Sample records for des moines biodiesel

  1. West Des Moines, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED Jump to:Ohio:Wendel,Brooklyn,Covina, California:Des Moines,

  2. Des Moines County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: EnergyKansas: Energy Resources JumpGruneDes Moines

  3. 8JANVIER 2014 Direction DU PAtriMoine et Des services techniqUes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamroukhi, Faicel

    8JANVIER 2014 Direction DU PAtriMoine et Des services techniqUes Direction: régis cAPo Daniel NAHON Pôle espaces verts Jean-Luc GIULIANO Bernard D'AGOSTINO Pôle Parc automobile et téléphonie

  4. Des Moines, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: EnergyKansas: Energy Resources JumpGruneDes

  5. The 3rd International Conference of IIR on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A, 11-15 May 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The 3rd International Conference of IIR on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Des Moines of Design of Experiments (DOE) method in magnetic refrigeration (MR) understanding and optimization and magnetocaloric effect (MCE). 1. INTRODUCTION Room temperature magnetic refrigeration has been shown

  6. De moins en moins de pluies sur l'Amazonie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -temporelle des précipitations sur l'ensemble du bassin amazonien. Entre Andes et plaine amazonienne Six millions plaines, le climat varie beaucoup d'une région à l'autre. A partir de leur analyse, les chercheurs ont mis dans des Depuis les andes, où il trouve sa source, jusqu'à son embouchure dans l'atlantique, l

  7. CX-006500: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Determination CX-006500: Categorical Exclusion Determination Magellan Des Moines Biodiesel Terminal Project CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09062011 Location(s): Des Moines, Iowa...

  8. Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

  9. CALCUL QUANTIQUE DE L'ANISOTROPIE DIAMAGNTIQUE DES MOLCULES ORGANIQUES III. HYDROCARBURES AROMATIQUES COMPLEXES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    15. CALCUL QUANTIQUE DE L'ANISOTROPIE DIAMAGNTIQUE DES MOLCULES ORGANIQUES III. HYDROCARBURES orbitales molculaires est tendue au cas des hydrocarbures conjugus contenant au moins quatre noyaux

  10. Biodiesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    publication 442-880 There are broad and increasing interests across the nation in using domestic, renewable bioenergy. Virginia farmers and transportation fleets use considerable amounts of diesel fuel in their operations. Biodiesel is an excellent alternative fuel for the diesel engines. Biodiesel can be produced from crops commonly grown in Virginia, such as soybean and canola, and has almost the same performance as petrodiesel. The purpose of this publication is to introduce the basics of biodiesel fuel and address some myths and answer some questions about biodiesel fuel before farmers and fleet owners use this type of fuel. ASTM standard for biodiesel (ASTM D6751) Biodiesel fuel, hereafter referred to as simply biodiesel,

  11. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  12. Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume,234 0% 0% #12;Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel;Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume (liters

  13. Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing Piece of the Biodiesel Puzzle Project Overview: The Missing Piece of the Biodiesel Puzzle · Began

  14. Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  15. Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2 nd Generation Biodiesel Steve Howell Technical Director National Biodiesel Board Detroit, Michigan August 15, 2007 Today's Topics Biodiesel...

  16. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF I!NI!RGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NFPA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Iowa Office of Energy STATE: IA Independence) PROJECf TITLE: Magellan Des Moines Biodiesel Terminal Project Page 10f3 Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement...

  17. Biodiesel Buccaneers Brodie Burke Sara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel Buccaneers Brodie Burke Sara #12;Questions of the hour Can we make biodiesel at a cheaper cost than buying biodiesel/petroleum diesel at the pump in Olympia? How does methanol compare to ethanol and does it affect the cost and efficiency of biodiesel? http://www.mpgmagazine.com/biodiesel

  18. Biodiesel Safety and Best Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Biodiesel Safety and Best Management Practices for Small-Scale Noncommercial Use and Production you produce biodiesel: · Chemical-resistantgloves(butylrubberisbestfor methanol and lye........................................................................... 1 FuelOptionsfromBiomassOilFeedstocks ......................... 1 UsingBiodiesel

  19. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  20. Biodiesel Research Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Fuels Technology Subprogram U.S. Biodiesel Feedstock Supply Analysis * 1.7 billion annual gallon existing resource * Additional...

  1. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    prospecting for microbial biodiesel production AthanasiosAC02-06NA25396. Abstract Biodiesel is defined as fatty acidfor the competitive production of biodiesel. 1. Introduction

  2. Upcoming Events Upcoming Biodiesel Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Search Upcoming Events Upcoming Biodiesel Events Sustainable Biodiesel Workshop Ocean State Clean Consortium Soy Biodiesel Workshop Lake Michigan Clean Cities September 15, 2010 Purdue Technology Center.eng.iastate.edu/ Biodiesel Congress F.O. Lichts September 22-24, 2010 Mercure Grant Hotel Sao Paulo, Brazil www.agra

  3. Langues amrindiennes : localisation des familles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bolivie Pérou Colombie Venezuela Brésil Suriname Guyana Guyane française caribe tupi-guarani arawak océan démographique des populations qui les parlent. ? titre d'exemple, la moyenne est de moins de mille locuteurs

  4. Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

  5. Biodiesel R&D at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Alleman, T.; Barnitt, R.; Clark, W.; Hayes, B.; Ireland, J.; Proc, K.; Ratcliff, M.; Thornton, M.; Whitacre, S.; Williams, A.

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Discusses NREL's biodiesel research priorities and some current research results, including those concerning biodiesel quality and stability.

  6. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to ???¢????????grow???¢??????? this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  7. 2004 Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It is intended to fleets and individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel.

  8. Biodiesel from microalgae beats Yusuf Chisti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol Yusuf Chisti School of Engineering, Massey University- derived transport fuels, which contribute to global warming and are of limited availability. Biodiesel, biodiesel and bioethanol produced from agricul- tural crops using existing methods cannot sustainably

  9. Recherches rcentes sur la radioactivit du thorium Extraits des mmoires de 0. Angelucci, G.-A. Blanc,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    173 Recherches rcentes sur la radioactivit du thorium Extraits des mmoires de 0. Angelucci, G publication des mmoires, des progrs accomplis dans l'tude de la radioactivit du thorium. L t tablis avec une grande vraiselnblance. La famille du thorium est moins com- pltement connuc. Le

  10. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  11. Targeted Energy Efficiency Expert Evaluation Report: Neal Smith Federal Building, Des Moines, IA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Goddard, James K.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the energy efficiency measures identified and implemented, and an analysis of the energy savings realized using low-cost/no-cost control system measures identified.

  12. SEP Success Story: A Touch of Green for Des Moines' Sherman Hill |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDER 2913 |Department of Energy A Touch of

  13. A Touch of Green for Des Moines' Sherman Hill | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of Energy ThisThisthe National EnergyLook atThis

  14. After 105 Years, Historic City Hall in West Des Moines, Iowa Goes Green |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building America Top Innovation | Department

  15. Des Moines Area Community College | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITIONPortalToDepth Profile ofDeputy SecretaryScientific and

  16. DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends Aaron Williams, Bob McCormick, Bob Hayes, John Ireland National Renewable Energy Laboratory Howard L. Fang Cummins, Inc. Diesel Engine...

  17. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 8/18/2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Biodiesel Contents Introduction to Biodiesel......................................................................................................................................................2 Biodiesel Availability in North Carolina

  18. E85 and Biodiesel Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation outlines industry trends and statistics revolving around the use and production of ethanol and biodiesel.

  19. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40Monthly Biodiesel

  20. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40Monthly BiodieselU.S.

  1. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40Monthly BiodieselU.S.U.S.

  2. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40MonthlyBiodiesel producers

  3. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40MonthlyBiodiesel

  4. Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Waynick, J. A.; Westbrook, S. R.; Porter, S.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an interim report for a study of biodiesel oxidative stability. It describes characterization and accelerated stability test results for 19 B100 samples and six diesel fuels.

  5. Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison 1 Biodiesel: Cost and reactant comparison Burke Anderson-2008 Abstract: Alternative fuel resources such as biodiesel are important to combat fossil fuel use reduction. Biodiesel is made through a process of transesterification that can be preformed in a variety

  6. Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesOutlook and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesPresident, Emerging Markets Online http://www.emerginghttp://www.emerging--markets.commarkets.com Author, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market SurveyAuthor, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market Survey Columnist

  7. Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    blended biodiesel does not qualify. The biodiesel tax credit is applied against the corporation income tax imposed under KRS 141.040 and/or the limited liability entity tax (LLET) imposed under KRS...

  8. EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDING ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Jing

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising fuel costs and energy demands, combined with growing concern over health related and environmental concerns, have led to increased interest in the use of biodiesel. Biodiesel can be utilized as a direct replacement for conventional petroleum...

  9. Characterization of Biodiesel Oxidation and Oxidation Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Features a literature review of 130 technical references pertaining to fatty oil and fatty ester stability chemistry in biodiesel fuels.

  10. Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report Submitted to Jon Mikkelsen April 11, 2005 Darren at UBC has begun producing biodiesel fuel from waste cooking oils acquired from campus kitchens. Using biodiesel in a four-cylinder, 30 hp Kubota engine (V1305). This engine was chosen because it is used

  11. World Biodiesel Markets The Outlook to 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Biodiesel Markets The Outlook to 2010 A special study from F.O. Licht and Agra CEAS This important new study provides a detailed analysis of the global biodiesel market and the outlook for growth, including the regulatory and trade framework, feedstock supply and price developments, biodiesel production

  12. TESC Farmhouse Biodiesel Project Processor Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 TESC Farmhouse Biodiesel Project Processor Manual #12;2 Thank you (in no particular order) to: David Rack, Sam Stout, and Kolby Bray-Hoagland for starting the Evergreen Biodiesel Project; our faculty Sara Keehfuss, Burke Anderson, Brodie Pettit (the Biodiesel Buccaneers) and Andrew York

  13. A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

  14. Biodiesel Triangulo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocarBiodieselBiodiesel Triangulo

  15. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced...

  16. Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates...

  17. Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance Effect of Jatropha based Biodiesel, on Engine Hardware Reliability, Emission and Performance...

  18. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and...

  19. Profitable Biodiesel Potential from Increased Agricultural Yields Country Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Profitable Biodiesel Potential from Increased Agricultural Yields Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume (liters) Total Export Profits ($) HDI Rank GDP/ cap Corrupt Rank FDI

  20. Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Comprehensive Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel in California Overview of a...

  1. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Presentation from the U.S. DOE...

  2. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructu...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure Fractal dimensions of particle...

  3. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel This study presents full quantification of...

  4. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

  5. Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel April 1, 2010 - 6:48pm Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  6. Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies...

  7. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  8. Survey of the Quality and Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends in the United States in 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alleman, T. L.; Ratcliffe, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports results gathered in 2004 from quality and stability surveys in the United States of biodiesel (B100) and 20% biodiesel (B20) in petroleum diesel.

  9. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Discusses reasons and physical significance of cool-flame behavior of biodiesel on improving low temperature diesel combustion deer11jacobs.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Todd J. Toops and Bruce G. Bunting Oak Ridge National Laboratory D. William Brookshear and Ke Nguyen University of Tennessee - Knoxville DEER...

  11. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution Motivation * Modern diesel engines utilize...

  12. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of product quality issues that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and engines. Each test vessel did experience a microbial growth bloom that produced a build up of material in the fuel purifiers similar to material witnessed in the 2004 fuel test. A biocide was added with each fuel shipment and the problem subsided. In January of 2009, the WSF successfully completed an eleven month biodiesel fuel test using approximately 1,395,000 gallons of biodiesel blended fuels. The project demonstrated that biodiesel can be used successfully in marine vessels and that current ASTM specifications are satisfactory for marine vessels. Microbial growth in biodiesel diesel interface should be monitored. An inspection of the engines showed no signs of being negatively impacted by the test.

  13. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the disadvantages of homogeneous transesterification, such as the presence of salts in the glycer

  14. Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korman, Tyler P; Sahachartsiri, Bobby; Charbonneau, David M; Huang, Grace L; Beauregard, Marc; Bowie, James U

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J, Campelo JM, Romero AA: Biodiesel as feasible petrol fueltowards ever greener biodiesel production. Biotechnol Adv 3.T, Bielecki S: Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis - key factors

  15. Biodiesel Production and its Emissions and Performance: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambarish Datta; Bijan Kumar M

    AbstractThis paper presents a brief review on the current status of biodiesel production and its performance and emission characteristics as compression ignition engine fuel. This study is based on the reports on biodiesel fuel published in the current literature by different researchers. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, waste frying oil, animal tallow and also from algae by a chemical process called transesterification. Biodiesel is also called methyl or ethyl ester of the corresponding feedstocks from which it has been produced. Biodiesel is completely miscible with diesel oil, thus allowing the use of blends of petro-diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. Presently, biodiesel is blended with mineral diesel and used as fuel. Biodiesel fueled CI engines perform more or less in the same way as that fueled with the mineral fuel. Exhaust emissions are significantly improved due the use of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel and mineral diesel.

  16. Biodiesel 2014: FAME and Misfortune?

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarketWGasBiodiesel

  17. Taua Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co08.0InformationBP Solar IndiaTaua Biodiesel

  18. AZ Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwiki HomeASN Power Projects Ltd JumpAZ Biodiesel

  19. Biodiesel Garware | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocar JumpBiodiesel

  20. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  1. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  2. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence...

  3. Biodiesel ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ASTM Update and Future Technical Needs Steve Howell Technical Director National Biodiesel Board ASTM Current Status ASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 for blending up to...

  4. Plusieurs centaines de millions de personnes de l'Asie mridionale dpendent des eaux douces stockes dans les glaciers de l`Himalaya.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loewith, Robbie

    stockes dans les glaciers de l`Himalaya. Etablir scienti quement comment ceux-ci vont se comporter face au (UNIZH) viennent de dmontrer que la rduction des glaciers de l'Himalaya se fait moins rapidement que changements clima- tiques (GIEC), les glaciers de l'Himalaya constituent plus que jamais un sujet d

  5. Physical properties of bio-diesel & Implications for use of bio-diesel in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Ra, Youngchul [ORNL; Griffin, Jelani K [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both regular diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study. Future studies of diesel combustion sensitivity to both physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are suggested.

  6. BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2008 - all rights reserved 1 (tm) BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring August 6th, 2008 Copyright SP3H 2007 -- all rights reserved 2 Biofuel...

  7. Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    accelerated test method to expose diesel catalysts - 8 DOCs, 8 DPFs and 4 SCRs * Biodiesel ash did not adversely impact the back pressure of a DPF * Biodiesel ash caused...

  8. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. biodiesel vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  9. Impact of Biodiesel on Fuel System Component Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, B.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the effects of biodiesel blends on fuel system components and the physical characteristics of elastomer materials.

  10. Beyond Biodiesel Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaye, Jason P.

    20 Beyond Biodiesel ­ Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) The green tree has many branches in the development and promotion of biodiesel for nearly two decades. Technologies based on the use of hydrogen in a low-percentage mixture with petroleum fuel. Hence the development of biodiesel. Paul Trella, New

  11. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  12. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su University INTRODUCTION Energy consumption continues to skyrocket worldwide. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel as potential feedstock in solid oxide fuel cells. Petroleum based fuels become scarcer daily, and biodiesel

  13. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MECH 456 Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study Submitted to: Dr 456 Biodiesel Engine Compatibility Study i Executive Summary The objectives of this project were to show the effects of varying U.B.C. biodiesel content in fuel on engine performance, to observe

  14. www.postersession.com Performance Analysis of Cottonseed Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    printed by www.postersession.com Performance Analysis of Cottonseed Biodiesel Sherwin Davoud1. Making biodiesel from crude cottonseed oil is difficult because transesterification doesn't take place Administration. (2007). Federal and State Ethanol and Biodiesel Requirements. Retrieved from http

  15. Optimal biodiesel production using bioethanol: Towards process integration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimal biodiesel production using bioethanol: Towards process integration. Kristen Severson Ave. Pittsburgh PA 15213 Abstract. In this paper we optimize the production of biodiesel to recover the ethanol, separate the polar and non polar phases and purify the glycerol and biodiesel

  16. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources

  17. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel Olivier Herbineta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate Olivier Herbineta , William of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from

  18. Reachability Analysis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems: A Biodiesel Production System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Reachability Analysis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems: A Biodiesel Production System Derek Riley problem because it provides a formal framework to analyze complex systems. Biodiesel production is a realistic biochemical process that can be modeled and analyzed using SHS methods. Analysis of a biodiesel

  19. Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450 Phase I Final Report Prepared by Emerald Ranches #12;Biosolids for Biodiesel USDA SBIR 2003-000450 Phase I Final Report Background The goal of this Phase I for the production of biodiesel fuel. It is desirable to use biosolids as a fertilizer for canola for two reasons

  20. Argentinean soy based biodiesel: an introduction to production and impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Argentinean soy based biodiesel: an introduction to production and impacts Julia Tomei and Paul biodiesel: an introduction to production and impacts Julia Tomeia * and Paul Upham b a Department(s) alone and not the Tyndall Centre. #12;Argentinean soy based biodiesel: an introduction to production

  1. GAS TURBINES AND BIODIESEL : A CLARIFICATION OF THE RELATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 GAS TURBINES AND BIODIESEL : A CLARIFICATION OF THE RELATIVE NOX INDICES OF FAME, GASOIL greenhouse gases emissions and the dependence on oil resources. Biodiesels are Fatty Acid Methyl Esters: rapeseed ("RME"), soybean ("SME"), sunflower, palm etc. A fraction of biodiesel has also an animal origin

  2. Optimization of Experimental Conditions for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayoola Ayodeji A; Hymore Fredrick K; E Mathew A; Udeh Ifeoma N

    Abstract-- This study is based on optimizing the experimental conditions of biodiesel production by base-catalyzed transesterification using waste cooking oil (WCO). In this study, the key parameters varied were methanol (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40%), sodium hydroxide (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0g), reaction time (40, 60, 90, 100 and 120 minutes) and reaction temperature (50, 52, 55, 58, and 60 o C). Maximum biodiesel yield of 86 % was obtained at optimum conditions of 30 % methanol concentration, 0.4g of NaOH concentration, 60 o C reaction temperature and 90 minutes of operation. Biodiesel produced meets American Standard of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards of biodiesel fuel: viscosity (4.0564 4.9824cSt), density (0.8790 0.8819g/cm 3), flash point (157 168 o C), pour point (0 to-3 o C) and calculated cetane index (7.45 8.26). Index Term-- Biodiesel, fossil fuel, methanol, transesterification, waste cooking oil.

