of coal. It yields data relating to three factors involved in secondary recovery: quality (ash content, heating value), quantity (recoverable tonnages), and the net effect of the recovery operation (product value relative to operations costs; social and environmental assets relative to liabilities). The longwall study did not directly address the question of recoverable tonnages of coal but provided information that can be used to make this evaluation, minimize the amount of drilling required for accurate forecasts of profitability, and measure the economic and environmental benefits of secondary recovery steps in a reclamation plan.

  10. Complete Phase I Tests As Described in the Multi-lab Test Plan for the Evaluation of CH3I Adsorption on AgZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S. H.; Jubin, R. T.

    2014-09-30

    Silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) has been identified as a potential sorbent for iodine present in the off-gas streams of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In such a facility, both elemental and organic forms of iodine are released from the dissolver in gaseous form. These species of iodine must be captured with high efficiency for a facility to avoid radioactive iodine release above regulatory limits in the gaseous effluent of the plant. Studies completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) examined the adsorption of organic iodine in the form of CH3I by AgZ. Upon breakthrough of the feed gas through the sorbent bed, elemental iodine was observed in the effluent stream, despite the fact that the only source of iodine in the system was the CH3I in the feed gas.1 This behavior does not appear to have been reported previously nor has it been independently confirmed. Thus, as a result of these prior studies, multiple knowledge gaps relating to the adsorption of CH3I by AgZ were identified, and a multi-lab test plan, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), INL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories, was formulated to address each in a systematic way.2 For this report, the scope of work for ORNL was further narrowed to three thin-bed experiments that would characterize CH3I adsorption onto AgZ in the presence of water, NO, and NO2. Completion of these three-thin bed experiments demonstrated that organic iodine in the form of CH3I was adsorbed by reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z) to a 50% higher loading than that of I2 when adsorbed from a dry air stream. Adsorption curves suggest different adsorption mechanisms for I2 and CH3I. In the presence of NO and NO2 gas, the loading of CH3I onto Ag0Z is suppressed and may be reversible. Further, the presence of NO and NO2 gas appears to oxidize CH3I to I2; this is indicated by an adsorption curve similar to that of I2 on Ag0Z. Finally, the loss of organic iodine loading capacity by Ag0Z in the presence of NOx is unaffected by the addition of water vapor to the gas stream; no marked additional loss in capacity or retention was observed.

  11. Suggest a New Product Category

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you want to propose a new product category to be designated by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), send the following information to FEMP.

  12. Propane Supply & Infrastructure Suggested Slides

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... over reliability of rail for delivery. * Large Companies - campaigns for residential and crop dryers to fill over the summer reportedly successful. Less success with COD customers.

  13. DOE-HDBK-1108-2002 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    August 16, 2013 Radiological Safety Training for Accelerator Facilities Reaffirmation with Change Notice 2 (July 2013) This non-mandatory Handbook describes a recommended implementation process for conducting the radiation safety training required by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Radiation Protection, (10 CFR 835) Subpart J and as outlined in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1098-99, Radiological Control (RCS). The Handbook is to assist those individuals, both within the Department

  14. DOE-HDBK-1108-2002 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    December 07, 2006 Radiological Safety Training for Accelerator Facilities Change Notice No. 1 | Reaffirmation (January 2007) This non-mandatory Handbook describes a recommended implementation process for conducting the radiation safety training required by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Radiation Protection, (10 CFR 835) Subpart J and as outlined in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1098-99, Radiological Control (RCS). The Handbook is to assist those individuals, both within the

  15. Suggestion of typical phases of in-vessel fuel-debris by thermodynamic calculation for decommissioning technology of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)

  16. A 1.9 Crystal Structure of the HDV Ribozyme Precleavage Suggests both Lewis Acid and General Acid Mechanisms Contribute to Phosphodiester Cleavage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jui-Hui; Yajima, Rieko; Chadalavada, Durga M.; Chase, Elaine; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Golden, Barbara L.

    2010-11-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and HDV-like ribozymes are self-cleaving RNAs found throughout all kingdoms of life. These RNAs fold into a double-nested pseudoknot structure and cleave RNA, yielding 2{prime},3{prime}-cyclic phosphate and 5{prime}-hydroxyl termini. The active site nucleotide C75 has a pK{sub a} shifted >2 pH units toward neutrality and has been implicated as a general acid/base in the cleavage reaction. An active site Mg{sup 2+} ion that helps activate the 2{prime}-hydroxyl for nucleophilic attack has been characterized biochemically; however, this ion has not been visualized in any previous structures. To create a snapshot of the ribozyme in a state poised for catalysis, we have crystallized and determined the structure of the HDV ribozyme bound to an inhibitor RNA containing a deoxynucleotide at the cleavage site. This structure includes the wild-type C75 nucleotide and Mg{sup 2+} ions, both of which are required for maximal ribozyme activity. This structure suggests that the position of C75 does not change during the cleavage reaction. A partially hydrated Mg{sup 2+} ion is also found within the active site where it interacts with a newly resolved G {center_dot} U reverse wobble. Although the inhibitor exhibits crystallographic disorder, we modeled the ribozyme-substrate complex using the conformation of the inhibitor strand observed in the hammerhead ribozyme. This model suggests that the pro-RP oxygen of the scissile phosphate and the 2{prime}-hydroxyl nucleophile are inner-sphere ligands to the active site Mg{sup 2+} ion. Thus, the HDV ribozyme may use a combination of metal ion Lewis acid and nucleobase general acid strategies to effect RNA cleavage.

  17. Research Directed at Developing a Classical Theory to Describe Isotope Separation of Polyatomic Molecules Illuminated by Intense Infrared Radiation. Final Report for period May 7, 1979 to September 30, 1979; Extension December 31, 1997

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lamb, W. E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories.

  18. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  19. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ring to thread the strand through the hole). With structural information about DnaC, Mott et al. have contributed to a better understanding of the significance of the...

  20. On some operations suggested by genome evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dassow, J.; Mitrana, V.

    1996-12-31

    Three operations involved in the genome evolution namely, inversion, transposition and duplication, are considered as operations on strings and languages. We show that, for any pair of these operations, there is a language family which is closed under one of the operations and not closed under the second one; however, under some mild conditions the closure of a language family under one of the operations implies that it also closed with respect to another one. 15 refs.

  1. Describing Current & Potential Markets for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,904 Not-at-homes 60 Total 4,344 Total 2,616 Misc. Problems 21 a Total 1,904 Language, illness, or hearing problems. a Of the 4,344 numbers, 1,638 were non-households...

  2. Describing Current & Potential Markets for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Provider Fleet Vehicles Fleet Vehicle Miles Traveled Propane Provider Survey In the analysis of annual vehicle miles traveled, the diesel vehicles tended to stand out. On...

  3. Abstract - This paper describes the latest generic wind turbine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recognizing the need for transient stability models suitable for representing different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs), WECC, through its Renewable Energy Modeling Task...

  4. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization Describing the Recovery Act Period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report characterizes the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) during the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) period. This research was one component of the Recovery Act evaluation of WAP. The report presents the results of surveys administered to Grantees (i.e., state weatherization offices) and Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies). The report also documents the ramp up and ramp down of weatherization production and direct employment during the Recovery Act period and other challenges faced by the Grantees and Subgrantees during this period. Program operations during the Recovery Act (Program Year 2010) are compared to operations during the year previous to the Recovery Act (Program Year 2008).

  5. Describing Current & Potential Markets for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy, and Safety Data" on alternative fuels and alternative-fuel vehicles. No specific projects are currently underway. Some related data may be developed as part of the EPACT...

  6. Sandia Energy - New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Engines Energy Storage Components and Systems Batteries Electric Drive Systems Hydrogen Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment...

  7. DOE Report Describes Progress in the Deployment of Synchrophasor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grid The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is pleased to announce the publication of a new report from the Smart Grid...

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Email For years, sampling has shown no health risks due to floods and associated sediment in the canyons. Lab experts will be working in the coming weeks to collect samples of...

  9. Risk Management Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7A, Risk Management Guide by John Makepeace Functional areas: Risk Management, Safety and Security This Guide provides non-mandatory risk management approaches for implementing the...

  10. Council on Women and Girls Suggested Report Template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... as teachers and professors, and as students. The root cause of this is varied and complex. Historically, the perception has been that a career in the sciences is a "male thing." ...

  11. Suggested Practices for Avian Protection on Power Lines | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with federal laws protecting and enhancing avian populations, and maintaining the reliability of electric power networds. Author Avian Power Line Interaction Committee...

  12. Structural and functional analysis of Nup120 suggests ring formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Argonne, IL (US) Sponsoring Org: OTHER Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1073pnas.0907453106

  13. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  14. Tara O'Toole Memo to CSO describing the announcement of the DOE VPP program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In her January 26, 1994, memorandum to the Cognizant Secretarial Officers and Operations Office managers, Secretary O'Leary formally announced a new initiative, "the Department of Energy Voluntary...

  15. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization - Describing the Pre-ARRA Progam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensch, Ingo; Keene, Ashleigh; Cowan, Claire; Koski, Karen

    2014-09-01

    This report characterizes the Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) as it was administered in Program Year 2008. WAP has supported energy efficiency improvements to the homes of low-income households in the United States since 1976. The program provides grants, guidance, and other support to grantees: weatherization programs administered by each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia and some Native American tribes. Although there have been studies of some grantee-administered weatherization programs, the overall effectiveness of the national weatherization program has not been formally evaluated since Program Year 1989. Since that time, the program has evolved significantly, with an increased focus on baseload electric usage, continued evolution of diagnostic tools, new guidelines and best practices for heating-related measures, and adjustments in program rules. More recently, the program has also adjusted to large, temporary funding increases and changes in federal rules spurred by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Because the Weatherization Assistance Program of today is dramatically different from the one evaluated in 1989, DOE determined to undertake a new comprehensive evaluation of the national program. This new national evaluation is managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Under a competitive solicitation process, ORNL selected APPRISE, Inc., Blasnik & Associates, Dalhoff Associates and the Energy Center of Wisconsin to conduct the evaluation. The national evaluation comprises two independent evaluations. The first evaluation of which this report is a part focuses on Program Year 2008 (PY08). The second evaluation focuses on the ARRA-funded years of 2009 through 2011. This report, together with its companion the Eligible Population Study addresses specific program characterization goals established for the greater evaluation. The Energy Center led grantee and subgrantee data collection efforts, administering surveys to 51 grantees and 851 of the approximately 900 subgrantees that were slated to receive DOE weatherization funds in PY08. In all, seven different data collection instruments were used to gather the needed data two instruments for grantees and five for subgrantees. See Table 1 for a list of these survey instruments. These surveys were used to determine, among other things: Structure and funding of weatherization programs Training and staff development of service providers How weatherization services are delivered Clients served

  16. Alfven waves in dusty plasmas with plasma particles described by anisotropic kappa distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Juli, M. C. de

    2012-12-15

    We utilize a kinetic description to study the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating parallelly to the ambient magnetic field in a dusty plasma, taking into account the fluctuation of the charge of the dust particles, which is due to inelastic collisions with electrons and ions. We consider a plasma in which the velocity distribution functions of the plasma particles are modelled as anisotropic kappa distributions, study the dispersion relation for several combinations of the parameters {kappa}{sub Parallel-To} and {kappa}{sub Up-Tack }, and emphasize the effect of the anisotropy of the distributions on the mode coupling which occurs in a dusty plasma, between waves in the branch of circularly polarized waves and waves in the whistler branch.

  17. HARBEC's $52,000 Annual Energy Savings under SEP Described in New Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new case study details how HARBEC, Inc. improved the energy performance of its specialty plastics manufacturing plant in upstate New York by 16.5% over three years under the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program

  18. how is the growth of the Smart Grid described | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    example, I've also seen this metric associated with the internet of things and the adoption rate of intelligent devices like Nest meters and Tesla home batteries. Is there a...

  19. HARBEC's $52,000 Annual Energy Savings under SEP Described in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    under the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program. The plant's verified conformance to ISO 50001, the global energy management system (EnMS) standard, and sustained improvements...

  20. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  1. New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia National Laboratories, supported by the DOE’s Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices, recently released the workshop report “Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles.” Held in September 2014, the workshop considered common opportunities and challenges in expanding the use of hydrogen and natural gas as transportation fuels.

  2. Fact sheet produced by the U.S. Department of Energy describing hydrogen safety.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Developing safe, reliable, compact, and cost-effective hydrogen stor- age technologies is one of the most technically challenging barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a form of energy. To be competitive with conventional vehicles, hydrogen- powered cars must be able to travel more than 300 mi between fills. This is a challenging goal because hydrogen has physical characteristics that make it difficult to store in large quantities without taking up a significant amount of space.

  3. This fact sheet describes the repository design activities the U.S. Department o

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    repository design activities the U.S. Department of Energy is conducting at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site in Monticello, Utah. These activities are being performed in accordance with Federal and State environ- mental laws. Background The purpose of the Monticello cleanup projects is to minimize the risks to the public and the environment from exposure to mill tailings and the radon gas they produce. The Monticello Mill Tailings Site cleanup remedy was se- lected in the Record of Decision in

  4. This fact sheet describes wetlands in and around Monticello, Utah, and what the

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    wetlands in and around Monticello, Utah, and what the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is doing to restore wetlands that are adversely affected by Monticello cleanup project activities. The purpose of the Monticello cleanup projects is to minimize risks to the public and the environment from exposure to uranium mill tailings and radon gas. The cleanup is being performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund.

  5. This fact sheet describes the environmental cleanup activities the U.S. Departme

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    environmental cleanup activities the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office is conducting at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site in Monticello, Utah. These activities are being performed in accordance with Federal and State environmental laws. Background The original Monticello mill was built in 1942 to provide an additional supply of vanadium during World War II. Vanadium, an element used to strengthen steel, and uranium were milled intermittently until 1960. Mill tailings are

  6. Risk Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-01-18

    This Guide provides non-mandatory risk management approaches for implementing the requirements of DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-7.

  7. Attachment F: Summary Checklist of Model AIP Provisions and Program Policies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In response to concerns expressed by DOE and State AIP program representatives, the Office of Environmental Activities has developed a list of mandatory and non-mandatory model language provisions...

  8. Bubble Density Dependent Functionals to Describe Deformation and Stress Equilibrium Evolution for In-Reactor Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, Ray B.

    2008-07-01

    Future designs of nuclear fuels require an increased understanding of fission gas bubble density evolution. Derivations will be provided for a generic Boltzmann bubble density evolution equation, a bubble density deformation field equation, and a Cauchy stress/bubble-pressure equilibrium equation. (author)

  9. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses

    2014-04-08

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a U2 element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function ?. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.

  10. Suggested Elements for a Data Management Plan | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW ... Data Types and Sources. A brief, high-level description of the data to be generated or ...

  11. TSSGNEO suggestions for refinement of safety criteria for dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savich, A. I.; Gaziev, E. G.

    2013-09-15

    Analysis of radial-displacements of the dam, measured by direct and inverted plumb lines, indicates that curves of the variation in radial displacements of the dam at different elevations make it possible to plot diagrams of increases in the radial displacement over the entire height of the dam, i.e., inclines of the axis of the dam to the vertical.

  12. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Go, D. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  13. Crystal Structures of Aureochrome1 LOV Suggest New Design Strategies for Optogenetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitra, Devrani; Yang, Xiaojing; Moffat, Keith

    2014-10-02

    Aureochrome1, a signaling photoreceptor from a eukaryotic photosynthetic stramenopile, confers blue-light-regulated DNA binding on the organism. Its topology, in which a C-terminal LOV sensor domain is linked to an N-terminal DNA-binding bZIP effector domain, contrasts with the reverse sensor-effector topology in most other known LOV-photoreceptors. How, then, is signal transmitted in Aureochrome1? The dark- and light-state crystal structures of Aureochrome1 LOV domain (AuLOV) show that its helical N- and C-terminal flanking regions are packed against the external surface of the core {beta} sheet, opposite to the FMN chromophore on the internal surface. Light-induced conformational changes occur in the quaternary structure of the AuLOV dimer and in Phe298 of the H{beta} strand in the core. The properties of AuLOV extend the applicability of LOV domains as versatile design modules that permit fusion to effector domains via either the N- or C-termini to confer blue-light sensitivity.

  14. 2009-03 "Consideration of Suggestions Contained in the Kerr Lab...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rec 2009-03 - May 14, 2009 More Documents & Publications NNMCAB Board Minutes: May 2009 Santa Fe 2009-10 "Convene a Panel of Water Quality Experts" 2009-12 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM...

  15. Lab scientists shed light on heavy electrons, suggest new view of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    superconductivity Scientists shed light on heavyd electrons Lab scientists shed light on heavy electrons Their findings hold the potential to provide new insight into superconductivity that could dramatically change the efficiency, for example, of power generation and storage. July 31, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience,

  16. A functional role of Rv1738 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence suggested by racemic protein crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bunker, Richard D.; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Bashiri, Ghader; Chaston, Jessica J.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Lott, J. Shaun; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Baker, Edward N.

    2015-04-07

    Racemic protein crystallography was used to determine the X-ray structure of the predicted Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv1738, which had been completely recalcitrant to crystallization in its natural L-form. Native chemical ligation was used to synthesize both L-protein and D-protein enantiomers of Rv1738. Crystallization of the racemic {D-protein + L-protein} mixture was immediately successful. The resulting crystals diffracted to high resolution and also enabled facile structure determination because of the quantized phases of the data from centrosymmetric crystals. The X-ray structure of Rv1738 revealed striking similarity with bacterial hibernation factors, despite minimal sequence similarity. As a result, we predict that Rv1738,more » which is highly up-regulated in conditions that mimic the onset of persistence, helps trigger dormancy by association with the bacterial ribosome.« less

  17. Introduction to the Emergency Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    The guide provides non-mandatory guidance for the implementation of the requirements pertaining to the DOE comprehensive EMS. Volume 1 is an introduction to the program. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-1A. Does not cancel other directives.

  18. DOE-HDBK-1139-2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chemical Management This non-mandatory Handbook is designed to assist Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor managers in assessing chemical hazard management and is approved for use by all DOE Components and their contractors. Examples of best practices needed to institute high-quality chemical management within the context of a site's Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) are provided.

  19. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hlander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2015-03-01

    In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of spermidine synthase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5?-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS.

  20. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  1. A functional role of Rv1738 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence suggested by racemic protein crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunker, Richard D.; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Bashiri, Ghader; Chaston, Jessica J.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Lott, J. Shaun; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Baker, Edward N.

    2015-04-07

    Racemic protein crystallography was used to determine the X-ray structure of the predicted Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv1738, which had been completely recalcitrant to crystallization in its natural L-form. Native chemical ligation was used to synthesize both L-protein and D-protein enantiomers of Rv1738. Crystallization of the racemic {D-protein + L-protein} mixture was immediately successful. The resulting crystals diffracted to high resolution and also enabled facile structure determination because of the quantized phases of the data from centrosymmetric crystals. The X-ray structure of Rv1738 revealed striking similarity with bacterial hibernation factors, despite minimal sequence similarity. As a result, we predict that Rv1738, which is highly up-regulated in conditions that mimic the onset of persistence, helps trigger dormancy by association with the bacterial ribosome.

  2. 2009-03 "Consideration of Suggestions Contained in the Kerr Lab Report of 3-30-09"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approved May 14, 2009 The intent of this recommendation is to provide the DOE and LANS EM with independent expert technical evaluations and recommendations from EPA to assist in their efforts to implement the best possible groundwater monitoring program.

  3. Altered microRNA expression patterns in irradiated hematopoietic tissues suggest a sex-specific protective mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Zemp, Franz J.; Koturbash, Igor [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kovalchuk, Olga [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada)], E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca

    2008-12-05

    To investigate involvement of miRNAs in radiation responses we used microRNAome profiling to analyze the sex-specific response of radiation sensitive hematopoietic lymphoid tissues. We show that radiation exposure resulted in a significant and sex-specific deregulation of microRNA expression in murine spleen and thymus tissues. Among the regulated miRNAs, we found that changes in expression of miR-34a and miR-7 may be involved in important protective mechanisms counteracting radiation cytotoxicity. We observed a significant increase in the expression of tumor-suppressor miR-34a, paralleled by a decrease in the expression of its target oncogenes NOTCH1, MYC, E2F3 and cyclin D1. Additionally, we show that miR-7 targets the lymphoid-specific helicase LSH, a pivotal regulator of DNA methylation and genome stability. While miR-7 was significantly down-regulated LSH was significantly up-regulated. These cellular changes may constitute an attempt to counteract radiation-induced hypomethylation. Tissue specificity of miRNA responses and possible regulation of miRNA expression upon irradiation are discussed.

  4. Modeling of plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH{sub 3} cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge described using the one-dimensional fluid model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physical Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The keynote of our research is to study the gas phase chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH{sub 3} cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge, which is very important to produce the iron-nitride magnetic fluid. For this purpose, a home-made one dimensional fluid model with the Scharfetter-Gummel method has been developed. The equations solved are the particle balances, assuming a drift-diffusion approximation for the fluxes, and the electron energy equation. The self-consistent electric field is obtained by the simultaneous solution of Poisson's equation. The simulations were carried out for the different ammonia concentrations (2%, 3.5%, and 7%), at a voltage of 1 kV, and a driving frequency of 20 kHz. It concluded that the major ion products of Ar are Ar{sup +} and Ar{sub 2}{sup +}. Ar{sup +} is the most important positive ions, followed by Ar{sub 2}{sup +}. It is shown that the NH{sup +} density is smaller than that of the other ammonia ions. The density of NH{sub 4}{sup +} is more than that of the other ammonia ions when the ammonia concentration increased. The diffuse mode can be established after the discharge was ignited, and the mode changes to filamentary mode with an increase in ammonia concentration.

  5. Development of the T+M coupled flow-geomechanical simulator to describe fracture propagation and coupled flow-thermal-geomechanical processes in tight/shale gas systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2013-05-22

    We developed a hydraulic fracturing simulator by coupling a flow simulator to a geomechanics code, namely T+M simulator. Modeling of the vertical fracture development involves continuous updating of the boundary conditions and of the data connectivity, based on the finite element method for geomechanics. The T+M simulator can model the initial fracture development during the hydraulic fracturing operations, after which the domain description changes from single continuum to double or multiple continua in order to rigorously model both flow and geomechanics for fracture-rock matrix systems. The T+H simulator provides two-way coupling between fluid-heat flow and geomechanics, accounting for thermoporomechanics, treats nonlinear permeability and geomechanical moduli explicitly, and dynamically tracks changes in the fracture(s) and in the pore volume. We also fully accounts for leak-off in all directions during hydraulic fracturing. We first validate the T+M simulator, matching numerical solutions with the analytical solutions for poromechanical effects, static fractures, and fracture propagations. Then, from numerical simulation of various cases of the planar fracture propagation, shear failure can limit the vertical fracture propagation of tensile failure, because of leak-off into the reservoirs. Slow injection causes more leak-off, compared with fast injection, when the same amount of fluid is injected. Changes in initial total stress and contributions of shear effective stress to tensile failure can also affect formation of the fractured areas, and the geomechanical responses are still well-posed.

  6. Evaluation of conceptual, mathematical and physical-and-chemical models for describing subsurface radionuclide transport at the Lake Karachai Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Sindalovsky, L.N.; Boronina, A.V.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pozdniakov, S.P.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this work was to develop the methodology and to improve understanding of subsurface radionuclide transport for application to the Lake Karachai Site and to identify the influence of the processes and interactions involved into transport and fate of the radionuclides. The report is focused on two sets of problems, which have to do both with, hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical aspects of the contaminant transport.

  7. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  8. The United States Department of Energy Announces the Availability of Four Public Documents Describing the Next Phase of the Weldon Spring Quarry Cleanup.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  9. Certification for DOE G 414.1-1B

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-11-18

    This certification was reviewed by the Executive Steering Committee for the Quality Assurance (QA) Directives reform and the Guide was found to be relevant, appropriate and necessary. The Guide provides the Department with non-mandatory approaches for implementing Criteria 9, Management Assessment, and Criteria 10, Independent Assessment, for DOE O 414.1C, as well as found in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830, Subpart A.

  10. Measuring features of the fluence at the far field of a CO/sub 2/ pulsed laser: an issue study with suggestions on how to do it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.G. Jr.; Phelan, R.J. Jr.; Boyle, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    This study examines the problems for measuring the energy density incident on targets where the energy is from a pulse of high energy at CO2 wavelengths and where the targets are located at the far field. The analysis considers two targets--first, a ground-based target for testing and calibration of the measurement systems and second, a drone towed behind an airplane from which the energy distribution information is telemetered to the ground station. Although certain design limits are assumed, the results are general and therefore specific data about the laser sources is not supplied. This study traces each stage of the measurement system from the reception of the incident laser pulse on the drone to the pulse-coded transmission of the sampled data to a ground-based computer.

  11. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σE-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Johnson, Rudd; Nguyen, Nhu T.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; et al

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor ?E is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by ?E in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition ?E regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved inmoreSalmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by ?E in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that ?E up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, ?E is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between ?E and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of ?E, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.less

  12. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σE-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Johnson, Rudd; Nguyen, Nhu T.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; et al

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor σE is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by σE in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition σE regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved inmore » Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by σE in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that σE up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, σE is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between σE and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of σE, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.« less

  13. A.12d1 Management letter when auditing financial statements of a nonpublic entity (excluding FDICIA engagements)-suggested format (Rev. 9/10)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 OAI-FS-16-06 January 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections KPMG LLP Suite 12000 1801 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20006 KPMG LLP is a Delaware limited liability partnership, the U.S. member firm of KPMG International Cooperative ("KPMG International"), a Swiss entity. Attachment MANAGEMENT LETTER December 16, 2015 Mr. Rickey R. Hass Acting Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC

  14. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  15. DOE Forms Management FAQ's | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Forms » DOE Forms Management FAQ's DOE Forms Management FAQ's Facts.jpg What types of forms are there? Departmental Form: for use department-wide by DOE personnel only Headquarters (HQ) Form: developed or managed by a DOE Headquarters organization and generally for use by HQ or within an HQ element Local Form: for use within a specific DOE Field Office Optional Form: developed by a Federal agency for use by two or more agencies, or non-mandatory Government-wide use and approved by

  16. 1 ISO 14001 requires that operational control be maintained over significant environmental aspects such that lack of control would lead to deviation from environmental policy and targets. 2 Targets are as described and scheduled in the Recovery and Resource Loaded schedule and are dependent on funding of Recovery Plan .