  3. Department of Biological Engineering Fall 2012 Solar Innovations Inc. Biodiesel Fleet Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Biological Engineering Fall 2012 Solar Innovations Inc. Biodiesel Fleet work. The goal was to research and implement biodiesel into their fleet by finding the best biodiesel for the implementation of biodiesel into their fleet. This will include: · Prospective suppliers of biodiesel fuel

  4. Biodiesel Technologies Inc BTI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocarBiodiesel KyritzBiodiesel

  5. Dans l'espace Le problme en volume est moins simple qu'il n'en a l'air.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pansu, Pierre

    Dans l'espace Le problème en volume est moins simple qu'il n'en a l'air. Cela ressemble à une de savon maximise l'aire enserrée par la ficelle (en minimisant l'aire du complémentaire). A New

  6. Feasibility Analysis of Steam Reforming of Biodiesel by-product Glycerol to Make Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Manoj

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude glycerol is the major byproduct from biodiesel industry. In general, for every 100 pounds of biodiesel produced, approximately 10 pounds of crude glycerol are produced as a by-product. As the biodiesel industry rapidly expands in the U...

  7. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

  8. A numerical investigation into the anomalous slight NOx increase when burning biodiesel; A new (old) theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Chen, J.Y.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. et al, 2005. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Publishing,x Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory GeorgeIncrease When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. Fuel

  9. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  10. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office?¢????s (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost?¢???effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally?¢???friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  11. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Temperature and higher NO 2 :NOx have negligible impact on overall NOx Conversion Biodiesel Near-term Impacts Literature Review "Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Urea...

  12. Production and Application of Biodiesel A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    AbstractThe true fact that everyone has to accept for search of alternative fuels apart from petroleum products is biodiesel for many reasons, mainly increasing demand and scarcity of petroleum products and to preserve the wealth of nature to be used for coming generations. The reason of non implementation of biodiesel in day-to-day life is because of few limitations. Many scientists are in progress for a new dimension of research in biodiesel plantation, cultivation and its usage in engines. This paper highlights the importance of biodiesel production techniques such as supercritical methanolysis, ultrasonication method and microwave technique by which maximum biodiesel can be produced. The new approach of using nano particle in biodiesel shows very good results in reducing the level of pollutant gases in the engine exhaust and increased performance without any engine modification is also discussed briefly in this case study. KeywordsHydrodeoxygeneration, nano particle, ultrasonication, microwave technique I.

  13. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources What Is Biodiesel?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawn P. Conley; Department Of Agronomy

    The use of vegetable oil as a fuel source in diesel engines is as old as the diesel engine itself. However, the demand to develop and utilize plant oils and animal fats as biodiesel fuels has been limited until recently. The technical definition of biodiesel is: The mono alkyl esters of long fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock such as vegetable oils or animal fats, for use in compression ignition (diesel) engines (National Biodiesel Board, 1996). In simple terms, biodiesel is a renewable fuel manufactured from methanol and vegetable oil, animal fats, and recycled cooking fats (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006). The term biodiesel itself is often misrepresented and misused. Biodiesel only refers to 100 % pure fuel (B100) that meets the definition above and specific standards given

  14. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Quality Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels' Quality For biofuels to succeed in the marketplace, they must be easy to use with a minimum of problems....

  16. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) with Colleen Alexander, Teresa Alleman, Robb Barnitt, Wendy Clark, John Ireland, Keith...

  17. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Aaron Williams, Jonathan Burton, Xin He and Robert L. McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 5,...

  18. Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels and Lubricants Technologies PI: Bob McCormick Presenter: Aaron Williams May...

  19. Biodiesel Utilization: Update on Recent Analytical Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Luecke, J.; Thornton, M.; McAlpin, C.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand and increase the use of biodiesel, analytical methods need to be shared and compared to ensure that accurate data are gathered on this complex fuel.

  20. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide: Fourth Edition (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intended for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and its blends, this guide contains procedures for handling and using these fuels.

  1. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  2. Fast gas chromatographic separation of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-speed gas chromatographic method has been developed to determine the FAME distribution of B100 biodiesel. The capillary column used in this work has dimensions of 20 m x 0.100 mm and is coated with a polyethylene glycol film. Analysis times are typically on the order of 4-5 min depending upon the composition of the B100. The application of this method to a variety of vegetable and animal derived B100 is demonstrated. Quantitative results obtained with this method were in close agreement with those obtained by a more conventional approach on a 100 m column. The method, coupled with solid-phase extraction, was also found suitable to determine the B100 content of biodiesel-diesel blends.

  3. Reachability Analysis of a Biodiesel Production System Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Reachability Analysis of a Biodiesel Production System Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems Derek Riley defines the creation of biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol. Modeling and analyzing the biodiesel. In this paper we model a biodiesel production system as a stochastic hybrid system, and we present

  4. An Intensified Reaction/Product Recovery Process for the Continuous Production of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Biodiesel Cooperative Research into Biobased Fuels between ORNL and Nu-Energie Biodiesel: This project years. Increased use of domestic biofuels will provide a clean and secure source of energy. Biodiesel. Project Background: Conventional reaction and separations used in biodiesel production are done in time

  5. Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials Matt Biodiesel Potential · Table S.2: Variables Used in Calculating Biodiesel Volumes and Prices · Figure S.3: U) · Table S.5: Well-Managed Vegetable Oil Yields · Table S.6: A Complete List of Absolute Biodiesel

  6. Biodiesel Sim: Crowdsourcing Simulations for Complex Model Analysis Derek Riley, Xiaowei Zhang, Xenofon Koutsoukos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Biodiesel Sim: Crowdsourcing Simulations for Complex Model Analysis Derek Riley, Xiaowei Zhang Computation, Biodiesel Abstract Biodiesel is an alternative fuel source that can be easily made by novices of the proces- sor. A biodiesel processor is a complex system that can be modeled and simulated using formal

  7. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production From Soybean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production From Soybean Tad W. Patzek Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 Email: patzek that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy

  8. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  9. Commentary Biodiesel Exhaust: The Need for Health Effects Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimberly J. Swanson; Michael C. Madden; Andrew J. Ghio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BACKGROUND: Biodiesel is a diesel fuel alternative that has shown potential of becoming a commercially accepted part of the United States energy infrastructure. In November 2004, the signing of the Jobs Creation Bill HR 4520 marked an important turning point for the future production of biodiesel in the United States because it offers a federal excise tax credit. By the end of 2005, industry production was 75 million gallons, a 300 % increase in 1 year. Current industry capacity, however, stands at just over 300 million gallons/year, and current expansion and new plant construction could double the industrys capacity within a few years. Biodiesel exhaust emission has been extensively characterized under field and laboratory conditions, but there have been limited cytotoxicity and mutagenicity studies on the effects of biodiesel exhaust in biologic systems. OBJECTIVES: We reviewed pertinent medical literature and addressed recommendations on testing specific research needs in the field of biodiesel toxicity. DISCUSSION: Employment of biodiesel fuel is favorably viewed, and there are suggestions that its exhaust emissions are less likely to present any risk to human health relative to petroleum diesel emissions. CONCLUSION: The speculative nature of a reduction in health effects based on chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust needs to be followed up with investigations in biologic systems. KEY WORDS: air pollution, biodiesel, diesel exhaust, diesel fuels, lung diseases, vehicle emissions. Environ Health Perspect 115:496499 (2007). doi:10.1289/ehp.9631 available via

  10. analytical methods biodiesel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods biodiesel First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Biodiesel analytical development and...

  11. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may lead to job creation in rural areas of the country and help stimulate the agricultural economy. Moreover, production of soybean with enhanced oil quality for biodiesel may increase the attractiveness of this renewable, environmentally friendly fuel.

  12. Brownfield Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainable and InnovativeBrookmont, Maryland:BroomeSouthBrownfield Biodiesel

  13. EOP Biodiesel AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjinDynetek42EOP Biodiesel AG Jump to:

  14. List of Biodiesel Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouse SolarI JumpList ofBiodiesel

  15. San Francisco Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to:WY)Project Jump to:SamsungSanBiodiesel

  16. Silicon Valley Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPowerSilcio SA Jump to:Biodiesel Inc Jump to:

  17. Pacific Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorthOlympiaAnalysis) Jump to:PUD No 1PacifiCorpBiodiesel

  18. East Fork Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South,Earlsboro,Canton, Ohio:InformationFork Biodiesel

  19. Biodiesel Coalition of Texas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouth Carolina:EnergyPark,BioJet CorporationBiocastBiodiesel

  20. Biodiesel Filling Stations UK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocar JumpBiodiesel Filling

  1. Biodiesel Technologies Inc BT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocarBiodiesel Kyritz

  2. Biodiesel Technologies India Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocarBiodiesel

  3. Emerging Scope for Biodiesel for Energy Security and Environmental Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhwinder Singh; Dr. S K Mahla

    Abstract---The global fuel crisis in the recent times has generated awareness amongst many countries of their vulnerability to oil embargoes and shortages. Considerable attention has been focused on the development of alternative fuel sources. The Motor vehicle population has also increased tremendously over the last decade in India. Environmental degradation is another outcome of growth in motor vehicle population. One of the strategies adopted to curb deteriorating environmental quality is the use of alternative fuels like Ethanol and biodiesel. Bio-Diesel is being looked upon as a renewable source of energy, which can partially substitute the diesel fuel. Special interest is being shown in view of the potential of this fuel to provide energy security and environment protection. Biodiesel, alkyl ester of fatty acids derived from vegetable oils, is emerging as a technically feasible, economically competitive and environmentally sustainable alternative to diesel. The base catalyzed continuous transesterification of vegetable oils having low viscosity, low free fatty acids and low saturated oil- glycerides is currently the preferred process for biodiesel production. India, continue to have shortage of petroleum products including diesel. We cannot divert our edible oils for biodiesel production due to their continued shortage and are consciously developing biodiesel based on nonedible oils. The efforts being made to have the prospect of providing India a leadership position in renewable energy. However, massive efforts and active multi-agency participation are required for techno- commercial success of biodiesel in India.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Mustard Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajat Subhra Samanta; Mukunda Kumar Das

    The demand for petroleum is increasing with each passing day. This may be attributed to the limited resources of petroleum crude. Hence there is an urgent need of developing alternative energy sources to meet the ever increasing energy demand. Biofuels are currently being considered from multidimensional perspectives, i.e. depleting fossil fuels, resources, environmental health, energy security and agricultural economy. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel [1]. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is produced primarily from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste mustard oil. The vegetable oils which are rich in oxygen can be used as future alternate fuels for the operation of diesel engine [2]. Biodiesel is produced from wasted mustard oil through alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Physical properties like density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point and pour point were found out for biodiesel produced from waste mustard oil. The same characteristic study was also carried out for conventional diesel fuel and used as a baseline for comparison. The values obtained from waste mustard oil ethyl ester (biodiesel) is closely matched with the conventional diesel fuel and it can be used in diesel engine without any modification. Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines.

  5. Des villes sous influence. Gestion des risques et des catastrophes : des reprsentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Des villes sous influence. Gestion des risques et des catastrophes : des reprsentations l bnfiques (cendres basiques fertilisant les sols dans le cas de certaines ruptions, activits et

  6. Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in biodiesel has piqued with advent of stringent emissions regulations. Biodiesel is a viable substitute for petroleum diesel because biodiesel produces significantly lower particulate and soot emissions relative to petroleum diesel. Higher...

  7. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  8. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charpe, Trupti W. [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Rathod, Virendra K., E-mail: vk.rathod@ictmumbai.edu.in [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  9. Direction des Ressources Humaines Bureau des concours ITRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sart, Remi

    contractuels) et des personnels infirmiers - constitution des dossiers administratifs/financiers des agents et

  10. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Bob McCormick (PI) With Teresa Alleman, Wendy Clark, Lisa Fouts, John Ireland, Mike Lammert, Jon Luecke, Dan Pedersen, Ken Proc, Matt Ratcliff, Matt...

  11. Algal Harvesting for Biodiesel Production: Comparing Centrifugation and Electrocoagulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovalcik, Derek John

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrocoagulation was compared to centrifugation at pilot scale for harvesting Nannochloris oculata and Nannochloropsis salina for biodiesel production. The pilot scale testing is a proof of concept and no optimization was conducted. Testing used...

  12. Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructu...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure P-20 Ye, P 1 ; Sun, C-X 1 ; Lapuerta, M 2 ; Agudelo, J 3 ; Vander Wal, R 1 ; Boehman, AL 1 , Toops, TJ 4 ; Daw, CS 4...

  13. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, Lay L.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dwindling resources of fossil fuels coupled with the steady increase in energy consumption have spurred research interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternatives for fossil fuels. It can...

  14. Hydrogen and Syngas Production from Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvey, Luke

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and Syngas Production from Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol By Copyright 2011 Luke Grantham Silvey Submitted to the graduate degree program in the Chemical and Petroleum Program, School of Engineering and the Graduate Faculty...D ________________________________ Christopher Depcik , PhD Date Defended: December 15, 2011 ii The Thesis Committee for Luke Grantham Silvey certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: Hydrogen and Syngas Production from Biodiesel Derived Crude...

  15. Design and Analysis of Flexible Biodiesel Processes with Multiple Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokoo-Aikins, Grace Amarachukwu

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BIODIESEL PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE FEEDSTOCKS A Dissertation by GRACE AMARACHUKWU POKOO-AIKINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2010 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BIODIESEL PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE FEEDSTOCKS A Dissertation by GRACE AMARACHUKWU POKOO...

  16. Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

  17. 100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    00,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20) 100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20) Presentation given at DEER...

  18. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

  19. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  20. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies ftp01lee.pdf More...

  1. Investigating the Use of Ion Exchange Resins for Processing Biodiesel Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf 1973-

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion exchange resins, commonly used in water treatment, demonstrate promise for the production of biodiesel from biomass feedstocks. The goal of this presented PhD research is to investigate novel uses of ion exchange resins for processing biodiesel...

  2. Demonstration of the feasibility of milking lipids from algae for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coiner, Ryan Lee

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge to the development of industrial-scale biodiesel production from cultured algae is the identification of energy efficient and cost effective methods of harvesting/dewatering algal cells. Producing 1 gallon of biodiesel from algae...

  3. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using...

  4. Applications of Highly Cross Linked Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Resins in Biodiesel Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels are a promising solution to society's quest for sustainable energy. In the transportation sector, biodiesel is the leading alternative diesel fuel currently in use today. However, the current global and domestic production of biodiesel...

  5. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

  6. Pollutant Emissions from Biodiesels in Diesel Engine Tests and On-road Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Yue

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in biodiesel use is increasing due to concerns over the availability and environmental impact of petroleum fuels. In this study, we analyzed biodiesels prepared from seven different feedstocks: waste cooking oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil...

  7. Would You Consider Driving a Vehicle that Can Run on Biodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Would You Consider Driving a Vehicle that Can Run on Biodiesel? Would You Consider Driving a Vehicle that Can Run on Biodiesel? September 16, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday,...

  8. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and...

  9. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and...

  10. Investigating the Use of Ion Exchange Resins for Processing Biodiesel Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamal, Yousuf 1973-

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion exchange resins, commonly used in water treatment, demonstrate promise for the production of biodiesel from biomass feedstocks. The goal of this presented PhD research is to investigate novel uses of ion exchange resins for processing biodiesel...

  11. Biodiesel Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for biodiesel.

  12. Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods to Measure the Oxidation Stability of Neat Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, S. R.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to compare and evaluate several candidate test methods for evaluating oxidation stability of biodiesel.

  13. Matrix Optimization for the MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis of Trace Biodiesel Components (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpin, C. R.; Voorhees, K. J.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace biodiesel components that could reduce the fuel's operability in cold weather are analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

  14. Ris Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6.2 Risø Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been chemically (canola) oil with methanol. Biodiesel can be burned directly in diesel engines. Robert Diesel himself, but it was not until the oil crisis of the 1970s that biofuels attracted serious interest. Biodiesel is reported

  15. Mass Production of Biodiesel From Algae UROP Summer 2008 Project Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Mass Production of Biodiesel From Algae UROP Summer 2008 Project Proposal Steven A. Biorn Faculty at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus. The project involves the mass production of biodiesel and other to make biodiesel is well understood, this project offers an alternative to current methods by using

  16. Sustainable distributed biodiesel manufacturing under uncertainty: An interval-parameter-programming-based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinlun

    Sustainable distributed biodiesel manufacturing under uncertainty: An interval A sophisticated biodiesel manufacturing study demonstrated methodological efficacy. a r t i c l e i n f o Article Simulation Uncertainty a b s t r a c t Biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel, can be produced using

  17. Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels Mohammed of the oxidation of two blend surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, n-decane/n-hexadecane and n-alkanes and methyl esters. Keywords: Oxidation; Diesel; Biodiesel; Methyl esters; n-Decane; n-Hexadecane; Methyl

  18. Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being

  19. Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl oleate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for biodiesel components methyl stearate and methyl are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate renewable sources, can reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases. An important class of biodiesel fuels

  20. Sustainability Analysis of African Palm Biodiesel in Ecuador: An Environmental, Socio-cultural, and Artistic Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sustainability Analysis of African Palm Biodiesel in Ecuador: An Environmental, Socio Analysis of African Palm Biodiesel in Ecuador: An Environmental, Socio-cultural, and Artistic Perspective-based biodiesel, which is currently imported by the Unites States. An analysis of this specific interaction

  1. Application of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis to a Kinetic Model for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    Application of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis to a Kinetic Model for Enzymatic Biodiesel benefits of using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the kinetics of enzymatic biodiesel production, Monte-Carlo Simulations, Enzymatic Biodiesel 1. INTRODUCTION In order to determine the optimal

  2. Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine introduction Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is created by chemically reacting fatty acids and alcohol. Practically sodium hydroxide). Biodiesel is much more suitable for use as an engine fuel than straight vegetable oil

  3. Evaluating the Potential for Large-Scale Biodiesel Deployments in a Global Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Evaluating the Potential for Large-Scale Biodiesel Deployments in a Global Context by Matthew Johnston. All rights reserved. #12;#12;Evaluating the Potential for Large-Scale Biodiesel Deployments on the subject of biodiesel, but I can only hope she takes comfort knowing now much I appreciate everything she

  4. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar (BSFL) are consid- ered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel

  5. Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters transportation fuel dedicated to the diesel engine, biodiesel, with an emphasis on ethyl esters because of biodiesel and related components, the main gaps in the field are highlighted to facilitate the convergence

  6. Factors Affecting the Stability of Biodiesel Sold in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Ratcliff, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a survey of biodiesel quality and stability in the United States, 27 biodiesel (B100) samples were collected from blenders and distributor nationwide. For this sample set, 85% met all of the requirements of the industry standard for biodiesel, ASTM D6751.

  7. Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for soy and rapeseed biodiesel fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for soy and rapeseed biodiesel fuels C.K. Westbrooka chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for the five major components of soy biodiesel and rapeseed biodiesel fuels. These components, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, methyl

  8. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator] [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator] [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily fermented to create ethanol. In the United States almost all starch ethanol is mainly manufactured from corn grains. The technology for manufacturing corn ethanol can be considered mature as of the late 1980s. In 2005, 14.3 % of the U.S. corn harvest was processed to produce 1.48 x10{sup 10} liters of ethanol, energetically equivalent to 1.72 % of U.S. gasoline usage. Soybean oil is extracted from 1.5 % of the U.S. soybean harvest to produce 2.56 x 10{sup 8} liters of bio-diesel, which was 0.09 % of U.S. diesel usage. However, reaching maximum rates of bio-fuel supply from corn and soybeans is unlikely because these crops are presently major contributors to human food supplies through livestock feed and direct consumption. Moreover, there currently arguments on that the conversion of many types of many natural landscapes to grow corn for feedstock is likely to create substantial carbon emissions that will exacerbate globe warming. On the other hand, there is a large underutilized resource of cellulose biomass from trees, grasses, and nonedible parts of crops that could serve as a feedstock. One of the potentially significant new bio-fuels is so called "cellulosic ethanol", which is dependent on break-down by microbes or enzymes. Because of technological limitations (the wider variety of molecular structures in cellulose and hemicellulose requires a wider variety of microorganisms to break them down) and other cost hurdles (such as lower kinetics), cellulosic ethanol can currently remain in lab scales. Considering farm yields, commodity and fuel prices, farm energy and agrichemical inputs, production plant efficiencies, byproduct production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and other environmental effects, a life-cycle evaluation of competitive indicated that corn ethanol yields 25 % more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas soybean bio-diesel yields 93 % more. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12 % by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less ai

  9. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Rapidly Renewable Materials Soy and Bio-Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Soy and Bio-Diesel Navin Abeysundara Brian Lee Aramazd Gharapetian University of British RENEWABLE MATERIALS SOY AND BIO-DIESEL SUBMITTED TO Florence Luo By: Navin Abeysundara Brian Lee Aramazd based spray foam and bio-diesel furnaces. Soy based spray foam and biodiesel furnaces were considered

  10. Design of a Small-Scale Biodiesel Production System Jeffrey Anderson, Jessica Caceres, Ali Khazaei, Jedidiah Shirey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design of a Small-Scale Biodiesel Production System Jeffrey Anderson, Jessica Caceres, Ali Khazaei acreage and biodiesel output. Monte Carlo Simulation Objective: 1) Biodiesel Production Simulation: Determines biodiesel yield and Net Energy Ration of each crop alternative 1) Business Simulation: Determines

  11. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  12. Biodiesel Production from Linseed Oil and Performance Study of a Diesel Engine 40 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM LINSEED OIL AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF A DIESEL ENGINE WITH DIESEL BIO-DIESEL FUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Md. Nurun Nabi; S. M. Najmul Hoque

    Abstract: The use of biodiesel is rapidly expanding around the world, making it imperative to fully understand the impacts of biodiesel on the diesel engine combustion process and pollutant formation. Biodiesel is known as the mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oils or animal fats, for use in compression ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel was made by transesterification from linseed oil. In aspect of Bangladesh linseed can play an important role in the production of alternative diesel fuel. The climatic and soil condition of our country is convenient for the production of linseed (Linum Usitatissimum) crop. In the first phase of this work optimization of different parameters for biodiesel production were investigated. In the second phase the performance study of a diesel engine with diesel biodiesel blends were carried out. The results showed that with the variation of catalyst, methanol and reaction time; variation of biodiesel production was realized. About 88 % biodiesel production was experienced with 20 % methanol, 0.5% NaOH catalyst and at 550C. The results also showed that when compared with neat diesel fuel, biodiesel gives almost similar thermal efficiency, lower carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) while slightly higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission was experienced.

  13. Effects of Canola Biodiesel on a DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murari Mohon Roy; Majed Alawi; Wilson Wang

    Abstract- A direct injection (DI) diesel engine is tested with different biodiesel-diesel blends, such as B0 (neat diesel), B5 (i.e., 5 vol. % biodiesel and 95 vol. % diesel), B10 (10 vol. % biodiesel), B20 (20 vol. % biodiesel), B50 (50 vol. % biodiesel), and B100 (neat biodiesel) for performance and emissions under different load conditions. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and fuel conversion efficiency (? f). The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and others are measured. Biodiesel shows a significant CO and HC reduction compared to diesel under low load operation; under high load operation, however, CO with biodiesel is increased a little and HC emissions are very similar to that with diesel. On the other hand, under low load operation, NOx emission with biodiesel is significantly increased than diesel; however, under high load operation, there is almost no change in NOx emissions with biodiesel and diesel. Index Term- Canola biodiesel, diesel engine, engine performance, exhaust emissions.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory considers the use of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlin, M. K. (Marla K.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new EPA-approved alternative fuel, called biodiesel, may soon be used at Los Alamos National Laboratory in everything from diesel trucks to laboratory equipment. Biodiesel transforms vegetable oils into a renewable, cleaner energy source that can be used in any machinery that uses diesel fuel. For the past couple years, the Laboratory has been exploring the possibility of switching over to soybean-based biodiesel. This change could lead to many health and environmental benefits, as well as help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable diesel fuel substitute made from soybean and other vegetable oil crops, as well as from recycled cooking oils. A chemical process breaks down the vegetable oil into a usable form. Vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 carbons and ordinary diesel has about 12 or 13 carbons. The process breaks the carbon chains of the vegetable oil and separates out the glycerin (a fatty substance used in creams and soaps). The co-product of glycerin can be used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, as well as many other markets. Once the chains are shortened and the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining liquid is similar to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be burned in pure form or in a blend of any proportion with petroleum diesel. To be considered an alternative fuel source by the EPA, the blend must be at least 20 percent biodiesel (B20). According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), biodiesel is America's fastest growing alternative fuel.

  15. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  16. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocar JumpBiodieselBiodiesel

  17. Utilisation des dfibrillateurs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Information faite par le service medical et le service des pompiers sur l'utilisation des defibrillateurs.

  18. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjun B. Chhetri; Martin S. Tango; Suzanne M. Budge; K. Chris Watts

    Abstract: Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1 % free FA, 84.43 % triglycerides, 4.88 % sterol and 1.59 % others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14 % free FA, approximately 5 % higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85 % unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80 % unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97 % conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  19. Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Aridity and Algae: Biodiesel Production in Arizona Jenna Bloxom Advisor: Dr. Scott Whiteford Center, the world is looking to alternative fuels to eradicate its reliance upon petroleum. While biofuels may represent a fundamental component in the panacea to this global dilemma, their production and application

  20. Engineering for sustainable development for bio-diesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, Divya

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    on their performance. The SD indicator priority score and each individual alternatives performance score together are used to determine the most sustainable alternative. The proposed methodology for ESD is applied for bio-diesel production in this thesis. The results...

  1. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production Peer M. Schenk fuels make up a much larger share of the global energy demand (66%). Biofuels are therefore rapidly for transport fuels. Increasing biofuel production on arable land could have severe consequences for global food

  2. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  3. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  4. algal biodiesel utilization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    algal biodiesel utilization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original article...

  5. Process Intensification in Base-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL] [ORNL; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL] [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL] [ORNL; Jennings, Hal L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is considered a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. Recent interest has resulted in biodiesel manufacture becoming more widely undertaken by commercial enterprises that are interested in minimizing the cost of feedstock materials and waste production, as well as maximizing the efficiency of production. Various means to accelerate batch processing have been investigated. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has experience in developing process intensification methods for nuclear separations, and this paper will discuss how technologies developed for very different applications have been modified for continuous reaction/separation of biodiesel. In collaboration with an industrial partner, this work addresses the aspect of base-catalyzed biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. In particular, we have found that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the transesterification process and have developed a continuous two-phase reactor for online production of a methyl ester and glycerol. Enhancing the mass transfer has additional benefits such as being able to use an alcohol-to-oil phase ratio closer to stoichiometric than in conventional processing, hence minimizing the amount of solvent that has to be recycled and reducing post-processing clean up costs. Various technical issues associated with the application of process intensification technology will be discussed, including scale-up from the laboratory to a pilot-scale undertaking.

  6. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

  7. argentine biodiesel exports: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    argentine biodiesel exports First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Considerations for...

  8. Coalition Cooperation Defines Roadmap for E85 and Biodiesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Clean Cities success story relates how Colorado's Colorado Biofuels Coalition was formed and provides guidance on forming other such coalitions. This Colorado's coalition sucessfully increase the number of fueling stations providing biofuels and has goals to the number even more. Plans also include assisting with financing infrastructure, making alternative fuels available to more fleets, and educating about E85 and biodiesel use.

  9. Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

  10. Analysis of Smoke of Diesel Engine by Using Biodiesel as Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayatri Kushwah; Methanol

    Abstract- This study represents the analysis of smoke of biodiesel by using smoke tester. In this article biodiesel is taken as a fuel instead of diesel and quantity of emitted pollutants HC and CO is evaluated by taking different quantity of biodiesel at different load. This work shows how use of biodiesel will affect the emission of pollutants. Diesel Engine is compression ignition engine and use diesel as fuel, in this engine alternative fuel can be used. One alternate fuel is biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used in pure form or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines and also can be used in Vehicle, Railway, and Aircraft as heating oil.

  11. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NOx Adsorber SCR System Summary and Conclusions Overview Evaluate the impact of Biodiesel fuel blends on the performance of advanced emission control systems for light-duty...

  12. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Test Results Summary and Conclusions Project Goals Evaluate the impact of Biodiesel fuel blends on the performance of advanced emission control systems for light-duty...

  13. Analysis Of Exhaust Emission Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suvendu Mohanty; Dr. Om Prakash; Reasearch Scholar

    Abstract-The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of various blends of an environmental friendly alternative fuel such as biodiesel on the performance of diesel engine. In the Present investigation experimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder internal combustion engine fuelled with biodiesel blend at the different load. In this experiment the biodiesel which is use as a waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel.To investigation of the emission characteristics of the engine loads, which is supplied from the alternator. The experiment was carried out different load i.e. (NO LOAD, 100W 200W, 500W, 1000W, 1500W, 2000W, 2500W & 3000Watt) at engine speed 1500 rpm/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fuel with diesel and seven different blends of diesel. Biodiesel (B5, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80, B100) made from waste cooking oil and the results were analyzed.The emission of were measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon carbon(HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and oxygen ().The experimental results will be compared with biodiesel blends and diesel. The biodiesel results of (WCO) in lower emission of hydro carbon (HC) and (CO) and increase emission of (NO2). This study showed that the results of exhaust emission of biodiesel blends were lower than the diesel fuel. Keyword- Biodiesel (WCO), diesel engine, gas analyzer, Exhaust emission. I.

  14. Effect of SoyEffect of Soy--Based B20 Biodiesel on Fuel UseBased B20 Biodiesel on Fuel Use and Emissions of 15 Construction Vehiclesand Emissions of 15 Construction Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Effect of SoyEffect of Soy--Based B20 Biodiesel on Fuel UseBased B20 Biodiesel on Fuel Use Tests with B20 Biodiesel ­ Based on Regular NCDOT Duty Schedule Overview of Study Design for Field for Other Pollutants B20 Biodiesel Tier 0Tier 0 VehicleVehicle Tier 1Tier 1 Tier 2Tier 2 Tier 3Tier 3 0 40

  15. Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominate. Montana State University researchers have developed a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Technology Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominate. Montana State University researchers have plants used for biodiesel. Seed oil content increases are induced by puroindoline genes which promote

  16. Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominates. Montana State University and USDA researchers have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Technology Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of oilseed crops. In Europe, canola is the major biodiesel crop while in the U.S. soybeans dominates. Montana State University and USDA researchers to work for a broad range of oilseed plants including biodiesel and cereal crops. Increased oil

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  18. Biodiesel Safety and Best Management Practices for Small-Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noncommercial Use

    The following gear should be on hand each time you produce biodiesel: Chemical-resistant gloves (butyl rubber is best for methanol and lye) Chemistry goggles (indirect vented) and face shield Dust mask or cartridge respirator Eyewash bottle with saline solution Small spray bottle with vinegar for neutralizing lye spills Access to running water Telephone in case of emergency and emergency telephone numbers Fire extinguishers (ABC or CO) 2

  19. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributionsreduction systemParticulate Filters |Biodiesel

  20. Biodiesel as an Alternative Energy Resource in Southwest Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajide O. O

    The Nigerian state faces unique issues that may provide an opportunity for rural economic growth. One of such is that major urban areas in the southwest of the country are beginning to have population increase and hence air quality problems that will require actions to reduce sources of pollution. One major pollution source is from exhaust emissions from cars and trucks. The use of alternative fuel sources such as biodiesel can make a significant reduction in certain exhaust emissions thus reducing pollution and improving air quality. The opportunity for economic growth in a single product economy like ours could lie in the processing of soybean oil and other suitable feedstocks produced within the country into biodiesel. The new fuel can be used by vehicles traversing the country thus reduce air pollution and providing another market for agricultural feedstocks while creating a value added market for animal fats and spent oils from industrial facilities. The benefits of biodiesel go far beyond the clean burning nature of the product. Bio diesel is a renewable resource helping to reduce the dependence of the economy on limited resources and imports, create a market for farmers and reduce the amount of waste oil, fat and grease being dumped into landfills and sewers.

  1. PERFORMANCE OF THE CAPSTONE C30 MICROTURBINE ON BIODIESEL BENDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will describe the tests of biodiesel blends as a fuel in a Capstone oil fired microturbine (C30) with a nominal rating of 30 kW. The blends, in ASTM No. 2 heating oil, ranged from 0% to 100% biodiesel. No changes were made to the microturbine system for operation on the blends. Apart from the data that the control computer acquires on various turbine parameters, measurements were made in the hot gas exhaust from the turbine. The results from this performance testing and from the atomization tests reported previously provide some insight into the use of biodiesel blends in microturbines of this type. The routine use of such blends would need more tests to establish that the life of the critical components of the microturbine are not diminished from what they are on the baseline diesel or heating fuel. Of course, the extension to 'widespread' use of such blends in generating systems based on the microturbine is also determined by economic and other considerations.

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Development of sulfonated carbon catalysts for integrated biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon catalysts for integrated biodiesel production Jidon Adrian Bin Janaun University of British of sulfonated carbon catalysts for integrated biodiesel production by Jidon Adrian Bin Janaun M.Sc. in Chemical security, climate change, and environmental protection attract the use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Investigation of Solid Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel Elliot James Nash University of British Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel By Elliot James Nash Thesis CHBE 493/494 4 April 2013 The Faculty;ii Abstract The adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is gaining momentum despite its large

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Different Alkaline Catalysts on Biodiesel Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cynthia Ofori-boateng; Ebenezer M. Kwofie; Moses Y. Mensah

    Abstract: A major challenge in the biodiesel industry is the comparatively high cost of raw materials for production. A cost build-up analysis of biodiesel production from J. curcas oil shows that catalyst alone contributes about 50.9 % of the total production cost. This paper aims at highlighting the effects of two different commonly used catalysts on the yield of biodiesel. Samples of biodiesel were produced by three different methods namely single stage transesterification (SST), double stage transesterification (DST) and foolproof (FP) processes in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were used. The effects of each catalyst on the production yield were analyzed and compared. NaOH gave production yields of 79%, 81% and 84 % for the SST, DST and FP processes respectively. KOH produced comparatively lower yields of 68%, 71 % and 75 % for SST, DST and fool proof processes respectively. Although the use of KOH slightly raises the cost of biodiesel production as compared to NaOH, the local production of KOH from cocoa husks could minimize the production cost. Abbreviations: BDF = Biodiesel fuel; PDF = Petroleum diesel fuel; DF = Diesel fuel Key words: Transesterification Alkaline catalysts Biodiesel yield Biodiesel KOH NaOH

  5. Biodiesel Clears the Air in Underground Mines, Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mining companies are using biodiesel in their equipment to help clear the air of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This action improves air quality and protects miners' lungs. Though using biodiesel has some challenges in cold weather, tax incentives, and health benefits make it a viable option.

  6. System Dynamics Sustainability Model of Palm-Oil Based Biodiesel Production Chain in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhmad Hidayatno; Aziiz Sutrisno; Yuri M. Zagloel; Widodo W. Purwanto

    The nature of biodiesel production itself is complex with multisectors and multi-actors conditions, and with addition of sustainability issues from various stakeholder, created a complex challenges for developing the biodiesel industry. In order to understand of the complexity, this research developed a comprehensive sustainability model to draw the relationships and analyze the effects of government policy for stimulating biodiesel industry using the combination methods of process mapping, financial modeling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and business sustainability strategy. The model combines its output translated into a complete sustainability index of financial, social and environment. The model simulation results show that accomplishment of a sustainable biodiesel production within the target and timeframe is impossible without releasing the subsidized price of diesel fuel and further directions from the government. I Index Terms biodiesel, system dynamics, sustainability

  7. Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. X.; Zhu, D. L.; Akafuah, N.; Saito, K.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of combustion. Their droplet combustion characteristics in terms of the burning rate, flame size, and sooting tendency were subsequently determined in a high-temperature, freely-falling droplet apparatus. Results show that the biodiesel droplet has higher burning rate, and that biodiesel in general has a lower propensity to soot because its molecular oxygen content promotes the oxidation of the soot precursors.