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improve operational controls 1, 2 for safe, environmentally sound emplacement of TRU waste through recovery projects. 1. Complete Interim Ventilation System 2. Complete Supplemental Ventilation System 3. Progress as scheduled on Design, Construction, and Installation of Final Ventilation System. 4. Improvements to Emergency Management Program and design/redesign of emergency facilities and equipment capabilities. 5. Upgrade Central Monitoring Room 6. Upgrades to Radiation Protection Controls 7.

  17. RFI Well Integrity 06 JUL 1400

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint report entitled "Well Integrity During Shut - In Operations: DOE/DOI Analyses" describes risks and suggests risk management recommendations associated with shutting in the well.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-09-23

    This guide identifies key PB elements, development processes, and practices; describes the context in which DOE PB development occurs; and suggests ways of addressing the critical elements in PB development. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-5.

  19. U.S Department of Energy Performance Baseline Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-09-23

    This guide identifies key Performance Baseline (PB) elements, development processes, and practices; describes the context in which DOE PB development occurs; and suggests ways of addressing the critical elements in PB development.

  20. Descriptive Morphology Terms For MAMA software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    The table on the following pages lists a set of morphology terms for describing materials. We have organized these terms by categories. Software uses are welcome to suggest other terms that are needed to accurately describe materials. This list is intended as a initial starting point to generating a consensus terminology list.

  1. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  2. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  3. Laboratories for the 21st Century Best Practices: Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-06-01

    Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory it specifically indicates that it is intended to provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building. The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that pro-vide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories.

  4. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  6. The three dimensional X-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, D. Juul; Poulsen, H.F.

    2012-10-15

    This introductory tutorial describes the so called 3 dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) technique, which allows bulk non-destructive structural characterizations of crystalline materials. The motivations and history behind the development of this technique are described and its potentials are sketched. Examples of the use of the technique are given and future trends and developments are suggested. The primary aim of the paper is to give 3DXRD novices an easy introduction to the technique and to describe a way from a dream to reality and new results.

  7. Handbook for the marketing of conservation and solar-energy programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mick, C K; Callahan, D

    1980-07-09

    A process-oriented approach is described for encouraging community level energy conservation and planning programs. The approach is designed to augment existing energy programs by focusing on the major barriers to changing current energy-related behavior and attitudes. A variety of concepts, tools and techniques which can be used to overcome these barriers are described. Suggestions are offered on how to design community energy campaign based on the concepts, tools and techniques described. Some brief case studies are provided as examples. (LEW)

  8. Excited nucleon as a van der Waals system of partons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Muskeyev, A. O. Yezhov, S. N.

    2012-06-15

    Saturation in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is associated with a phase transition between the partonic gas, typical of moderate x and Q{sup 2}, and partonic fluid appearing at increasing Q{sup 2} and decreasing Bjorken x. We suggest the van der Waals equation of state to describe properly this phase transition.

  9. Lighting Retrofit Workbook: A Practical“How To” Guide for the National Park Service Visitor Centers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Workbook describes ways to maximize lighting energy savings while maintaining, or improving the lighting quality in national parks. It guides people through a lighting audit, assists in determining problem areas, and recommends a course of action. The workbook offers assistance in the development of an overall plan, suggests mechanisms for design and financial assistance, and recommends a routine maintenance program.

  10. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews - Geothermal. Supplement to Volume 4, The environment. 3. Impact: air quality data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-12-01

    The results of sampling for SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, mercury, and radon are presented and discussed. The difficulties in differentiating the effects of the well HGP-A from the background of volcanism are described. Soil and water mercury analyses as techniques for geothermal exploration are suggested. (MHR)

  11. Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25 Years.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2015-09-01

    This article was requested by Cryogas International, which is celebrating its 25th anniversary this year. At the title suggests, the article identifies hydrogen consumption in the U.S., broken out by the major contributors to total production. Explanatory information is provided describing the causes underlying the significant changes seen in the summary data.

  12. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Motors are designed to operate within ± 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and undervoltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded. This tip sheet describes what happens to motor performance when voltage varies and provides suggested actions.

  13. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  14. Comparison between a spectral and PDF model for turbulent reacting flows.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaithianathan, T.; Collins, L. R.; Ulitsky, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This study compares the performance of a probability density function (PDF) model and a spectral model (known as the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian or EDQNM model) for the case of two initially unmixed reactants undergoing a finite-rate bimolecular reaction. The two models were chosen because they involve complimentary treatments of the nonlinearities and mixing terms. That is, nonlinearities are exactly treated in the PDF and mixing is modeled, whereas the opposite is true for EDQNM. The predictions of the two models are compared to direct numerical simulations. The results show that the PDF model is capable of describing the mixing of the major species reasonably well, but fails to describe the correlations between the reactants and the products even qualitatively. This suggests that the mixing model in the PDF is adequate for describing mixing between major species, but is incapable of describing mixing of the more spatially segregated product species. The EDQNM model does a slightly better job of describing the mixing of reactant species and a much better job of describing mixing of the product species. Presumably the improvement is associated with the more accurate description of the interscale dynamics that are especially important for the segregated products. The implication is that a model that combines the strengths of the EDQNM for describing mixing and the PDF for describing the nonlinearities would yield the best of both worlds.

  15. Thermoplastic deformation of silicon surfaces induced by ultrashort pulsed lasers in submelting conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsibidis, G. D.; Stratakis, E.; Aifantis, K. E.

    2012-03-01

    A hybrid theoretical model is presented to describe thermoplastic deformation effects on silicon surfaces induced by single and multiple ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation in submelting conditions. An approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation is adopted to describe the laser irradiation process. The evolution of the induced deformation field is described initially by adopting the differential equations of dynamic thermoelasticity while the onset of plastic yielding is described by the von Mises stress. Details of the resulting picometre sized crater, produced by irradiation with a single pulse, are discussed as a function of the imposed conditions and thresholds for the onset of plasticity are computed. Irradiation with multiple pulses leads to ripple formation of nanometre size that originates from the interference of the incident and a surface scattered wave. It is suggested that ultrafast laser induced surface modification in semiconductors is feasible in submelting conditions, and it may act as a precursor of the incubation effects observed at multiple pulse irradiation of materials surfaces.

  16. Fossil generation restructuring in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galambas, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Ukrainian electrical system as it was in 1991, defines the need for restructuring, outlines the restructuring process, identifies a number of major obstacles that are hindering the implementation of the fossil generation, restructuring process, and points out major problems in the coal procurement system. It describes the visits to several Ukrainian power plants, defines restructuring success to date, makes suggestions for improved restructuring progress, highlights lessons learned, and enlightens the audience on the opportunities of investing in the Ukrainian power generation industry. The primary focus is on the Fossil Generator Advisor task, which was carried out under the direction of Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. (Hagler Bailly).

  17. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  18. $50 and up underground house book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehler, M.

    1981-01-01

    Earth-sheltered housing can be livable, compatible with nature, and inexpensive. Plans and designs for low-cost houses that are integrated with their environment make up most of this book. The author begins by outlining 23 advantages of underground housing and describing the histories of several unconventional buildings in the $50 to $500 price range. He also suggests where building materials can be bought and scrounged, describes construction techniques, and explains how to cope with building codes. Sketches, floorplans, and photographs illustrate the text. 8 references, 4 tables. (DCK)

  19. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  20. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  1. New energy-conserving passive solar single-family homes. Cycle 5, Category 2 HUD solar heating and cooling demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 91 new single-family, energy-conserving passive solar homes described represent award winning designs of the series of five demonstration cycles of the HUD program. Information is presented to help builders and lenders to understand passive solar design, to recognize passive solar buildings, and to provide specific design, construction, and marketing suggestions and details. The first section describes the concept of passive solar energy, explains the various functions which passive solar systems must perform, and discusses the various types of passive systems found in the Cycle 5 projects. The second section discusses each of the 91 solar homes. The third section details the issues of climate requirements and site design concerns, gives examples of building construction, and suggests how to market solar homes. The appendices address more technical aspects of the design and evaluation of passive solar homes.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nitrides of iridium and palladiums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Sadigh, B.; Zaug, J.M.; Aberg, D.; Meng, Yue; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2008-08-14

    We describe the synthesis of nitrides of iridium and palladium using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We have used the in situ techniques of x-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering to characterize these compounds and have compared our experimental findings where possible to the results of first-principles theoretical calculations. We suggest that palladium nitride is isostructural with pyrite, while iridium nitride has a monoclinic symmetry and is isostructural with baddeleyite.

  3. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump. This tip sheet describes the advantages of magnetically coupled ASDs and provides suggested actions. Motor Systems Tip Sheet #13 PDF icon Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives (November

  4. Search for Polarization Effects in the Antiproton Production Process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grzonka, D.; Kilian, K.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Oelert, W.; Diermaier, M.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Głowacz, B.; Moskal, P.; et al

    2015-01-01

    For the production of a polarized antiproton beam, various methods have been suggested including the possibility that antiprotons may be produced polarized which will be checked experimentally. The polarization of antiprotons produced under typical conditions for antiproton beam preparation will be measured at the CERN/PS. If the production process creates some polarization, a polarized antiproton beam could be prepared by a rather simple modification of the antiproton beam facility. The detection setup and the expected experimental conditions are described.

  5. Compression of ground-motion data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  6. Energy plantations in the Republic of the Philippines. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.

  7. Security Metricsfor Process Control Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metricsfor Process Control Systems Security Metricsfor Process Control Systems This document describes the foundations of metrics, discusses application of these metrics to control system environments, introduces a metrics taxonomy, and suggests usage of metrics to achieve operational excellence. PDF icon Security Metrics for Process Control Systems More Documents & Publications Report of the Cyber Security Research Needs for Open Science Workshop Visualization & Controls Program Peer

  8. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  9. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This sourcebook describes basic process heating applications and equipment, and outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements. It also discusses the merits of using a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive technical text on improving process heating systems, but serves to raise awareness of potential performance improvement opportunities, provides practical guidelines, and offers suggestions on where to find additional help.

  10. Variable pressure supercritical Rankine cycle for integrated natural gas and power production from the geopressured geothermal resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsberry, F.L.

    1982-03-01

    A small-scale power plant cycle that utilizes both a variable pressure vaporizer (heater) and a floating pressure (and temperature) air-cooled condenser is described. Further, it defends this choice on the basis of classical thermodynamics and minimum capital cost by supporting these conclusions with actual comparative examples. The application suggested is for the geopressured geothermal resource. The arguments cited in this application apply to any process (petrochemical, nuclear, etc.) involving waste heat recovery.

  11. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  12. Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25 Years.Brown, Daryl R.hydrogen; production; U.S.; merchant; captivehydrogen; production; U.S.; merchant; captiveThis article was requested by Cryogas International, which is celebrating its 25th anniversary this year. At the title suggests, the article identifies hydrogen consumption in the U.S., broken out by the major contributors to total production. Explanatory information is provided describing the causes underlying the significant

  13. Review of the England and Wales trading arrangements: The proposal to cure the ills by euthanasia of the pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neushloss, J.; Woolf, F.

    1999-12-01

    Rather than the extreme remedy that has been proposed, some fairly simple changes might go a long way toward reducing the possibilities of gaming, exercise of market power, and the problems associated with the interplay between gas and electricity markets. This article briefly describes the Pool and OFGEM's proposals. The authors then examine OFGEM's assertion that the suggested new trading arrangements will lead to better results and ask whether these arrangements are the only way to achieve the desired outcomes.

  14. Nonlinearity sensing via photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred

    2011-11-15

    We propose photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy as an adequate tool to describe the optical response of a nonlinear system. To this end we suggest to use optical excitation with varying photon statistics as another spectroscopic degree of freedom to gather information about the system in question. The responses of several simple model systems to excitation beams with different photon statistics are discussed. Possible spectroscopic applications in terms of identifying lasing operation are pointed out.

  15. An Experiment on the Limits of Quantum Electro-dynamics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Barber, W. C.; Richter, B.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; O'Neill, G. K.; Gittelman, B.

    1959-06-01

    The limitations of previously performed or suggested electrodynamic cutoff experiments are reviewed, and an electron-electron scattering experiment to be performed with storage rings to investigate further the limits of the validity of quantum electrodynamics is described. The foreseen experimental problems are discussed, and the results of the associated calculations are given. The parameters and status of the equipment are summarized. (D.C.W.)

  16. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Nkei, Bertrand [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  17. Microsoft Word - g151.1-2Final7-11-07.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    INITIATED BY: www.directives.doe.gov National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Management DOE G 151.1-2 7-11-07 TECHNICAL PLANNING BASIS Emergency Management Guide [This Guide describes suggested nonmandatory approaches for meeting requirements. Guides are not requirements documents and are not to be construed as requirements in any audit or appraisal for compliance with the parent Policy, Order, Notice, or Manual.] U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. NOT MEASUREMENT

  18. Evaluation of systems and components for hybrid optical firing sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landry, M.J.; Rupert, J.W.; Mittas, A.

    1989-06-01

    High-energy density light appears to be a unique energy form that may be used to enhance the nuclear safety of weapon systems. Hybrid optical firing sets (HOFS) utilize the weak-link/strong-link exclusion region concept for nuclear safety; this method is similar to present systems, but uses light to transmit power across the exclusion region barrier. This report describes the assembling, operating, and testing of fourteen HOFS. These firing sets were required to charge a capacitor-discharge unit to 2.0 and 2.5 kV (100 mJ) in less than 1 s. First, we describe the components, the measurement techniques used to evaluate the components, and the different characteristics of the measured components. Second, we describe the HOFS studied, the setups used for evaluating them, and the resulting characteristics. Third, we make recommendations for improving the overall performance and suggest the best HOFS for packaging. 36 refs., 145 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: from Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, R. Keith; Kunszt, Zoltan; Melnikov, Kirill; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2012-09-01

    The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.

  20. Early anisotropic hydrodynamics and thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss puzzles in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2010-08-15

    We address the problem of whether the early thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) puzzles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may be solved by the assumption that the early dynamics of the produced matter is locally anisotropic. The hybrid model describing the purely transverse hydrodynamic evolution followed by the perfect-fluid hydrodynamic stage is constructed. The transition from the transverse to perfect-fluid hydrodynamics is described by the Landau matching conditions applied at a fixed proper time {tau}{sub tr}. The global fit to the RHIC data reproduces the soft hadronic observables (the pion, kaon, and the proton spectra, the pion and kaon elliptic flow, and the pion HBT radii) with the accuracy of about 20%. These results indicate that the assumption of the very fast thermalization may be relaxed. In addition, the presented model suggests that a large part of the inconsistencies between the theoretical and experimental HBT results may be removed.

  1. Intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, J.; Hofler, T.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-07-01

    Certain thermoacoustic effects are described which form the basis for a heat engine that is intrinsically irreversible in the sense that it requires thermal lags for its operation. After discussing several acoustical heating and cooling effects, including the behavior of a new structure called a ''thermoacoustic couple,'' we discuss structures that can be placed in acoustically resonant tubes to produce both substantial heat pumping effects and, for restricted heat inputs, large temperature differences. The results are analyzed quantitatively using a second-order thermoacoustic theory based on the work of Rott. The qualities of the acoustic engine are generalized to describe a class of intrinsically irreversible heat engines of which the present acoustic engine is a special case. Finally the results of analysis of several idealized intrinsically irreversible engines are presented. These suggest that the efficiency of such engines may be determined primarily by geometry or configuration rather than by temperature.

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  3. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, N

    2002-07-05

    This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

  4. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation and Completion of Episodic Information.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, James Bradley; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Vineyard, Craig Michael; Verzi, Stephen Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus region of the brain is a neurobiological process that is believed to contribute to the brain's advanced abilities in complex pattern recognition and cognition. Here, we describe how realistic scale simulations of the neurogenesis process can offer both a unique perspective on the biological relevance of this process and confer computational insights that are suggestive of novel machine learning techniques. First, supercomputer based scaling studies of the neurogenesis process demonstrate how a small fraction of adult-born neurons have a uniquely larger impact in biologically realistic scaled networks. Second, we describe a novel technical approach by which the information content of ensembles of neurons can be estimated. Finally, we illustrate several examples of broader algorithmic impact of neurogenesis, including both extending existing machine learning approaches and novel approaches for intelligent sensing.

  5. Self-organization of pulsing and bursting in a CO{sub 2} laser with opto-electronic feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freire, Joana G.; Meucci, Riccardo; Arecchi, Fortunato Tito; and others

    2015-09-15

    We report a detailed investigation of the stability of a CO{sub 2} laser with feedback as described by a six-dimensional rate-equations model which provides satisfactory agreement between numerical and experimental results. We focus on experimentally accessible parameters, like bias voltage, feedback gain, and the bandwidth of the feedback loop. The impact of decay rates and parameters controlling cavity losses are also investigated as well as control planes which imply changes of the laser physical medium. For several parameter combinations, we report stability diagrams detailing how laser spiking and bursting is organized over extended intervals. Laser pulsations are shown to emerge organized in several hitherto unseen regular and irregular phases and to exhibit a much richer and complex range of behaviors than described thus far. A significant observation is that qualitatively similar organization of laser spiking and bursting can be obtained by tuning rather distinct control parameters, suggesting the existence of unexpected symmetries in the laser control space.

  6. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-11-09

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

  7. Study of J/??pp? and J/??nn?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-08-31

    The decays J/??pp? and J/??nn? have been investigated with a sample of 225.210? J/? events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e?e? collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/??pp?)=(2.1120.0040.031)10? and B(J/??nn?)=(2.070.010.17)10?. Distributions of the angle ? between the proton or antineutron and the beam direction are well described by the form 1+?cos??, and we find ?=0.5950.0120.015 for J/??pp? and ?=0.500.040.21 for J/??nn?. Our branching-fraction results suggest a large phase angle between the strong and electromagnetic amplitudes describing the J/??NN decay.

  8. Evaluating anaerobic digestion for reduction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1994-12-31

    A small-scale anaerobic digestion test has been developed for monitoring start-up work with inoperative digesters. The test is described and variables critical to its consistent operation are detailed. The method has been used in many anaerobic digestion studies, including evaluation of the digestibility of various municipal solid wastes like grass and hedge clippings, garbage and newspapers. Digestion rates are expressed in terms of the rate of production of combustible gas and the retention time needed for a fixed degree of volatile solids destruction. An example shows the advantage of digesting selected combined charges, and it is suggested that this approach might be fruitful with many toxic organic materials. Application of this test to find the digestion rates of some high-yield biomass crops is also described.

  9. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  10. Atmospheric sciences transfer between research advances and energy-policy assessments (ASTRAEA). Final report, 1 April 1996--31 December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1997-12-10

    Consistent with the prime goal of the ASTRAEA project, as given in its peer-reviewed proposal, this final report is an informal report to DOE managers about a perceived DOE management problem, specifically, lack of vision in DOE`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). After presenting a review of relevant, current literature, the author suggests a framework for conceiving new visions for ACP, namely, multidisciplinary research for energy policy, tackling tough (e.g., nonlinear) problems as a team, ahead of political curves. Two example visions for ACP are then described, called herein the CITIES Project (the Comprehensive Inventory of Trace Inhalants from Energy Sources Project) and the OCEAN Project (the Ocean-Circulation Energy-Aerosol Nonlinearities Project). Finally, the author suggests methods for DOE to provide ACP with needed vision.

  11. Variational perturbation theory and nonperturbative calculations in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovtsova, O. P.

    2013-10-15

    A nonperturbative approach based on the variational perturbation theory in quantum chromodynamics is developed. The variational series is different from the conventional perturbative expansion and can be used to go beyond the weak-coupling regime. The approach suggested takes into account the summation of threshold singularities and the involvement of nonperturbative light quark masses. Phenomenological applications of this approach to describe physical quantities connected with the hadronic {tau}-decay data: the R{sub {tau}} ratio, the light-quark Adler function, and the smeared R{sub {Delta}} function are presented. The description of examined quantities includes an infrared region and, therefore, they cannot be directly calculated within the standard perturbation theory. It is shown that in spite of this fact the approach suggested gives a rather good result for these quantities down to the lowest energy scale.

  12. Electronic and magnetic properties of epitaxial perovskite SrCrO3(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Du, Yingge; Sushko, Petr; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Guixin; Gai, Zheng; Sallis, Shawn; Piper, L.F.J.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-06-24

    We have investigated the intrinsic properties of SrCrO3 epitaxial thin films synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. We find compelling evidence that SrCrO3 is a correlated metal. X-ray photoemission valence band and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a strongly hybridized Cr3d-O2p state crossing the Fermi level, leading to metallic behavior. Comparison between valence band spectra near the Fermi level and the densities of states calculated using density functional theory (DFT) also suggests the presence of coherent and incoherent states and points to a strong electron-electron correlation effects. The magnetic susceptibility can be described by Pauli paramagnetism at temperatures above 100 K, but reveals antiferromagnetic behavior at lower temperatures resulting from orbital ordering as suggested by Ortega-San-Martin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 255701 (2007)].

  13. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  14. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste potential market implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, H.T.D.; Mooij, H.P.

    1985-08-01

    A 10-day retention time experiment determined digester biogas production and overall digester performance for comparison with previous experiments using 12- and 18-day retention. The authors describe the experiments, compare the results, and discuss general operation and start-up of the three experiments. The results show that the 10-day retention time produces a high level of biogas with substantially lower retention times. The data suggest that as sludge is used and the problem of leaks is addressed, gas production rate can be increased as well as the extent of bio-conversion. They also suggest that a seven-day retention time is physically feasible, and that similar values for gas production and bio-conversion can be maintained. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  17. Combining Electron Crystallography and X-ray Crystallography to Study the MlotiK1 Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Potassium Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, G.; Aller, S; Wang, J; Unger, V; Morais-Cabral, J

    2009-01-01

    We have recently reported the X-ray structure of the cyclic nucleotide-regulated potassium channel, MlotiK1. Here we describe the application of both electron and X-ray crystallography to obtain high quality crystals. We suggest that the combined application of these techniques provides a useful strategy for membrane protein structure determination. We also present negative stain projection and cryo-data projection maps. These maps provide new insights about the properties of the MlotiK1 channel. In particular, a comparison of a 9 {angstrom} cryo-data projection with calculated model maps strongly suggests that there is a very weak interaction between the pore and the S1-S4 domains of this 6 TM tetrameric cation channel and that the S1-S4 domains can adopt multiple orientations relative to the pore.

  18. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  19. Process of e⁺e⁻ → ππX (3823) in the soft pion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voloshin, M. B.

    2015-06-23

    The production of the resonance X(3823), identified as the charmonium ³D₂ state, in the process e⁺e⁻ → ππX(3823) has been recently reported by BESIII. Here it is pointed out that this process is fully described, up to one overall coupling constant, in the soft pion limit. An interpretation of the available and possible future data within the discussed theoretical framework may reveal new features of the charmoniumlike states. In particular, the observed relative yield for this process at different energies strongly suggests a very significant enhancement of the amplitude at the charmoniumlike peak near 4.36 GeV.

  20. Radiolysis to knock-on damage transition in zeolites under electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ugurlu, O.; Haus, J.; Gunawan, A. A.; Maheshwari, S.; Tsapatsis, M.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Thomas, M. G.

    2011-03-15

    The electron-beam-induced damage in a zeolite under 60-200 keV energy beam irradiation has both radiolitic and knock-on components and can be described by linear superposition of these two processes. Theoretical predictions supported by experiments at 60 keV suggest that for electron beam energies smaller than 70 keV, the damage to the specimen follows a radiolitic path. For energies larger than 200 keV, knock-on based sputtering of the material will dominate, while considerable radiolitic movement of the atoms will still be present.

  1. A user`s guide to LUGSAN II. A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, W.N.

    1998-03-01

    LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.

  2. Our Universe from the cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrau, Aurlien; Linsefors, Linda E-mail: linda.linsefors@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2014-12-01

    The issue of the origin of the Universe and of its contents is addressed in the framework of bouncing cosmologies, as described for example by loop quantum gravity. If the current acceleration is due to a true cosmological constant, this constant is naturally conserved through the bounce and the Universe should also be in a (contracting) de Sitter phase in the remote past. We investigate here the possibility that the de Sitter temperature in the contracting branch fills the Universe with radiation that causes the bounce and the subsequent inflation and reheating. We also consider the possibility that this gives rise to a cyclic model of the Universe and suggest some possible tests.

  3. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  4. Materials technology assessment for a 1050 K Stirling Space Engine design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheuermann, C.M.; Dreshfield, R.L.; Gaydosh, D.J.; Kiser, J.D.; MacKay, R.A.; McDanels, D.L.; Petrasek, D.W.; Vannucci, R.D.; Bowles, K.J.; Watson, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    An assessment of materials technology and proposed materials selection was made for the 1050 K (superalloy) Stirling Space Engine design. The objectives of this assessment were to evaluate previously proposed materials selections, evaluate the current state-of-the-art materials, propose potential alternate materials selections and identify research and development efforts needed to provide materials that can meet the stringent system requirements. This assessment generally reaffirmed the choices made by the contractor; however, in many cases alternative choices were described and suggestions for needed materials and fabrication research and development were made.

  5. Simple interpretation of shape evolution in Pt isotopes without intruder states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCutchan, E.A.; Casten, R.F.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-06-01

    The most commonly accepted interpretation of the light Pt isotopes invokes the coexistence and mixing with proton intruder states from above the Z = 82 shell gap. Using an alternative description, interacting boson model (IBA) calculations are performed for the Pt isotopes with a simple, single configuration, two-parameter Hamiltonian. Excellent agreement is obtained for energies and electromagnetic transition strengths over the entire isotopic chain, spanning a wide variety of structures, and suggesting that these nuclei can be described more simply without the introduction of an intruder configuration. The Pt nuclei close to midshell are found to lie close to a region of phase/shape coexistence.

  6. Nonlinear simulations to optimize magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, Daniel B. Weaver, John B.

    2014-03-10

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is an attractive emerging cancer treatment, but the acting microscopic energy deposition mechanisms are not well understood and optimization suffers. We describe several approximate forms for the characteristic time of Nel rotations with varying properties and external influences. We then present stochastic simulations that show agreement between the approximate expressions and the micromagnetic model. The simulations show nonlinear imaginary responses and associated relaxational hysteresis due to the field and frequency dependencies of the magnetization. This suggests that efficient heating is possible by matching fields to particles instead of resorting to maximizing the power of the applied magnetic fields.

  7. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1993-12-21

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers are described. The in situ reactions: AgNO[sub 3] + RCHO [yields] Ag + RCOOH and R[sub 3]M [yields] M + 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R[sub 3]M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrone.

  8. Lightning strike at Bryan, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, B. E.

    1980-02-01

    A week before the 29 August 1979 dedication of the photovoltaic power system at daytime AM radio station WBNO, in Bryan, Ohio, a lightning superbolt struck the FM radio tower, one of two towers at the station. Minor damage to the station and to components of the photovoltaic system, the latter designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under US Department of Energy sponsorship, is described. This rare strike suggested the need for increased protection and more voltage-transient suppressors were added to those already in place as a preventive measure in the event that such a phenomenon reoccurs.

  9. The second generation of electronic diesel fuel injection systems - Investigation with a rotary pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, K.; Oshizawa, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes concepts of the next generation of electronic diesel fuel injection (EDFI) systems, and the test results of the prototype, named ''Model-1.'' Important characteristics of the next generation of EDFI will be; mechanical simplicity, direct control and pump intelligence. Direct spill control using a high speed solenoid valve for injection regulation and pump mounted electronic circuits were used in the ''Model-1'' system. The test results demonstrate the advantages of this system, and suggest possibilities of new function such as individual cylinder control, pilot injection and multi fuel usage.

  10. Analysis of RFQ vacuum system for HINS tests at MDB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The arrangement of RFQ vacuum system is briefly described. The projections of the vacuum level using standard out-gassing rates for the RFQ major components are compared with measurements. The permeation of water through the Viton O-rings of the LCW manifold inside the RFQ vacuum vessel is analyzed and compared with RGA data. A model where the out-gassing water from the vanes inner surfaces affects seriously RFQ operation is devised and compared with RFQ performance. The rate of a hydrogen gas spill from the LEBT into the RFQ vacuum space is also projected. Suggestions to correct and improve RFQ operation are presented.

  11. Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Blanchard, W. R.; Krstic, P. S.; Kugel, H. W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2010-12-09

    A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

  12. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford Smith

    2003-09-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.

  13. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.

    2011-03-11

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  14. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

  15. Institutional barriers to solar energy: early HUD demonstration experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mara, G.; Engel, D.

    1980-03-01

    After briefly describing the Residential Solar Demonstration Program of HUD, several of the program experiences are discussed. The HUD program found that, in practice, most institutions presented only minor problem for active solar heating and cooling of homes. Demonstration experiences suggest solutions to problems which may arise outside the program, particularly as solar applications other than heating and cooling becomemore widespread. The HUD program will continue to study institutional problems for the program's passive solar grants and will focus on areas like the cities, where institutional concerns are more complex.

  16. Surface relief produced by diffusion induced boundary migration in Cu-Zn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Y.S.; Meyrick, G.; Shewmon, P.G.

    1984-03-01

    Experimental observations are presented that demonstrate that diffusion induced grain boundary migration in copper foils exposed to zinc vapor, from a Cu-15 pct Zn alloy, can be studied directl after treatment without etching. The general characteristics of migration are in accord with previous investigations, but novel changes in the surface topography are described. Pits were formed on the surface of areas swept by boundary migration; also, the surface was often converted into a series of corrugations. The formation of pits suggests that the grain boundary diffusivity of zinc exceeds that of copper. The corrugations are believed to indicate that boundaries sometimes move in an intermittent manner.

  17. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  18. A quantum measure of the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    It has been recently suggested that probabilities of different events in the multiverse are given by the frequencies at which these events are encountered along the worldline of a geodesic observer (the ''watcher''). Here I discuss an extension of this probability measure to quantum theory. The proposed extension is gauge-invariant, as is the classical version of this measure. Observations of the watcher are described by a reduced density matrix, and the frequencies of events can be found using the decoherent histories formalism of Quantum Mechanics (adapted to open systems). The quantum watcher measure makes predictions in agreement with the standard Born rule of QM.

  19. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: Lessons and opportunities from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.N.; Meidinger, E.E.; Miller, G.; Rayner, J.; Layseca, M.

    1998-09-01

    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more activity engaged in the creation and evaluation of policy. In this paper, the authors summarize the literature and experience in how Canada, Mexico, and the United States approach the integration of science and policy; the authors describe some apparent barriers and lessons; and they suggest some issues that may prove fruitful for discussion and future collaboration.

  20. Pressure-Induced Structural Phase Transition in CeNi: X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies and First-Principles Calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mirmelstein, A.; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Ehlers, Georg; Kerbel, O.; Matvienko, V.; Sefat, A. S.; Saporov, B.; Halder, G. J.; Tobin, J. G.

    2015-08-03

    The pressure-induced structural phase transition in the intermediate-valence compound CeNi has been investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction techniques. It is shown that the structure of the pressure-induced CeNi phase (phases) can be described in terms of the Pnma space group. Equations of state for CeNi on both sides of the phase transition are derived and an approximate P-T phase diagram is suggested for Pmorethe phase transition.less

  1. Hot waste-to-energy flue gas treatment using an integrated fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes an innovative process to increase superheated steam temperatures in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. This solution is mainly characterised by a fluidised bed reactor in which hot flue gas is treated both chemically and mechanically. This approach, together with gas recirculation, increases the energy conversion efficiency, and raises the superheated steam temperature without decreasing the useful life of the superheater. This paper presents new experimental data obtained from the test facility installed at the Hera S.p.A. WTE plant in Forli, Italy; discusses changes that can be implemented to increase the duration of experimental testing; offers suggestions for the design of an industrial solution.

  2. Los Alamos lab director to link science education, national security in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TEDxABQ talk Lab director to link science education, national security in talk Los Alamos lab director to link science education, national security in TEDxABQ talk McMillan will describe the events that led to his career in science and share suggestions on how non-scientists can inspire young people to STEM careers and scientific literacy. September 5, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan Los Alamos National Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan Contact Fred deSousa

  3. Environmental surveillance plan for the Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Englert, J.P.; Hinnefeld, S.L.

    1981-09-09

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) is a United States Department of Energy owned facility used for the storage of low-level radioactive residues. The site occupies 190 acres of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works and is located in the Niagara County town of Lewiston, in western New York State. The city of Niagara Falls is approximately eight (8) miles south of the NFSS. The purpose of this report is to describe environmental monitoring programs presently operated by NLO, and to suggest programs and revisions which should be implemented as a result of NLO's remedial actions at the NFSS.

  4. Feasibility of on-line fuel-condition monitoring. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, D.A.; Osetek, D.J.; Croucher, D.W.; Hartwell, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between fuel rod damage and fission product release is investigated to assess the feasibility of using on-line gamma spectroscopy of reactor coolant to estimate not only numbers of detected fuel rods, but also the type of core damage which may occur during an accident or off-normal transient. Fission product release signatures for various fuel conditions and accident scenarios are compared, and unique indicators of fuel damage, ranging from cladding pinholes to severely damaged fuel rods, are suggested, The configuration of monitoring hardware and data analysis soft ware are described, and the benefits, development needs, and usefulness of the envisaged power plant system are discussed.

  5. Activities of HPS standards committee in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stencel, J.R.; Chen, S.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) develops American National Standards in the area of radiation protection using methods approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Two of its sections, Environmental Health Physics and Contamination Limits, have ongoing standards development which are important to some environmental remediation efforts. This paper describes the role of the HPS standards process and indicates particular standards under development which will be of interest to the reader. In addition, the authors solicit readers to participate in the voluntary standards process by either joining active working groups (WG) or suggesting appropriate and relevant topics which should be placed into the standards process.

  6. Area C borrow Site Habitat Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2009-12-04

    A habitat quality assessment was performed within selected portions of the proposed Area C Borrow Source. The previously identified Bitterbrush / Indian ricegrass stabilized dune element occurrence was determined to be better described as a sagebrush /needle-and-thread grass element occurrence of fair to good quality. A new habitat polygon is suggested adjacent to this element occurrence, which would also be sagebrush/needle-and-thread grass, but of poor quality. The proposed site of initial borrow site development was found to be a very low quality community dominated by cheatgrass.

  7. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Eric Haseltine

    2010-01-08

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  8. Thermometry and thermal management of carbon nanotube circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayle, Scott; Gupta, Tanuj; Davis, Sam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Shafraniuk, Serhii

    2015-05-21

    Monitoring of the intrinsic temperature and the thermal management is discussed for the carbon nanotube nano-circuits. The experimental results concerning fabricating and testing of a thermometer able to monitor the intrinsic temperature on nanoscale are reported. We also suggest a model which describes a bi-metal multilayer system able to filter the heat flow, based on separating the electron and phonon components one from another. The bi-metal multilayer structure minimizes the phonon component of the heat flow, while retaining the electronic part. The method allows one to improve the overall performance of the electronic nano-circuits due to minimizing the energy dissipation.

  9. Glucose Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase in Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Nanocomposite Film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Chong M.; Wang, Donghai; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-09-01

    The bionanocomposite film consisting of glucose oxidase/Pt/functional graphene sheets/chitosan (GOD/Pt/FGS/chitosan) for glucose sensing was described. With the electrocatalytic synergy of FGS and Pt nanoparticles to hydrogen peroxide, a sensitive biosensor with detection limit of 0.6 M glucose was achieved. The biosensor also had good reproducibility, long term stability and negligible interfering signals from ascorbic acid and uric acid comparing to the response to glucose. The large surface area and good conductivity of graphene suggests that graphene is a potential candidate for sensor material. The hybrid nanocomposite glucose sensor provides new opportunity for clinical diagnosis and point-of-care applications.

  10. Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens metasurfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2015-01-28

    In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity dielectric cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometrymorein a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole resonances to achieve local behavior. These properties are confirmed through the multipolar expansion and show that the use of geometries suggested by perturbation theory is a viable route to achieve purely dipole resonances for metamaterial applications such as wave-front manipulation with Huygens metasurfaces. Our results are fully scalable across any frequency bands where high-permittivity dielectric materials are available, including microwave, THz, and infrared frequencies.less

  11. Technical evaluation of software for gamma-ray logging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report contains results of a technical review of software, identified as LGCALC, that processes data collected by a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole logging system. The software presently operates within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Department of Geosciences, to process data collected by the Radionuclide Logging System. The software has been reviewed for its suitability for processing data to be collected by new high-resolution gamma-ray logging trucks scheduled to begin operational tests within Westinghouse Tank Waste Remediation Systems during 1994. Examination of the program code and hands-on operational tests have shown that this software is suitable for its intended use of processing high-resolution gamma-ray data obtained from borehole logging. Most of the code requires no changes, but in a few limited cases, suggestions have been made to correct errors or improve operation. Section 4 describes these changes. The technical review has confirmed the appropriateness, correctness, completeness, and coding accuracy of algorithms used to process spectral gamma-ray data, leading to a calculation of subsurface radionuclide contaminants. Running the program with test data from calibration models has confirmed that the program operates correctly. Comparisons with hand calculations have shown the correctness of the output from the program, based on known input data. Section 3 describes these tests. The recommended action is to make the near term programming changes suggested in Section 4.1 and then use the LGCALC analysis program with the new high-resolution logging systems once they have been properly calibrated.

  12. Equation of State Model Quality Study for Ti and Ti64.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, Ann Elisabet; Sanchez, Jason James

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and the titanium alloy Ti64 (6% aluminum, 4% vanadium and the balance ti- tanium) are materials used in many technologically important applications. To be able to computationally investigate and design these applications, accurate Equations of State (EOS) are needed and in many cases also additional constitutive relations. This report describes what data is available for constructing EOS for these two materials, and also describes some references giving data for stress-strain constitutive models. We also give some suggestions for projects to achieve improved EOS and constitutive models. In an appendix, we present a study of the 'cloud formation' issue observed in the ALEGRA code. This issue was one of the motivating factors for this literature search of available data for constructing improved EOS for Ti and Ti64. However, the study shows that the cloud formation issue is only marginally connected to the quality of the EOS, and, in fact, is a physical behavior of the system in question. We give some suggestions for settings in, and improvements of, the ALEGRA code to address this computational di culty.

  13. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  14. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  16. New thermal model with distinct freeze-out temperatures for baryons and mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Assis, Leonardo P. G.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Chiapparini, Marcelo; Hirsch, Luciana R.; Delfino, Antonio Jr.

    2013-05-06

    A significant amount of experimental data for particle production in high-energy heavy ion collisions (10 - 200 GeV/A at center of mass) has been accumulated during last years. Many different theoretical attempts have tried to describe these data using thermal models in the approximation of global thermal equilibrium considering only one freeze-out temperature. However the thermal models often are not able to describe adequately the whole multiplicities of hadrons. For instance, the abundance of strange particles is overestimate and the pion yields are underestimated. In this work is presented a thermal hadronic model with two different temperatures in order to describe the baryonic and mesonic chemical freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model is used to fit the particle population ratios of the hadrons produced in the reaction. The proposal is not merely to incorporate one additional degree of freedom in the adjustment procedure of data, but to present and alternative scenario for the freeze out stage in the collisional proces s. This new reformulated version of thermal model was applied to a set of data, offering a rather good improvement in the fitting of the calculated particle ratios to the data. The results suggest that the introduced model makes the thermal approach more robust to handle with a larger number of colliding systems and a more comprehensive set of reaction observables.

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Deployments at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Cook, Christopher B.; Titzler, P. Scott; Moursund, Russell A.

    2002-11-12

    This report describes short-term studies conducted in late November and early December 2001 to optimize hydroacoustic sampling techniques for John Day Dam before the 2002 fish passage efficiency (FPE) study. Knowledge gained in this study should significantly improve hydroacoustic sampling and the accuracy of estimates of fish passage at two locations that have presented problems in past studies. The spillway has been most problematic because many fish detected there were not entrained. Without correction, non-commitment of fish can result in multiple detections and overestimation of fish passage and FPE. Trash-rack-mounted, down-looking transducers for sampling unguided fish at a submerged traveling screen (STS) also have posed problems because the beam was aimed so far downstream that researchers had concerns about fish aspect and detectability. The deployments, aiming angles, and ping rates described here should eliminate all problems encountered in previous studies. This report describes hydroacoustic evaluations. The spill-bay deployment identified in this study should completely eliminate multiple detections of fish by limiting the sample volume for counting fish to the deep high-discharge volume adjacent to the gate. Results from testing of transducers deployed in a turbine intake with an STS suggest that, after testing in 2002, it may be possible to cut the number of powerhouse transducers sampling STS units by 50% or to double the spatial sampling coverage with the same number of transducers, all while improving detectability.

  19. A variational model of disjoining pressure: Liquid film on a nonplanar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Virnovsky, G.

    2009-06-01

    Variational methods have been successfully used in modelling thin liquid films in numerous theoretical studies of wettability. In this paper, the variational model of the disjoining pressure is extended to the general case of a two-dimensional solid surface. The Helmgoltz free energy functional depends both on the disjoining pressure isotherm and the shape of the solid surface. The augmented Young-Laplace equation (AYLE) is a nonlinear second-order partial differential equation. A number of solutions describing wetting films on spherical grains have been obtained. In the case of cylindrical films, the phase portrait technique describes the entire variety of mathematically feasible solutions. It turns out that a periodic solution, which would describe wave-like wetting films, does not satisfy the Jacobi's condition of the classical calculus of variations. Therefore, such a solution is nonphysical. The roughness of the solid surface significantly affects liquid film stability. AYLE solutions suggest that film rupture is more likely at a location where the pore-wall surface is most exposed into the pore space and the curvature is positive.

  20. Transport of synthetic colloids through single saturated fractures: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1995-07-01

    Colloids having the same surface charge sign as the bulk of the geologic media in a groundwater system may be able to travel through the system faster than soluble species because they will follow fluid streamlines more closely and they should have less tendency to diffuse into pores or dead spaces in the media than soluble species. Synthetic colloids with uniform, controlled properties may be ideal for serving as {open_quotes}worst-case{close_quotes} tracers that provide lower-bound estimates of contaminant travel times in hydrologic systems. This report discusses a review of the literature pertaining to colloid transport in single saturated natural fractures. After a brief background discussion to put the literature review in perspective, the phenomenon of colloid transport in saturated fractures is divided into three major topics, each of which is reviewed in detail: (1) saturated fluid flow through fractures; (2) colloid transport by convection, diffusion, and force fields; and (3) colloid interactions with surfaces. It is suggested that these phenomena be accounted for in colloid transport models by using (1) lubrication theory to describe water flow through fractures, (2) particle tracking methods to describe colloid transport in fractures, and (3) a kinetic boundary layer approximation to describe colloid interactions with fracture walls. These methods offer better computational efficiency and better experimental accessibility to model parameters than rigorously solving the complete governing equations.

  1. Mapping the evolution of scientific ideas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, David; Herrera, Mark; Gulbahce, Natali

    2009-01-01

    Despite the apparent conceptual boundaries of scientific fields, a formal description for their evolution is lacking. Here we describe a novel approach to study the dynamics and evolution of scientific fields using a network-based analysis. We build an idea network consisting of American Physical Society PACS numbers as nodes representing scientific concepts. Two PACS numbers are linked if there exist publications that reference them simultaneously. We locate scientific fields using Cfinder, an overlapping community finding algorithm, and describe the time evolution of these fields using a community evolution method over the course of 1985-2006. The communities we identify map to known scientific fields, and their age strongly depends on t.heir size, impact and activity. Our analysis further suggests that communities that redefine themselves by merging and creating new groups of ideas tend to have more fitness as measured by the impact per paper, and hence communities with a higher fitness tend to be short-lived. The described approach to quantify the evolution of ideas may be relevant in making predictions about the future of science and how to guide its development.

  2. Wind energy conversion system analysis model (WECSAM) computer program documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downey, W T; Hendrick, P L

    1982-07-01

    Described is a computer-based wind energy conversion system analysis model (WECSAM) developed to predict the technical and economic performance of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The model is written in CDC FORTRAN V. The version described accesses a data base containing wind resource data, application loads, WECS performance characteristics, utility rates, state taxes, and state subsidies for a six state region (Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana). The model is designed for analysis at the county level. The computer model includes a technical performance module and an economic evaluation module. The modules can be run separately or together. The model can be run for any single user-selected county within the region or looped automatically through all counties within the region. In addition, the model has a restart capability that allows the user to modify any data-base value written to a scratch file prior to the technical or economic evaluation. Thus, any user-supplied data for WECS performance, application load, utility rates, or wind resource may be entered into the scratch file to override the default data-base value. After the model and the inputs required from the user and derived from the data base are described, the model output and the various output options that can be exercised by the user are detailed. The general operation is set forth and suggestions are made for efficient modes of operation. Sample listings of various input, output, and data-base files are appended. (LEW)

  3. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This guide regarding energy recovery is one in a series on best practices for laboratories. It was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs 21'), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH - non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 - Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate 'should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory' it specifically indicates that it is intended to 'provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.' The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that provide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories. Various types of energy recovery devices and systems can substantially reduce heating and cooling energy required for conditioning spaces in laboratories. Heating and cooling systems can be downsized when energy recovery is used because these systems reduce peak heating and cooling requirements. Heating and cooling systems can also be downsized by capturing heat generated in high-load spaces and transferring it to spaces requiring reheat. There are many opportunities for energy recovery in laboratories. This guide includes descriptions of several air-to-air energy recovery devices and methods, such as using enthalpy wheels (Figure 1), heat pipes, or run-around loops in new construction. These devices generally recover energy from exhaust air. This recovered energy is used to precondition supply air during both cooling and heating modes of operation. In addition to air-to-air energy recovery options, this guide includes a description of a water-to-water heat recovery system that collects heat from high-load spaces and transfers it to spaces that require reheat. While air-to-air recovery devices provide significant energy reduction, in some laboratory facilities the amount of energy available in the exhaust air exceeds the pre-heat and pre-cooling needed to maintain supply air conditions. During these periods of time, controls typically reduce the energy recovery capacity to match the reduced load. If the energy recovered in the exhaust is not needed then it is rejected from the facility. By using a water-to-water recovery system, it is possible to significantly reduce overall building energy use by reusing heating or cooling energy generated in the building before it is rejected to the outdoors. Laboratory managers are encouraged to perform a life-cycle cost analysis of an energy-recovery technology to determine the feasibility of its application in their laboratory. Usually, the shortest payback periods occur when the heating and cooling load reduction provided by an energy recovery system allows the laboratory to install and use smaller heating (e.g., hot water or steam) and cooling (e.g., c

  4. Oblique incidence effects in direct x-ray detectors: A first-order approximation using a physics-based analytical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badano, Aldo; Freed, Melanie; Fang Yuan

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the modifications to a previously developed analytical model of indirect CsI:Tl-based detector response required for studying oblique x-ray incidence effects in direct semiconductor-based detectors. This first-order approximation analysis allows the authors to describe the associated degradation in resolution in direct detectors and compare the predictions to the published data for indirect detectors. Methods: The proposed model is based on a physics-based analytical description developed by Freed et al. [''A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems,'' Med. Phys. 37(6), 2593-2605 (2010)] that describes detector response functions for indirect detectors and oblique incident x rays. The model, modified in this work to address direct detector response, describes the dependence of the response with x-ray energy, thickness of the transducer layer, and the depth-dependent blur and collection efficiency. Results: The authors report the detector response functions for indirect and direct detector models for typical thicknesses utilized in clinical systems for full-field digital mammography (150 {mu}m for indirect CsI:Tl and 200 {mu}m for a-Se direct detectors). The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in a semiconductor detector differs from that in indirect detectors in two ways: The direct detector model produces a sharper overall PRF compared to the response corresponding to the indirect detector model for normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction compared to that found in indirect detectors with respect to the response at normal incidence angles. Conclusions: Compared to the effect seen in indirect detectors, the direct detector model exhibits a sharper response at normal x-ray incidence and a larger relative increase in blur along the x-ray incidence direction with respect to the blur in the orthogonal direction. The results suggest that the oblique incidence effect in direct detectors can be considered to be caused mostly by the geometry of the path where the x-ray beam and its secondary particles deposit energy in the semiconductor layer.

  5. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D.; Waldhauer, Ann

    2015-08-18

    Method of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  6. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  7. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  8. User Group 2010 Business Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Suggestions for workshopssymposia gg p y p Suggestions for instruments... Workshop suggestions are a little more diverse - no recurring themes and all p gg g seem ...

  9. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  10. A Methodology for Calculating Radiation Signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Marc Louis; Wilcox, Trevor; Bathke, Charles G.; James, Michael R.

    2015-05-01

    A rigorous formalism is presented for calculating radiation signatures from both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) as well as radiological sources. The use of MCNP6 in conjunction with CINDER/ORIGEN is described to allow for the determination of both neutron and photon leakages from objects of interest. In addition, a description of the use of MCNP6 to properly model the background neutron and photon sources is also presented. Examinations of the physics issues encountered in the modeling are investigated so as to allow for guidance in the user discerning the relevant physics to incorporate into general radiation signature calculations. Furthermore, examples are provided to assist in delineating the pertinent physics that must be accounted for. Finally, examples of detector modeling utilizing MCNP are provided along with a discussion on the generation of Receiver Operating Curves, which are the suggested means by which to determine detectability radiation signatures emanating from objects.

  11. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  12. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Sherrell R; Flanagan, George F; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  13. Modelling Residential-Scale Combustion-Based Cogeneration in Building Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, A.; Kelly, N.; Weber, A.; Griffith, B.

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development, calibration and validation of a combustion-cogeneration model for whole-building simulation. As part of IEA Annex 42, we proposed a parametric model for studying residentialscale cogeneration systems based on both Stirling and internal combustion engines. The model can predict the fuel use, thermal output and electrical generation of a cogeneration device in response to changing loads, coolant temperatures and flow rates, and control strategies. The model is now implemented in the publicly-available EnergyPlus, ESP-r and TRNSYS building simulation programs. We vetted all three implementations using a comprehensive comparative testing suite, and validated the model's theoretical basis through comparison to measured data. The results demonstrate acceptable-to-excellent agreement, and suggest the model can be used with confidence when studying the energy performance of cogeneration equipment in non-condensing operation.

  14. Dark matter as a ghost free conformal extension of Einstein theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss ghost free models of the recently suggested mimetic dark matter theory. This theory is shown to be a conformal extension of Einstein general relativity. Dark matter originates from gauging out its local Weyl invariance as an extra degree of freedom which describes a potential flow of the pressureless perfect fluid. For a positive energy density of this fluid the theory is free of ghost instabilities, which gives strong preference to stable configurations with a positive scalar curvature and trace of the matter stress tensor. Instabilities caused by caustics of the geodesic flow, inherent in this model, serve as a motivation for an alternative conformal extension of Einstein theory, based on the generalized Proca vector field. A potential part of this field modifies the inflationary stage in cosmology, whereas its rotational part at the post inflationary epoch might simulate rotating flows of dark matter.

  15. Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I.; Beall, C.; Vora, N.; DeHart, C.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dippo, P.; To, B.; Mann, J.; Hsu, W. C.; Goodrich, A.; Noufi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

  16. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  17. The distributed utility: A new electric utility planning and pricing paradigm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinstein, C.D.; Orans, R.; Chapel, S.W.

    1997-12-31

    The distributed utility concept provides an alternate approach to guide electric utility expansion. The fundamental idea within the distributed utility concept is that particular local load increases can be satisfied at least cost by avoiding or delaying the more traditional investments in central generation capacity, bulk transmission expansion, and local transmission and distribution upgrades. Instead of these investments, the distributed utility concept suggests that investments in local generation, local storage, and local demand-side management technologies can be designed to satisfy increasing local demand at lower total cost. Critical to installation of distributed assets is knowledge of a utility system`s area- and time-specific costs. This review introduces the distributed utility concept, describes an application of ATS costs to investment planning, discusses the various motivations for further study of the concept, and reviews relevant literature. Future research directions are discussed.

  18. Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Mycotic Aneurysm of the Common Iliac Artery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mofidi, R. Bhat, R.; Nagy, J.; Griffiths, G. D.; Chakraverty, S.

    2007-09-15

    This report describes the case of a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the left common iliac artery, successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafting. A 64-year-old woman underwent diagnostic coronary angiography complicated by an infected hematoma of the left groin. Seven days later, she developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus septicemia and CT scan evidence of perivascular inflammation around the left common iliac artery. This was followed by rupture of a mycotic aneurysm of the left common iliac artery. The lesion was successfully treated with a stent-graft and prolonged antibiotic therapy, and the patient remains free of infection 10 months later. Accumulating evidence suggests that endovascular repair can be used safely for the repair of ruptured infected aneurysms.

  19. Non-Kondo zero-bias anomaly in disordered quantum wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Chong-Shian; Hsiao, J. H.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-02-14

    We investigated the behavior of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum wires that were embedded with impurities. The linear conductance G can exhibit cusp features that evolve with the positions of the impurities, and these features can be continuously changed using a combination of spit-gate and top-gate voltages. ZBA is observed regardless of the presence of impurity. Kondo model is inadequate for describing the behaviors of both G and ZBA. Despite the presence of impurity scattering, various ZBA behaviors that resemble those reported in clean quantum wires can be observed. Our results suggest that ZBA is an intrinsic phenomenon in a quantum wire, and its temperature and magnetic field dependence does not pertain to the Kondo correlations in quantum dot.