  8. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil (Jatropha curcas) in Pilot Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tint Tint Kywe; Mya Mya Oo

    AbstractIn this research, among the chemical properties, free fatty acid value of jatropha oil was determined to be 22.6%, 5.23% and 8.8 % respectively. Total, free and combined glycerol percent of raw jatropha oil were 8.27 %, 0.58 % and 7.69 % respectively. Yield of biodiesel from jatropha oil at optimal sodium hydroxide catalyst concentration 1%, reaction temperature 65C, reaction time one hour and molar ratio of methanol to oil 6:1 was 92 % from lab scale. Yield of biodiesel from jatropha oil at optimal potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration 1%, reaction temperature room temperature, reaction time 5 hours and molar ratio of ethanol to oil 8:1 was 90% from the lab scale. Biodiesel was also produced from pilot plant at optimum transesterification process condition as stated above. The yield of biodiesel (methyl ester) and ethyl ester were 92 % and 90% on the basis of refined jatropha oil in the pilot plant scale. The capacity of biodiesel pilot plant is 30 gal / day. The fuel properties of biodiesel, namely cetane index, flash point, pour point, kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, color, copper strip corrosion, acid value, water and sediment and distillation at 90 % recovery, were found to be within the limits of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for biodiesel and diesel fuel. The fuel consumption of the engine which used biodiesel produced from free fatty acid content 5.23 % in raw jatropha oil is more than the fuel consumption of the engine which used biodiesel produced from free fatty acid content 1 % in refined raw jatropha oil. Keywordsrenewable energy, biodiesel, transesterification, methyl ester, ethyl ester, pilot plant. I.

  9. The University of Iowa College of Engineering Engineering Professional Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Mathews

    Solutions Gurgaon, India EMCO Des Moines, IA Enerhetica Cochabamba, Bolivia ESCO Automation Marion, IA ESCO

  10. ANALYSE DES DETERMINANTS DE LA GESTION DES RESULTATS : CAS DES FIRMES CANADIENNES FRANCAISES ET TUNISIENNES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - ANALYSE DES DETERMINANTS DE LA GESTION DES RESULTATS : CAS DES FIRMES CANADIENNES FRANCAISES)" #12;- 2 - ANALYSE DES DETERMINANTS DE LA GESTION DES RESULTATS : CAS DES FIRMES CANADIENNES FRANCAISES article sans l'aval écrit des auteurs'' "Please do not cote wihout authors' written permission" Adresse de

  11. GHP Biodiesel GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXA Corp. (New Jersey) Jump to:GGAMGHP Biodiesel

  12. Table 2. U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total Delivered Residential EnergyTotalU.S. Biodiesel

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologies | BlandineNatural GasBiodiesel Printable

  14. Biodiesel Offers a Renewable Alternative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplicationCommittee | DepartmentDesignBiodiesel Fuel

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP)MassachusettsExperimentalInfrastructure Development toBiodiesel

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Laws and Incentives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2 andIndependenceFuelsasBiodiesel

  17. Biodiesel Revs Up Its Applications | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments Energy RatingsDepartmentRevs Up Its Applications Biodiesel Revs Up Its

  18. Biodiesel Kyritz GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocarBiodiesel Kyritz GmbH Jump

  19. Biodiesel Sued GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative SourcesBiocarBiodiesel Kyritz GmbH

  20. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  1. A comparison of injector flow and spray characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K. (Energy Systems)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines depend strongly on inner nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. The differences in the physical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel are expected to significantly alter the inner nozzle flow and spray structure and, thus, the performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In this study, the inner nozzle flow dynamics of these fuels are characterized by using the mixture-based cavitation model in FLUENT v6.3. Because of its lower vapor pressure, biodiesel was observed to cavitate less than petrodiesel. Higher viscosity of biodiesel resulted in loss of flow efficiency and reduction in injection velocity. Turbulence levels at the nozzle orifice exit were also lower for biodiesel. Using the recently developed KH-ACT model, which incorporates the effects of cavitation and turbulence in addition to aerodynamic breakup, the inner nozzle flow simulations are coupled with the spray simulations in a 'quasi-dynamic' fashion. Thus, the influence of inner nozzle flow differences on spray development of these fuels could be captured, in addition to the effects of their physical properties. Spray penetration was marginally higher for biodiesel, while cone angle was lower, which was attributed to its poor atomization characteristics. The computed liquid lengths of petrodiesel and biodiesel were compared with data from Sandia National Laboratories. Liquid lengths were higher for biodiesel due to its higher boiling temperature and heat of vaporization. Though the simulations captured this trend well, the liquid lengths were underpredicted, which was attributed to uncertainty about the properties of biodiesel used in the experiments. Parametric studies were performed to determine a single parameter that could be used to account for the observed differences in the fuel injection and spray behavior of petrodiesel and biodiesel; fuel temperature seems to be the best parameter to tune.

  2. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  3. Effects of Biodiesel and Engine Load on Some Emission Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alireza Shirneshan; Morteza Almassi; Barat Ghobadian; Ali Mohammad Borghei; Gholam Hassan Najafi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this research, experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using biodiesel as an alternative fuel and their blends to investigate the emission characteristics of the engine under four engine loads (25%, 40%, 65 % and 80%) at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and four different blends of diesel/ biodiesel (B20, B40, B60 and B80) made from waste frying oil and the results were analyzed. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of hydrocarbon (HC) and CO and increased emissions

  4. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL] [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Joyce, Blake [ORNL] [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W [Rincon Ranch Consulting] [Rincon Ranch Consulting

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

  5. Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G. [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Joyce, Blake [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W. [Rincon Ranch Consulting

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

  6. Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Junnian

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the GT-Power software, an engine cycle simulation for a biodiesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine was developed and used to study its performance and emission characteristics. The major objectives ...

  7. A Holistic Approach to Safety Assessment in the Life Cycle of Biodiesel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Said, Marwa H

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    , biodiesel, bio-oil, biohydrogen, syngas, etc. The Secondary biofuels are often categorized into first, second, and third generations based on the type of raw materials involved and the applied conversion mechanisms or process technologies (Nigam and Singh...

  8. Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Junnian

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the GT-Power software, an engine cycle simulation for a biodiesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine was developed and used to study its performance and emission characteristics. The major objectives were to establish...

  9. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oguntola J Alamu; Ezra A Adeleke; Nurudeen O. Adekunle; Salam O; Oguntola J Alamu; Ezra A Adeleke; Nurudeen O Adekunle; Salam O Ismaila

    Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO) biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0 % ethanol (wt%), 1.0 % potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  10. Process simulation, integration and optimization of blending of petrodiesel with biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ting

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    strategies to meet these requirements. The primary objective of this work is to analyze alternatives for producing ULSD. In addition to the conventional approach of revamping existing hydrotreating facilities, the option of blending petrodiesel with biodiesel...

  11. Study of Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel, Yellow Grease Biodiesel and its Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virender Singh; Shubham Saxena; Shibayan Ghosh; Ankit Agrawal

    Abstract The feedstock used in our experiment for the production of biodiesel was Yellow Grease. The whole experiment was divided into two parts: Production and Testing. Production involves Transesterification of free fatty acids in yellow grease to form yellow grease alkyl esters. The process of testing involved calculation of the physio chemical properties, acid value, density, kinematics viscosity and various performance characteristics. The properties obtained were similar to the standards of biodiesel set by ASTM D6751. The conclusions derived from the experiments conducted were that the break thermal efficiency with biodiesel blends was little lower than that of diesel. The break specific energy consumption for B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 is slightly higher than neat diesel. At all loads, diesel was found to have the lowet exhaust tempearture and the temperature for the different blends showed the upward trend with increasing concentration of biodiesel in the blends.

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eseller, Kemal E.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor.

  13. Application of Real Options Analysis in the Valuation of Investment in Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeboah, F. E.; Shahbazi, A.; Yeboah, O.A.; Singh, H.; Holcomb, F. H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to value investment projects that have flexibility in them tend to underestimate the values of the projects, because they fail to capture the value of the flexibility embedded in such projects. For biodiesel production, such flexibility may include...

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  15. Effects of Biodiesel Operation on Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Nanjundaswamy, H.; Tomazic, D.; Thornton, M.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the impact of biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions as well as overall system performance in terms of emissions control system calibration and overall system efficiency.

  16. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foucault, Lucas Jose

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

  17. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NO x Using Cu-zeolite D. William Brookshear 1 , Todd J. Toops 2 , William Rohr 1 , Ke Nguyen 1 , and Bruce G....

  18. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  19. Novel Solid Base Catalysts for the Production of Biodiesel from Lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lina

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary commercial biodiesel production processes use homogeneous base catalysts which cause separation and wastewater discharge problems. Solid base catalysts can overcome these drawbacks. However, a solid base catalyst with high activity...

  20. Galib, Biodiesel from jatropha oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazi Mostafijur Rahman; Mohammad Mashud; Md. Roknuzzaman; Asadullah Al Galib

    Abstract The world is getting modernized and industrialized day by day. As a result vehicles and engines are increasing. But energy sources used in these engines are limited and decreasing gradually. This situation leads to seek an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The esters of vegetables oil animal fats are known as Biodiesel. This paper investigates the prospect of making of biodiesel from jatropha oil. Jatropha curcas is a renewable non-edible plant. Jatropha is a wildly growing hardy plant in arid and semi-arid regions of the country on degraded soils having low fertility and moisture. The seeds of Jatropha contain 50-60 % oil. In this study the oil has been converted to biodiesel by the well-known transesterification process and used it to diesel engine for performance evaluation.

  1. Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine From Various Biodiesel Feedstock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing fuel prices, stricter government policies, and technological developments made it possible to seek for renewable alternatives, called biofuels, to petroleum fuel. Biodiesel, a biofuel that is produced from chemically mixing animal fat...

  2. A numerical study comparing the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D. (Energy Systems)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines strongly depend upon inner-nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel-air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. Previous studies by us highlighted the differences in the physical and chemical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel, which significantly altered the inner-nozzle flow and spray structure. The current study is another step in this direction to gain a fundamental understanding on the influence of fuel properties on the combustion and emission characteristics of the compression ignition engine. n-Heptane and methyl butanoate were selected as surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, respectively, because the chemical kinetic pathways were well-understood. Liquid length and flame lift-off length for diesel and biodiesel fuels were validated against data available in the literature. Liquid lengths were always higher for biodiesel because of its higher heat of vaporization, which resulted in increased interplay between spray and combustion processes under all conditions investigated. Ambient air entrainment was also lower for biodiesel mainly because of slower atomization and breakup. The mechanism for flame stabilization is further analyzed by estimating the turbulent burning velocity for both of the fuels. This analysis revealed that neither flame propagation nor isolated ignition kernels upstream and detached from high-temperature regions can be the mechanism for flame stabilization. Flame propagation speeds were observed to be similar for both fuels. Biodiesel predicted lower soot concentrations, which were also reflected in reduced C{sub 2}H{sub 2} mole fractions. Although prompt NO{sub x} was higher for biodiesel, total NO{sub x} was lower because of reduced thermal NO{sub x}. The ignition delay and NO{sub x} emissions predicted by these simulations do not agree with trends reported in the literature; hence, this study highlights the need for better fuel surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels.

  3. Exploration of Novel Fuels for Gas Turbine (ENV-406) Modeling of T60 Test Rig with Diesel & Biodiesel Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Biodiesel Fuels Mémoire Mina Youssef Maîtrise en génie mécanique Maître ès sciences (M.Sc.) Québec, Canada de biodiesel B20. La matrice de test numérique constitue de quatre cas d'écoulement réactifs c to simulate the liquid combustion of conventional and non- conventional biodiesel fuels, in particularly the B

  4. Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel Versus Petroleum Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    06-1078 Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel-world in-use on-road emissions of selected diesel vehicles, fueled with B20 biodiesel and petroleum diesel was tested for one day on B20 biodiesel and for one day on petroleum diesel. On average, there were 4.5 duty

  5. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  6. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsouris, Costas [ORNL] [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL] [ORNL; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL] [ORNL; Jennings, Hal L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  7. The following are appendices A, B1 and B2 of our paper, "Integrated Process Modeling and Product Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing", that appears in the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research a Biodiesel Process Model To access NIST TDE Data Engine in Aspen Plus version 2006.5 or V7.0 Step 1. Enter

  8. Approche de capitalisation des connaissances au sein des systmes PLM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Approche de capitalisation des connaissances au sein des systmes PLM Axe 2 : Ingnierie des savoir faire autour des systmes PLM. Ces systmes sont spcialement ddis la gestion de cycle de vie souhaitons donc intgrer et capitaliser des connaissances gnrs par un processus au sein d'un systme PLM

  9. Gestion des aleas : utilisation des incertitudes en tp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ENSIM 4A Gestion des aleas : utilisation des incertitudes en tp http ://umtice,version4-4Jul2014 #12;Table des mati`eres 1 Methode de travail 3 2 dictionnaire 6 3 Gestion des aleas 8 3.1 Les ceintures de gestion des aleas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3

  10. North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7409, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-515-3480 | www.ncsc.ncsu.edu | 8/2013 BIODIESEL RETAIL STATIONS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .ncsc.ncsu.edu | 8/2013 BIODIESEL RETAIL STATIONS IN NORTH CAROLINA Clean Transportation Program | 919-515-3480 | www Mountain Avenue 828-669-9813 Durham Carolina Biodiesel B20 1410 Cross St 919-957-1500 Durham Cruizer's B20 Biodiesel B100 110 N. Chimney Rock Road 336-209-0728 Hillsborough Carolina Biofuels B100/B80 112 Baldwin

  11. Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper Science and Technology; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper lignocellulosics to biodiesel fuel Feedstocks ABSTRACT This poster examines the potential of utilizing waste paper CelluloseHemicelluloseLigninResource Cracking and Refining of Polysaccharides Bio-Diesel Substitutes

  12. Biodiesel: a case study of the impact of new rules regarding the classification and labelling of physical and chemical properties of chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Biodiesel: a case study of the impact of new rules regarding the classification and labelling.janes@ineris.fr, guy.marlair@ineris.fr, patricia.rotureau@ineris.fr 1. Introduction Biodiesel and any co-products or intermediate chemicals produced and used from the biodiesel industry fall under the scope of the regulation

  13. future science group 479ISSN 1759-726910.4155/BFS.12.35 2012 Future Science Ltd Biodiesel production involves the transesterification of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Brian

    future science group 479ISSN 1759-726910.4155/BFS.12.35 © 2012 Future Science Ltd Biodiesel the mass transfer Application of ultrasonication in transesterification processes for biodiesel production Brian He* & Jon H Van Gerpen In biodiesel production, adequate mixing is required to create sufficient

  14. QUANTIFICATION DES AMPLITUDES ET DES TAUX DE DEFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    'horizons sismo- sédimentaires dans des tranchées paléosismologiques: Récurrence des séismes: 2000-3000 ans

  15. QUANTIFICATION DES AMPLITUDES ET DES TAUX DE DEFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ruptures et datation d'horizons sismo- sédimentaires dans des tranchées paléosismologiques: Récurrence des

  16. Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Carbon in the Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchholz, B A; Cheng, A S; Dibble, R W

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental tests were conducted on a Cummins 85.9 direct-injected diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. 20% and 50% blend levels were tested, as was 100% (neat) biodiesel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO were measured under steady-state operating conditions. The effect of biodiesel on PM emissions was mixed; however, the contribution of the volatile organic fraction to total PM was greater for the higher biodiesel blend levels. When only non-volatile PM mass was considered, reductions were observed for the biodiesel blends as well as for neat biodiesel. The biodiesel test fuels increased NO{sub x}, while HC and CO emissions were reduced. PM collected on quartz filters during the experimental runs were analyzed for carbon-14 content using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMs). These measurements revealed that carbon from the biodiesel portion of the blended fuel was marginally less likely to contribute to PM, compared to the carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. The results are different than those obtained in previous tests with the oxygenate ethanol, which was observed to be far less likely contribute to PM than the diesel component of the blended fuel. The data suggests that chemical structure of the oxygen- carbon bonds in an oxygenate affects the PM formation process.

  17. 95 Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oguntola J Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M Sulaiman; Oguntola J. Alamu; Opeoluwa Dehinbo; Adedoyin M. Sulaiman

    Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0 % ethanol (wt % coconut oil), 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4%) was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  18. BIODIESEL AS AN ALTERNATE FUEL FOR POLLUTION CONTROL IN DIESEL ENGINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mr. Paresh K. Kasundra; Prof Ashish; V. Gohil

    Diesel vehicles are the major source for air pollution; there is great potential for global warming due to discharge of greenhouse gases like CO2 from vehicles. Many lung problems are connected with particulate matter emitted by diesel vehicle including dust, soot and smoke. People are exposed to pollution even as they talk or when stir up the dust when they walk. Biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable fuel. Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel produces no sulfur, no net carbon dioxide, less carbon monoxide and more oxygen. More free oxygen leads to the complete combustion and reduced emission. Overall biodiesel emissions are very less compared to diesel fuel emissions which is promising pollution free environment. Abundant source of vegetable oil in India and its ease of conversion to biodiesel help to save large expenditure done on import of petroleum products and economic growth of country. Biodiesel also generates huge rural employment and degraded lands can be restored due to plantation of oil plants which help in reducing pollution. Extensive research is going on in different countries on different types of vegetable oils like sunflower oil, karanj oil, linseed oil, soya been oil, palm oil, and many more, which can be used in those countries as per availability, our research is in progress on CNSL and its blend with diesel, research is going on in right direction and likely to get surprising

  19. On droplet combustion of biodiesel fuel mixed with diesel/alkanes in microgravity condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Kuo-Long; Li, Je-Wei; Chen, Chien-Pei; Wang, Ching-Hua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The burning characteristics of a biodiesel droplet mixed with diesel or alkanes such as dodecane and hexadecane were experimentally studied in a reduced-gravity environment so as to create a spherically symmetrical flame without the influence of natural convection due to buoyancy. Small droplets on the order of 500 {mu}m in diameter were initially injected via a piezoelectric technique onto the cross point intersected by two thin carbon fibers; these were prepared inside a combustion chamber that was housed in a drag shield, which was freely dropped onto a foam cushion. It was found that, for single component droplets, the tendency to form a rigid soot shell was relatively small for biodiesel fuel as compared to that exhibited by the other tested fuels. The soot created drifted away readily, showing a puffing phenomenon; this could be related to the distinct molecular structure of biodiesel leading to unique soot layers that were more vulnerable to oxidative reactivity as compared to the soot generated by diesel or alkanes. The addition of biodiesel to these more traditional fuels also presented better performance with respect to annihilating the soot shell, particularly for diesel. The burning rate generally follows that of multi-component fuels, by some means in terms of a lever rule, whereas the mixture of biodiesel and dodecane exhibits a somewhat nonlinear relation with the added fraction of dodecane. This might be related to the formation of a soot shell. (author)

  20. Des pouvoirs en quilibre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ©IRD-ThierryRuf Réunion de concertation entre irrigants dans la vallée des Aït Bouguemez, Maroc. 21 #12;

  1. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using CaO Catalyst & Analysis of Its Performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sruthi Gopal; Sajitha C. M; Uma Krishnakumar

    Abstract- The production of biodiesel from vegetable oils stands as a new versatile method of energy generation in the present scenario. Biodiesel is obtained by the transesterification of long chain fatty acids in presence of catalysts. Transesterification is an attractive and widely accepted technique. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The most important variables affecting methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, reaction temperature, catalyst amount and time. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. It can be used in diesel engines by blending with conventional diesel in various proportions. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. It has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. This paper discuses the production of biodiesel from

  2. Biodiesel Production From Animal Fats And Its Impact On The Diesel Engine With Ethanol-Diesel Blends: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darunde Dhiraj S; Prof Deshmukh Mangesh M

    Abstract Mainly animal fats and vegetable oils are used for the production of biodiesel. Several types of fuels can be derived from triacylglycerol-containing feedstock. Biodiesel which is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifying the oil or fat with an alcohol (methanol/ethanol) under mild conditions in the presence of a base catalyst. This paper discuses fuel production, fuel properties, environmental effects including exhaust emissions and co-products. This also describes the use of glycerol which is the by-product in esterification process along with biodiesel. The impact of blending of biodiesel with ethanol and diesel on the diesel engine has described.