  20. Defective fuel rod detection in operating pressurized water reactors during periods of continuously decreasing fuel rod integrity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanker, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Periods of continuously decreasing levels of fuel rod integrity due to debris-induced cladding damage, vibration-induced fretting wear of the cladding, etc. cause difficulties in the assessment of fuel rod performance from coolant activity data. The calculational models currently in use for this purpose in nuclear power plants are not sufficiently capable of indicating cases in which they are invalid. This can mislead reactor operators by misinterpretation of the coolant activity data, especially in situations where fast reactions are necessary. A quick test of validity is suggested to check the applicability of the currently available calculational models for estimating the number and average size of fuel rod defects. This paper describes how to recognize immediately periods of continuously decreasing levels of fuel rod integrity in order to prevent complications in routine power plant maintenance as well as accident situations caused by more severe fuel rod degradation.

  1. Damping of thermoacoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P.V.

    1982-01-01

    The design criteria for the damping mechanism required to suppress thermoacoustic oscillation is discussed. The theory is presented with formulas stated. Incident acoustic wave generation is illustrated with the pipes and damper positions indicated. Capillary and surge tank functions are described with illustrations and formulas relevant to the thermoacoustic oscillation process. Porous solid dampers were introduced which used glass wool. The problem of damping of the thermoacoustic oscillation appears to be solvable in many applications through the use of an orifice and surge tank. This device can be installed either as a termination in an oscillating pipe or in a branch. It is suggested that such a device be incorporated into cryogenic systems whenever thermoacoustic oscillations could cause a problem.

  2. Note: On the generation of sub-300 keV flash-X-rays using rod-pinch diode: An experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyanarayana, N.; Rajawat, R. K.; Basu, Shibaji; Rao, A. Durga Prasad; Mittal, K. C.

    2014-09-15

    Generation of flash X-rays (FXRs) at less than 500 keV is described with emphasis on experimental investigation. The pulser is a Tesla transformer-Water transmission line based pulsed power generator operating in double resonance mode to power a rod-pinch diode. The configuration of aspect ratio reported here falls much below the normally reported ratios for the rod-pinch diode operation. Experimental investigation at such low pulsed voltage has revealed flowering of the anode tip and pitting of the perspex window. A possible explanation in terms of Lorentz body force is discussed rather than the pinch mechanism generally suggested in literature. The experimental investigation for the FXR generation is corroborated by measuring the radiation dose using CaSO{sub 4} (Dy) thermo luminescent dosimeters.

  3. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  4. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-17

    We investigate hot regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-?SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth ?{sub L}=232nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120??C baked cavity shows a much larger ?>100?nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  5. In-Well Sediment Incubators to Evaluate Microbial Community Stability and Dynamics following Bioimmobilization of Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Gan, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Smithgall, A. N.; Pfiffner, S.; Freifeld, Barry M.; White, D. C.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-09-23

    An in-situ incubation device (ISI) was developed in order to investigate the stability and dynamics of sediment associated microbial communities to prevailing subsurface oxidizing or reducing conditions. Here we describe the use of these devices at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. During the 7 month deployment oxidized Rifle aquifer background sediments (RABS) were deployed in previously biostimulated wells under iron reducing conditions, cell densities of known iron reducing bacteria including Geobacteraceae increased significantly showing the microbial community response to local subsurface conditions. PLFA profiles of RABS following in situ deployment were strikingly similar to those of adjacent sediment cores suggesting ISI results could be extrapolated to the native material of the test plots. Results for ISI deployed reduced sediments showed only slight changes in community composition and pointed toward the ability of the ISIs to monitor microbial community stability and response to subsurface conditions.

  6. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  7. Resistive switching phenomena in TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers for memory applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goren, Emanuelle; Tsur, Yoed; Ungureanu, Mariana; Zazpe, Raul; Rozenberg, Marcelo; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Flix; Stoliar, Pablo

    2014-10-06

    Electrical characteristics of a Co/ TiO{sub x}/Co resistive memory device, fabricated by two different methods, are reported. In addition to crystalline TiO{sub 2} layers fabricated via conventional atomic layer deposition (ALD), an alternative method has been examined, where TiO{sub x} nanoparticle layers were fabricated via sol-gel. The different devices have shown different hysteresis loops with a unique crossing point for the sol-gel devices. A simple qualitative model is introduced to describe the different current-voltage behaviours by suggesting only one active metal-oxide interface for the ALD devices and two active metal-oxide interfaces for the sol-gel devices. Furthermore, we show that the resistive switching behaviour could be easily tuned by proper interface engineering and that despite having a similar active material, different fabrication methods can lead to dissimilar resistive switching properties.

  8. Photovoltaic procurement strategies: an assessment of supply issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posner, D.; Costello, D.

    1980-02-01

    This review report presents the results of an analysis of alternative approaches to the design of a federal photovoltaics procurement program. Advantages and disadvantages of large purchases at fixed prices and smaller purchases for testing and demonstrating the technology are presented. The objectives and possible impacts of these purchase programs on the photovoltaic industry are described. The reactions of the industry to alternative purchase programs were assessed using personal interviews with selected companies currently active in photovoltaics. The report begins with a review of the impacts of federal procurements on other innovations, including the electronics industry, and suggests the relation of these procurements to photovoltaics. The methodology for conducting the interviews is presented next. The results of the interviews are summarized into possible scenarios of future developments in the industry and into discussions of key issues in the design of a procurement program. An appendix on the current structure of the photovoltaic industry is provided.

  9. Molecular dynamics of a dilute solution of hydrogen in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, L. R.; Eckert, J.

    1989-06-15

    Molecular-dynamics results on a dilute solution of H in Pd are presentedand compared with available incoherent inelastic neutron-scattering results.The embedded-atom model adopted here does a good job of describing the H-Pdatomic forces probed by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. The timecorrelation functions associated with the computed spectra are strongly dampedand indicative of the anharmonicity that has been suggested as the principalcontribution to the anomalous isotope dependence of the superconductingtransition temperature in PdH. These results highlight the fact that the H-atomvibrations in Pd-H solutions are low-frequency, large-amplitude vibrationsrelative to vibrations of H atoms in usual covalent interactions. The rmsdisplacement of the H atom from its mean position in the center of the Pdoctahedron compares favorably with the available neutron-diffraction results.

  10. An analysis of axial compressor fouling and a blade cleaning method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarabrin, A.P.; Schurovsky, V.A.; Bodrov, A.I.; Stalder, J.P.

    1998-04-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of axial compressor fouling due to aerosols contained in the air. Key parameters having effect on the level of fouling are determined. A mathematical model of a progressive compressor fouling using the stage-by-stage calculation method is developed. Calculation results on the influence of fouling on the compressor performance are presented. A new index of sensitivity of axial compressors to fouling is suggested. The paper gives information about Turbotect`s deposit cleaning method of compressor blading and the results of its application on an operating industrial gas turbine. Regular on-line and off-line washings of the compressor flow path made it possible to maintain a high level of engine efficiency and output.

  11. Facing America's trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    One coherent MSW (municipal solid waste) policy is that trash touches virtually all the threads of the social fabric. Products and packaging, yard waste all eventually become part of the MSW stream. The system that produces MSW is so complex and dynamic that no single option is guaranteed in and of itself to solve MSW problems. In fact, it is not clear that there is a single given combination of options that is best. What is clear, however, is that unless there is development of a more comprehensive approach, the Nation will continue to have problems with capacity, siting, and costs for MSW management. Many of the options described in this paper have been suggested before. They have not been acted on, however, and problems have worsened.

  12. Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-10-13

    Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. Specifically, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists andmore » experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.« less

  13. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  14. Dynamics of energy distribution in three channel alpha helix protein based on Davydovs ansatz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Faozan; Alatas, Husin

    2015-04-16

    An important aspect of many biological processes at molecular level is the transfer and storage mechanism of bioenergy released in the reaction of the hydrolysis of Adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) by biomacromolecule especially protein. Model of Soliton Davydov is a new break-through that could describe that mechanism. Here we have reformulated quantum mechanical the Davydov theory, using least action principle. Dynamical aspect of the model is analyzed by numerical calculation. We found two dynamical cases: the traveling and pinning soliton that we suggest they are related to the energy transfer and storage mechanism in the protein. Traveling and pinning soliton can be controlled by strength of coupling. In 3- channel approach, we found the breather phenomena in which its frequency is determined by interchannel coupling parameter.

  15. Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-10-13

    Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. In particular, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theoristsmoreand experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.less

  16. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: A Program Studying Multi-sector Opportunities and Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gossett, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the major transitions occurring within the U.S. energy economy, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) and Stanford University's Precourt Institute for Energy (PIE) engaged energy system stakeholders from government, industry, academia, and the environmental community in a discussion about the priority issues for a program of rigorous research relating to natural gas. Held December 10-11, 2012 on the Golden, CO campus of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the workshop provided invited experts opportunity to describe the state of current knowledge in defined topic areas, and to suggest analytic priorities for that topic area. Following discussion, all stakeholders then contributed potential research questions for each topic, and then determined priorities through an interactive voting process. This record of proceedings focuses on the outcomes of the discussion.

  17. Mexico City air quality research initiative: An overview and some statistical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, R.A.; Streit, G.E. ); Guzman, F. )

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican Petroleum Institute (Institute Mexicano del Petroleo, IMP) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are in the first year of a three-year jointly funded project to examine the air quality in Mexico City and to provide techniques to evaluate the impact of proposed mitigation options. The technical tasks include modeling and simulation; monitoring and characterization; and strategic evaluation. Extensive measurements of the atmosphere, climate, and meteorology are being made as part of the study. This presentation provides an overview of the total project plan, reports on the current status of the technical tasks, describes the data collection methods, presents examples of the data analysis and graphics, and suggest roles for statistical analysis in this and similar environmental studies. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-07-01

    During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

  19. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  20. Extension of the flow-rate-of-strain tensor formulation of plasma rotation theory to non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, W. M.; Bae, C.

    2015-06-15

    A systematic formalism for the calculation of rotation in non-axisymmetric tokamaks with 3D magnetic fields is described. The Braginskii Ωτ-ordered viscous stress tensor formalism, generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry, and the resulting fluid moment equations provide a systematic formalism for the calculation of toroidal and poloidal rotation and radial ion flow in tokamaks in the presence of various non-axisymmetric “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. The relation among rotation velocities, radial ion particle flux, ion orbit loss, and radial electric field is discussed, and the possibility of controlling these quantities by producing externally controllable toroidal and/or poloidal currents in the edge plasma for this purpose is suggested for future investigation.

  1. Si-based RF MEMS components.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D.; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-01-01

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.

  2. Invariant patterns in crystal lattices: Implications for protein folding algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HART,WILLIAM E.; ISTRAIL,SORIN

    2000-06-01

    Crystal lattices are infinite periodic graphs that occur naturally in a variety of geometries and which are of fundamental importance in polymer science. Discrete models of protein folding use crystal lattices to define the space of protein conformations. Because various crystal lattices provide discretizations of the same physical phenomenon, it is reasonable to expect that there will exist invariants across lattices related to fundamental properties of the protein folding process. This paper considers whether performance-guaranteed approximability is such an invariant for HP lattice models. The authors define a master approximation algorithm that has provable performance guarantees provided that a specific sublattice exists within a given lattice. They describe a broad class of crystal lattices that are approximable, which further suggests that approximability is a general property of HP lattice models.

  3. Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2016-02-22

    We investigate the spin injection and the spin transport in paramagnetic insulators described by simple Heisenberg interactions using auxiliary particle methods. Some of these methods allow access to both paramagnetic states above magnetic transition temperatures and magnetic states at low temperatures. It is predicted that the spin injection at an interface with a normal metal is rather insensitive to temperatures above the magnetic transition temperature. On the other hand below the transition temperature, it decreases monotonically and disappears at zero temperature. We also analyze the bulk spin conductance. We show that the conductance becomes zero at zero temperature as predictedmore » by linear spin wave theory but increases with temperature and is maximized around the magnetic transition temperature. These findings suggest that the compromise between the two effects determines the optimal temperature for spintronics applications utilizing magnetic insulators.« less

  4. Comment on "Mode Conversion of Waves In The Ion-Cyclotron Frequency Range in Magnetospheric Plasmas"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun

    2014-02-28

    Recently, Kazakov and Fulop [1] studied mode conversion (MC) at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance in planetary magnetospheric plasmas by simplifying the dispersion relation of the fast wave (FW) modes to describe a cutoff-resonance (CR) pair near the IIH resonance, which can be reduced to a Budden problem. They suggested that when the IIH resonance frequency (?S) approaches the crossover frequency (?cr), and the parallel wavenumber (k?) is close to the critical wavenumber k? ?(?S = ?cr), MC can be efficient for arbitrary heavy ion density ratios. In this Comment, we argue that (a) the FW dispersion relation cannot be simplified to the CR pair especially near ?cr because in many parameter regimes there is a cutoff-resonance-cutoff (CRC) triplet that completely changes the wave absorption; and (b) the maximum MC efficiency does not always occur near k? ?#25; k???.

  5. Mathematical model and calculation algorithm of micro and meso levels of separation process of gaseous mixtures in molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umarova, Zhanat; Botayeva, Saule; Yegenova, Aliya; Usenova, Aisaule

    2015-05-15

    In the given article, the main thermodynamic aspects of the issue of modeling diffusion transfer in molecular sieves have been formulated. Dissipation function is used as a basic notion. The differential equation, connecting volume flow with the change of the concentration of catchable component has been derived. As a result, the expression for changing the concentration of the catchable component and the coefficient of membrane detecting has been received. As well, the system approach to describing the process of gases separation in ultra porous membranes has been realized and micro and meso-levels of mathematical modeling have been distinguished. The non-ideality of the shared system is primarily taken into consideration at the micro-level and the departure from the diffusion law of Fick has been taken into account. The calculation method of selectivity considering fractal structure of membranes has been developed at the meso level. The calculation algorithm and its software implementation have been suggested.

  6. UNIVERSALITY OF PHASE TRANSITION DYNAMICS: TOPOLOGICAL DEFECTS FROM SYMMETRY BREAKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Del Campo, Adolfo

    2014-02-13

    In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defects in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.

  7. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-23

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot “mix” may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields — not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or “grains” of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation, and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. Finally, we describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulationsmore » and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.« less

  8. SOLAR PUMPED LASER MICROTHRUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenchik, A M; Beach, R; Dawson, J; Siders, C W

    2010-02-05

    The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.

  9. Electronic structure and weak itinerant magnetism in metallic Y2Ni7

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, David J.

    2015-11-03

    We describe a density functional study of the electronic structure and magnetism of Y₂Ni₇. The results show itinerant magnetism very similar to that in the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni₃Al. The electropositive Y atoms in Y₂Ni₇ donate charge to the Ni host mostly in the form of s electrons. The non-spin-polarized state shows a high density of states at the Fermi level, N (EF), due to flat bands. This leads to a ferromagnetic instability. However, there are also several much more dispersive bands crossing E(F), which should promote the conductivity. Spin fluctuation effects appear to be comparable to or weaker thanmore » Ni₃Al, based on comparison with experimental data. Y₂Ni₇ provides a uniaxial analog to cubic Ni₃Al, for studying weak itinerant ferromagnetism, suggesting detailed measurements of its low temperature physical properties and spin fluctuations, as well as experiments under pressure.« less

  10. Acoustoelectric photoresponse in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, T.; Bandhu, L.; Nash, G. R.

    2015-03-30

    The acoustoelectric current in graphene has been investigated as a function of illumination, using blue (450?nm) and red (735?nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and surface acoustic wave (SAW) intensity and frequency. The measured acoustoelectric current increases with illumination, more than the measured change in the conductivity of the graphene, whilst retaining a linear dependence on the SAW intensity. The latter is consistent with the interaction between the carriers and SAWs being described by a relatively simple classical relaxation model suggesting that the change in the acoustoelectric current is caused by the effect of the illumination on the electronic properties of the graphene. The increase in the acoustoelectric current is greatest under illumination with the blue LED, consistent with the creation of a hot electron distribution.

  11. Low-Potential Stable NADH Detection at Carbon-Nanotube-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musameh, Mustafa; Wang, Joseph; Merkoci, Arben; Lin, Yuehe )

    2002-11-22

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT) modified glassy-carbon electrodes exhibiting strong and stable electrocatalytic response toward NADH are described. A substantial (490 mV) decrease in the overvoltage of the NADH oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary carbon electrodes) is observed using single-wall and multi-wall carbon-nanotube coatings, with oxidation starting at ca.?0.05V (vs. Ag/AgCl; pH 7.4). Furthermore, the NADH amperometric response of the coated electrodes is extremely stable, with 96 and 90% of the initial activity remaining after 60min stirring of 2x10-4M and 5x10-3M NADH solutions, respectively (compared to 20 and 14% at the bare surface). The CNT-coated electrodes thus allow highly-sensitive, low-potential, stable amperometric sensing. Such ability of carbon-nanotubes to promote the NADH electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for dehydrogenase-based amperometric biosensors.

  12. Hanford Tank Ventilation System Condensates and Headspace Vapors: An Assessment of Potential Dermal Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, James L.; Springer, David L.

    2006-04-24

    This study considers the question of whether potential dermal exposures to Hanford high-level radioactive waste tank headspace vapors and their condensates could result in significant exposure to workers. Three types of potential exposures were evaluated; dermal contact with aqueous condensate, organic condensate, and direct contact with head space vapors. The dermal absorption rates from aqueous and organic condensates were estimated for selected chemicals using a model described by EPA (1992) with a modified correlation for dermal permeability suggested by Wilschut et al. (1995). Dermal absorption rates of vapors were estimated using a model given by AIHA (2000). Results were compared to an ''equivalent inhalation dose'' calculated by multiplying the inhalation occupational exposure limit by a nominal daily inhalation rate. The results should provide guidance for industrial hygienists to prepare specific recommendations based on specific scenarios.

  13. Reversibility and criticality in amorphous solids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regev, Ido; Weber, John; Reichhardt, Charles; Dahmen, Karin A.; Lookman, Turab

    2015-11-13

    The physical processes governing the onset of yield, where a material changes its shape permanently under external deformation, are not yet understood for amorphous solids that are intrinsically disordered. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and mean-field theory, we show that at a critical strain amplitude the sizes of clusters of atoms undergoing cooperative rearrangements of displacements (avalanches) diverges. We compare this non-equilibrium critical behaviour to the prevailing concept of a ‘front depinning’ transition that has been used to describe steady-state avalanche behaviour in different materials. We explain why a depinning-like process can result in a transition from periodic to chaoticmore » behaviour and why chaotic motion is not possible in pinned systems. As a result, these findings suggest that, at least for highly jammed amorphous systems, the irreversibility transition may be a side effect of depinning that occurs in systems where the disorder is not quenched.« less

  14. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  15. Status of the Magma Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The current magma energy project is assessing the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy directly from crustal magma bodies. The estimated size of the US resource (50,000 to 500,000 quads) suggests a considerable potential impact on future power generation. In a previous seven-year study, we concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers that would invalidate the magma energy concept. Several concepts for drilling, energy extraction, and materials survivability were successfully demonstrated in Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The present program is addressing the engineering design problems associated with accessing magma bodies and extracting thermal energy for power generation. The normal stages for development of a geothermal resource are being investigated: exploration, drilling and completions, production, and surface power plant design. Current status of the engineering program and future plans are described. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  17. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  18. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. . Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  19. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of spin-polarized H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markic, L. Vranjes; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.

    2007-02-01

    The ground-state properties of spin polarized hydrogen H{down_arrow} are obtained by means of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. Using the most accurate to date ab initio H{down_arrow}-H{down_arrow} interatomic potential we have studied its gas phase, from the very dilute regime until densities above its freezing point. At very small densities, the equation of state of the gas is very well described in terms of the gas parameter {rho}a{sup 3}, with a the s-wave scattering length. The solid phase has also been studied up to high pressures. The gas-solid phase transition occurs at a pressure of 173 bar, a much higher value than suggested by previous approximate descriptions.

  20. Band Structure of InGaAsN Alloys and Effects of Presure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allerman, A.A.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.; Modine, N.A.; Tozer, S.T.; Wei, X.; Wright, A.F.

    1999-01-20

    InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. the excited We report measurements of the low temperature photoluminescence of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We also describe a simple, density- functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity state.

  1. Solar Pumped Laser Microthruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenchik, A. M.; Beach, R.; Dawson, J.; Siders, C. W.

    2010-10-08

    The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.

  2. Analytic studies of dispersive properties of shear Alfvn and acoustic wave spectra in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavdarovski, Ilija; Zonca, Fulvio; Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati

    2014-05-15

    The properties of the low frequency shear Alfvn and acoustic wave spectra in toroidal geometry are examined analytically and numerically considering wave particle interactions with magnetically trapped and circulating particles, using the theoretical model described in [I. Chavdarovski and F. Zonca, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 115001 (2009)] and following the framework of the generalized fishbone-like dispersion relation. Effects of trapped particles as well as diamagnetic effects on the frequencies and damping rates of the beta-induced Alfvn eigenmodes, kinetic ballooning modes and beta-induced Alfvn-acoustic eigenmodes are discussed and shown to be crucial to give a proper assessment of mode structure and stability conditions. Present results also demonstrate the mutual coupling of these various branches and suggest that frequency as well as mode polarization are crucial for their identification on the basis of experimental evidence.

  3. On the Virial Theorem for Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D

    2007-09-24

    An attempt has been made to derive a version of the virial integral that would describe average properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is suggested to eliminate the (large) contribution of stellar matter by introducing 'exclusion zones' surrounding stars. Such an approach leads to the appearance of several types of additional surface integrals in the general expression. Their contribution depends on the rate of energy and matter exchange between the stars and ISM. If this exchange is weak, one can obtain a desired virial integral for ISM. However, the presence of intermittent large-scale energetic events significantly constrains the applicability of the virial theorem. If valid, the derived virial integral is dominated by cold molecular/atomic clouds, with only minor contribution of the global magnetic field and low-density warm part.

  4. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  5. Nonlinear system vibration---The appearance of chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, N.F. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper begins with an examination of the differential equation for a single degree of freedom force excited oscillator and considers the state space behavior of linear, nonlinear, and chaotic single degree of freedom systems. The fundamental characteristics of classical chaos are reviewed: sensitivity to initial conditions, positive Lyapunov exponents, complex Poincare maps, fractal properties of motion in the state space, and broadening of the power spectrum of the system response. Illustrated examples of chaotic behavior include motion in a two well potential -- the chaos beam described in Moon and a hardening base excited Duffing system. Chaos-like phenomenon which occur with nonperiodic forcing are examined in the context of the two well potential and hardening Duffing systems. The paper concludes with some suggestions for detecting and modelling nonlinear or chaotic behavior. 19 refs., 19 figs.

  6. On exact statistics and classification of ergodic systems of integer dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guralnik, Zachary Guralnik, Gerald; Pehlevan, Cengiz

    2014-06-01

    We describe classes of ergodic dynamical systems for which some statistical properties are known exactly. These systems have integer dimension, are not globally dissipative, and are defined by a probability density and a two-form. This definition generalizes the construction of Hamiltonian systems by a Hamiltonian and a symplectic form. Some low dimensional examples are given, as well as a discretized field theory with a large number of degrees of freedom and a local nearest neighbor interaction. We also evaluate unequal-time correlations of these systems without direct numerical simulation, by Pad approximants of a short-time expansion. We briefly speculate on the possibility of constructing chaotic dynamical systems with non-integer dimension and exactly known statistics. In this case there is no probability density, suggesting an alternative construction in terms of a Hopf characteristic function and a two-form.

  7. Crystallographic Identification and Functional Characterization of Phospholipids as Ligands for the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Steroidogenic Factor-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yong; Choi, Mihwa; Cavey, Greg; Daugherty, Jennifer; Suino, Kelly; Kovach, Amanda; Bingham, Nathan C.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Xu, H.Eric

    2010-11-10

    The orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) regulates the differentiation and function of endocrine glands. Although SF-1 is constitutively active in cell-based assays, it is not known whether this transcriptional activity is modulated by ligands. Here, we describe the 1.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of the SF-1 ligand binding domain in complex with an LXXLL motif from a coregulator protein. The structure reveals the presence of a phospholipid ligand in a surprisingly large pocket ({approx}1600 {angstrom}{sup 3}), with the receptor adopting the canonical active conformation. The bound phospholipid is readily exchanged and modulates SF-1 interactions with coactivators. Mutations designed to reduce the size of the SF-1 pocket or to disrupt hydrogen bonds with the phospholipid abolish SF-1/coactivator interactions and significantly reduce SF-1 transcriptional activity. These findings provide evidence that SF-1 is regulated by endogenous ligands and suggest an unexpected relationship between phospholipids and endocrine development and function.

  8. Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons in Ba3Cr2O8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaime, Marcelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kohama, Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aczel, A [MCMASTER UNIV; Ninios, K [UNIV OF FL; Chan, H [UNIV OF FL; Balicas, L [NHMFL; Dabkowska, H [MCMASTER UNIV; Like, G [MCMASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    By performing heat capacity, magnetocaloric effect, torque magnetometry and force magnetometry measurements up to 33 T, we have mapped out the T-H phase diagram of the S = 1/2 spin dimer compound Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We found evidence for field-induced magnetic order between H{sub cl} = 12.52(2) T and H{sub c2} = 23.65(5) T, with the maximum transition temperature T{sub c} {approx} 2.7 K at H {approx} 18 T. The lower transition can likely be described by Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons theory, and this is consistent with the absence of any magnetization plateaus in our magnetic torque and force measurements. In contrast, the nature of the upper phase transition appears to be quite different as our measurements suggest that this transition is actually first order.

  9. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, R.J. [NDT Engineering, Inc., Shrewbury, MA (United States); Dabkowski, J. [Electro-Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States); Hauth, R.L. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

  10. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Donev, E. U.; Suh, J. Y.; Lopez, R.; Feldman, L. C.; Haglund, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less

  11. Pressure-Induced Structural Phase Transition in CeNi: X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies and First-Principles Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirmelstein, A.; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Ehlers, Georg; Kerbel, O.; Matvienko, V.; Sefat, A. S.; Saporov, B.; Halder, G. J.; Tobin, J. G.

    2015-08-03

    The pressure-induced structural phase transition in the intermediate-valence compound CeNi has been investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction techniques. It is shown that the structure of the pressure-induced CeNi phase (phases) can be described in terms of the Pnma space group. Equations of state for CeNi on both sides of the phase transition are derived and an approximate P-T phase diagram is suggested for P<8 GPa and T<300 K. The observed Cmcm?Pnma structural transition is then analyzed using density functional theory calculations, which successfully reproduce the ground state volume, the phase transition pressure, and the volume collapse associated with the phase transition.