  3. Modeling the Auto-Ignition of Biodiesel Blends with a Multi-Step Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toulson, Dr. Elisa [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Allen, Casey M [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, Dennis J [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Schock, Harold [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest in using biodiesel in place of or in blends with petrodiesel in diesel engines; however, biodiesel oxidation chemistry is complicated to directly model and existing surrogate kinetic models are very large, making them computationally expensive. The present study describes a method for predicting the ignition behavior of blends of n-heptane and methyl butanoate, fuels whose blends have been used in the past as a surrogate for biodiesel. The autoignition is predicted using a multistep (8-step) model in order to reduce computational time and make this a viable tool for implementation into engine simulation codes. A detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends was used as a basis for validating the multistep model results. The ignition delay trends predicted by the multistep model for the n-heptane-methyl butanoate blends matched well with that of the detailed CHEMKIN model for the majority of conditions tested.

  4. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  5. Portail des maths & PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel -Journes des DU -Paris, 11 avril 2013 Portail des maths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menichi, Luc

    Portail des maths & PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel - Journes des DU - Paris, 11 avril 2013 Portail des maths et PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel - Mathrice Journes des DU - Paris, 11 avril 2013 #12;Portail des maths & PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel - Journes des DU - Paris, 11 avril 2013 Portail des

  6. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  7. ALKALI CATALYSED PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FUEL FROM NIGERIAN CITRUS SEEDS OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    The potential of oil extracted from the seeds of three different Nigerian citrus fruits for biodiesel production was investigated. Fatty acid alkyl esters were produced from orange seed oil, grape seed oil and tangerine seed oil by transesterification of the oils with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. In the conversion of the citrus seed oils to alkyl esters (biodiesel), the grape seed oil gave the highest yield of 90.6%, while the tangerine seed oil and orange seed oil gave a yield of 83.1 % and 78.5%, respectively. Fuel properties of the seed oil and its biodiesel were determined. The results showed that orange seed oil had a density of 730 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 36.5 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 14 o C; while its biodiesel fuel had a density of 892 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 5.60 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 25 o C. Grape seed oil had a density of 675 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 39.5 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 12 o C, while its biodiesel fuel had a density of 890 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 4.80 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 22 o C. Tangerine seed oil had an acid value of 1.40 mg/g, a density of 568 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 37.3 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 15 o C, while its biodiesel fuel had an acid value of 0.22 mg/g, a density of 895 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 5.30 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 24 o C.

  8. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Lael

    Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

  9. Factorisons la gestion des vnements des applications interactives !

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Factorisons la gestion des vnements des applications interactives ! Stphane Conversy, Paul et nous dgageons les lments essentiels un systme unifi de gestion d'vnements. Nous examinons'une conception de l'application base sur des vnements de diffrents niveaux. FACTORISATION DE LA GESTION DES

  10. STUDY OF BIODIESEL AS A FUEL FOR CI ENGINES AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: A RESEARCH REVIEW Mukesh Kumar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onkar Singh

    Biodiesel will play an increasing role in fulfilling the worlds energy requirement. The world has experienced negative effect from the fossil fuel such as global warming and acid rain etc. With the increase in consumption of biodiesel, its impact on environment has raised a discussion around the world. Energy requirement of the world will increase in coming future and is projected to increase by 50 % from 2005 to 2030. The paper presents the results of biodiesel combustion emission on the environment. A review of literature available in the field of vegetable oil usage has identified many advantages. Vegetable oil is produced domestically which helps to reduce costly petroleum imports, it is biodegradable, nontoxic, contains low aromatics and sulphur and hence, is environment friendly. The biodiesel shows no obvious NOx emission difference from the pure diesel fuel at low and medium engine loads. Biodiesel blend ratios have little effect on the NO/NOx ratio at medium and high engine loads. The CO emission of biodiesel increases at low engine loads. The HC emissions show a continuous reduction with increasing biodiesel blend ratios. There is a good correlation between smoke reduction and the ratio of the biodiesel blends. The addition of biodiesel fuel increases formaldehyde emission. A series of engine tests, with and without preheating have been conducted using each of the above fuel blends for comparative performance evaluation. The results of the experiment in each case were compared with baseline data of diesel fuel. Significant improvements have been observed in the performance parameters of the engine as well as exhaust emissions, when lower blends of karanja oil were used with preheating and also without preheating. Karanja oil blends with diesel (up to K50) without preheating as well as with preheating, can replace diesel for operating the CI engines.

  11. Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Lael

    Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information POURQ. Montral, le 17 octobre 2014 -- L'cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l aux missions de BAnQ. Madame Majela Guzmn Gmez ralise actuellement son doctorat en sciences de l'information

  12. Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Lael

    Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information COMMUNIQU POUR DIFFUSION IMMDIATE Ada Chebbi, nouvelle docteure en sciences de l'information Montral, le 26 fvrier 2013 - L'cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l

  13. Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leclercq, Remi

    Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information POUR l'information l'EBSI Montral, le 18 fvrier 2014 -- L'cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences premire cole d't internationale de la Francophonie en sciences de l'information, du 2 au 11 juillet

  14. Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Lael

    Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information -- L'cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l'Universit de Montral est destine aux tudiants de doctorat ou de matrise en sciences de l'information qui dmontrent un intrt

  15. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.

  16. Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine From Various Biodiesel Feedstock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Bjorn Sanchez

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , vegetable oils, or recycled restaurant grease with alcohol and catalyst, is gaining popularity in recent years as a substitute for petroleum diesel. Ninety percent (90%) of U.S. biodiesel industry makes use of soybean oil as its feedstock. However, soybean...

  17. Advantages of Biofuels B100 biodiesel has many benefits over traditional, petroleum-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advantages of Biofuels B100 biodiesel has many benefits over traditional, petroleum-based diesel-produced biofuels. Environmental & Social Benefits Decreases emissions of fossil fuels that contribute to climate-powered vessel fleet to biofuels and bio-lubricants. This effort produced the first federal vessel to run

  18. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels Jason for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain inputs and more efficient conversion of feed- stocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum

  19. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  20. Emissions comparison between petroleum diesel and biodiesel in a medium-duty diesel engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Brandon T.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels have become very important topics over the past decade due to the rise in crude oil prices, fear of running out of crude oil, and environmental impact of emissions. Biodiesel is a biofuel that is made from plant seed oils, waste cooking...

  1. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  2. Optimum Requirements for the Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Fatty Acid Distillates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akunna E. Ejele

    The optimum requirements of temperature, retention time, mole ratio of reactants and catalyst for the direct synthesis of biodiesel from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid as catalyst was studied. The following parameters were used for the efficient and economic production of biodiesel: eight (8) moles of methanol per mole of fatty acid, 0.06 mole of tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid per mole of fatty acid, a retention time of sixty (60) minutes and reaction temperature of 65 OC. And this gave a maximum percentage yield of 98.4. Other parameters obtained include: an acid value of 0.1683 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 15.3549, flash point of 209 OC, viscosity of 3.7957 mm2s-1, density of 0.8776 g cm-3, water content of 400.05 mg kg-1, soap content of 2.30 mg/kg, and ester content of 98.804 %. From the obtained parameters, the biodiesel produced from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil reaches prescribed international standards for biodiesel production.

  3. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Technology Laboratorys Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, inhouse patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  4. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Manbae [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  5. Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

  6. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  7. Performance Characterization of a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine with Bio-Diesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel, Jason

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    characterizes the performance of a medium-duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel and conventional diesel. The objective is accomplished by taking measurements of manifold pressure and temperature, fuel flow, air flow, and torque. The study first characterizes...

  8. Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hoseok

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

  9. Development and Validation of a Reduced Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel-Fueled Engine Simulations- SAE 2008-01-1378

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brakora, Jessica L [ORNL; Ra, Youngchul [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study a skeletal chemical reaction mechanism for biodiesel surrogate fuel was developed and validated for multi-dimensional engine combustion simulations. The reduced mechanism was generated from an existing detailed methyl butanoate oxidation mechanism containing 264 species and 1219 reactions. The reduction process included flux analysis, ignition sensitivity analysis, and optimization of reaction rate constants under constant volume conditions. The current reduced mechanism consists of 41 species and 150 reactions and gives predictions in excellent agreement with those of the comprehensive mechanism. In order to validate the mechanism under biodiesel-fueled engine conditions, it was combined with another skeletal mechanism for n-heptane oxidation. This combined reaction mechanism, ERC-Bio, contains 53 species and 156 reactions, which can be used for diesel/biodiesel blend engine simulations. Biodiesel-fueled engine operation was successfully simulated using the ERC-Bio mechanism.

  10. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gl?en, Ece

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

  11. Investigation of the Difference in Cool Flame Characteristics between Petroleum Diesel and Soybean Biodiesel Operating in Low Temperature Combustion Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthu Narayanan, Aditya

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . The focus of this study is to investigate the difference in the cool flame combustion characteristics between petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel, when operating in low temperature combustion mode. Previous studies have attributed the absence of the cool...

  12. The University of Iowa College of Engineering Engineering Professional Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Mathews

    Athena GTX Des Moines, IA Caterpillar Mossville, IL Caterpillar Peoria, IL Cerner Kansas City, MO Eaton Rapids, IA Siemens Corporate Research Princeton, NJ Source Allies Des Moines, IA Square D Cedar Rapids

  13. UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    pineux des DSSC. J'associe aussi ces remerciements Yann Pellegrin et Errol Blart, qui ont t des personnes trs sympathiques rencontrer et qui ont rendus les runions "DSSC" plus agrables, entre autre

  14. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC); Hullette, J.N. (Nu-Energie, LLC)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate ports. Results from laboratory operations showed that the ASTM specification for bound acylglycerides was achieved only at extended reaction times ({approx}25 min) using a single-stage batch contact at elevated temperature and pressure. In the single-pass configuration, the time required gives no throughput advantage over the current batch reaction process. The limitation seems to be the presence of glycerine, which hinders complete conversion because of reversible reactions. Significant improvement in quality was indicated after a second and third passes, where product from the first stage was collected and separated from the glycerine, and further reacted with a minor addition of methanol. Chemical kinetics calculations suggest that five consecutive stages of 2 min residence time would produce better than ASTM specification fuel with no addition of methanol past the first stage. Additional stages may increase the capital investment, but the increase should be offset by reduced operating costs and a factor of 3 higher throughput. Biodiesel, a mixture of methyl esters, is made commercially from the transesterification of oil, often soy oil (see Reaction 1). The kinetics of the transesterification process is rapid; however, multiphase separations after the synthesis of the fuel can be problematic. Therefore, the process is typically run in batch mode. The biodiesel fuel and the glycerine product take several hours to separate. In addition, to push yields to completion, an excess of methoxide catalyst is typically used, which has to be removed from both the biodiesel and the glycerine phase after reaction. Washing steps are often employed to remove free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable saponification. Standards for biodiesel purity are based either on the removal of contaminants before the oil feedstock is esterified or on the separation of unwanted by-products. Various methods have been examined to enhance either the pretreatment of biodiesel feedstocks or the posttreatment of reaction products, including the use of a cavitation reactor in the process i

  15. Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et dchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le dveloppement important de la mthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'tre avec des digestats ou non. Les quantits de compost produit ne cessent d

  16. Universit Claude Bernard Lyon 1 Dpartement de Mdecine Gnrale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    consultent pour des symptmes rhinopharyngs type de rhume, toux, dans un contexte plus ou moins fbrile

  17. Methods and catalysts for making biodiesel from the transesterification and esterification of unrefined oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Shuli (Detroit, MI); Salley, Steven O. (Grosse Pointe Park, MI); Ng, K. Y. Simon (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of zinc and lanthanum oxide heterogeneous catalysts that include different ratios of zinc oxide to lanthanum oxides (Zn:La ratio) ranging from about 10:0 to 0:10. The Zn:La ratio in the catalyst is believed to have an effect on the number and reactivity of Lewis acid and base sites, as well as the transesterification of glycerides, the esterification of fatty acids, and the hydrolysis of glycerides and biodiesel.

  18. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

  19. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  20. A Holistic Approach to Safety Assessment in the Life Cycle of Biodiesel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Said, Marwa H

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    , biodiesel, bio-oil, biohydrogen, syngas, etc. The Secondary biofuels are often categorized into first, second, and third generations based on the type of raw materials involved and the applied conversion mechanisms or process technologies (Nigam and Singh... dramatically engine exhaust emissions when combusted as carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 46.7%, particulate matter emissions by 66.7% and unburned hydrocarbons by 45.2% compared to petro-diesel. It is non-toxic which makes it beneficial for transportation...

  1. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  2. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

  3. Research Article In Situ Biodiesel Production from Fast-Growing and High Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Content Chlorella; Rice Straw Hydrolysate; Penglin Li; Xiaoling Miao; Rongxiu Li; Jianjiang Zhong

    which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Rice straw hydrolysate was used as lignocellulose-based carbon source for Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation and the feasibility of in situ biodiesel production was investigated. 13.7 g/L sugar was obtained by enzymatic hydrolyzation of rice straw. Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed a rapid growth in the rice straw hydrolysate medium, the maximum biomass concentration of 2.83 g/L was obtained in only 48 hours. The lipid content of the cells reached as high as 56.3%. In situ transesterification was performed for biodiesel production. The optimized condition was 1 g algal powder, 6 mL n-hexane, and 4 mL methanol with 0.5 M sulfuric acid at the temperature of 90 ? C in 2-hour reaction time, under which over 99 % methyl ester content and about 95 % biodiesel yield were obtained. The results suggested that the method has great potential in the production of biofuels with lignocellulose as an alternative carbon source for microalgae cultivation. 1.

  4. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

  5. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  6. Quality Parameters and Chemical Analysis for Biodiesel Produced in the United States in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Chupka, G.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of biodiesel (B100) from producers and terminals in 2011were tested for critical properties: free and total glycerin, flash point, cloud point, oxidation stability, cold soak filterability, and metals. Failure rates for cold soak filterability and oxidation stability were below 5%. One sample failed flash point due to excess methanol. One sample failed oxidation stability and metal content. Overall, 95% of the samples from this survey met biodiesel quality specification ASTM D6751. In 2007, a sampling of B100 from production facilities showed that nearly 90% met D6751. In samples meeting D6751, calcium was found above the method detection limit in nearly half the samples. Feedstock analysis revealed half the biodiesel was produced from soy and half was from mixed feedstocks. The saturated fatty acid methyl ester concentration of the B100 was compared to the saturated monoglyceride concentration as a percent of total monoglyceride. The real-world correlation of these properties was very good. The results of liquid chromatograph measurement of monoglycerides were compared to ASTM D6751. Agreement between the two methods was good, particularly for total monoglycerides and unsaturated monoglycerides. Because only very low levels of saturated monoglycerides measured, the two methods had more variability, but the correlation was still acceptable.

  7. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  8. Cooking Up More Uses for the Leftovers of Biofuel Production -N... http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/08/business/08biodiesel.html?ei=... 1 of 3 8/8/07 10:49 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimbrough, Steven Orla

    /08/08/business/08biodiesel.html?ei=... 1 of 3 8/8/07 10:49 AM August 8, 2007 THE ENERGY CHALLENGE Cooking Up More grass. They will have found innovative uses for a byproduct of the production of biodiesel fuel, glycerol. This, in turn, could help transform the biodiesel industry into something that more closely

  9. Habilitation `a diriger des recherches preparee au

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Approche par contraintes des probl`emes d'ordonnancement et d'affectation : structures temporelles et m´en´eraux de propagation de contraintes. Des rapprochements sont faits avec des techniques issues des probl`emes de satisfaction de contraintes. Le cas des probl`emes d'ordonnancement purement temporels est

  10. UNIVERSITE DE NANTES FACULTE DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    '`a beaucoup d'autres), le go^ut et le plaisir des math´emati- ques, gr^ace `a ses cours passionnants et l

  11. UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    remerci´e pour son soutien qui s'est poursuivi par le financement d'une partie des sismos acquis par le

  12. en partenariat Des partenariats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    attribuées 5 jeunes équipes du Sud soutenues Au Maroc, accord intergouvernemental et accord- cadre avec l mathématique et informatique des systèmes complexes, implantée principalement au Maroc et en France. 1er et mathématiques appliquées, au Maroc. Congrès international de génétique, de biologie moléculaire et

  13. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0???° BTDC to 10???° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  14. La gestion des transactions La gestion des transactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolper, Pierre

    La gestion des transactions 1 #12;La gestion des transactions On ne doit appliquer `a une base de`erement. En cas de parallelisme entre transactions, chacune doit ^etre executee de facon en apparence

  15. UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    recherche INRIA Rocquencourt Responsable Scientifique : Jean-Marc Menaud, Ma^itre-assistant ´Ecole des Mines´e hallucinante pour r´ev´eler des probl`emes que j'aurais mis un temps fou `a enfouir. Enfin, `a Jean-Marc Menaud

  16. PERFORMANCE COMPTABLE GESTION DES RESULTATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 PERFORMANCE COMPTABLE ET GESTION DES RESULTATS Yves Mard Enseignant l'IAE de Lyon 6, cours Albert Thomas 69 008 Lyon Docteur en Sciences de Gestion (IAE d'Aix en Provence) Coordonnes personnelles : Tl : 06 64 19 39 74 E-mail : ymard @aol.com Rsum L'tude porte sur la gestion des rsultats afin d

  17. Colloque "Microstructure et Proprietes des Materiaux" ENPC, 17 et 18 mars 2005 MECANIQUE DES ROCHES EN GEOLOGIE : DES PROCESSUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortin, Jrme

    des failles, la subsidence des reservoirs d'hydrocarbures, ou le decryptage des structures de d de kms au plus. Dans le second cas, les reservoirs d'hydrocarbures mettent en jeu des structures de

  18. Toxicite des emissions des vehicules diesel Docteur en mededne l'INERIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    94-53 .'X- Toxicite des emissions des vehicules diesel D. LAFON Docteur en mededne l'INERIS De nombreuses questions ont ete posees au cours de ce debat sur la toxicite des emissions des moteurs diesel. II de la tche que nous avons effectuee. I. Composition des emissions du diesel Avant d'aborder la

  19. SIGECORIS : un simulateur pour explorer des modalits de gestion prventive des inondations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SIGECORIS : un simulateur pour explorer des modalits de gestion prventive des inondations rflexion sur la politique amricaine, avance que la premire ambition de toute politique de gestion des philosophies de gestion des inondations dont l'objectif serait la rduction des dommages. Le point de vue

  20. REMARQUES SUR LA THORIE DES PROPRITS MAGNTIQUES DES COUCHES MINCES ET DES GRAINS FINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    with only one direction of easy magnetisation, the coercitive field is rather deter- mined by the difficulties in forming the nuclei of inversion of the magnetisation. No satisfactory theory is now available'il parat prmatur d'tablir maintenant. Nous aborderons d'abord l'tude des grains fins, puis celle des

  1. ICCBT 2008 -F -(07) pp79-94 Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    ICCBT 2008 - F - (07) pp79-94 ICCBT2008 Palm Biodiesel an Alternative Green Renewable Energy increased the interest on alternative energy sources. Clean and renewable biofuels have been touted as an alternative source of green renewable energy through a survey conducted from previously researched findings

  2. Process Simulation and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiou, Ming-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jatropha curcas L. is a drought-resistant plant which can be grown in poor soil and marginal lands. The use of Jatropha seed oil to produce biodiesel has been widely studied in recent years. Results showed that it is one of the most promising...