  12. Alloy 825 and 718 gasket corrosion in deep water (500 m) connections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amen, C.; Howl, R.; Oldfield, J.W.

    1999-11-01

    Corrosion has been observed on a number of alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and alloy 825 (UNS N08825) gaskets from subsea connections. The gaskets were in contact with either weld overlaid alloy 625 (UNS N06625) or super duplex stainless steel hubs (UNS S32750). A few hubs also showed some limited corrosion in regions where severe gasket corrosion had occurred. Corrosion was more prevalent on jumpers that had been exposed to sea water for a few months at alloy 718 (UNS N07718) gaskets in contact with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay. General observations were that short term exposures of up to 20 days did not result in corrosion but longer exposures of 40--50 days resulted in severe attack. A program of work was carried out to determine the reason for the observed attack and to suggest ways of avoiding it in the future. This paper describes the findings of the study.

  13. The Effects of Nitrogen on the Interface State Density Near the Conduction Band Edge in 4H and 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, G.Y.; Tin, C.C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.; Williams, J.R.; McDonald, K.; DiVentra, M.; Pantelides, S.T.; Feldman, L.C.; Weller, R.A.; Holland, O.W.

    2000-06-12

    Results are reported for the passivation of interface states near the conduction band edge in SiO{sub 2}/SiC MOS capacitors using post-oxidation anneals in nitric oxide, ammonia and forming gas (N{sub 2}5%H{sub 2}). Anneals in nitric oxide and ammonia reduce the interface state density significantly for 4H-SiC, while forming gas anneals are largely ineffective. Results suggest that interface states in SiO{sub 2}/SiC and SiO{sub 2}/SiC have different origins, and a model is described for interface state passivation by nitrogen in the SiO{sub 2}/SiC system. The peak inversion channel mobility measured for lateral 4H-SiC MOSFETs increases following NO passivation.

  14. [S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John H.; Turner, Jean L.; Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt; Crosthwaite, Lucian P.

    2012-08-10

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 {mu}m line of S{sup +3} at 3.8 km s{sup -1} spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s{sup -1} and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s{sup -1} centered {approx}20 km s{sup -1} to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

  15. SOLAR POLAR X-RAY JETS AND MULTIPLE BRIGHT POINTS: EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-02-15

    We present an analysis of X-ray bright points (BPs) and X-ray jets observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope on 2007 November 2-4, within the solar northern polar coronal hole. After selecting small subregions that include several BPs, we followed their brightness evolution over a time interval of a few hours, when several jets were observed. We find that most of the jets occurred in close temporal association with brightness maxima in multiple BPs: more precisely, most jets are closely correlated with the brightening of at least two BPs. We suggest that the jets result from magnetic connectivity changes that also induce the BP variability. We surmise that the jets and implied magnetic connectivity we describe are small-scale versions of the active-region-scale phenomenon, whereby flares and eruptions are triggered by interacting bipoles.

  16. Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-10-13

    Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. Specifically, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists and experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.

  17. HYDROGEL TRACER BEADS: THE DEVELOPMENT, MODIFICATION, AND TESTING OF AN INNOVATIVE TRACER FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LNAPL TRANSPORT IN KARST AQUIFERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda Laskoskie, Harry M. Edenborn, and Dorothy J. Vesper

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this specific research task is to develop proxy tracers that mimic contaminant movement to better understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in karst aquifers. Hydrogel tracer beads are transported as a separate phase than water and can used as a proxy tracer to mimic the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). They can be constructed with different densities, sizes & chemical attributes. This poster describes the creation and optimization of the beads and the field testing of buoyant beads, including sampling, tracer analysis, and quantitative analysis. The buoyant beads are transported ahead of the dissolved solutes, suggesting that light NAPL (LNAPL) transport in karst may occur faster than predicted from traditional tracing techniques. The hydrogel beads were successful in illustrating this enhanced transport.

  18. Hydration of DNA by tritiated water and isotope distribution: a study by /sup 1/H, /sup 2/H, and /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur-De Vre, R.; Grimee-Declerck, R.; Lejeune, P.; Bertinchamps, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    The hydration layer of DNA (0.75%) in tritiated water represents 3.5% of solvent /sup 3/HHO. The combined effects of temperature (-6 to -40/sup 0/C) and H/sub 2/O//sup 2/H/sub 2/O solvent composition on the spin-lattice relaxation times of water protons and deuterons suggest selective distribution of isotopes in the hydration layer. The ''hydration isotope'' effect and the localization of tritiated water molecules in the hydration layer of DNA have important implications in describing the radiobiological effects of tritiated water because the initial molecular damage caused by /sup 3/HHO (internal radiation source) localizes close to /sup 3/H due to the short range and low energy of /sup 3/H ..beta.. rays.

  19. Semantic Features for Classifying Referring Search Terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Chandler J.; Henry, Michael J.; McGrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.; Marshall, Eric J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-05-11

    When an internet user clicks on a result in a search engine, a request is submitted to the destination web server that includes a referrer field containing the search terms given by the user. Using this information, website owners can analyze the search terms leading to their websites to better understand their visitors needs. This work explores some of the features that can be used for classification-based analysis of such referring search terms. We present initial results for the example task of classifying HTTP requests countries of origin. A system that can accurately predict the country of origin from query text may be a valuable complement to IP lookup methods which are susceptible to the obfuscation of dereferrers or proxies. We suggest that the addition of semantic features improves classifier performance in this example application. We begin by looking at related work and presenting our approach. After describing initial experiments and results, we discuss paths forward for this work.

  20. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  1. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiO{sub x} resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehonic, Adnan E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J. E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David

    2015-03-28

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  2. Nodal to nodeless superconducting energy gap structure change concomitant with Fermi surface reconstruction in the heavy-fermion CeCoIn?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Petrovic, C.; Tanatar, M. A.; Flint, R.; Hu, Rongwei; White, B. D.; Lum, I. K.; Maple, M. B.; Prozorov, R.

    2015-01-15

    The London penetration depth ?(T) was measured in single crystals of Ce1xRxCoIn?, R=La, Nd, and Yb down to Tmin ? 50 mK (Tc/Tmin ~50) using a tunnel-diode resonator. In the cleanest samples ??(T) is best described by the power law, ??(T) ? Tn, with n ~ 1, consistent with line nodes. Substitutions of Ce with La, Nd, and Yb lead to similar monotonic suppressions of Tc, however, the effects on ??(T) differ. While La and Nd dopings lead to increase of the exponent n and saturation at n ~ 2, as expected for a dirty nodal superconductor, Yb doping leadsmoreto n > 3, suggesting a change from nodal to nodeless superconductivity. This superconducting gap structure change happens in the same doping range where changes of the Fermi surface topology were reported, implying that the nodal structure and Fermi surface topology are closely linked.less

  3. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  4. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  5. Towards risk-based management of critical infrastructures : enabling insights and analysis methodologies from a focused study of the bulk power grid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Bryan T.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Cook, Benjamin Koger

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes research on a holistic analysis framework to assess and manage risks in complex infrastructures, with a specific focus on the bulk electric power grid (grid). A comprehensive model of the grid is described that can approximate the coupled dynamics of its physical, control, and market components. New realism is achieved in a power simulator extended to include relevant control features such as relays. The simulator was applied to understand failure mechanisms in the grid. Results suggest that the implementation of simple controls might significantly alter the distribution of cascade failures in power systems. The absence of cascade failures in our results raises questions about the underlying failure mechanisms responsible for widespread outages, and specifically whether these outages are due to a system effect or large-scale component degradation. Finally, a new agent-based market model for bilateral trades in the short-term bulk power market is presented and compared against industry observations.

  6. Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

    1994-08-08

    This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

  7. Combinatorial density functional theory-based screening of surface alloys for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley, J.; Norskov, J.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Technical Univ. of Denmark

    2009-03-26

    A density functional theory (DFT) -based, combinatorial search for improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts is presented. A descriptor-based approach to estimate the ORR activity of binary surface alloys, wherein alloying occurs only in the surface layer, is described, and rigorous, potential-dependent computational tests of the stability of these alloys in aqueous, acidic environments are presented. These activity and stability criteria are applied to a database of DFT calculations on nearly 750 binary transition metal surface alloys; of these, many are predicted to be active for the ORR but, with few exceptions, they are found to be thermodynamically unstable in the acidic environments typical of low-temperature fuel cells. The results suggest that, absent other thermodynamic or kinetic mechanisms to stabilize the alloys, surface alloys are unlikely to serve as useful ORR catalysts over extended periods of operation.

  8. DRY FLUORINE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-05-19

    Preparation and separation of U/sup 233/ by irradiation of ThF/sub 4/ is described. During the neutron irradiation to produce Pa/sup 233/ a fluorinating agent such as HF, F/sub 2/, or HF + F/sub 2/ is passed through the ThF/sub 4/ powder to produce PaF/sub 5/. The PaF/sub 5/, being more volatile, is removed as a gas and allowed to decay radioactively to U/sup 233/ fluoride. A batch procedure in which ThO/sub 2/ or Th metal is irradiated and fluorinated is suggested. Some Pa and U fluoride volatilizes away. Then the remainder is fluorinated with F/sub 2/ to produce very volatile UF/sub 6/ which is recovered. (T.R.H.)

  9. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  10. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  11. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-28

    When someone mentions integration costs, thoughts of the costs of integrating renewable generation into an existing system come to mind. We think about how variability and uncertainty can increase power system cycling costs as increasing amounts of wind or solar generation are incorporated into the generation mix. However, seldom do we think about what happens to system costs when new baseload generation is added to an existing system or when generation self-schedules. What happens when a highly flexible combined-cycle plant is added? Do system costs go up, or do they go down? Are other, non-cycling, maintenance costs impacted? In this paper we investigate six technologies and operating practices--including VG, baseload generation, generation mix, gas prices, self-scheduling, and fast-start generation--and how changes in these areas can impact a system's operating costs. This paper provides a working definition of integration costs and four components of variable costs. It describes the study approach and how a production cost modeling-based method was used to determine the cost effects, and, as a part of the study approach section, it describes the test system and data used for the comparisons. Finally, it presents the research findings, and, in closing, suggests three areas for future work.

  12. Study of J/ψ→pp̄ and J/ψ→nn̄

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; et al

    2012-08-31

    The decays J/ψ→pp̄ and J/ψ→nn̄ have been investigated with a sample of 225.2×10⁶ J/ψ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e⁺e⁻ collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/ψ→pp̄)=(2.112±0.004±0.031)×10⁻³ and B(J/ψ→nn̄)=(2.07±0.01±0.17)×10⁻³. Distributions of the angle θ between the proton or antineutron and the beam direction are well described by the form 1+αcos²θ, and we find α=0.595±0.012±0.015 for J/ψ→pp̄ and α=0.50±0.04±0.21 for J/ψ→nn̄. Our branching-fraction results suggest a large phase angle between the strong and electromagnetic amplitudes describing the J/ψ→NN¯¯¯ decay.

  13. Finite groups and quantum physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kornyak, V. V.

    2013-02-15

    Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

  14. Bat habitat research. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

  15. Elementary model of severe plastic deformation by KoBo process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusak, A.; Storozhuk, N.; Danielewski, M. Korbel, A.; Bochniak, M.

    2014-01-21

    Self-consistent model of generation, interaction, and annihilation of point defects in the gradient of oscillating stresses is presented. This model describes the recently suggested method of severe plastic deformation by combination of pressure and oscillating rotations of the die along the billet axis (KoBo process). Model provides the existence of distinct zone of reduced viscosity with sharply increased concentration of point defects. This zone provides the high extrusion velocity. Presented model confirms that the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) in KoBo may be treated as non-equilibrium phase transition of abrupt drop of viscosity in rather well defined spatial zone. In this very zone, an intensive lateral rotational movement proceeds together with generation of point defects which in self-organized manner make rotation possible by the decrease of viscosity. The special properties of material under KoBo version of SPD can be described without using the concepts of nonequilibrium grain boundaries, ballistic jumps and amorphization. The model can be extended to include different SPD processes.

  16. HEP-FCE Working Group on Libraries and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgland, Anders; Elmer, Peter; Kirby, Michael; Patton, Simon; Potekhin, Maxim; Viren, Brett; Yanny, Brian

    2014-12-19

    The High-Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) was formed by the Department of Energy as a follow-up to a recent report from the Topical Panel on Computing[1] and the associated P5 recommendation[2]. It is a pilot project distributed across the DOE Labs. During this initial incubation period the Forum is to develop a plan for a robust, long-term organization structure and a functioning web presence for forum activities and outreach, and a study of hardware and software needs across the HEP program. In the following sections we give this working groups vision for aspects and qualities we wish to see in a future HEP-FCE. We then give a prioritized list of technical activities with suggested scoping and deliverables that can be expected to provide cross-experiment benefits. The remaining bulk of the report gives a technical survey of some specific areas of opportunity for cross-experiment benefit in the realm of software libs/tools. This survey serves as support for the vision and prioritized list. For each area we describe the ways that cross-experiment benefit is achieved today, as well as describe known failings or pitfalls where such benefit has failed to be achieved and which should be avoided in the future. For both cases, we try to give concrete examples. Each area then ends with an examination of what opportunities exist for improvements in that particular area.

  17. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING THE B[e] PHENOMENON. IV. MODELING OF IRAS 00470+6429

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Miroshnichenko, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States); Bjorkman, J. E., E-mail: carciofi@usp.b [Ritter Observatory, M.S. 113, Deptartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    FS CMa type stars are a recently described group of objects with the B[e] phenomenon which exhibits strong emission-line spectra and strong IR excesses. In this paper, we report the first attempt for a detailed modeling of IRAS 00470+6429, for which we have the best set of observations. Our modeling is based on two key assumptions: the star has a main-sequence luminosity for its spectral type (B2) and the circumstellar (CS) envelope is bimodal, composed of a slowly outflowing disklike wind and a fast polar wind. Both outflows are assumed to be purely radial. We adopt a novel approach to describe the dust formation site in the wind that employs timescale arguments for grain condensation and a self-consistent solution for the dust destruction surface. With the above assumptions we were able to satisfactorily reproduce many observational properties of IRAS 00470+6429, including the H I line profiles and the overall shape of the spectral energy distribution. Our adopted recipe for dust formation proved successful in reproducing the correct amount of dust formed in the CS envelope. Possible shortcomings of our model, as well as suggestions for future improvements, are discussed.

  18. Dark halos and elliptical galaxies as marginally stable dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Zant, A. A.

    2013-12-10

    The origin of equilibrium gravitational configurations is sought in terms of the stability of their trajectories, as described by the curvature of their Lagrangian configuration manifold of particle positionsa context in which subtle spurious effects originating from the singularity in the two-body potential become particularly clear. We focus on the case of spherical systems, which support only regular orbits in the collisionless limit, despite the persistence of local exponential instability of N-body trajectories in the anomalous case of discrete point particle representation even as N ? ?. When the singularity in the potential is removed, this apparent contradiction disappears. In the absence of fluctuations, equilibrium configurations generally correspond to positive scalar curvature and thus support stable trajectories. A null scalar curvature is associated with an effective, averaged equation of state describing dynamically relaxed equilibria with marginally stable trajectories. The associated configurations are quite similar to those of observed elliptical galaxies and simulated cosmological halos and are necessarily different from the systems dominated by isothermal cores, expected from entropy maximization in the context of the standard theory of violent relaxation. It is suggested that this is the case because a system starting far from equilibrium does not reach a 'most probable state' via violent relaxation, but that this process comes to an end as the system finds and (settles in) a configuration where it can most efficiently wash out perturbations. We explicitly test this interpretation by means of direct simulations.

  19. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

  20. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  1. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB 50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum ofmoreSAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. Thus, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.less

  2. Security Informatics Research Challenges for Mitigating Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2014-09-30

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly re (FF). We dene cyber FF as intentional o*ensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission e*ectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. We describe examples of cyber FF and discuss how it ts within a general conceptual framework for cyber security failures. Because it involves human failure, cyber FF may be considered to belong to a sub-class of cyber security failures characterized as unintentional insider threats. Cyber FF is closely related to combat friendly re in that maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding unintended consequences. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and o*ensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. We describe a test bed designed to support empirical research on factors a*ecting cyber FF. Finally, we discuss mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF, including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches.

  3. Identification and Prioritization of Analysis Cases for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Risk Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-06-16

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of marine and hydrokinetic energy generation projects. The development process consists of two main phases of analysis. In the first phase, preliminary risk analyses will take the form of screening studies in which key environmental impacts and the uncertainties that create risk are identified, leading to a better-focused characterization of the relevant environmental effects. Existence of critical data gaps will suggest areas in which specific modeling and/or data collection activities should take place. In the second phase, more detailed quantitative risk analyses will be conducted, with residual uncertainties providing the basis for recommending risk mitigation and monitoring activities. We also describe the process used for selecting three cases for fiscal year 2010 risk screening analysis using the ERES. A case is defined as a specific technology deployed in a particular location involving certain environmental receptors specific to that location. The three cases selected satisfy a number of desirable criteria: 1) they correspond to real projects whose deployment is likely to take place in the foreseeable future; 2) the technology developers are willing to share technology and project-related data; 3) the projects represent a diversity of technology-site-receptor characteristics; 4) the projects are of national interest, and 5) environmental effects data may be available for the projects.

  4. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  5. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.

  6. The accurate assessment of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, Thomas D. [HauptmanWoodward Medical Research Institute, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); Luft, Joseph R. [HauptmanWoodward Medical Research Institute, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); SUNY Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); Carter, Lester G.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Martel, Anne [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS69, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Snell, Edward H., E-mail: esnell@hwi.buffalo.edu [HauptmanWoodward Medical Research Institute, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); SUNY Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A set of quantitative techniques is suggested for assessing SAXS data quality. These are applied in the form of a script, SAXStats, to a test set of 27 proteins, showing that these techniques are more sensitive than manual assessment of data quality. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has grown in popularity in recent times with the advent of bright synchrotron X-ray sources, powerful computational resources and algorithms enabling the calculation of increasingly complex models. However, the lack of standardized data-quality metrics presents difficulties for the growing user community in accurately assessing the quality of experimental SAXS data. Here, a series of metrics to quantitatively describe SAXS data in an objective manner using statistical evaluations are defined. These metrics are applied to identify the effects of radiation damage, concentration dependence and interparticle interactions on SAXS data from a set of 27 previously described targets for which high-resolution structures have been determined via X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The studies show that these metrics are sufficient to characterize SAXS data quality on a small sample set with statistical rigor and sensitivity similar to or better than manual analysis. The development of data-quality analysis strategies such as these initial efforts is needed to enable the accurate and unbiased assessment of SAXS data quality.

  7. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavelle, Christopher M [ORNL; Liu, C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  8. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the summore » of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.« less

  9. Possible Implication of a Single Nonextensive p_T Distribution for Hadron Production in High-Energy pp Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2015-01-01

    Multiparticle production processes in $pp$ collisions at the central rapidity region are usually considered to be divided into independent "soft" and "hard" components. The first is described by exponential (thermal-like) transverse momentum spectra in the low-$p_T$ region with a scale parameter $T$ associated with the temperature of the hadronizing system. The second is governed by a power-like distributions of transverse momenta with power index $n$ at high-$p_T$ associated with the hard scattering between partons. We show that the hard-scattering integral can be approximated as a nonextensive distribution of a quasi-power-law containing a scale parameter $T$ and a power index $n=1/(q -1)$, where $q$ is the nonextensivity parameter. We demonstrate that the whole region of transverse momenta presently measurable at LHC experiments at central rapidity (in which the observed cross sections varies by $14$ orders of magnitude down to the low $p_T$ region) can be adequately described by a single nonextensive distribution. These results suggest the dominance of the hard-scattering hadron-production process and the approximate validity of a ``no-hair" statistical-mechanical description of the $p_T$ spectra for the whole $p_T$ region at central rapidity for $pp$ collisions at high-energies.

  10. Development of a robust modeling tool for radiation-induced segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying; Field, Kevin G; Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels in Light Water Reactor (LWR) components has been linked to changes in grain boundary composition due to irradiation induced segregation (RIS). This work developed a robust RIS modeling tool to account for thermodynamics and kinetics of the atom and defect transportation under combined thermal and radiation conditions. The diffusion flux equations were based on the Perks model formulated through the linear theory of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Both cross and non-cross phenomenological diffusion coefficients in the flux equations were considered and correlated to tracer diffusion coefficients through Mannings relation. The preferential atomvacancy coupling was described by the mobility model, whereas the preferential atom-interstitial coupling was described by the interstitial binding model. The composition dependence of the thermodynamic factor was modeled using the CALPHAD approach. Detailed analysis on the diffusion fluxes near and at grain boundaries of irradiated austenitic stainless steels suggested the dominant diffusion mechanism for chromium and iron is via vacancy, while that for nickel can swing from the vacancy to the interstitial dominant mechanism. The diffusion flux in the vicinity of a grain boundary was found to be greatly influenced by the composition gradient formed from the transient state, leading to the oscillatory behavior of alloy compositions in this region. This work confirms that both vacancy and interstitial diffusion, and segregation itself, have important roles in determining the microchemistry of Fe, Cr, and Ni at irradiated grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steels.

  11. Turbulence transport modeling of the temporal outer heliosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Dosch, A.

    2014-09-20

    The solar wind can be regarded as a turbulent magnetofluid, evolving in an expanding solar wind and subject to turbulent driving by a variety of in situ sources. Furthermore, the solar wind and the drivers of turbulence are highly time-dependent and change with solar cycle. Turbulence transport models describing low-frequency magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind have so far neglected solar cycle effects. Here we consider the effects of solar cycle variability on a turbulence transport model developed by Zank et al. This model is appropriate for the solar wind beyond about 1 AU, and extensions have described the steady-state dependence of the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature throughout the outer heliosphere. We find that the temporal solar wind introduces a periodic variability, particularly beyond ?10 AU, in the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature. The variability is insufficient to account for the full observed variability in these quantities, but we find that the time-dependent solutions trace the steady-state solutions quite well, suggesting that the steady-state models are reasonable first approximations.

  12. Momentum space dipole amplitude for DIS and inclusive hadron production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, E. A.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; De Oliveira, E. G.

    2013-03-25

    We show how the AGBS model, originally developed for deep inelastic scattering applied to HERA data on the proton structure function, can also describe the RHIC data on single inclusive hadron yield for d+Au and p+p collisions through a new simultaneous fit. The single inclusive hadron production is modeled through the color glass condensate, which uses the quark(and gluon) condensate amplitudes in momentum space. The AGBS model is also a momentum space model based on the asymptotic solutions of the BK equation, although a different definition of the Fourier transform is used. This description entirely in transverse momentum of both processes arises for the first time. The small difference between the simultaneous fit and the one for HERA data alone suggests that the AGBS model describes very well both kind of processes and thus emerges as a good tool to investigate the inclusive hadron production data. We use this model for predictions at LHC energies, which agree quite well with available experimental data.

  13. Hazardous waste cleanup: the preliminaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, K.

    1985-08-01

    This article describes the lengthiness and cost of the preliminary steps in a hazardous waste cleanup. The article describes the S-Area lawsuit, an area near Niagara Falls, New York which was an inactive chemical dump. Contaminated sludge was found at a nearby water treatment plant and was traced back to S-Area. In the past five years, S-Area negotiations have cost the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency two million dollars for advice on how work should proceed for the plant and the landfill. This lawsuit was one of the first in the U.S. against a chemical company for endangering the public through unsound waste disposal practices. Negotiation was selected instead of a trial for several reasons which are outlined. S-Area may serve as a model for other such settlements, as it provides for a flexible plan, open to consideration of alternate technologies that may be developed in the future. It contains a phased approach to both defining and evaluating existing problems, then suggesting remedies. It also requires monitoring for at least 35 years or until no danger remains.

  14. A magnetohydrodynamic model of the M87 jet. II. Self-consistent quad-shock jet model for optical relativistic motions and particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Masanori

    2014-04-20

    We describe a new paradigm for understanding both relativistic motions and particle acceleration in the M87 jet: a magnetically dominated relativistic flow that naturally produces four relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks (forward/reverse fast and slow modes). We apply this model to a set of optical super- and subluminal motions discovered by Biretta and coworkers with the Hubble Space Telescope during 1994-1998. The model concept consists of ejection of a single relativistic Poynting jet, which possesses a coherent helical (poloidal + toroidal) magnetic component, at the remarkably flaring point HST-1. We are able to reproduce quantitatively proper motions of components seen in the optical observations of HST-1 with the same model we used previously to describe similar features in radio very long baseline interferometry observations in 2005-2006. This indicates that the quad relativistic MHD shock model can be applied generally to recurring pairs of super/subluminal knots ejected from the upstream edge of the HST-1 complex as observed from radio to optical wavelengths, with forward/reverse fast-mode MHD shocks then responsible for observed moving features. Moreover, we identify such intrinsic properties as the shock compression ratio, degree of magnetization, and magnetic obliquity and show that they are suitable to mediate diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic particles via the first-order Fermi process. We suggest that relativistic MHD shocks in Poynting-flux-dominated helical jets may play a role in explaining observed emission and proper motions in many active galactic nuclei.

  15. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  17. Optical Properties of InGaAsN: A New 1eV Bandgap Material System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allerman, A.A.; Fritz, I.J.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.; Modine, N.A.; Tozer, S.T.; Wei, X.; Wright, A.F.

    1999-01-25

    InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photohnninescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Addhionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured.

  18. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  19. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-05-10

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  20. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  2. Federal Market Information Technology in the Post Flash Crash Era: Roles for Supercomputing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-09-16

    This paper describes collaborative work between active traders, regulators, economists, and supercomputing researchers to replicate and extend investigations of the Flash Crash and other market anomalies in a National Laboratory HPC environment. Our work suggests that supercomputing tools and methods will be valuable to market regulators in achieving the goal of market safety, stability, and security. Research results using high frequency data and analytics are described, and directions for future development are discussed. Currently the key mechanism for preventing catastrophic market action are “circuit breakers.” We believe a more graduated approach, similar to the “yellow light” approach in motorsports to slow down traffic, might be a better way to achieve the same goal. To enable this objective, we study a number of indicators that could foresee hazards in market conditions and explore options to confirm such predictions. Our tests confirm that Volume Synchronized Probability of Informed Trading (VPIN) and a version of volume Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) for measuring market fragmentation can indeed give strong signals ahead of the Flash Crash event on May 6 2010. This is a preliminary step toward a full-fledged early-warning system for unusual market conditions.

  3. Electronic networking and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daudpota, Q.I.

    1995-12-01

    To increase the capacity of institutions in various countries to implement the ambitious plans of Agenda 21, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) set up the Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) to help the process of sustainable development nationally and globally. Started initially in 15 developing countries, SDNPs are considered as a medium for individuals, organizations and governments to communicate ideas, share information resources, and exchange experiences among each other and globally to learn the appropriate ways to solve our ecological problems. The paper will review the idea of SDNPs globally and will describe in detail its successful implementation in Pakistan. In a country with, hitherto, virtually no electronic mail service, the SDNP has shown how its provision has had a significant impact on obtaining useful information on environmental problems, and in one case has helped save lives. SDNP Pakistan has made an effort to demonstrate the benefits of electronic communications to wide range users in the country. Some of these will be described. It is suggested how electronic networks linking organizations and people in the developing world with experts, organizations and data sources internationally, can greatly assist developmental effort globally.

  4. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future.

  5. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Measurements in large pool fires with an actively cooled calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    The pool fire thermal test described in Safety Series 6 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) in the United States is one of the most difficult tests that a container for larger ``Type B`` quantities of nuclear materials must pass. If retests of a container are required, costly redesign and project delays can result. Accurate measurements and modeling of the pool fire environment will ultimately lower container costs by assuring that containers past the pool fire test on the first attempt. Experiments indicate that the object size or surface temperature of the container can play a role in determining local heat fluxes that are beyond the effects predicted from the simple radiative heat transfer laws. An analytical model described by Nicolette and Larson 1990 can be used to understand many of these effects. In this model a gray gas represents soot particles present in the flame structure. Close to the container surface, these soot particles are convectively and radiatively cooled and interact with incident energy from the surrounding fire. This cooler soot cloud effectively prevents some thermal radiation from reaching the container surface, reducing the surface heat flux below the value predicted by a transparent medium model. With some empirical constants, the model suggested by Nicolette and Larson can be used to more accurately simulate the pool fire environment. Properly formulated, the gray gas approaches also fast enough to be used with standard commercial computer codes to analyze shipping containers. To calibrate this type of model, accurate experimental measurements of radiative absorption coefficients, flame temperatures, and other parameters are necessary. A goal of the calorimeter measurements described here is to obtain such parameters so that a fast, useful design tool for large pool fires can be constructed.

  7. Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Summers, G.

    1994-06-28

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPV's are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that - when fully developed - they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g. RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 degrees C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low mass generators. Another copy is in the Energy Systems files.

  8. State International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) Data Reporting Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoyer, R.L.

    2003-04-08

    This report documents a review of State practices of reporting International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) data to the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The purpose of the review is described in a notice published in the Federal Register (Vol. 65, No. 160, August 17, 2000, 50269-50272). The purpose is ''to increase the understanding of States on the importance of reporting adjusted IFTA data to the FHWA'', and ''to develop additional guidance on IFTA reporting''. The purpose is not to critique IFTA or any State. The review includes a survey of the forty eight IFTA member States, which was conducted January-April 2002. The States' responses to the survey are discussed in this report. The organization of the report follows further discussion in the Federal Register notice. Section 2 of the report is a general overview of IFTA. Section 3 describes in more detail how each State collects IFTA revenues. Section 4 is about how States separate out revenues not related to gallons of motor-fuel and direct motor-fuel gallon taxes. Section 5 describes how States calculate net IFTA gallons and the time delay in the processing. Section 6 is about difficulties in processing and reporting IFTA data. Timeliness is discussed further in Section 7, and alternatives for IFTA calculations if complete IFTA data are not available are discussed in Section 8. The IFTA survey questionnaire and instructions are in Appendices A and B. The survey responses of the States and the review of the IFTA system suggest that IFTA collections and data reporting are for the most part working well. Possible exceptions include (1) using off-road fuel use in IFTA mileage-per-gallon (mpg) estimates, (2) inconsistencies among States in definitions of taxable mileage or taxable fuel and consequential reporting differences, and (3) possible misinterpretations of ''net taxable gallons''.

  9. The ends of uncertainty: Air quality science and planning in Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, James

    2003-09-01

    Air quality planning in Central California is complicated and controversial despite millions of dollars invested to improve scientific understanding. This research describes and critiques the use of photochemical air quality simulation modeling studies in planning to attain standards for ground-level ozone in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley during the 1990's. Data are gathered through documents and interviews with planners, modelers, and policy-makers at public agencies and with representatives from the regulated and environmental communities. Interactions amongst organizations are diagramed to identify significant nodes of interaction. Dominant policy coalitions are described through narratives distinguished by their uses of and responses to uncertainty, their exposures to risks, and their responses to the principles of conservatism, civil duty, and caution. Policy narratives are delineated using aggregated respondent statements to describe and understand advocacy coalitions. I found that models impacted the planning process significantly, but were used not purely for their scientific capabilities. Modeling results provided justification for decisions based on other constraints and political considerations. Uncertainties were utilized opportunistically by stakeholders instead of managed explicitly. Ultimately, the process supported the partisan views of those in control of the modeling. Based on these findings, as well as a review of model uncertainty analysis capabilities, I recommend modifying the planning process to allow for the development and incorporation of uncertainty information, while addressing the need for inclusive and meaningful public participation. By documenting an actual air quality planning process these findings provide insights about the potential for using new scientific information and understanding to achieve environmental goals, most notably the analysis of uncertainties in modeling applications. Concurrently, needed uncertainty information is identified and capabilities to produce it are assessed. Practices to facilitate incorporation of uncertainty information are suggested based on research findings, as well as theory from the literatures of the policy sciences, decision sciences, science and technology studies, consensus-based and communicative planning, and modeling.

  10. European empirical methods applied to subsidence in U. S. coal fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Eichfeld, W.F.

    1980-10-01

    The empirical methods commonly used in Europe to describe the shape of subsidence troughs are tested against the field data of the York Canyon Mine in Northern New Mexico. This mine is in a flat lying seam under rugged terrain. The subsidence data consists of time-correlated measurements of surface displacements above two longwall panels. While the profile fits from the graphical methods (United Kingdom) do not agree with the measured profiles, the profile functions of the error integral type used in Continental Europe fit the data well. The profile function analysis of the development curves also suggests a time-dependent response of the overburden. These results, except for the specific profile function used, are similar to those found previously for longwall subsidence at the Old Ben No. 24 Mine. Parameter values of the fit, i.e., the effective half range of the function and inflection point offset, were determined for all profiles. These parameters for the development curves and traveling profiles, which fundamentally result from the same raw data, exhibit markedly different apparent ''scatter.'' The rather narrow range of values for the development curves suggest that individual points subside in a well-behaved manner; and hence, the large variation in parameter values for the traveling profiles reflects an inadequacy in the analysis in correlation between points. Consequently, the use of influence functions appears to be a possible method for improving the empirical analysis of longwall subsidence.

  11. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  12. Development of Improved Caprock Integrity and Risk Assessment Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-09-30

    GeoMechanics Technologies has completed a geomechanical caprock integrity analysis and risk assessment study funded through the US Department of Energy. The project included: a detailed review of historical caprock integrity problems experienced in the natural gas storage industry; a theoretical description and documentation of caprock integrity issues; advanced coupled transport flow modelling and geomechanical simulation of three large-scale potential geologic sequestration sites to estimate geomechanical effects from CO₂ injection; development of a quantitative risk and decision analysis tool to assess caprock integrity risks; and, ultimately the development of recommendations and guidelines for caprock characterization and CO₂ injection operating practices. Historical data from gas storage operations and CO₂ sequestration projects suggest that leakage and containment incident risks are on the order of 10-1 to 10-2, which is higher risk than some previous studies have suggested for CO₂. Geomechanical analysis, as described herein, can be applied to quantify risks and to provide operating guidelines to reduce risks. The risk assessment tool developed for this project has been applied to five areas: The Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California, Kevin Dome in Montana, the Louden Field in Illinois, the Sleipner CO₂ sequestration operation in the North Sea, and the In Salah CO₂ sequestration operation in North Africa. Of these five, the Wilmington Graben area represents the highest relative risk while the Kevin Dome area represents the lowest relative risk.

  13. Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compound CePd1xBi? and comparison to the superconductor LaPd1xBi?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-07-13

    The layered compound CePd1xBi? with the tetragonal ZrCuSi?-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd1xBi? show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the ab plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient ? of 0.191 J mol Ce? K? obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd1xBi?. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 K which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd1xBi? around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.

  14. Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naz, Bibi S [ORNL] [ORNL; Frans, Chris [University of Washington, Seattle] [University of Washington, Seattle; Clarke, Garry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver] [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Burns, [Watershed Sciences Inc. (WSI), Portland] [Watershed Sciences Inc. (WSI), Portland; Lettenmaier, Dennis [University of Washington, Seattle] [University of Washington, Seattle

    2014-01-01

    We describe an integrated spatially distributed hydrologic and glacier dynamic model, and use it to investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow variations for the Upper Bow River basin, a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Several recent studies have suggested that observed decreases in summer flows in the South Saskatchewan River are partly due to the retreat of glaciers in the river's headwaters. Modeling the effect of glacier changes on streamflow response in river basins such as the South Saskatchewan is complicated due to the inability of most existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models to represent glacier dynamics. We compare predicted variations in glacier extent, snow water equivalent and streamflow discharge made with the integrated model with satellite estimates of glacier area and terminus position, observed streamflow and snow water equivalent measurements over the period of 1980 2007. Simulations with the coupled hydrology-glacier model reduce the uncertainty in streamflow predictions. Our results suggested that on average, the glacier melt contribution to the Bow River flow upstream of Lake Louise is about 30% in summer. For warm and dry years, however, the glacier melt contribution can be as large as 50% in August, whereas for cold years, it can be as small as 20% and the timing of glacier melt signature can be delayed by a month.

  15. Application of Hybrid Geo-Spatially Granular Fragility Curves to Improve Power Outage Predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Steven J; Allen, Melissa R; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Fragility curves depict the relationship between a weather variable (wind speed, gust speed, ice accumulation, precipitation rate) and the observed outages for a targeted infrastructure network. This paper describes an empirical study of the county by county distribution of power outages and one minute weather variables during Hurricane Irene with the objective of comparing 1) as built fragility curves (statistical approach) to engineering as designed (bottom up) fragility curves for skill in forecasting outages during future hurricanes; 2) county specific fragility curves to find examples of significant deviation from average behavior; and 3) the engineering practices of outlier counties to suggest future engineering studies of robustness. Outages in more than 90% of the impacted counties could be anticipated through an average or generic fragility curve. The remaining counties could be identified and handled as exceptions through geographic data sets. The counties with increased or decreased robustness were characterized by terrain more or less susceptible to persistent flooding in areas where above ground poles located their foundations. Land use characteristics of the area served by the power distribution system can suggest trends in the as built power grid vulnerabilities to extreme weather events that would be subjects for site specific studies.

  16. Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compound CePd1–xBi₂ and comparison to the superconductor LaPd1–xBi₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; et al

    2015-07-13

    The layered compound CePd1–xBi₂ with the tetragonal ZrCuSi₂-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd1–xBi₂ show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the ab plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce⁻¹ K⁻² obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd1–xBi₂. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 Kmore » which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd1–xBi₂ around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.« less

  17. Evaluation of Cesium, Strontium, and Lead Sorption, Desorption, and Diffusion in Volcanic Tuffs from Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site: Macroscopic and Spectroscopic Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charalambos Papelis; Wooyong Um

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of radionuclides and other contaminants with minerals and other aquifer materials controls the rate of migration of these contaminants in groundwater. The stronger these interactions, the more a radionuclide will be retarded. Processes such as sorption and diffusion often control the migration of inorganic compounds in aquifers. In addition, these processes are often controlled by the nature of ions of interest, the nature of the aquifer materials, and the specific geochemical conditions. Parameters describing sorption and diffusion of radionuclides and other inorganic ions on aquifer materials are used in transport codes to predict the potential for migration of these contaminants into the accessible environment. Sorption and diffusion studies can help reduce the uncertainty of radionuclide transport modeling on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other nuclear testing areas. For example, reliable sorption equilibrium constants, obtained under a variety of conditions, can be used to suggest a plausible sorption mechanism and to provide retardation parameters that can be used in transport models. In addition, these experiments, performed under a variety of conditions, can lead to models that can accommodate changing geochemical conditions. Desorption studies can probe the reversibility of reactions and test whether the reversibility assumed by equilibrium models is justified. Kinetic studies can be used to probe the time-dependent limitations of reactions and suggest whether an equilibrium or kinetic model may be more appropriate. Finally, spectroscopic studies can be used to distinguish between different sorption mechanisms, and provide further guidance with respect to model selection.

  18. Cryogenic THD and DT layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; et al

    2015-06-02

    High Density Carbon (HDC or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a DT layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a THD layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightlymore » oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 x 10¹⁵ neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.« less

  19. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  20. Lysine carboxylation: unveiling a spontaneous post-translational modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Adamian, Larisa; Shi, Dashuang; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A computational method for the prediction of lysine carboxylation (KCX) in protein structures is described. The method accurately identifies misreported KCXs and predicts previously unknown KCX sites. The carboxylation of lysine residues is a post-translational modification (PTM) that plays a critical role in the catalytic mechanisms of several important enzymes. It occurs spontaneously under certain physicochemical conditions, but is difficult to detect experimentally. Its full impact is unknown. In this work, the signature microenvironment of lysine-carboxylation sites has been characterized. In addition, a computational method called Predictor of Lysine Carboxylation (PreLysCar) for the detection of lysine carboxylation in proteins with available three-dimensional structures has been developed. The likely prevalence of lysine carboxylation in the proteome was assessed through large-scale computations. The results suggest that about 1.3% of large proteins may contain a carboxylated lysine residue. This unexpected prevalence of lysine carboxylation implies an enrichment of reactions in which it may play functional roles. The results also suggest that by switching enzymes on and off under appropriate physicochemical conditions spontaneous PTMs may serve as an important and widely used efficient biological machinery for regulation.

  1. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF HIGHLY REDDENED Type Ia SUPERNOVA 2014J: PECULIAR PROPERTIES OF DUST IN M82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawabata, K. S.; Akitaya, H.; Itoh, R.; Moritani, Y. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Maeda, K.; Nogami, D. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ui, T.; Kawabata, M.; Mori, K.; Takaki, K.; Ueno, I.; Chiyonobu, S.; Harao, T.; Matsui, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Nagae, O. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nomoto, K.; Suzuki, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, M., E-mail: kawabtkj@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared multi-band linear polarimetry of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN) 2014J that appeared in M82. SN 2014J exhibits large polarization at shorter wavelengths, e.g., 4.8% in the B band, which decreases rapidly at longer wavelengths, while the position angle of the polarization remains at approximately 40 over the observed wavelength range. These polarimetric properties suggest that the observed polarization is likely predominantly caused by the interstellar dust within M82. Further analysis shows that the polarization peaks at a wavelengths much shorter than those obtained for the Galactic dust. The wavelength dependence of the polarization can be better described by an inverse power law rather than by the Serkowski law for Galactic interstellar polarization. These points suggest that the nature of the dust in M82 may be different from that in our Galaxy, with polarizing dust grains having a mean radius of <0.1 ?m.

  2. Management of Disused Radium Sources in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mourao, R. P.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the radium sources conditioning operation carried out in Latin American and the Caribbean by a team of the Brazilian federal research institute CDTN, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency's hands-on assistance project to safely condition disused sources in developing countries. This initiative was spawned by the perceived hazard associated with the use of radium sources, caused mainly by the high likelihood that these sources leak during their use due to the accumulation of the radon gas in their interior. The conditions under which these sources are often stored in the target countries, without proper documentation, mixed with different radiation sources and under precarious conditions, urged the Agency to start this program at the end of 1996. The conditioning process starts with a pre-mission to the candidate country, when a place is selected for the forthcoming operation, suggest improvements in the local available infrastructure is suggest ed and gather the most complete information available about the country's source inventory is collected. The operation consists of transferring the sources from their original shields to sturdy multi-barrier packages, which are put under the control of the local nuclear authority. As part of the quality assurance program applied to this project, the relevant information about the conditioned inventory is recorded and made available to the host country, to the IAEA and to the conditioning team.

  3. Constituent quark scaling violation due to baryon number transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlop J. C.; Lisa, M.A., Sorensen, P.

    2011-10-31

    In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} {approx} 200 GeV, the azimuthal emission anisotropy of hadrons with low and intermediate transverse momentum (p{sub T} {approx}< 4 GeV/c) displays an intriguing scaling. In particular, the baryon (meson) emission patterns are consistent with a scenario in which a bulk medium of flowing quarks coalesces into three-quark (two-quark) 'bags.' While a full understanding of this number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling remains elusive, it is suggestive of a thermalized bulk system characterized by colored dynamical degrees of freedom - a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In this scenario, one expects the scaling to break down as the central energy density is reduced below the QGP formation threshold; for this reason, NCQ-scaling violation searches are of interest in the energy scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. However, as {radical}s{sub NN} is reduced, it is not only the initial energy density that changes; there is also an increase in the net baryon number at midrapidity, as stopping transports entrance-channel partons to midrapidity. This phenomenon can result in violations of simple NCQ scaling. Still in the context of the quark coalescence model, we describe a specific pattern for the breakdown of the scaling that includes different flow strengths for particles and their antipartners. Related complications in the search for recently suggested exotic phenomena are also discussed.

  4. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Mendes, Goncalo; Appen, Jan von; Mé gel, Oliver; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2011-03-18

    In an effort to create broad access to its optimization software, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the University of California at Davis (UC Davis) and OSISoft, has recently developed a Software as a Service (SaaS) Model for reducing energy costs, cutting peak power demand, and reducing carbon emissions for multipurpose buildings. UC Davis currently collects and stores energy usage data from buildings on its campus. Researchers at LBNL sought to demonstrate that a SaaS application architecture could be built on top of this data system to optimize the scheduling of electricity and heat delivery in the building. The SaaS interface, known as WebOpt, consists of two major parts: a) the investment& planning and b) the operations module, which builds on the investment& planning module. The operational scheduling and load shifting optimization models within the operations module use data from load prediction and electrical grid emissions models to create an optimal operating schedule for the next week, reducing peak electricity consumption while maintaining quality of energy services. LBNL's application also provides facility managers with suggested energy infrastructure investments for achieving their energy cost and emission goals based on historical data collected with OSISoft's system. This paper describes these models as well as the SaaS architecture employed by LBNL researchers to provide asset scheduling services to UC Davis. The peak demand, emissions, and cost implications of the asset operation schedule and investments suggested by this optimization model are analyzed.

  5. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jonathan; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Appen, Jan von; Megel, Oliver; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2011-03-17

    In an effort to create broad access to its optimization software, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the University of California at Davis (UC Davis) and OSISoft, has recently developed a Software as a Service (SaaS) Model for reducing energy costs, cutting peak power demand, and reducing carbon emissions for multipurpose buildings. UC Davis currently collects and stores energy usage data from buildings on its campus. Researchers at LBNL sought to demonstrate that a SaaS application architecture could be built on top of this data system to optimize the scheduling of electricity and heat delivery in the building. The SaaS interface, known as WebOpt, consists of two major parts: a) the investment& planning and b) the operations module, which builds on the investment& planning module. The operational scheduling and load shifting optimization models within the operations module use data from load prediction and electrical grid emissions models to create an optimal operating schedule for the next week, reducing peak electricity consumption while maintaining quality of energy services. LBNL's application also provides facility managers with suggested energy infrastructure investments for achieving their energy cost and emission goals based on historical data collected with OSISoft's system. This paper describes these models as well as the SaaS architecture employed by LBNL researchers to provide asset scheduling services to UC Davis. The peak demand, emissions, and cost implications of the asset operation schedule and investments suggested by this optimization model are analysed.

  6. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  7. CaMn2Sb2: Spin waves on a frustrated antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McNally, D. E.; Simonson, J. W.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Smith, G. J.; Hassinger, J. E.; DeBeer-Schmidt, L.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Zaliznyak, I.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-05-22

    We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMn2Sb2:, which consists of corrugated honeycomb layers of Mn. The dispersion of magnetic excitations has been measured along the H and L directions in reciprocal space, with a maximum excitation energy of ≈ 24 meV. These excitations are well described by spin waves in a Heisenberg model, including first and second neighbor exchange interactions, J1 and J2, in the Mn plane and also an exchange interaction between planes. The determined ratio J2/J1 ≈ 1/6 suggests that CaMn2Sb2: is the first example of a compound that lies very close to themore »mean field tricritical point, known for the classical Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice, where the N´eel phase and two different spiral phases coexist. The magnitude of the determined exchange interactions reveal a mean field ordering temperature ≈ 4 times larger than the reported N´eel temperature TN = 85 K, suggesting significant frustration arising from proximity to the tricritical point.« less

  8. Correlation studies between solar wind parameters and the decimetric radio emission from Jupiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, S.J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.J.; De Pater, I.; Thompson, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study comparing long-term time variations (years) in Jupiter's synchrotron radio emission with a variety of solar wind parameters and the 10.7-cm solar flux are reported. Data from 1963 through 1985 were analyzed, and the results suggest that many solar wind parameters are correlated with the intensity of the synchrotron emission produced by the relativistic electrons in the Jovian Van Allen radiation belts. Significant nonzero correlation coefficients appear to be associated with solar wind ion density, ram pressure, thermal pressure, flow velocity, momentum, and ion temperature. The highest correlation coefficients are obtained for solar wind ram pressure (NV/sup 2/) and thermal pressure (NT). The correlation analysis suggests that the delay time between fluctuations in the solar wind and changes in the Jovian synchrotron emission is typically about 2 years. The delay time of the correlation places important constraints on the theoretical models describing the radiation belts. The implication of these results, if the correlations are real, is that the solar wind is influencing the supply and/or loss of electrons to Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. We note that the data for this work spans only about two periods of the solar activity cycle, and because of the long time scales of the observed variations, it is important to confirm these results with additional observations. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  9. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  10. Brain necrosis after fractionated radiation therapy: Is the halftime for repair longer than we thought?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, Edward T.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.

  11. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhat, Amani; Buick, Julie K.; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.; O'Brien, Jason M.; Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L.; Chiu, Suzanne; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 ?g TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ? 0.1, fold change ? 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction.

  12. A new 40 MA ranchero explosive pulsed power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goforth, James; Herrera, Dennis; Oona, Hank; Torres, David; Atchison, W L; Colgate, S A; Griego, J R; Guzik, J; Holtkamp, D B; Idzorek, G; Kaul, A; Kirkpatrick, R C; Menikoff, R; Reardon, P T; Reinovsky, R E; Rousculp, C L; Sgro, A G; Tabaka, L J; Tierney, T E; Watt, R G

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a new high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system based on the 1.4 m long Ranchero generator which was developed in 1999 for driving solid density z-pinch loads. The new application requires approximately 40 MA to implode similar liners, but the liners cannot tolerate the 65 {micro}s, 3 MA current pulse associated with delivering the initial magnetic flux to the 200 nH generator. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system with an internal start switch and four explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches. The integral start switch is installed between the output glide plane and the armature. It functions in the same manner as a standard input crowbar switch when armature motion begins, but initially isolates the load. The circuit is completed during the flux loading phase using post hole convolutes. Each convolute attaches the inner (coaxial) output transmission line to the outside of the outer coax through a penetration of the outer coaxial line. The attachment is made with the conductor of an EFF at each location. The EFFs conduct 0.75 MA each, and are actuated just after the internal start switch connects to the load. EFFs operating at these parameters have been tested in the past. The post hole convolutes must withstand as much as 80 kV at peak dl/dt during the Ranchero load current pulse. We describe the design of this new HEPP system in detail, and give the experimental results available at conference time. In addition, we discuss the work we are doing to test the upper current limits of a single standard size Ranchero module. Calculations have suggested that the generator could function at up to {approx}120 MA, the rule of thumb we follow (1 MA/cm) suggests 90 MA, and simple flux compression calculations, along with the {approx}4 MA seed current available from our capacitor bank, suggests 118 MA is the currently available upper limit.

  13. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, James E.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  14. Scoping Meeting Summary, Kaunakakai, Moloka'i, March 12, 1992, 2 PM Session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.

    1992-06-01

    The meeting began with presentations by the facilitator, Mr. Spiegel, and Dr. Lewis, the program manager from DOE. The facilitator introduced those on the podium. He then described the general structure of the meeting and its purpose: to hear the issues and concerns of those present regarding the proposed Hawaiian Geothermal Project. He described his role as assuring the impartiality and fairness of the meeting. Dr. Lewis of DOE further defined the scope of the project, introduced members of the EIS team, and briefly described.the EIS process. The overwhelming concerns of the meeting were Native Hawaiian issues. The presenters [more than 70%, most of whom addressed no other issue] want the EIS to respect Native Hawaiian religion, race, rights, language, and culture, noting that they believe that geothermal development is a desecration of Pele [{approx}60% of all presenters]. They expressed concern that their ancestors and burials should not be desecrated. The EIS should address Native Hawaiian concerns that the HGP would negatively impact Native Hawaiian fisheries, subsistence lifestyles, and religious practices. Virtually all the speakers expressed frustration with government. Most (> 70%) of the speakers voiced concern and frustration regarding lack of consideration for Native Hawaiians by government and lack of trust in government. One commenter requested that the EIS should consider the international implications of the U.S allowing their rainforests to be cleared, when the U.S. government asks other nations to preserve theirs. Nearly 30% of the commenters want the EIS to address the concern that people on Moloka'i will bear major environmental consequences of the HGP, but not gain from it. The commenters question whether it is right for Moloka'i to pay for benefits to Oahu, particularly using an unproven technology. After questioning the reliability and feasibility of the marine cable:, nearly 30% of the presenters were concerned about the impacts of the submarine cable. In specific, they suggested that the EIS investigate the impacts the cable would have on fisheries and marine life due to electromagnetic fields, dredging, and oil-release. The EIS should study the impacts of the HGP on the humpback whale and other marine species, particularly their birthing grounds, noting whales' hypersensitivity to emf and sound. One commenter suggested that the EIS examine the economics of the cable, including the need to build specialized ships to lay it, harbour(s), and the cable itself. One commenter was concerned about the future uses of the cable suggesting that the EIS should address the impacts that would result if the cable connecting Moloka'i to Oahu is used to transmit power from large coal or other types of power generation facilities constructed on Moloka'i. Commenters questioned the reliability of geothermal development in a region that is both seismically and volcanically active. One suggested that the EIS examine the merits of projects that conserve energy. With respect to land use, commenters asked that the EIS examine the propriety of using Native Hawaiian homelands and ceded lands for the HGP, questioning specifically the land exchange in Puna [Campbell Estate for Wao Kele o Puna]. The commenters want the EIS to address the issue of air, water and sail quality preservation. More than 20% of the commenters asked that the EIS examine concerns about the environmental consequences of the HGP to the rainforest, including possible species extinction. In particular, the EIS should address the impacts of roads associated with the HGP in the rainforest, including the resulting importation of exotic species (for example banana poko), which successfully compete against native species; and the effects of noise and fumes which negatively impact plants, birds, animals, and insects.