  3. Biodiesel Drives Florida Power & Light's EPAct Alternative Compliance Strategy; EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: Success Story (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This success story highlights how Florida Power & Light Company has successfully complied with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) through Alternative Compliance using biodiesel technologies and how it has become a biofuel leader, reducing petroleum use and pollutant emissions throughout Florida.

  4. Process Simulation and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil Extraction in Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiou, Ming-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jatropha curcas L. is a drought-resistant plant which can be grown in poor soil and marginal lands. The use of Jatropha seed oil to produce biodiesel has been widely studied in recent years. Results showed that it is one of the most promising...

  5. Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C{sub 1}?C{sub 4} oxidation and NO{sub x} formation kinetics.

  6. Enhancement of CO2 and H2 Uptake for the Production of Biodiesel in Cupriavidus Necator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R. P.; Eckert, C. A.; Balzer, G. J.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cupriavidus necator fixes CO{sub 2} through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle using electrons and energy obtained from the oxidation of H{sub 2}. Producing biodiesel-equivalent electrofuel from renewable CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} has immense potential, especially if the fuel is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure. This research addressed enhanced substrate utilization by focusing on two strategies: (1) optimizing transcriptional regulations to afford over-expression of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), the enzyme responsible for assimilation of CO{sub 2} into the CBB cycle; and (2) hydrogenase over-expression by introduction of additional copies of genes encoding a membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), a soluble hydrogenase (SH), and their maturation machinery to enhance oxidation of H{sub 2} to generate NAD(P)H and ATP required for CO{sub 2} fixation. Incorporation of these strategies into a single production strain resulted in 6-fold CO{sub 2} and 3-fold H{sub 2} uptake improvement, in vitro, with the overarching goal of providing abundant reducing equivalents towards the economic production of biodiesel in C. necator.

  7. Scurit au-del des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Prsentation orale en franais, support visuel en franais et en anglais. La pire des failles de scurit est l'impression de scurit. Le dcalage entre la comprhension que l?on a des technologies utilises, et leurs potentiels rels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement ngatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir se confronter la ralit... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matire de scurit qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrle ?

  8. Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatcher, Patrick [Old Dominion University

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this study was to select chemical processing equipment, install and operate that equipment to directly convert algae to biodiesel via a reaction patented by Old Dominion University (Pat. No. US 8,080,679B2). This reaction is a high temperature (250- 330{degrees}C) methylation reaction utilizing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to produce biodiesel. As originally envisioned, algal biomass could be treated with TMAH in methanol without the need to separately extract triacylglycerides (TAG). The reactor temperature allows volatilization and condensation of the methyl esters whereas the spent algae solids can be utilized as a high-value fertilizer because they are minimally charred. During the course of this work and immediately prior to commencing, we discovered that glycerol, a major by-product of the conventional transesterification reaction for biofuels, is not formed but rather three methoxylated glycerol derivatives are produced. These derivatives are high-value specialty green chemicals that strongly upgrade the economics of the process, rendering this approach as one that now values the biofuel only as a by-product, the main value products being the methoxylated glycerols. A horizontal agitated thin-film evaporator (one square foot heat transfer area) proved effective as the primary reactor facilitating the reaction and vaporization of the products, and subsequent discharge of the spent algae solids that are suitable for supplementing petrochemicalbased fertilizers for agriculture. Because of the size chosen for the reactor, we encountered problems with delivery of the algal feed to the reaction zone, but envision that this problem could easily disappear upon scale-up or can be replaced economically by incorporating an extraction process. The objective for production of biodiesel from algae in quantities that could be tested could not be met, but we implemented use of soybean oil as a surrogate TAG feed to overcome this limitation. The positive economics of this process are influenced by the following: 1. the weight percent of dry algae in suspension that can be fed into the evaporator, 2. the alga species ability to produce a higher yield of biodiesel, 3. the isolation of valuable methoxylated by-products, 4. recycling and regeneration of methanol and TMAH, and 5. the market value of biodiesel, commercial agricultural fertilizer, and the three methoxylated by-products. The negative economics of the process are the following: 1. the cost of producing dried, ground algae, 2. the capital cost of the equipment required for feedstock mixing, reaction, separation and recovery of products, and reactant recycling, and 3. the electrical cost and other utilities. In this report, the economic factors and results are assembled to predict the commercialization cost and its viability. This direct conversion process and equipment discussed herein can be adapted for various feedstocks including: other algal species, vegetable oil, jatropha oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, and other TAG containing raw materials as a renewable energy resource.

  9. ECOLE NATIONALE DU GENIE RURAL, DES EAUX ET DES FORTS N attribu par la bibliothque

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Rural, des Eaux et Forts Centre de Paris BIODISPONIBILITE DES HYDROCARBURES AROMATIQUES POLYCYCLIQUES-Hlne TUSSEAU-VUILLEMIN Co-directrice #12;#12;Biodisponibilit des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans

  10. Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de toxicit et rponses physiologiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de principaux types de phycotoxines peuvent contaminer les mollusques bivalves : les toxines diarrhiques (DSP ncessite de connatre au pralable les conditions initiales de contamination des mollusques ainsi que les

  11. International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics IJMME-IJENS Vol: 10 No: 03 1 BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA OIL AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazi Mostafijur Rahman; Mohammad Mashud; Md. Roknuzzaman; Asadullah Al Galib

    AbstractThe world is getting modernized and industrialized day by day. As a result vehicles and engines are increasing. But energy sources used in these engines are limited and decreasing gradually. This situation leads to seek an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The esters of vegetables oil animal fats are known as Biodiesel. This paper investigates the prospect of making of biodiesel from jatropha oil. Jatropha curcas is a renewable non-edible plant. Jatropha is a wildly growing hardy plant in arid and semi-arid regions of the country on degraded soils having low fertility and moisture. The seeds of Jatropha contain 50-60 % oil. In this study the oil has been converted to biodiesel by the well-known transesterification process and used it to diesel engine for performance evaluation.

  12. Biodiesel Emissions Testing with a Modern Diesel Engine - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-399

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the emissions and performance impact of biodiesel in a modern diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter. This testing is in support of the Non-Petroleum Based Fuels (NPBF) 2010 Annual Operating Plan (AOP).

  13. Centrales au gaz et Energies renouvelables: comparer des pommes avec des pommes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pour le sant des turbines gaz (TAG). Au Ca- Qubec. nadades annes gie des turbines gaz reprsentera 1990, qui ont

  14. 56 | Observations et indicateurs climatiques Bilan de masse des glaciers et des calottes polaires | 57 Mthode godsique (ou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    mthode l'volution temporelle de ce manteau. Cette limitation est moins forte pour l'altimtrie laser'altitude de la ligne de neige en fin de saison d'ablation* (priode durant laquelle le glacier perd de la zone d'ablation* o de la glace est perdue. En extrapolant ces relevs ponctuels (mais aussi nom- breux

  15. ZnO nanoparticle catalysts for use in biodiesel production and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system is comprised of a mixture of zinc oxide and a second metal oxide. The zinc oxide includes a mixture of amorphous zinc oxide and zinc oxide nanocrystals, the zinc nanocrystals having a mean grain size between about 20 and 80 nanometers with at least one of the nanocrystals including a mesopore having a diameter of about 5 to 15 nanometers. Preferably, the second metal oxide is a lanthanum oxide, the lanthanum oxide being selected as one from the group of La.sub.2CO.sub.5, LaOOH, and combinations or mixtures thereof.

  16. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  17. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  18. Effect of Storage on Stability of Biodiesel Produced from Selected Seed Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ndana; B. Garba; L. G. Hassan; U. Z. Faruk

    Abstract: This work reports the results of the study of the effect of storage on the physico-chemical properties of biodiesel produced from Ricinus communis (Castor), Heavea brasiliensis (Rubber), Gossypium hirsutum (Cotton), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Glycin max (Soya bean), and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha oils) stored in an open air environment for a period of ten months. At the end of this test period, peroxide value of JME increased to (126.60meq/Kg),CME(71.75meq/Kg),SME(77.80meq/Kg),NME(111.65meq/K g), COME (59.65meq/Kg), RME (162.55meq/Kg), kinematic viscosity JME

  19. Federal and State Ethanol and Biodiesel Requirements (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 requires that the use of renewable motor fuels be increased from the 2004 level of just over 4 billion gallons to a minimum of 7.5 billion gallons in 2012, after which the requirement grows at a rate equal to the growth of the gasoline pool. The law does not require that every gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel be blended with renewable fuels. Refiners are free to use renewable fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, in geographic regions and fuel formulations that make the most sense, as long as they meet the overall standard. Conventional gasoline and diesel can be blended with renewables without any change to the petroleum components, although fuels used in areas with air quality problems are likely to require adjustment to the base gasoline or diesel fuel if they are to be blended with renewables.

  20. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  1. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, D. William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Howe, Janet E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

  2. Optimisation de procds de BIOdpollution des eaux souterraines contamines par des hydrocarbures par un monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Optimisation de procds de BIOdpollution des eaux souterraines contamines par des hydrocarbures contamins par des hydrocarbures. Ces outils doivent apporter des informations manquantes aux procds de biodgradation arobie d'hydrocarbures. Dans un second temps ces outils seront mis en oeuvre sur un site

  3. Simulation des plasmas de tokamak avec XTOR : regimes des dents de scie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Simulation des plasmas de tokamak avec XTOR : regimes des dents de scie et evolution vers une modetique et tokamaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Modelisation multi-mod`eles et codes hybrides'etablissement des dents de scie en plasmas ohmiques 9 2 La MHD appliquee aux tokamaks : cas des dents de scie 10 2

  4. Planification des infirmiers anesthsistes : analyse comparative des performances de diffrents solveurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Planification des infirmiers anesthsistes : analyse comparative des performances de diffrents, Centre Hospitalier de Valence, 26000 Valence, France Rsum. L'affectation des infirmiers aux diffrentes nous penchons sur le problme de la planification des infirmiers anesthsistes du bloc opratoire, qui

  5. Symposium 06 Dynamique des composes minraux,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    zones hydromorphes ; 1'action des acides humiques sur 1'adsorption des phosphates sur la goethite ; et 1'utilisation de la microcalorimtrie pour tudier les mcanismes d'adsorption de Cd sur la goethite. L

  6. Comparative Experimental Investigation of Combustion, Performance and Emission in a Single Cylinder Thermal Barrier Coated Diesel Engine using Diesel and Neem Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M C Navindgi; Dr. Maheswar Dutta; Dr. B. Sudheer Prem Kumar

    Abstract- The use of methyl esters of vegetable oil known as biodiesel are increasingly popular because of their low impact on environment, green alternate fuel and most interestingly it's use in engines does not require major modification in the engine hardware. Use of biodiesel as sole fuel in conventional direct injection diesel engine results in combustion problems, hence it is proposed to use the biodiesel in low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engines with its significance characteristics of higher operating temperature, maximum heat release, higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and ability to handle the lower calorific value (CV) fuel. In this work biodiesel from Neem oil called as Neem oil methyl ester (NOME) was used as sole fuel in conventional diesel engine and LHR direct injection (Dl) diesel engine. The low heat rejection engine was developed with uniform ceramic coating of combustion chamber (includes piston crown, cylinder head, valves and cylinder liner) by partially stabilized /zirconia (PSZ) of 0.5 mm thickness. The experimental investigation was carried out in a single cylinder water-cooled LHR direct injection diesel engine. In this investigation, the combustion, performance and emission analysis were carried out in a diesel and biodiesel fueled conventional and LHR engine under identical operating conditions. The test result of biodiesel fueled LHR engine was quite identical to that of the conventional diesel engine. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of LHR engine with biodiesel is decreased marginally than LHR engine operated with diesel. Carbon monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbon (HC) emission levels are decreased. The results of this comparative experimental investigation reveals that, some of the drawbacks of

  7. Place du l hydroxy-pyrene urinaire dans la surveillance biologique des cokiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    immediate de ceux-ci expose les travailleurs des substances diverses, en particulier des hydrocarbures charbons ... La determination, dans les urines, des metabolites hydroxyles des hydrocarbures aromatiques

  8. Physical and chemical comparison of soot in hydrocarbon and biodiesel fuel diffusion flames: A study of model and commercial fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matti Maricq, M. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)

  9. GESTION DES RISQUES ET PROCESSUS STRATEGIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    processus ; enfin, nous mettons en oeuvre cette approche sur un cas de gestion des risques, dans une grandeGESTION DES RISQUES ET PROCESSUS STRATEGIQUES Ren Demeestre et Philippe Lorino1 Rsum Abstract nombreuses entreprises investir dans leur systme de pilotage et la gestion des risques est une composante

  10. Estimation Pression-Temprature de la transition Chrysotile-Lizardite/Antigorite et volutions gochimiques associes: exemple des serpentinites HP des Alpes Occidentales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicollet, Christian

    ablation laser (LA-HR-ICP-MS) des diffrents polymorphes de serpentines indique des enrichissements en

  11. Titel des Moduls: Elektrische Energiesysteme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    , Drehfeld, Asynchronmaschine, Synchronmaschine, Schutz elektrischer Anlagen und Netze. 3. ModulbestandteileTitel des Moduls: Elektrische Energiesysteme LP (ECTS): 6 Kurzbezeichnung: B-ET-EA-EE.W12 elektrischer Energiesysteme und sind in der Lage, Messungen an realen Systemen durchzufhren und ihre

  12. Titel des Moduls: Elektrische Netzwerke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    Titel des Moduls: Elektrische Netzwerke LP (ECTS): 6 Kurzbezeichnung: BET-GL-ENW. W12 Netz- werkschaltungen beherrschen. Hierbei werden statische Vorgnge mit Gleich- und Wechselsignalen) Semester (WiSe / SoSe) Elektrische Netzwerke VL 2 6 P SoSeUE 1 PR 1 4. Beschreibung der Lehr- und

  13. Fiche technique Dtail des panneaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Biodiversité des cultures Panneau 4 - Paysage à Madagascar Panneau 5 - Labour d'un champ au Maroc Panneau 6 9 - Récolte d'un essaim d'abeilles au Maroc Panneau 10 - L'innovation en marche Panneau 11

  14. Andr Laperrire Laboratoire des technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    , meal cooking,...) Probably not critical for an Indoor Hockey Ice Rink #12;Groupe ­ Technologie9 PERIODAndré Laperrière Laboratoire des technologies de l'énergie d'Hydro-Québec Shawinigan Indoor Ice Rinks and LED Technology 2013 Biannual Joint Meeting of CIE/USA and CNC/CIE University of California (UC

  15. IDAHO BIODIESEL INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT DOE'S INITIATIVE ON COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS WITH STATES FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION GRANT NO. DE-FC36-02GO12021. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROCKETT, JOHN

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho Energy Division issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) on March 14, 2006, inviting qualified licensed fuel wholesalers, fuel retailers, and vehicle fleet operators to provide proposals to construct and/or install infrastructure for biodiesel utilization in Idaho. The intent was to improve the ability of private and/or non-Federal public entities in Idaho to store, transport, or offer for sale biodiesel within the state. The RFP provided up $100,000 for co-funding the projects with a minimum 50% cash cost match. Four contracts were subsequetnly awarded that resulted in three new bidodiesel storage facilities immediately serving about 45 fueling stations from Sandpoint to Boise. The project also attracted considerable media attention and Idaho became more knowledgeable about biodiesel.

  16. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoub, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.ayoub@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Inayat, Abrar, E-mail: abrar.inayat@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  17. Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des frquences harmoniques.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'application est faite aux molécules SF6 et UF6. 4 constantes cubiques de SF6 ont été déterminées à partir des for the centrifugal distortion constants as a function of harmonic frequencies ; application is made to SF6 and UF6. 4

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE DI DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON NEEM OIL BIODIESEL AND ITS BLENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rob Res; Dharmendra Yadav; Nitin Shrivastava; Vipin Shrivastava

    Increasing oil prices, and global warming activates the research and development of substitute energy resources to maintain economic development. The methyl esters of vegetable oil, known as biodiesel are becoming popular because of their low ecological effect and potential as a green substitute for compression ignition engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate the performance of neem oil methyl ester on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, and 8 HP capacity diesel engine. The Experimental research has been performed to analyze the performance of different blends 20 % (BD20), 50 % (BD50), and 100 % (BD100) of neem oil biodiesel. Biodiesel, when compared to conventional diesel fuel, results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption and brake specific energy consumption are higher and brake thermal efficiency less during testing of engine. The brake specific energy consumption is increased by 0.60 % to 8.25 % and brake thermal efficiency decreased by 0.57 % to 7.62 % at 12 kg engine brake load as compared to diesel fuel. When the fuel consumption of biodiesel is compared to diesel fuel it observed that the fuel consumption was increased by 2.5 % to 19.5 % than that of diesel fuel for B20, B50 and B100 bends at 12 kg engine brake load. It is observed that the performance of biodiesel blends is less as compared to plain diesel and during testing of diesel engine run normally for all engine loads. It is investigated that the neem oil biodiesel 20 % blend showed very close performance when compared to plain diesel and hence can be used as an alternative fuel for conventional diesel in the future.