  15. Resonance searches with the $t\\overline{t}$ Invariant Mass Distribution measured with the D\\O\\, Experiment at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96\\,\\textrm{TeV}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schliephake, Thorsten Dirk; /Wuppertal U.

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the universe, its birth and its future is one of the biggest motivations in physics. In order to understand the cosmos, the fundamental particles forming the universe, the components our matter is built of need to be known and understood. Over time physicists have built a theory which describes the physics of the known fundamental particles very well: the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The SM describes the particles, their interactions and phenomena with high precision. So far no proven deviations from the SM have been found, though recently evidence for possible physics beyond the SM has been observed. The SM is not describing the mass of the elementary particles however and even with the addition of the Higgs mechanism giving mass to the particles, we have no full theory for all four fundamental forces. We know the model needs to be extended or replaced by another one, as gravitation is not included in the SM. Having a theory which describes all fundamental particles found so far and all but one fundamental interaction is a great success. However, all this describes about 4% of the universe we live in. 23% is dark matter and 73% is dark energy. Dark matter is believed to interact only through gravity and maybe the weak force, which makes it hardly observable. Dark energy is even more elusive. Among other theories the cosmologic constant and scalar fields are discussed to describe it. One should also note that other models exist which for example modify the Newtonian law of gravity. The Higgs mechanism has become the most popular model for mass generation. Alternative theories like Super Symmetry (SUSY), large Extra Dimensions, Technicolor, String Theory, to name just a few, have spread to describe the necessary mass generation or new particles. As proof for new physics beyond the SM has not been found yet, one assumes that new physics will manifest itself at a larger energy scale and therefore a higher particle mass. Particles with high masses are therefore presumed to be a window to test the SM for deviations caused by new physics. The heaviest fundamental particle which is in our reach is the top quark. Its mass is almost as large as that of a complete tungsten atom. It is so heavy, that it decays faster than it can hadronize. It seems the perfect probe to study new physics at the moment. In this analysis the top quark is used as a probe to search for a new resonance, whose properties are similar to a SM Z boson but is much more massive. This analysis will study t{bar t} decays to search for an excess in the invariant mass distribution of the t{bar t} pairs. Resonant states are suggested for massive Z-like bosons in extended gauge theories, Kaluza Klein states of the gluon or Z, axigluons, topcolor, and other beyond the Standard Model theories. Independent of the exact model a resonant production mechanism should be visible in the t{bar t} invariant mass distribution. In this thesis a model-independent search for a narrow-width heavy resonance X decaying into t{bar t} is performed. In the SM, the top quark decays into a W boson and a b quark nearly 100% of the time, which has been proven experimentally, too. The t{bar t} event signature is fully determined by the W boson decay modes. In this analysis, only the lepton+jets final state, which results from the leptonic decay of one of the W bosons and the hadronic decay of the other, is considered. The event signature is an isolated electron or muon with high transverse momentum, large transverse energy imbalance due to the undetected neutrino, and at least three jets, two of which result from the hadronization of b quarks.

  16. Variable Renewable Generation Impact on Operating Reserves (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation describes some of NREL's latest research on grid integration of renewables, and also describes some of the tools used for these analyses.

  17. Mini-review of Electron Density Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, Joan; Adler, Omri; Kreif, Meytal; Cohen, Or; Grosso, Bastien; Hashibon, Adham; Cooper, Valentino R

    2015-01-01

    We describe both educational and research oriented examples of electronic density visualization with AViz. Several detailed cases are presented and the procedures for their preparation are described.

  18. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method...

  19. Template:Permit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structure that controls permeability and hydrology of the reservoir (as described in REF) TopoFeatures - Describes topographic features within the vicinity of the field (e.g....

  20. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity Also described are antimicrobial genes and their...

  1. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome Sorek, Rotem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their...

  2. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their...

  3. Feasibility/alternatives study for the planned replacement of Nuclear Material Safeguards System (NMSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, K.C.; Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-04

    This document is a study which describes the NMSS replacement alternatives and provides recommended solutions. It also describes a NMSS Paradox prototype.

  4. Inter-Areas Component of the River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment Sampling Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Queen

    2008-02-19

    This report describes the sampling locations, identifies samples collected, and describes any modifications and additions made to the DOE/RL-2005-42.

  5. Moving toward Zero Energy Homes: Zero Energy Home Powers Up in North Texas; Building America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the first Zero Energy Home built in northern Texas. It describes the energy efficiency features and their advantages, and discusses details of its construction.

  6. Sandia Energy HITEC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets http:energy.sandia.govnew-report-describes-joint-opportunities-for-natural-gas-and-hy...

  7. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    This document describes activities of the U.S. Clean Coal Technology Program for the time of 1985-1995. Various clean coal technologies are described.

  8. Accident Conditions versus Regulatory Test for NRC-Approved UF6 Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLS, G. SCOTT; AMMERMAN, DOUGLAS J.; LOPEZ, CARLOS

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves new package designs for shipping fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}. Currently there are three packages approved by the NRC for domestic shipments of fissile quantities of UF{sub 6}: NCI-21PF-1; UX-30; and ESP30X. For approval by the NRC, packages must be subjected to a sequence of physical tests to simulate transportation accident conditions as described in 10 CFR Part 71. The primary objective of this project was to relate the conditions experienced by these packages in the tests described in 10 CFR Part 71 to conditions potentially encountered in actual accidents and to estimate the probabilities of such accidents. Comparison of the effects of actual accident conditions to 10 CFR Part 71 tests was achieved by means of computer modeling of structural effects on the packages due to impacts with actual surfaces, and thermal effects resulting from test and other fire scenarios. In addition, the likelihood of encountering bodies of water or sufficient rainfall to cause complete or partial immersion during transport over representative truck routes was assessed. Modeled effects, and their associated probabilities, were combined with existing event-tree data, plus accident rates and other characteristics gathered from representative routes, to derive generalized probabilities of encountering accident conditions comparable to the 10 CFR Part 71 conditions. This analysis suggests that the regulatory conditions are unlikely to be exceeded in real accidents, i.e. the likelihood of UF{sub 6} being dispersed as a result of accident impact or fire is small. Moreover, given that an accident has occurred, exposure to water by fire-fighting, heavy rain or submersion in a body of water is even less probable by factors ranging from 0.5 to 8E-6.

  9. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND BECHTEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, M; I. Arango, I; Michael Mchood, M

    2007-07-17

    The authors describe two aspects of geotechnical engineering; site characterization utilizing the CPT and recognition of aging as a factor affecting soil properties. These methods were pioneered by Professor Schmertmann and are practiced by the Bechtel Corporation in general and at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, in particular. This paper describes a general subsurface exploration approach that we have developed over the years. It consists of ''phasing'' the investigation, employing the principles of the observational method suggested by Peck (1969) and others. In doing so, we have found that the recommendations proposed by Sowers in terms of borehole spacing and exploration cost, are reasonable for developing an investigation program, recognizing that through continuous review the final investigation program will evolve. At the SRS shallow subsurface soils are of Eocene and Miocene age. It was recognized that the age of these deposits would have a marked effect on their cyclic resistance. A field investigation and laboratory testing program was devised to measure and account for aging as it relates to the cyclic resistance of the site soils. Recently, a panel of experts (Youd et al., 2001) has made recommendations regarding the liquefaction assessment of soils. This paper will address some of those recommendations in the context of re-assessing the liquefaction resistance of the soils at the SRS. It will be shown that, indeed, aging plays a major role in the cyclic resistance of the soils at the SRS, and that aging should be accounted for in liquefaction potential assessments for soils older than Holocene age.

  10. Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E.; Blanford, Christopher F.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

    2012-05-01

    Radiation-induced reduction, radiolysis of copper sites and the effect of pH value together with the concomitant geometrical distortions of the active centres were analysed in several fungal (C. gallica) laccase structures collected at cryotemperature. This study emphasizes the importance of careful interpretation when the crystallographic structure of a metalloprotein is described. X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O{sub 2}. In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UVVis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O{sub 2} reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account.

  11. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Asayama; Yukio Tachibana

    2007-09-30

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  12. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F.; Deringer, J.J.

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  13. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure progress over time in the State of California.

  14. Electrokinetic demonstration at the unlined chromic acid pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Hankins, M.G.; Mattson, E.D.; Duda, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy-metal contaminated soils are a common problem at Department of Energy (DOE)-operated sites and privately owned facilities throughout the nation. One emerging technology which can remove heavy metals from soil in situ is electrokinetics. To conduct electrokinetic (EK) remediation, electrodes are implanted into the ground, and a direct current is imposed between the electrodes. Metal ions dissolved in the soil pore water migrate towards an electrode where they can be removed. The electrokinetic program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been focusing on electrokinetic remediation for unsaturated soils. A patent was awarded for an electrokinetic electrode system designed at SNL for applications to unsaturated soils. Current research described in this report details an electrokinetic remediation field demonstration of a chromium plume that resides in unsaturated soil beneath the SNL Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL). This report describes the processes, site investigation, operation and monitoring equipment, testing procedures, and extraction results of the electrokinetic demonstration. This demonstration successfully removed chromium contamination in the form of chromium(VI) from unsaturated soil at the field scale. After 2700 hours of operation, 600 grams of Cr(VI) was extracted from the soil beneath the SNL CWL in a series of thirteen tests. The contaminant was removed from soil which has moisture contents ranging from 2 to 12 weight percent. This demonstration was the first EK field trial to successfully remove contaminant ions from and soil at the field scale. Although the new patented electrode system was successful in removing an anionic contaminant (i.e., chromate) from unsaturated sandy soil, the electrode system was a prototype and has not been specifically engineered for commercialization. A redesign of the electrode system as indicated by the results of this research is suggested for future EK field trials.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1: Insights into the metabolic versatility of a gram-positive sulfate- and metal-reducing bacterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Otwell, Anne E.; Callister, Stephen J.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Richardson, Ruth E.

    2016-02-19

    In this study, the proteomes of the metabolically versatile and poorly characterized Gram-positive bacterium Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 were compared across four cultivation conditions including sulfate reduction, soluble Fe(III) reduction, insoluble Fe(III) reduction, and pyruvate fermentation. Collectively across conditions, we observed at high confidence ~38% of genome-encoded proteins. Here, we focus on proteins that display significant differential abundance on conditions tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first full-proteome study focused on a Gram-positive organism cultivated either on sulfate or metal-reducing conditions. Several proteins with uncharacterized function encoded within heterodisulfide reductase (hdr)-containing loci were upregulated on either sulfatemore » (Dred_0633-4, Dred_0689-90, and Dred_1325-30) or Fe(III)-citrate-reducing conditions (Dred_0432-3 and Dred_1778-84). Two of these hdr-containing loci display homology to recently described flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB) pathways (Dred_1325-30 and Dred_1778-84). Additionally, we propose that a cluster of proteins, which is homologous to a described FBEB lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) complex, is performing lactate oxidation in D. reducens (Dred_0367-9). Analysis of the putative sulfate reduction machinery in D. reducens revealed that most of these proteins are constitutively expressed across cultivation conditions tested. In addition, peptides from the single multiheme c-type cytochrome (MHC) in the genome were exclusively observed on the insoluble Fe(III) condition, suggesting that this MHC may play a role in reduction of insoluble metals.« less

  16. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  17. Proton resonance spectroscopy: Progress report, June 15, 1987-January 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Resonances in nuclei have provided the major testing ground for random-matrix theory. With the recent demonstration that certain quantum chaotic systems also appear to be described by random-matrix theory, the possibility that the nucleus is itself a quantum chaotic system has been suggested. Although showing no direct relation to quantum chaos, some of the work described herein has examined more closely the role of a random-matrix description of nuclei. We have shown that the body of resonance amplitude data shows overall agreement with the key prediction of random-matrix theory that the amplitudes should obey a Gaussian distribution. We also have new data which for the first time show correlations between entrance channels. The role of energy level fluctuations in /sup 26/Al is being examined to see if random-matrix theory can provide a good description at energies near the ground state. We also hope to learn something about the role of isospin symmetry in this nucleus by analyzing fluctuations of the T = 0 and T = 1 levels separately. The role of spectroscopy of individual levels in studying symmetries has also been investigated. An attempt to populate the lowest isospin 2 state in /sup 40/Ca via the isospin-forbidden p + /sup 39/K reaction has been made. Finally, detailed calculations on the role of nuclear spectroscopy in experiments to measure parity mixing in slow neutron resonances have been performed; these calculations reveal the necessity of a thorough understanding of the spectroscopy of the states involved in order to extract the parity-nonconserving matrix element. 29 refs.

  18. Characterization of a novel insect-specific flavivirus from Brazil: Potential for inhibition of infection of arthropod cells with medically important flaviviruses.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kenney, Joan L.; Solberg, Owen D.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2014-01-12

    In the past decade, there has been an upsurge in the number of newly described insect-specific flaviviruses isolated pan-globally. We recently described the isolation of a novel flavivirus (tentatively designated ‘Nhumirim virus’; NHUV) that represents an example of a unique subset of apparently insect-specific viruses that phylogenetically affiliate with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses despite appearing to be limited to replication in mosquito cells. We characterized the in vitro growth potential and 3' untranslated region (UTR) sequence homology with alternative flaviviruses, and evaluated the virus’s capacity to suppress replication of representative Culex spp.-vectored pathogenic flaviviruses in mosquito cells. Only mosquito cell linesmore » were found to support NHUV replication, further reinforcing the insect-specific phenotype of this virus. Analysis of the sequence and predicted RNA secondary structures of the 3' UTR indicated NHUV to be most similar to viruses within the yellow fever serogroup and Japanese encephalitis serogroup, and viruses in the tick-borne flavivirus clade. NHUV was found to share the fewest conserved sequence elements when compared with traditional insect-specific flaviviruses. This suggests that, despite apparently being insect specific, this virus probably diverged from an ancestral mosquito-borne flavivirus. Co-infection experiments indicated that prior or concurrent infection of mosquito cells with NHUV resulted in a significant reduction in virus production of West Nile virus (WNV), St Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus. As a result, the inhibitory effect was most effective against WNV and SLEV with over a 106-fold and 104-fold reduction in peak titres, respectively.« less

  19. Preparation of waste analysis plans under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Interim guidance)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This document is organized to coincide with the suggested structure of the actual Waste Analysis Plans (WAP) discussed in the previous section. The contents of the remaining eleven chapters and appendices that comprise this document are described below: Chapter 2 addresses waste streams, test parameters, and rationale for sampling and analytical method selection; test methods for analyzing parameters; proceduresfor collecting representative samples; and frequency of sample collection and analyses. These are the core WAP requirements. Chapter 3 addresses analysis requirements for waste received from off site. Chapter 4addresses additional requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes. Chapter 5 addresses unit-specific requirements. Chapter 6 addresses special procedures for radioactive mixed waste. Chapter 7 addresses wastes subject to the land disposal restrictions. Chapter 8 addresses QA/QC procedures. Chapter 9 compares the waste analysis requirements of an interim status facility with those of a permitted facility. Chapter 10 describes the petition process required for sampling and analytical procedures to deviate from accepted methods, such as those identified in promulgated regulations. Chapter 11 reviews the process for modification of WAPs as waste type or handling practices change at a RCRA permitted TSDF. Chapter 12 is the list of references that were used in the preparation of this guidance. Appendix A is a sample WAP addressing physical/chemical treatment and container storage. Appendix B is a sample WAP addressing an incinerator and tank systems. Appendix C discusses the relationship of the WAP to other permitting requirements and includes specific examples of how waste analysis is used to comply with certain parts of a RCRA permit. Appendix D contains the exact wording for the notification/certification requirements under theland disposal restrictions.

  20. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard , A.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values.

  1. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESAEuropean Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Caada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (2.7 ? [Fe/H] ? 1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5?m post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC10, NGC185, and NGC147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = 1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  2. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  3. An Evaluation of Parametric and Nonparametric Models of Fish Population Response.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Timothy C.; Peterson, James T.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-11-01

    Predicting the distribution or status of animal populations at large scales often requires the use of broad-scale information describing landforms, climate, vegetation, etc. These data, however, often consist of mixtures of continuous and categorical covariates and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates, complicating statistical analyses. Using data from the interior Columbia River Basin, USA, we compared four methods for predicting the distribution of seven salmonid taxa using landscape information. Subwatersheds (mean size, 7800 ha) were characterized using a set of 12 covariates describing physiography, vegetation, and current land-use. The techniques included generalized logit modeling, classification trees, a nearest neighbor technique, and a modular neural network. We evaluated model performance using out-of-sample prediction accuracy via leave-one-out cross-validation and introduce a computer-intensive Monte Carlo hypothesis testing approach for examining the statistical significance of landscape covariates with the non-parametric methods. We found the modular neural network and the nearest-neighbor techniques to be the most accurate, but were difficult to summarize in ways that provided ecological insight. The modular neural network also required the most extensive computer resources for model fitting and hypothesis testing. The generalized logit models were readily interpretable, but were the least accurate, possibly due to nonlinear relationships and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates. Substantial overlap among the statistically significant (P<0.05) covariates for each method suggested that each is capable of detecting similar relationships between responses and covariates. Consequently, we believe that employing one or more methods may provide greater biological insight without sacrificing prediction accuracy.

  4. Structure and magnetic interactions in the solid solution Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grundmann, Henrik; Schilling, Andreas; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Dabkowska, Hanna A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: We describe for the first time the preparation of single- and polycrystalline members of the solid solution Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We report on the structural changes in the solid solution at room temperature depending on the stoichiometry. We describe the peculiar change of the magnetic behavior in the solid solution with the stoichiometry. - Abstract: Solid solutions of the magnetic insulators Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} and Sr{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}) have been prepared in polycrystalline form for the first time. Single crystalline material was obtained using a mirror image floating zone technique. X-ray diffraction data taken at room temperature indicate that the space group of Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} remains unchanged for all values of x, while the cell parameters depend on the chemical composition, as expected. Magnetization data, measured from 300 K down to 2 K, suggest that the interaction constant J{sub d} within the Cr{sup 5+} dimers varies in a peculiar way as a function of x, starting at J{sub d} = 25 K for x = 0, then first slightly dropping to J{sub d} = 18 K for x ? 0.75, before reaching J{sub d} = 62 K for x = 3.

  5. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S. Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. Standardized calculation methods for the avoided operational energy is defined. Standardized calculation methods for the avoided environmental impact is defined.

  6. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nations cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the next generation fighter jets or nuclear material safeguards systems in complex nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It is the intent of this paper to describe the cyber security programs that are currently in place, the experiences and successes achieved in industry including outreach and training, and suggestions about how other sectors and organizations can leverage this national expertise to help their monitoring and control systems become more secure.

  7. The relevance of chemical interactions with CYP17 enzyme activity: Assessment using a novel in vitro assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roelofs, Maarke J.E.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Berg, Martin van den; Duursen, Majorie B.M. van

    2013-05-01

    The steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is the most abundant circulating endogenous sex steroid precursor. DHEA plays a key role in e.g. sexual functioning and development. To date, no rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available. In this study, a novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. Effects of twenty-eight suggested endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on CYP17 activity were compared with effects in the US EPA validated H295R (human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line) steroidogenesis assay. In the PACM assay DHEA production was higher compared with the H295R assay (4.4 versus 2.2 nmol/h/mg protein). To determine the additional value of a CYP17 assay, all compounds were also tested for interaction with CYP19 (aromatase) using human placental microsomes (HPMs) and H295R cells. 62.5% of the compounds showed enzyme inhibition in at least one of the microsomal assays. Only the cAMP inducer forskolin induced CYP17 activity, while CYP19 was induced by four test compounds in the H295R assay. These effects remained unnoticed in the PACM and HPM assays. Diethylstilbestrol and tetrabromobisphenol A inhibited CYP17 but not CYP19 activity, indicating different mechanisms for the inhibition of these enzymes. From our results it becomes apparent that CYP17 can be a target for EDCs and that this interaction differs from interactions with CYP19. Our data strongly suggest that research attention should focus on validating a specific assay for CYP17 activity, such as the PACM assay, that can be included in the EDC screening battery. - Highlights: ? DHEA, produced by CYP17, plays a key role in sexual functioning and development. ? No rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available yet. ? A novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. ? Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) targeting CYP17 interact differently with CYP19. ? A specific CYP17 assay is a valuable screening for effects early in steroidogenesis.

  8. Future Directions of Structural Mass Spectrometry using Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Kiselar; M Chance

    2011-12-31

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry has been developed over the last decade and has matured to a powerful method for analyzing protein structure and dynamics. It has been successfully applied in the analysis of protein structure, protein folding, protein dynamics, and protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Using synchrotron radiolysis, exposure of proteins to a 'white' X-ray beam for milliseconds provides sufficient oxidative modification to surface amino acid side chains, which can be easily detected and quantified by mass spectrometry. Thus, conformational changes in proteins or protein complexes can be examined using a time-resolved approach, which would be a valuable method for the study of macromolecular dynamics. In this review, we describe a new application of hydroxyl radical protein footprinting to probe the time evolution of the calcium-dependent conformational changes of gelsolin on the millisecond timescale. The data suggest a cooperative transition as multiple sites in different molecular subdomains have similar rates of conformational change. These findings demonstrate that time-resolved protein footprinting is suitable for studies of protein dynamics that occur over periods ranging from milliseconds to seconds. In this review, we also show how the structural resolution and sensitivity of the technology can be improved as well. The hydroxyl radical varies in its reactivity to different side chains by over two orders of magnitude, thus oxidation of amino acid side chains of lower reactivity are more rarely observed in such experiments. Here we demonstrate that the selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based method can be utilized for quantification of oxidized species, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This expansion of the set of oxidized residues of lower reactivity will improve the overall structural resolution of the technique. This approach is also suggested as a basis for developing hypothesis-driven structural mass spectrometry experiments.

  9. Shedding Synchrotron Light on a Puzzle of Glasses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chumakov, Aleksandr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France

    2010-01-08

    Vibrational dynamics of glasses remains a point of controversial discussions. In particular, the density of vibrational states (DOS) reveals an excess of states above the Debye model called "boson peak." Despite the fact that this universal feature for all glasses has been known for more than 35 years, the nature of the boson peak is still not understood. The application of nuclear inelastic scattering via synchrotron radiation perhaps provides a clearer, more consistent picture of the subject. The distinguishing features of nuclear inelastic scattering relative to, e.g., neutron inelastic scattering, are ideal momentum integration and exact scaling of the DOS in absolute units. This allows for reliable comparison to data from other techniques such as Brillouin light scattering. Another strong point is ideal isotope selectivity: the DOS is measured for a single isotope with a specific low-energy nuclear transition. This allows for special "design" of an experiment to study, for instance, the dynamics of only center-of-mass motions. Recently, we have investigated the transformation of the DOS as a function of several key parameters such as temperature, cooling rate, and density. In all cases the transformation of the DOS is sufficiently well described by a transformation of the continuous medium, in particular, by changes of the macroscopic density and the sound velocity. These results suggest a collective sound-like nature of vibrational dynamics in glasses and cast doubts on microscopic models of glass dynamics. Further insight can be obtained in combined studies of glass with nuclear inelastic and inelastic neutron scattering. Applying two techniques, we have measured the energy dependence of the characteristic correlation length of atomic motions. The data do not reveal localization of atomic vibrations at the energy of the boson peak. Once again, the results suggest that special features of glass dynamics are related to extended motions and not to local models.

  10. Accretion disks in the IRAS 23151+5912 region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrguez-Esnard, T.; Trinidad, M. A.; Migenes, V. E-mail: trinidad@astro.ugto.mx

    2014-06-20

    We present observations of radio continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.6 cm and H{sub 2}O masers toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 23151+5912 carried out with the Very Large Array-Expanded Very Large Array (in transition phase) in configuration A. We detected one continuum source at 1.3 cm in the region, but the counterpart of this radio continuum source at 3.6 cm was not detected at a level of 3?. We also detected 13 water maser spots toward IRAS 23151+5912, which are distributed in three groups aligned along the northeast-southwest direction. Our results suggest that the 1.3 cm emission is consistent with a hypercompact H II region, probably with an embedded zero-age main-sequence star of type B2. In particular, we find that this young star is spatially associated with a maser group, which is tracing a disk-like structure of about 460 AU. We also find that the masers of the second group are probably describing a circumstellar disk of about 86 AU, whose central protostar, still undetected, should have a mass of ?11 M {sub ?}. We also suggest that the third water maser group is possibly associated with the SiO outflow and the undetected driving source of the system. Finally, we noted that the 1.3 cm continuum source and the three maser groups are aligned in the northeast-southwest direction, similar to the elongation of the large ionized region, which probably is the result of shock-wave induced star formation on the densest region of the medium.

  11. Vulnerability Assessments and Resilience Planning at Federal Facilities. Preliminary Synthesis of Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, R. H.; Delgado, A.; Malone, E L.

    2015-08-15

    U.S. government agencies are now directed to assess the vulnerability of their operations and facilities to climate change and to develop adaptation plans to increase their resilience. Specific guidance on methods is still evolving based on the many different available frameworks. Agencies have been experimenting with these frameworks and approaches. This technical paper synthesizes lessons and insights from a series of research case studies conducted by the investigators at facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. The purpose of the paper is to solicit comments and feedback from interested program managers and analysts before final conclusions are published. The paper describes the characteristics of a systematic process for prioritizing needs for adaptation planning at individual facilities and examines requirements and methods needed. It then suggests a framework of steps for vulnerability assessments at Federal facilities and elaborates on three sets of methods required for assessments, regardless of the detailed framework used. In a concluding section, the paper suggests a roadmap to further develop methods to support agencies in preparing for climate change. The case studies point to several preliminary conclusions; (1) Vulnerability assessments are needed to translate potential changes in climate exposure to estimates of impacts and evaluation of their significance for operations and mission attainment, in other words into information that is related to and useful in ongoing planning, management, and decision-making processes; (2) To increase the relevance and utility of vulnerability assessments to site personnel, the assessment process needs to emphasize the characteristics of the site infrastructure, not just climate change; (3) A multi-tiered framework that includes screening, vulnerability assessments at the most vulnerable installations, and adaptation design will efficiently target high-risk sites and infrastructure; (4) Vulnerability assessments can be connected to efforts to improve facility resilience to motivate participation; and (5) Efficient, scalable methods for vulnerability assessment can be developed, but additional case studies and evaluation are required.

  12. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  13. Requirements, guidance and logic in planning environmental investigations: Approval versus implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brice, D.A. [3D/Environmental Services, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Meredith, D.V.; Harris, M.Q. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project

    1993-09-09

    In today`s litigious society, it is important for both private parties and government to plan and conduct environmental investigations in a scientifically sound manner, documenting the purpose, methods, and results in a consistent fashion throughout the exercise. Planning documents are prepared during the initial phases of environmental investigations. Project objectives, including data quality requirements, specific work to be conducted to fulfill data needs, and operating procedures are specified. Regulatory agency approval of these documents is often required prior to plan implementation. These approvals are necessary and appropriate to fulfilling the agency`s mandated role. Many guidance documents prepared by regulatory agencies suggest the content and format of various scoping documents. These guidances help standardize thought processes and considerations in planning, and provide a template to ensure that both the plan and the proposed work will fulfill regulatory requirements. This work describes the preparation and use of guidance documents for planning environmental studies. The goals and some of the pitfalls of such documents are discussed. Guidance should include the following elements: the purpose of the guidance and a description of where it applies; the type of items to be addressed in planning; identification of requirements are applicable to all projects for which the guidance is intended; identification of requirements only applicable in certain situations; a description of items to facilitate planning; a suggested format for fulfilling requirements; example applications of the guidance. Disagreements arise between planners and reviewers/approvers when elements of guidance are used as leverage to require work not directly related to project objectives. Guidance may be inappropriately used as a milestone by which site-specific plans are judged. Regulatory agency review and approval may be regarded as a primary objective of the plan.

  14. When and how does a prominence-like jet gain kinetic energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Kai; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, S.; Wang, Yuming

    2014-02-20

    A jet is a considerable amount of plasma being ejected from the chromosphere or lower corona into the higher corona and is a common phenomenon. Usually, a jet is triggered by a brightening or a flare, which provides the first driving force to push plasma upward. In this process, magnetic reconnection is thought to be the mechanism to convert magnetic energy into thermal, nonthermal, and kinetic energies. However, most jets could reach an unusual high altitude and end much later than the end of its associated flare. This fact implies that there is another way to continuously transfer magnetic energy into kinetic energy even after the reconnection. The picture described above is well known in the community, but how and how much magnetic energy is released through a way other than reconnection is still unclear. By studying a prominence-like jet observed by SDO/AIA and STEREO-A/EUVI, we find that the continuous relaxation of the post-reconnection magnetic field structure is an important process for a jet to climb up higher than it could through only reconnection. The kinetic energy of the jet gained through the relaxation is 1.6 times that gained from the reconnection. The resultant energy flux is hundreds of times larger than the flux required for the local coronal heating, suggesting that such jets are a possible source to keep the corona hot. Furthermore, rotational motions appear all the time during the jet. Our analysis suggests that torsional Alfvn waves induced during reconnection could not be the only mechanism to release magnetic energy and drive jets.

  15. Magnetically dominated jets inside collapsing stars as a model for gamma-ray bursts and supernova explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2007-05-15

    It has been suggested that magnetic fields play a dynamically important role in core-collapse explosions of massive stars. In particular, they may be important in the collapsar scenario for gamma-ray bursts (GRB), where the central engine is a hyperaccreting black hole or a millisecond magnetar. The present paper is focused on the magnetar scenario, with a specific emphasis on the interaction of the magnetar magnetosphere with the infalling stellar envelope. First, the 'pulsar-in-a-cavity' problem is introduced as a paradigm for a magnetar inside a collapsing star. The basic setup of this fundamental plasma-physics problem is described, outlining its main features, and simple estimates are derived for the evolution of the magnetic field. In the context of a collapsing star, it is proposed that, at first, the ram pressure of the infalling plasma acts to confine the magnetosphere, enabling a gradual buildup of the magnetic pressure. At some point, the growing magnetic pressure overtakes the (decreasing) ram pressure of the gas, resulting in a magnetically driven explosion. The explosion should be highly anisotropic, as the hoop stress of the toroidal field, confined by the surrounding stellar matter, collimates the magnetically dominated outflow into two beamed magnetic-tower jets. This creates a clean narrow channel for the escape of energy from the central engine through the star, as required for GRBs. In addition, the delayed onset of the collimated-explosion phase can explain the production of large quantities of nickel-56, as suggested by the GRB-supernova connection. Finally, the prospects for numerical simulations of this scenario are discussed.

  16. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  17. InGaAsN: A Novel Material for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Advanced Photonic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allerman, Andrew A.; Follstaedt, David M.; Gee, James M.; Jones, Eric D.; Kurtz, Steven R.; Modine, Norman A.

    1999-07-01

    This report represents the completion of a 6 month Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of novel compound semiconductor, InGaAsN. This project seeks to rapidly assess the potential of InGaAsN for improved high-efficiency photovoltaic. Due to the short time scale, the project focused on quickly investigating the range of attainable compositions and bandgaps while identifying possible material limitations for photovoltaic devices. InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photoluminescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Additionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured. The design, growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and processing of an In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}As{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} solar cell, with 1.0 eV bandgap, lattice matched to GaAs is described. The hole diffusion length in annealed, n-type InGaAsN is 0.6-0.8 pm, and solar cell internal quantum efficiencies >70% are obtained. Optical studies indicate that defects or impurities, from doping and nitrogen incorporation, limit cell performance.

  18. Scoping Meeting Summary, Wailuku, Maui, March 9, 1992, 2 PM Session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.

    1992-06-06

    The meeting began with presentations by the facilitator, Mr. Spiegel, and Dr. Lewis, the program director from DOE. The facilitator introduced those on the podium. He then described the general structure of the meeting and its purpose: to hear the issues and concerns of those present regarding the proposed Hawaiian Geothermal Project. He described his role in ensuring the impartiality and fairness of the meeting. Dr. Lewis further defined the scope of the project, introduced members of the EIS team, briefly described the EIS process, and answered several process questions, noting that cable feasibility would be examined and that Native Hawaiian concerns would be addressed. Ms. Borgstrom stated that the ISIS Implementation Plan will be continuously refined and that impacts of reasonably foreseeable future activities would be examined. During the meeting, more than 90% of the commenters requested that the EIS identify and assess the relative merits and impacts of energy alternatives to the proposed action. Nearly 80% requested that the EIS investigate conservation and renewable forms of energy, such as wind, solar, and biomass. They suggested that integrated resource planning should be used, noting that the State is initiating such a process. More than 30% of the commenters asked that the EIS examine geothermal alternatives to the action including developing geothermal resources on Maui and using geothermal power on Hawai'i only on that island. One commenter proposed an alternative cable route that proceeds from Hawai'i to Lana'i and from Lana'i to Oahu with spur lines to Moloka'i and Maui as needed. Nearly 70% of the commenters made general statements concerning potential short- and long-term environmental costs and impacts of the HGP (particularly on pristine environments). Others were concerned about environmental costs to Maui, particularly the impacts of a land-based cable route on the south side of Maui and on Hawaiian homestead lands. More than half the commenters were concerned about the potential impacts of the HGP to cultural resources. They stated that the BIS should respect and address Native Hawaiian religious and cultural concerns noting that the lands from Ulupalakua to Kaupo are Native Hawaiian homelands replete with archeological sites and endangered plants used for rituals. Many (>30%) were concerned about impacts of the HGP on the life styles of the general population, in particular, on life styles of Native Hawaiians. Another 30% mentioned aesthetic impacts of HGP on pristine environments.

  19. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass both physical security (hardware and engineering) and administrative procedures. Security regimes for these devices and materials typically use a defense-in-depth- or layered-security approach to eliminate single points of failure. The Department of Energy, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS), the Security Industry Association (SIA) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) all rovide design guidance and hardware specifications. With a graded approach, a physical-security specialist can tailor an integrated security-management system in the most appropriate cost-effective manner to meet the regulatory and non-regulatory requirements of the licensee or client.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Program: Goals, Strategies, and Top Accomplishments (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    Fact sheet describes the Vehicle Technologies Program and its goals, strategies and top accomplishments.

  1. Hydrogen delivery technology roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-11-15

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen delivery technology for transportation applications.

  2. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing low-cost nanofabrication method to develop nanostructured, dye-sensitized solar cells

  3. Microfluidic devices and methods for integrated flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Nimisha (Goleta, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2011-08-16

    Microfluidic devices and methods for flow cytometry are described. In described examples, various sample handling and preparation steps may be carried out within a same microfluidic device as flow cytometry steps. A combination of imaging and flow cytometry is described. In some examples, spiral microchannels serve as incubation chambers. Examples of automated sample handling and flow cytometry are described.

  4. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  5. Arylene-fluorinated-sulfonimide ionomers and membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teasley, Mark F. (Landenberg, PA)

    2011-11-15

    The preparation of aromatic sulfonimide polymers useful as membranes in electrochemical cells is described.

  6. Energy Storage Management for VG Integration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you economically manage integration costs of storage and variable generation.

  7. Encapsulation Advancements Extend Life of Thin-Film PV; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's transparent metal oxide coating used to protect thin-film photovoltaic modules.

  8. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  9. Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap, November 2005

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen storage technology for transportation applications.

  10. Hydrogen Delivery Technology Roadmap, November 2005

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen delivery technology for transportation applications.

  11. Breakthrough Vehicle Development - Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing research and development program for fuel cell power systems for transportation applications.

  12. Driving Demand: Lessons From Vermont

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes the Efficiency Vermont program and provides lessons learned in marketing and development of creative strategies.

  13. Conventional Hydropower Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the DOE Water Power Program's conventional hydropower research and development efforts.

  14. Join the Commercial Real Estate Energy Alliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Commercial Real Estate Energy Alliance, it's membership, and activities.

  15. Energy Innovation Portal: Linking Energy Technologies with Market Opportunities (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    One page flyer that describes the EERE Energy Innovation Portal. Includes list of technology categories.

  16. RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area A-AX at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narbutovskih, Susan M.; Horton, Duane G.

    2001-01-18

    This document describes the interim status groundwater monitoring plan for Waste Management Area A-AX.

  17. Location standards for RCRA Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs). RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This bulletin describes RCRA location standards for hazardous waste storage and disposal facilities.

  18. Fuel Technologies: Goals, Strategies, and Top Accomplishments; Vehicle Technologies Program (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Fact sheet describes the top accomplishments, goals, and strategies of DOE's Fuel Technologies sub program.

  19. DOE-TSPP-11, Technical Standards Program Topical Committees- August 1, 2000

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This procedure describes how topical committees are organized and recognized under the Technical Standards Program.

  20. DOE-TSPP-11, Technical Standards Program Topical Committees- July 1, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This procedure describes how topical committees are organized and recognized under the Technical Standards Program.

  1. Fall 2011 Composite Data Products: National FCEV Learning Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2011-11-01

    This technical presentation describes Fall 2011 composite data products: national FCEV learning demonstration.

  2. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  3. What is Clean Cities? (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 87 coalitions.

  4. Massachusetts Save Energy Now: State, Regional, and Local Delivery Project Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes the Massachusetts Save Energy Now DOE-funded industrial energy efficiency project.

  5. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation describes NREL's computer aided engineering program for electric drive vehicle batteries.

  6. Geothermal Tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Brochure describing the recent activities and future research direction of the DOE Geothermal Program.

  7. Advanced Mitigating Measures for the Cell Internal Short Risk (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darcy, E.; Smith, K.

    2010-04-01

    This presentation describes mitigation measures for internal short circuits in lithium-ion battery cells.

  8. Lifecycle Model

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This chapter describes the lifecycle model used for the Departmental software engineering methodology.

  9. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHP and CHHP Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.

    2010-03-30

    This presentation describes the fuel cell power model for CHP and CHHP economics and performance analysis.

  10. Technology Overview Fundamentals of Wind Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, S.

    2005-05-01

    A presentation that describes the technology, costs and trends, and future development of wind energy technologies.

  11. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Chapter 3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes chapter 3 of the Operations & Maintenance Best Practices: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.

  12. Smokes from the oil fires following the Gulf War: A review and new perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radke, L.F.

    1996-12-31

    Emissions resulting from the oil fires in Kuwait and environmental effects from those emissions are described.

  13. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program (May 2008)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Creating common language and metrics for describing functions of network security tools and testing for interoperability

  14. FY 2000 Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-03-01

    This document describes activities of the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area for the past year.

  15. Dynamometer Testing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the dynamometer and its testing capabilities at the National Wind Technology Center.

  16. Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  17. What is Clean Cities? May 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Fact sheet describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 87 coalitions.

  18. Safety, Codes, and Standards Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. PDF icon Safety, Codes, and Standards

  19. Reliable Muddle: Transportation Scenarios for the 80% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goal for 2050 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Webster, K.

    2009-10-28

    Presentation describing transportation scenarios for meeting the 2050 DOE goal of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%.

  20. Integrative Analysis of Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integrative Analysis of Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Suggests New Metabolic ... (Medicago sativa L.) Suggests New Metabolic Control Mechanisms for Monolignol ...

  1. Fermilab | Fermilab at Work | Web Form | Feedback Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feedback Form Use the form below to submit a suggestion to senior management. Required fields are marked with an asterisk (*). Suggestion: Name: Email Address: Submit Last modified...

  2. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Release 3.0

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D Suggestions for Additions or Revisions Appendix D Suggestions for Additions or Revisions This guide is open to periodic updates and improvement. Readers are encouraged to ...

  3. Experimental Investigation of Radio-Turbulence Induced Diffusion -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitz, H. B.; Usman, S.

    2005-07-07

    The outcome of this research project suggests that the transport of radon in water is significantly greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. The original study was related to the long term storage of {sup 226}Ra-bearing sand at the DOE Fernald site and determining whether a barrier of water covering the sand would be effective in reducing the emanation of {sup 222}Rn from the sand. Initial observations before this study found the transport of radon in water to be greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. Fick's law on diffusion was used to model the transport of radon in water including the impact associated with radioactive decay. Initial measurements suggested that the deposition of energy in water associated with the radioactive decay process influences diffusion and enhances transport of radon. A multi-region, one-dimensional, steady-state transport model was used to analyze the movement of radon through a sequential column of air, water and air. An effective diffusion coefficient was determined by varying the thickness of the water column and measuring the time for transport of {sup 222}Rn through of the water barrier. A one-region, one-dimensional transient diffusion equation was developed to investigate the build up of radon at the end of the water column to the time when a steady-state, equilibrium condition was achieved. This build up with time is characteristic of the transport rate of radon in water and established the basis for estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 222}Rn in water. Several experiments were conducted using different types and physical arrangements of water barriers to examine how radon transport is influenced by the water barrier. Results of our measurements confirm our theoretical analyses which suggest that convective forces other than pure molecular diffusion impact the transport of {sup 222}Rn through the water barrier. An effective diffusion coefficient is defined that includes effects of molecular diffusion and convection to describe the transport of radon in water. The effective diffusion coefficients measured in these experiments are 6.8 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 28% and 3.5 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 34% cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} for the steady-state and transient diffusion conditions, respectively. Water barriers ranging in thickness from 30-50 cm reduce the amount of radon released from the radium-bearing source material by a factor of 0.3-0.1, respectively.

  4. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes in specifications were developed in consultation with staff from the Iowa Energy Center who evaluated the accuracy of new CO{sub 2} sensors in laboratory-based research. In addition, staff of the California Energy Commission, and their consultants in the area of DCV, provided input for the suggested changes in specifications.

  5. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D) 2.4; similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  6. Ethane oxidative dehydrogenation pathways on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, Morris; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-12-10

    Kinetic and isotopic tracer and exchange measurements were used to determine the identity and reversibility of elementary steps involved in ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/Al2O3 and VOx/ZrO2. C2H6-C2D6-O2 and C2H6-D2O-O2 react to form alkenes and COx without concurrent formation of C2H6-xDx orC2H4-xDx isotopomers, suggesting that C-H bond cleavage in ethane and ethene is an irreversible and kinetically relevant step in ODH and combustion reactions. Primary ethane ODH reactions show normal kinetic isotopic effects (kC-H/kC-D 2.4); similar values were measured for ethane and ethene combustion(1.9 and 2.8, respectively). 16O2-18O2-C2H6 reactions on supported V16Ox domains led to the initial appearance of 16O from the lattice in H2O, CO, and CO2, consistent with the involvement of lattice oxygen in C-H bond activation steps. Isotopic contents are similar in H2O, CO, and CO2, suggesting that ODH and combustion reactions use similar lattice oxygen sites. No 16O-18O isotopomer s were detected during reactions of 16O2-18O2-C2H6 mixtures, as expected if dissociative O2 chemisorption steps were irreversible. The alkyl species formed in these steps desorb irreversibly as ethene and the resulting O-H groups recombine to form H2O and reduced V centers in reversible desorption steps. These reduced V centers reoxidize by irreversible dissociative chemisorption of O2. A pseudo-steady state analysis of these elementary steps together with these reversibility assumptions led to a rate expression that accurately describes the observed inhibition of ODH rates by water and the measured kinetic dependence of ODH rates on C2H6 and O2 pressures. This kinetic analysis suggests that surface oxygen, OH groups, and oxygen vacancies are the most abundant reactive intermediates during ethane ODH on active VOx domains.

  7. Towards a specific reaction parameter density functional for reactive scattering of H{sub 2} from Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boereboom, J. M.; Wijzenbroek, M.; Somers, M. F.; Kroes, G. J.

    2013-12-28

    Recently, an implementation of the specific reaction parameter (SRP) approach to density functional theory (DFT) was used to study several reactive scattering experiments of H{sub 2} on Cu(111). It was possible to obtain chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol ? 4.2 kJ/mol), and therefore, accurately model this paradigmatic example of activated H{sub 2} dissociation on a metal surface. In this work, the SRP-DFT methodology is applied to the dissociation of hydrogen on a Pd(111) surface, in order to test whether the SRP-DFT approach is also applicable to non-activated H{sub 2}-metal systems. In the calculations, the BornOppenheimer static surface approximations are used. A comparison to molecular beam sticking experiments, performed at incidence energies ?125 meV, on H{sub 2} + Pd(111) suggested the PBE-vdW [where the Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation is replaced by van der Waals correlation] functional as a candidate SRP density functional describing the reactive scattering of H{sub 2} on Pd(111). Unfortunately, quantum dynamics calculations are not able to reproduce the molecular beam sticking results for incidence energies <125 meV. From a comparison to initial state-resolved (degeneracy averaged) sticking probabilities it seems clear that for H{sub 2} + Pd(111) dynamic trapping and steering effects are important, and that these effects are not yet well modeled with the potential energy surfaces considered here. Applying the SRP-DFT method to systems where H{sub 2} dissociation is non-activated remains difficult. It is suggested that a density functional that yields a broader barrier distribution and has more non-activated pathways than PBE-vdW (i.e., non-activated dissociation at some sites but similarly high barriers at the high energy end of the spectrum) should allow a more accurate description of the available experiments. Finally, it is suggested that new and better characterized molecular beam sticking experiments be done on H{sub 2} + Pd(111), to facilitate the development of a more accurate theoretical description of this system.

  8. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  9. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Carl W. (Stony Brook, NY); Mangel, Walter F. (Shoreham, NY)

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  10. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Carl W. (Stony Brook, NY); Mangel, Walter F. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  11. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  12. Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls of runoff generation. 1. Behavioral constraints on runoff volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Tian, Fuqiang; Harman, Ciaran

    2014-12-09

    Inspired by the Dunne diagram, the climatic and landscape controls on the partitioning of annual runoff into its various components (Hortonian and Dunne overland flow and subsurface stormflow) are assessed quantitatively, from a purely theoretical perspective. A simple distributed hydrologic model has been built sufficient to simulate the effects of different combinations of climate, soil, and topography on the runoff generation processes. The model is driven by a sequence of simple hypothetical precipitation events, for a large combination of climate and landscape properties, and hydrologic responses at the catchment scale are obtained through aggregation of grid-scale responses. It is found, first, that the water balance responses, including relative contributions of different runoff generation mechanisms, could be related to a small set of dimensionless similarity parameters. These capture the competition between the wetting, drying, storage, and drainage functions underlying the catchment responses, and in this way, provide a quantitative approximation of the conceptual Dunne diagram. Second, only a subset of all hypothetical catchment/climate combinations is found to be behavioral, in terms of falling sufficiently close to the Budyko curve, describing mean annual runoff as a function of climate aridity. Furthermore, these behavioral combinations are mostly consistent with the qualitative picture presented in the Dunne diagram, indicating clearly the commonality between the Budyko curve and the Dunne diagram. These analyses also suggest clear interrelationships amongst the behavioral climate, soil, and topography parameter combinations, implying these catchment properties may be constrained to be codependent in order to satisfy the Budyko curve.

  13. An integrative computational approach for prioritization of genomic variants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubchak, Inna; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Wang, Sheng; Meydan, Cem; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Poliakov, Alexander; Brnigen, Daniela; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; Ma, Jianzhu; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Dave, Paul; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Mason, Christopher E.; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Maltsev, Natalia; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Huang, Qingyang

    2014-12-15

    An essential step in the discovery of molecular mechanisms contributing to disease phenotypes and efficient experimental planning is the development of weighted hypotheses that estimate the functional effects of sequence variants discovered by high-throughput genomics. With the increasing specialization of the bioinformatics resources, creating analytical workflows that seamlessly integrate data and bioinformatics tools developed by multiple groups becomes inevitable. Here we present a case study of a use of the distributed analytical environment integrating four complementary specialized resources, namely the Lynx platform, VISTA RViewer, the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB), and the RaptorX server, for the identification of high-confidence candidate genes contributing to pathogenesis of spina bifida. The analysis resulted in prediction and validation of deleterious mutations in the SLC19A placental transporter in mothers of the affected children that causes narrowing of the outlet channel and therefore leads to the reduced folate permeation rate. The described approach also enabled correct identification of several genes, previously shown to contribute to pathogenesis of spina bifida, and suggestion of additional genes for experimental validations. The study demonstrates that the seamless integration of bioinformatics resources enables fast and efficient prioritization and characterization of genomic factors and molecular networks contributing to the phenotypes of interest.

  14. Survey of radiation dose and image quality in mammography: an ongoing program in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimondi, O.; Gambaccini, M.; Candini, G.C.; Indovina, P.L.; Rosati, A.

    1987-04-01

    A program for mammography optimization in individual x-ray units, named Dose and Quality in Mammography (DQM), is now underway in Italy. The project has three stages: measurement of the parameters that affect dose and image quality by means of devices that are practical to use (specifically designed for the purpose), analysis of data to evaluate dose and image quality and suggestion of possible improvements to each unit operator. Instruments and methods employed in our survey are described. Our results, like those of the American survey (Je78) Breast Exposure: Nationwide Trends (BENT), show widespread variations of exposure, half value layer (HVL), optical density, dose and resolution. Facilities using the same type of x-ray apparatus (Mo target-Mo filter) and film-screen combinations present very different exposure values, ranging from 1.6 X 10(-4) to 27.6 X 10(-4) C kg-1. The causes of these variations--ascribable to the individual units, radiologist preferences, processing condition, kVp indicator and timer accuracy--are being explored.

  15. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  16. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  17. State-to-state dynamics of the H{sup *}(n) + HD ? D{sup *}(n{sup ?}) + H{sub 2} reactive scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun, E-mail: kjyuan@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn; Yang, Xueming, E-mail: kjyuan@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-01-21

    The state-to-state dynamics of the H{sup *}(n) + HD ? D{sup *}(n{sup ?}) + H{sub 2} reactive scattering at the collision energy of 0.5 eV have been carried out for the first time by using H-atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. Experimental results show that the angular distribution of the total H{sub 2} products presents clearly forward-backward asymmetric, which considerably differs from that of the corresponding H{sup +} + HD ? D{sup +} + H{sub 2} reaction predicted by previously theoretical calculations. Such disagreement between these two processes suggests that the Fermi independent-collider model is also not valid in describing the dynamics of isotopic variants of the H{sup *} + H{sub 2} reaction. The rotational state distribution of the H{sub 2} products demonstrates a saw-toothed distribution with odd-j{sup ?} > even-j{sup ?}. This interesting observation is strongly influenced by nuclear spin statistics.

  18. Role of a reducing environment in disassembly of the herpesvirus tegument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcomb, William W.; Jones, Lisa M.; Dee, Alexander; Chaudhry, Farid; Brown, Jay C.

    2012-09-15

    Initiation of infection by herpes family viruses involves a step in which most of the virus tegument becomes detached from the capsid. Detachment takes place in the host cell cytosol near the virus entry site and it is followed by dispersal of tegument proteins and disappearance of the tegument as a distinct entity. Here we describe the results of experiments designed to test the idea that the reducing environment of the cytosol may contribute to tegument detachment and disassembly. Non-ionic detergent was used to remove the membrane of purified herpes simplex virus under control and reducing conditions. The effects on the tegument were then examined by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Protein analysis demonstrated that most major tegument proteins were removed under both oxidizing and reducing conditions except for UL49 which required a reducing environment. It is proposed therefore that the reducing conditions in the cytosol are involved in removal of UL49 protein. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that capsids produced under oxidizing conditions contained a coating of protein that was absent in reduced virions and which correlated uniquely with the presence of UL49. This capsid-associated layer is suggested to be the location of UL49 in the extracted virion.

  19. Current longwall ventilation problems and implications for thick seam longwalls. Final technical report. [133 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify, analyze and suggest solutions to ventilation problems of the following mining systems proposed for use in western thick seams; multiple lift longwall; single pass longwall with face height in the range of 12 to 19 feet; longwall sublevel caving. To reach this objective, background information on the regulations and ventilation practices relevant to the three methods was reviewed. This was followed by an identification of ventilation problems including the sources and quantities of methane emissions, respirable coal dust, self ignition and self heating. The problems were then analyzed to determine the probability of occurrence, the cause of the problem, and its consequences. Having analyzed these problems, solutions were described to the problems. The major finding of this effort was that, while certain ventilation difficulties can be isolated peculiar to these three moethods, in general, seam specific conditions have a larger role in determining the success of ventilation than does the method used. The major difficulties to be faced by these novel methods are the same as those to be faced by conventional longwalls. Research efforts should proceed on that basis.

  20. Browsing the World Wide Web from behind a firewall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, R.W.

    1995-02-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unified method of access to various information services on the Internet via a variety of protocols. Mosaic and other browsers give users a graphical interface to the Web that is easier to use and more visually pleasing than any other common Internet information service today. The availability of information via the Web and the number of users accessing it have both grown rapidly in the last year. The interest and investment of commercial firms in this technology suggest that in the near future, access to the Web may become as necessary to doing business as a telephone. This is problematical for organizations that use firewalls to protect their internal networks from the Internet. Allowing all the protocols and types of information found in the Web to pass their firewall will certainly increase the risk of attack by hackers on the Internet. But not allowing access to the Web could be even more dangerous, as frustrated users of the internal network are either unable to do their jobs, or find creative new ways to get around the firewall. The solution to this dilemma adopted at Sandia National Laboratories is described. Discussion also covers risks of accessing the Web, design alternatives considered, and trade-offs used to find the proper balance between access and protection.