  19. 1. Annee 2001-02 1.1. Exposes dans des congr`es, des colloquiums ou des seminaires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colmez, Pierre

    1. Ann´ee 2001-02 1.1. Expos´es dans des congr`es, des colloquiums ou des s´eminaires Cambridge (octobre 2001, "Koweit lecture" et s´eminaire), Chevaleret (octobre 2001, STN) S´eoul (octobre 2001, mini-cours 6h), Tokyo (novembre 2001, s´eminaire), Bourbaki (novembre 2001), Rennes (novembre 2001, s

  20. Institut des Sciences de l'Homme 14, avenue Berthelot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ............................................................................................................................ 7 L'ANALYSE COMPAREE DES DISPOSITIFS DE L'ACTION PUBLIQUE DANS LE DOMAINE DU MCO AERONAUTIQUE SECTION 1 LA FRANCE : LA REFONTE DES RELATIONS ACQUISITION/MCO DANS LA CONDUITE DES PROGRAMMES ET LA

  1. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la socit

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mdecine, climatologie, mtrologie et informatique, les techniques utilises par le LHC trouvent dj des rpercussions dans d?autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques indites, la physique des particules en fait bnficier la socit toute entire.

  2. Gestion des risques environnementaux lis l'exploitation des hydrocarbures de roche-mre.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Gestion des risques environnementaux lis l'exploitation des hydrocarbures de roche particulirement sensible Origine et nature des hydrocarbures de roche-mre Une roche-mre rsulte de l temps en huile et enfin en gaz si les conditions, notamment thermiques, le permettent. Les hydrocarbures

  3. DES Chapter 4DES Chapter 4 Estimating the Value of ACME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    Estimate cost of capital (WACC) Debt Equity P j t fi i l t t t d FCFProject financial statements and FCF ACME has debt and equity The cost of capital for each type of financing depends on it riskDES Chapter 4DES Chapter 4 Estimating the Value of ACME DES Chapter 4 1 #12;Steps in a valuation

  4. Diffraction de Fresnel des electrons diffuss lastiquement et inlastiquement par des crans semi-transparents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1353 Diffraction de Fresnel des electrons diffuss lastiquement et inlastiquement par des crans 1980) Rsum. 2014 L'application du principe de Huygens-Fresnel l'tude de la diffraction par le bord lgrement divergent rend compte de l'allure gnrale des franges de Fresnel observes en microscopie

  5. CONTRIBUTION L'TUDE DE LA GENSE DES SYSTMES D'INFORMATION COMPTABLE DES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ) souffrent traditionnellement d'une carence au niveau des outils de gestion utiliss. Ce qui contribuerait intuition une analyse davantage formelle, avec diffrents outils de gestion (Chapellier, 1994). Aussi, le1 CONTRIBUTION L'TUDE DE LA GENSE DES SYSTMES D'INFORMATION COMPTABLE DES PME : UNE RECHERCHE

  6. Solar Car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Des Moines Central Academy Middle School students compete in the Solar Car Challenge at the National Science Bowl, May 2 in Washington D.C.

  7. argillacea huebner caterpillars: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Des Moines, IA Caterpillar Mossville, IL Caterpillar Peoria, IL Cerner Kansas City, MO Eaton Naperville, IL Procter &Gamble (Oral B) Iowa City, IA RISE-Cancer Research Center...

  8. Theorie des langages Automates `a pile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonzon, Elise

    Th´eorie des langages Automates `a pile Elise Bonzon http://web.mi.parisdescartes.fr/ bonzon/ elise.bonzon@parisdescartes.fr 1 / 62 Th´eorie des langages #12;Automates `a pile Automates `a pile Introduction Rappels sur les piles Automates `a pile : d´efinition Automates `a pile : configurations Les crit`eres d

  9. Design Project -SIE 2010 Inventaire des missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    miscanthus Mise en place d'un outil d'aide la dcision pour la gestion des sites contamins: le cas de la gestion des parcelles de terrain contamines autour de l'ancienne usine de Metaleurop Nord en se: NOx, particules fines, Zn, Al, CO2, NH3 et Atrazine (pesticides) Mesures au niveau rgional Gestion

  10. The Effects of Trans-Esterification of Castor Seed Oil Using Ethanol, Methanol and their Blends on the Properties and Yields of Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Enontiemonria; Ayoola Ayodeji; Anawe Paul; Apeye Lucky; Oteri Ogheneofego

    The effects of ethanol, methanol and their blends at different percentage mixtures on the properties and yields of biodiesel at varied trans-esterification times and temperatures using sodium hydroxide as a base catalyst have been investigated. At 70 o C, the optimum yields were: for ethanol 88.4%, 94.2%, 94.8%, and 95.2 % and for methanol, 90.6%, 95.6%, 96.0%, and 96.4% at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and 4 hours respectively. The biodiesel yields increased as time of reaction progressed for both solvents but the yields obtained from methanol were generally higher than those from ethanol. A mixture of both solvents at 50 % each produced the overall highest of biodiesel yield of 98.6 % at 70 o C and in 4 hours compared to either solvent used alone at the same time and temperature. The properties such as densities, viscosities, flash points and pour points of the biodiesels tested were found to conform to ASTM standards. The average values were as follows: densities at 15 o C, were 0.8951, 0.8876 and 0.8832g/cm 3; viscosities (at 40 o C) were 4.7160cSt, 4.7380cSt and 4.5055cSt; flash points were 140.9 o C, 147.4 o C and 161.6 o C while for pour points they were-2.4375 o C,-1.6875 o C and-6 o C for ethyl, methyl and ethyl/methyl biodiesel respectively.

  11. Untersuchungen zur Messung von Elektronen im au eren Randbereich des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , eine reduzierte Elektronenenergie gemessen. Die minimale Energie des gestreuten Elektrons tritt bei

  12. Note d'information Contribution la matrise des problmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note d'information Contribution la matrise des problmes biologiques des stations d et priv (encadr ) qui se consacre la gestion des aspects biologiques des stations d'pu- ration'une tude de cas ; ou la mise en place d'tudes spcifiques sur un sujet qui le ncessite. Dans tous les cas

  13. LA PLACE DES CHOSES. Collections spcialises, objets-frontires et partage des savoirs. Paris, 1789-1804.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    dpareiller la collection centrale des Arts . Antoine-Franois Fourcroy, Grard van Spaendonck, Andr Thouin

  14. Etude des possibilits d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures mnagres en milieu tropical (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Etude des possibilits d'utilisation agronomique des composts d'ordures mnagres en milieu'avre ncessaire uniquement en saison sche pour obtenir un compost dont le rapport C/N se situe autour de Ordures les composts des paysompos age. industrialiss. La proportion quilibre des oligo-lments et la

  15. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NO{sub x} emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

  16. A PROPOS DE L'HISTORICITE DES FORETS SACREES DE L'ANCIENNE COTE DES ESCLAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A PROPOS DE L'HISTORICITE DES FORETS SACREES DE L'ANCIENNE COTE DES ESCLAVES Dominique Juhé'autres nuancent cette opinion et signalent que, dans quelques cas, les bois sacrés ne sont pas des formations sources anciennes. Cette région est constituée de plateaux de basse altitude. Ils sont formés au Nord par

  17. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL] [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  18. Liste des Livres 2013 Group theory in physics : an introduction to symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud 11, Universit de

    , MARTIN P., BIOTOPE EDITIONS, 2011 TU MOURRAS MOINS BETE. TOME 1: LA SCIENCE, C'EST PAS DU CINEMA mechanics with applications to nanotechnology and information science, Band Y.B., Avishai Y., Academic Press'impact on science. Solid state and liquid crystal. Vol 1, Bok J., Prost J., Brochard-Wyart F., World Scientific

  19. Grosplansurl'anne desMathspourlaTerre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dambrine, Marc

    de l'nergie, qu'elle soit sous forme d'lectricit, de chaleur ou de gaz comme l primerl'air,quipourratredtenduult rieurement dans des turbines afin de restituer l'lectricit quand

  20. Ecole Doctorale des Sciences et de Technologie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    cellules pigment photosensible (en anglais DSSC, Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). En 1991, Grtzel a rintroduit l'effet photo- lectrochimique en dveloppant la premire DSSC, une des cellules solaire troisime

  1. Fachprfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt

    Fachprfungsordnung des Masterstudiengangs Health Care Management an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt Greifs- wald die folgende Prfungsordnung fr den Masterstudiengang (M. Sc.) ,,Health Care Management Prfungsverfahren im Studiengang ,,Health Care Management". Ergnzend gilt die Gemeinsame Prfungsord- nung fr

  2. Gestion des ressources humaines Dveloppement organisationnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spino, Claude

    international Finances Analyse financire Prparation et valuation d'appels d'offres Dveloppement de systmes organisation! DES EXEMPLES DE CE QUE NOS STAGIAIRES PEUVENT FAIRE POUR VOUS Management / Gestion Planification financiers Dossier de financement Recherche en fiscalit

  3. Thorie des Langages -TD 7 AUTOMATES PILE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonzon, Elise

    Théorie des Langages - TD 7 AUTOMATES ? PILE Exercice 1 - Donnez deux automates à pile (acceptation par pile vide ; par état final) qui reconnaissent chacun des langages suivants : 1. L1 = {anbm|n,m 0 l'automate à pile suivant reconnaissant le langage L par état final : 0 1 3 2 a, Z0/AZ0 , A/ a, A

  4. soleil, parce que les pinceaux lumineux qui forment les images sont moins dlis et les foyers moins prcis.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    AU PHNOMNE DE PELTIER; PAR M. BOUTY. 1. On sait que, quand on dcompose par la pile un sel dissous les phnomnes observs soit l'action chimique principale, soit une cause analogue celle qui part la pro- duction du courant que celle-l seule se distrib

  5. Colloque L'enfant combattant. Pratiques et reprsentations. Universit de Picardie Jules Verne, Centre d'Histoire des Socits, des Sciences et des Conflits (CHS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ://www.enfance-violence-exil.net : rubrique Colloques Vulnrabilit et discours humanitaires : le cas-limite des enfants-soldats Laure Wolmark discours, rencontre les limites de sa pertinence dans le cas des dits enfants-soldats . Je comprends les armes et la dmobilisation et la rinsertion sociale des enfants soldats en Afrique, un groupe de

  6. Bilan de la digestion des matires azotes du lait et des bactries cultives sur mthanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Bilan de la digestion des matires azotes du lait et des bactries cultives sur mthanol la fin digestion at the end of the small intestine and the digestive tract of the preruminant calf. Two milk and synthetic amino acids (bacteria diet). Nine Friesian bull calves were used : digestibility was measured

  7. Contribution du gros intestin la digestion des glucides et des matires azotes chez le monogastrique omnivore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Contribution du gros intestin la digestion des glucides et des matires azotes chez le-en-Josas (France). Summary. Contribution of the large intestine to the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins in omnivorous simple-stomached animals. Owing to its special situation in relation to the rest of the digestive

  8. EXTRACTION DE CONNAISSANCES PARTIR DES DONNEES ET DES TEXTES (ECD ET ECT "DATA & TEXT MINING")

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    1 EXTRACTION DE CONNAISSANCES PARTIR DES DONNEES ET DES TEXTES (ECD ET ECT "DATA & TEXT MINING'Extraction de Connaissances partir de Textes (ECT, "Text Mining") comme un descendant direct de l'Extraction de Connaissances partir de Donnes (ECD, "Data Mining"). Le point fondamental qui distingue ces

  9. Michel Grossetti Centre d'tude des rationalits et des savoirs (Cers)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Michel Grossetti Centre d'tude des rationalits et des savoirs (Cers) Universit de Toulouse. The scientific histories of the two towns are very similar since the creation of electrical institutes industrial firms with R&D activities are concentrated in the Paris area and in provincial towns. Except

  10. INFO-F-309 Administration des Systmes TP1: Installation de Linux et gestion des packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collette. Sbastien

    INFO-F-309 Administration des Systmes TP1: Installation de Linux et gestion des packagesBox. Ensuite nous verrons comment fonctionne la gestion de packages, la mise jour du systme et l la gestion de packages. 2 Installation de Linux 2.1 Prparation Surtout lorsqu'il s'agit d'un serveur

  11. Actes du colloque, fvrier 2003, Montpellier, France N Organisation spatiale et gestion des ressources et des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Actes du colloque, fvrier 2003, Montpellier, France N Organisation spatiale et gestion des l'origine d'une extrme diversit des scnarios d'volution : Le cas de la zone tampon de la rserve cas de la zone tampon de la rserve de U Minh Thong (delta du Mkong, Vietnam). L'objectif de ce

  12. Workshop 2emc 2010 -Modlisation et mesure des couplages en champ proche des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Workshop 2emc 2010 - Modélisation et mesure des couplages en champ proche des composants de filtre.Prof.Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, N. 158. CEP- 05508-970- São Paulo,SP-Brasil, sartori@pea,usp,br. . Abstract : EMC filters compatibility (EMC), near-field, equivalent radiated source, multipolar expansion. 1. INTRODUCTION EMC filters

  13. ISDA 2010, Montpellier 28-30 Juin 2010 1 CONTRIBUTIONS DES PARTENARIATS POUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CONNAISSANCES AGRONOMIQUES SUR LA GESTION DE L'HERBE ET DEVELOPPER DES OUTILS ACTIONNABLES PAR DES CONSEILLERS'quipe Orphe (Outils modles et Rfrences Pour la gestion des systmes HErbagErs) produire des connaissancesISDA 2010, Montpellier 28-30 Juin 2010 1 CONTRIBUTIONS DES PARTENARIATS POUR CONCEVOIR DES

  14. The Production and Analysis of Biodiesel from Waste Chicken Skin and Pork Skin Fat and a Comparison of Fuel Properties to Petroleum Derived Diesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krish T Bharat; Agni Bhattacharya

    AbstractPeople today are increasingly health conscious and therefore shopkeepers tend to dispose of fatty chicken and pork skin. Chicken and pork skins thus are sources of solid waste that are usually not utilized. This paper deals with the production of useful biodiesel from utilizing the waste chicken and pork skins. Fat from the waste chicken and pork skins (sourced from local shops), was first extracted and subjected to transesterification. The products of transesterification were FAME (Fatty acid methyl esters) and glycerol. The FAME produced was tested for five parameters namely calorific value, pour point and cloud point when compared to ASTM E2515-11 standard values. Comparison of the obtained values of the five parameters with the standard values for diesel was performed to determine the viability of the biodiesel produced. The results of this experiment showed that the calorific values of FAME produced from chicken skin and pork skin fat were close to that of petroleum derived diesel. However, two test parameters namely kinematic viscosity and pour point differed when compared to diesel; this problem can be circumvented by modifying an automobiles internal combustion engine. Due to the relatively high yield value of biodiesel, it is feasible to utilize chicken skin and pork skin fat at a rural level to produce FAME that can be an alternative to diesel in this time of acute fuel scarcity.

  15. Gocarrefour, n 84/4, 2009, pp. 229-239 Gohistoire/go-histoire : quelles mthodes pour quel rcit ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    -Marc Antoine*, Bertrand Desailly*, Anne Peltier* Introduction Les sources historiques, du moins dans les pays crue torrentielle, n'est plus dmontrer. Elle rejoint celle des repres de crues sur les faades des

  16. LECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    LECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS. Sommaire. - I. Electrisation des hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides s'lectrisent (ngativement) lorsqu'ils s hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides mani- festent trois rgimes de conduction : 1 En couches paisses

  17. als bestandteil des: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    berexprimiert. Das kodierende Onkogen BMI1 ist ein direktes Zielgen des (more) Fehr, Daniel 2007-01-01 8 Structures Al-Al2O3-InP : Analyse des processus de drive et valuation...

  18. adsorption dans des: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de Px par exemple ; Py s Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 48 Commande des liaisons HVDC dans un contexte reseau Physics Websites Summary: Commande des liaisons HVDC dans un...

  19. CONTRIBUTION A L'TUDE DES COMPORTEMENTS DYSFONCTIONNELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    [1] CONTRIBUTION A L'TUDE DES COMPORTEMENTS DYSFONCTIONNELS DES AUDITEURS SENIORS : UNE APPROCHE MANAGRIALE (LE CAS FRANAIS) Ins GADDOUR, doctorante, Universit Paris-Dauphine, ines avoir un impact significatif sur tels comportements. Ensuite, nous tenterons d'identifier d

  20. LE SECRET DE LALE SECRET DE LA LONGVIT DESLONGVIT DES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St-Ong, Guillaume

    LE SECRET DE LALE SECRET DE LA LONGVIT DESLONGVIT DES PALOURDESPALOURDES MULTI 23 9 4 Le secret de la longvit des palourdes multi-centenaires 7 La microalgue Haslea ostrearia au

  1. absorption des wasserstoffs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . . . . . . . . 41 3.2.2 Kristallines Eis im Volumen Wolf, Martin 5 ABSORPTION PHOTOLECTRIQUE DES RAYONS 03B3 DANS LA COUCHE L DES ATOMES Par Mme NADINE MARTY....

  2. LE DEVENIR DES DIPLMS DE LICENCE PROFESSIONNELLE 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanjean, Louis

    durant plusieurs semaines afin de contac- ter les diplms n'ayant pas rpondu. Au final, 72,8 % des

  3. LETTRES A LA RDACTION DIFFUSION LASTIQUE DES PHOTONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    spectrometrie par scintillation 6choue, 6 cause des empilements de photons diffus6s de basse nergie. FIG. 1

  4. Diplme Inter Universitaire TUDE et PRISE en CHARGE des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Universit de

    services de Mdecine et de Psychiatrie, amens participer la prise en charge des suicidants (infirmiers

  5. Diplme d'Universit VALUATION ET TRAITEMENT DES DOULEURS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Universit de

    Module : Evaluation et Prise en charge des douleurs Douleur chez l'enfant Douleurs et soins infirmiers

  6. Espace Populations Socits, numro spcial les temporalits des populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -3 (2007) 305-316" #12;(Boulin et Mückenberger 2002). Des initiatives politiques, la mise en place de

  7. Digestion des glucides chez le monogastrique Martine CHAMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Digestion des glucides chez le monogastrique Martine CHAMP Laboratoire de Techno%gie des Aliments des Animaux, /. N. R.A., Rue de la Graudire, 44072 Nantes Cedex. Summary. Carbohydrate digestion digested in the small intestine of monogastric animals by enzymes of the salivary glands, pancreas

  8. 10 000 ans de fonte des glaciers andins expliqus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N 377 Juin 2011 10 000 ans de fonte des glaciers andins expliqus Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualit scientifique Si la fonte des glaciers a largement t dmontre dans le monde, le cas particulier des glaciers tropi- caux n'est pas encore bien connu. Ces derniers sont principalement situs dans

  9. PLC IMPLEMENTATION OF A DES SUPERVISOR FOR A MANUFACTURING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leduc, Ryan

    PLC IMPLEMENTATION OF A DES SUPERVISOR FOR A MANUFACTURING TESTBED: AN IMPLEMENTATION PERSPECTIVE Copyright by Ryan James Leduc 1996 #12;Title: PLC Implementation of A DES Supervisor for a Manufacturing, and issues involved in implementing DES supervisors on programmable logic controllers (PLC). A PLC based

  10. Phenomene couple thermo-hydro-mecanique des roches fracturees: Recents developpements des methodes de modelisation et tests de validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    95-54 Phenomene couple thermo-hydro-mecanique des roches fracturees: Recents developpements des methodes de modelisation et tests de validation Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in fractured fracture.La deuxiemequestion concemela modelisation des phenomenes couples thenno-hydro-mecaniques. L

  11. Modlisation des meta-donnes bibliographiques : une contribution ins-trumente destine amliorer la circulation des usagers dans les

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Modlisation des meta-donnes bibliographiques : une contribution ins- trumente destine .fr fabrice.papy@univ-paris8.fr Rsum La gestion des connaissances au sein des biblio- thques sociologue Francis Pav [Pav 89] a montr partir de cas concrets que ces prsupposs relevaient d'un forme

  12. Influence des conditions de conservation des bulbes d'chalote (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) sur leur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Influence des conditions de conservation des bulbes d'chalote (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) sur leur leve Joseph COHAT LN.R.A., Station d'Amlioration de la Pomme de terre & des Plantes bulbes, F 29207 Landerneau RSUM Les bulbes d'chalote de Jersey (type demi-longue) sont dormants au moment de la

  13. Amtsblatt des Thringer Kultusministeriums und des Thringer Ministeriums fr Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst N r. 9/2002 Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knüpfer, Christian

    tritt am ersten Tage des auf ihre Veröffentlichung im Gemeinsamen Amtsblatt des Thüringer, Festkörperphysik, Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik) an." 3. Diese ?nderung tritt am ersten Tage des auf ihre

  14. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high?fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high?fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high?fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  15. Targeted Enhancement of H2 and CO2 Uptake for Autotrophic Production of Biodiesel in the Lithoautotrophic Bacterium Ralsonia Eutropha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, C. A.; Sullivan, R.; Johnson, C.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 and H2 are promising feedstocks for production of valuable biocompounds. Ralstonia eutropha utilizes these feedstocks to generate energy (ATP) and reductant (NAD(P)H) via oxidation of H2 by a membrane-bound (MBH) and a soluble hydrogenase (SH) for CO2 fixation by the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Increased expression of the enzyme that fixes CO2 (RubisCO) resulted in 6-fold activity improvement in vitro, while increased expression of the MBH operon or the SH operon plus MBH operon maturation factors necessary for activity resulted in a 10-fold enhancement. Current research involves genetic manipulation of two endogenous cbb operons for increased expression, analysis of expression and activity of CBB/MBH/SH, cofactor ratios, and downstream products during autotrophic growth in control versus enhanced strains, and development of strategies for long-term, optimal overexpression. These studies will improve our understanding of autotrophic metabolism and provide a chassis strain for autotrophic production of biodiesel and other valuable carbon biocompounds.

  16. Biodiesel versus diesel exposure: Enhanced pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, and differential morphological changes in the mouse lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Hatfield, Meghan K., E-mail: wla4@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Farcas, Mariana T., E-mail: woe7@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Hummer, Jon A., E-mail: qzh3@cdc.gov [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research/NIOSH/CDC, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Shurin, Michael R., E-mail: shurinmr@upmc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [NIOSH/CDC, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226 (United States); Gutkin, Dmitriy W., E-mail: dwgutkin@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kisin, Elena, E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Kagan, Valerian E., E-mail: kagan@pitt.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bugarski, Aleksandar D., E-mail: zjl1@cdc.gov [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research/NIOSH/CDC, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch/NIOSH/CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Department Physiology and Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D) is considered to be a viable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Due to its lower particulate mass emissions compared to D, use of BD is thought to alleviate adverse health effects. Considering BD fuel is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, we hypothesize that BD exhaust particles could induce pronounced adverse outcomes, due to their ability to readily oxidize. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of particles generated by engine fueled with neat BD and neat petroleum-based D. Biomarkers of tissue damage and inflammation were significantly elevated in lungs of mice exposed to BD particulates. Additionally, BD particulates caused a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins and an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors was higher in lungs upon BD particulate exposure. Histological evaluation of lung sections indicated presence of lymphocytic infiltrate and impaired clearance with prolonged retention of BD particulate in pigment laden macrophages. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that BD exhaust particles could exert more toxic effects compared to D. - Highlights: Exposure of mice to BDPM caused higher pulmonary toxicity compared to DPM. Oxidative stress and inflammation were higher in BD vs to D exposed mice. Inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates were seen only in lungs of mice exposed to BD. Ineffective clearance, prolonged PM retention was present only after BD exposure.

  17. Centrales au gaz et Energies renouvelables: comparer des pommes avec des pommes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tes dans les Annual Energy Outlook contrat en contrat etde 10 dans son Annual Energy Outlook de % par rapport aules prix son Annual Energy Outlook de 2003. terme pour des

  18. Plan d'action rgional pour la conservation des chimpanzs et des gorilles en Afrique Centrale Plan d'action rgional pour la conservation des chimpanzs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    les lacunes en connaissances qu'il faut combler, à travers l'amélioration des méthodes de recensement par les chercheurs suggérant qu'ils avaient eu peu de contacts avec des humains auparavant. ©Nick gorilles de plaine d'Afrique Centrale. ©NickNichols,NGS #12;Plan d'action régional pour la conservation des

  19. INSTABILITS DYNAMIQUES ET HYSTRSIS DES TRANSITIONS RSISTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    TYPE II A L'TAT MIXTE (*) F. P. PELTIER et J. BAIXERAS Laboratoire de Gnie Electrique des Universits monte du courant. (*) Ce travail fait partie de la Thse de Troisime Cycle soutenue par F. P. Peltier #12;68 toujours infrieure celle correspondant l'tat normal de l'chantillon et dans ce dernier

  20. Revue internationale des technologies en pdagogie universitaire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    complexes ds que l'on s'affranchit de l'hypothse trs limitative des gaz parfaits. Il en rsulte que les simplement une turbine, un compresseur,une pompe,un changeur de chaleur,etc.,sans crire une seule quation

  1. The DES-Model and Its Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .3. Demand forecast models G 1.4. The European DESS-Model 8 2. ESSENTIALS OF THE DES-MODEL 10 2.1. Energy systems 58 6. PRIMARY ENERGY DEMAND AND ENERGY SYSTEM COSTS 59 6. 1. Energy demand forecasts 59 6.2. Fuel in the energy planning carried out for and by public authorities, energy utilities, oil companies, etc

  2. Index des auteurs ABELES Marc, 38

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    Index des auteurs 1 ABELES Marc, 38 ACHARD Pierre, 36 AGUER Pierre, 3 ALART Pierre, 9 ALBAREDE Francis, 13 ALBRECHT Michle, 4 ALBRECHT Pierre, 20 ALLEGRET Andr, 13 ALLET Christian, 12 ALLIES Paul, 40 ALLINQUANT Bernadette, 25 ALVINERIE Andr-Paul, 22 AMATORE Christian, 17 AMBROISE-THOMAS Pierre, 22 AMBROISE

  3. Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt

    1 Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt Greifswald die folgende Studienordnung fr den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Management" als Satzung Master- studiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt Greifswald

  4. Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt

    Studienordnung des Masterstudiengangs ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt Greifswald die fol- gende Studienordnung fr den Masterstudiengang ,,Health Care Manage- ment" als Satzung Masterstudiengang (M.Sc.) ,,Health Care Management" an der Ernst-Moritz- Arndt-Universitt Greifswald vom 15. Mrz

  5. Spcialisation et efficacit des intermdiaires du placement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Janvier 2009 Spcialisation et efficacit des intermdiaires du placement Christian Bessy placement CHRISTIAN BESSY Christian.bessy@idhe.ens-cachan.fr IDHE - ENS Cachan GUILLEMETTE DE LARQUIER INTERMDIAIRES DU PLACEMENT Christian Bessy, Guillemette de Larquier RESUME Les changements en cours dans les

  6. Service des finances Le saviez-vous ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . La certification ISO 9001 atteste qu'une organisation a dvelopp des pratiques de gestion qui responsable Penser autrement, acheter mieux ! L' Organisation internationale de normalisation (ISO) a publi durable dans une organisation : ISO 26 000 Responsabilit socitale. Une organisation engage envers le

  7. Des gestes simples pour limiter les risques La vie en collectivit, l'air confin et la multiplication des dplacements des personnes et

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heurteaux, Yanick

    dissmination dans l'air de virus par l'intermdiaire de la toux, de l'ternuement ou des postillons ; Le

  8. MISE AU POINT LES MOBILITS DES IONS DANS LES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    495. MISE AU POINT LES MOBILITS DES IONS DANS LES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES Par JACQUES MATHIEU, JEAN hydrocarbures liquides, on tudie la variation de cette mobilit en fonction de la viscosit du liquide et de la des- cription des mthodes de mesures des mobilits ioniques dans le cas des hydrocarbures liquides et

  9. Estimation adaptative des modeles vectoriels autoregressifs avec une variance dependant du

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    particuliers. Dans ce cadre nous proposons des estimateurs des Moindres Carr´es Ordinaires (MCO) et des estimateurs des MCO et MCA. Nous ´etendons leur r´esultats dans le cadre des VAR. Nous montrons que dans ce

  10. Division de la gestion de documents et des archives Marie-Victorin au Qubec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montral, Universit de

    Communiqu Division de la gestion de documents et des archives Marie-Victorin au Qubec Le 10 septembre 2011 -- La Division de la gestion de documents et des archives et la Direction des bibliothques s y verrez des paysages de la Gaspsie ou des photographies d'autochtones de la Cte-Nord ou de

  11. tude de la morbidit maternelle des populations rurales du Haut Atlas occidental marocain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dans le monde (UNICEF, 2008, p. 6). Au Maroc, le taux de mortalité maternelle demeure élevé et stable vulnérabilité au Maroc, Abdelmounaim ABOUSSAD, Mohamed CHERKAOUI et Patrice VIMARD (Ed.) (2010) 135-154" #12;M élevés dans les familles et les communautés les moins riches et les plus marginalisées. Au Maroc, malgré

  12. Colloque L'enfant combattant. Pratiques et reprsentations. Universit de Picardie Jules Verne, Centre d'Histoire des Socits, des Sciences et des Conflits (CHS) en partenariat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    'image bien connue, trop connue peut-tre, de l'enfant-soldat, utilise massivement par les mdia, voire parfois par la publicit. Cette image bien connue, c'est celle de l'enfant-soldat victime absolue des'hui entre 250 000 et 300 000 enfants- soldats impliqus dans des conflits inter ou intra-tatiques. Pourtant

  13. UNIVERSITE IBN TOFAIL FACULTE DES SCIENCES THESE DE DOCTORAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Professeur à la Faculté des Sciences de Rabat - Maroc Président Mr . A. GAUDRY Ingénieur de recherche au de Meknès - Maroc Rapporteur Mr . A. CHOUKRI Professeur à la Faculté des Sciences de Kénitra - Maroc Examinateur Mr. S. CHAKIRI Professeur à la Faculté des Sciences de Kénitra - Maroc Examinateur Mr . M

  14. PRINCIPALES CARACTERISTIQUES PHYSIONOMIQUES FLORISTIQUES DES FORMATIONS FORESTIERES

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    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (MOYENNE COTE D'IVOIRE) par J.L. DEVINEAU SOMMAIRE RESUME/SUMMARY 275 INTRODUCTION 275 Les lambeaux scleroxylon. Dans la plupart des cas plusieurs strates peuvent y être distinguées. Les profils présentés ici°13' de latitude Nord, place la région de Lamto sous l'influence d'un climat équatorial de transition

  15. aupres des piles: Topics by E-print Network

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    taient placs les dtecteurs. ?talonnage des canaux exprimentaux de la pile peuventtre . obturs compltement l'aide de blocs de graphite (dimen...

  16. A L'INSTITUT NATIONAL DES SCIENCES APPLIQUEES DE ROUEN

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    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    PREMELANGE PAUVRE A HAUTE PRESSION APPLIQUEES AUX TURBINES A GAZ tel-00009334,version1-30May2005 #12;tel................................................................................................................... 15 I. 4 - DIMENSIONNEMENT DES TURBINES A GAZ

  17. ENTRE LIBRE INSCRIPTION OBLIGATOIRE 8 alle des platanes, 64100 Bayonne

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    Dambrine, Marc

    EUROP?ENNES #12;MERCREDI 23 SEPTEMBRE 16H ACCUEIL DES PARTICIPANTS Jean-Louis GOUT, Président de l

  18. CPC, des threads coopratifs par passage de continuations Gabriel Kerneis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chroboczek, Juliusz - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

    'utiliser un -calcul avec affectations [26] et des variantes d'IMP [36] sous forme de règles de réécriture [19

  19. applications des radioelements: Topics by E-print Network

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    occurs along the epitaxial direction. The comparison Silicium Sur Isolant (SSI, ou SOS : Silicon On Sapphire), matriau privilgi des circuits suhmi-...

  20. application des isotopes: Topics by E-print Network

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    occurs along the epitaxial direction. The comparison Silicium Sur Isolant (SSI, ou SOS : Silicon On Sapphire), matriau privilgi des circuits suhmi-...

  1. application diagnostic des: Topics by E-print Network

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    occurs along the epitaxial direction. The comparison Silicium Sur Isolant (SSI, ou SOS : Silicon On Sapphire), matriau privilgi des circuits suhmi-...

  2. applications des procedes: Topics by E-print Network

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    occurs along the epitaxial direction. The comparison Silicium Sur Isolant (SSI, ou SOS : Silicon On Sapphire), matriau privilgi des circuits suhmi-...

  3. application clinique des: Topics by E-print Network

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    occurs along the epitaxial direction. The comparison Silicium Sur Isolant (SSI, ou SOS : Silicon On Sapphire), matriau privilgi des circuits suhmi-...

  4. application des fantomes: Topics by E-print Network

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    occurs along the epitaxial direction. The comparison Silicium Sur Isolant (SSI, ou SOS : Silicon On Sapphire), matriau privilgi des circuits suhmi-...

  5. application des chargeurs: Topics by E-print Network

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    occurs along the epitaxial direction. The comparison Silicium Sur Isolant (SSI, ou SOS : Silicon On Sapphire), matriau privilgi des circuits suhmi-...

  6. au seisme des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 69 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  7. au developpement des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 96 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  8. au traitement des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 165 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  9. au coeur des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 139 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  10. au christianisme des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 73 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  11. au stockage des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 82 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  12. au respect des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 71 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  13. au transport des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 76 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  14. au comite des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 125 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  15. au suivi des: Topics by E-print Network

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    MYCOPLASMA BOVIS : SUIVI PIDMIOLOGIQUE ET CLINIQUE DANS DES LEVAGES BOVINS LAITIERS AU MAROC Physics Websites Summary: INFECTION ? MYCOPLASMA BOVIS : SUIVI ?PID?MIOLOGIQUE...

  16. au calcul des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 93 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  17. au point des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 99 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  18. au niveau des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 170 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  19. au moyen des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 183 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  20. au sein des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 163 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  1. au secteur des: Topics by E-print Network

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    frquentation des Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 42 Opportunits d'investissement au Maroc M. Mohammed AMRABT Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: secondaire 29,7% Secteur...

  2. au retraitement des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 115 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  3. au diagnostic des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 72 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  4. au temps des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 160 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  5. au titre des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 142 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  6. au service des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 116 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  7. au voisinage des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 103 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  8. au conditionnement des: Topics by E-print Network

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    XI, Universit de 74 L'intgration des Supply chains Internationales impliques au Maroc : Le rle du contexte culturel. Physics Websites Summary: -organisationnelle occupe une...

  9. appendices inventaire des: Topics by E-print Network

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    de projet Pierre Veilleux, tech, Groupe normes DGPSP-RRPSP Jean-Yves Allard, tech. spc. for. Direction des oprations intgres du Bas-Saint-Laurent Francine Bart,...

  10. !"#$%&'()&"*'+,"('+(-.'(/'(01$2,'+,%$+( !"#$%&!'#!'#()*+'"%#!'#,-cole des Mines de Nantes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Marc Menaud, HdR, cole des Mines de Nantes M. Jean-Pierre Gudon, Professeur, cole Polytechnique de Nantes M

  11. Foto mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan

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    Dettweiler, Michael

    Foto mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan Foto mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan Samstag . . , H FAN

  12. Unit de recherche Intelsig (Exploitation des signaux et des images) Dpartement d'Electricit, Electronique et Informatique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Embrechts, Jean-Jacques

    'installation des parcs éoliens marins, l'enfoncement des pylônes dans le fond marin génère des niveaux sonores très source. Tester et valider le code en propagation 2D et 3D en eaux profondes et peu profondes. Tester et valider le code par rapport à un ensemble de mesures in-situ qui seront mises à la disposition de l

  13. Sonie directionnelle en basse frquence Effet sur des sons purs latraliss uniquement par des diffrences de temps

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    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sonie directionnelle en basse fréquence Effet sur des sons purs latéralisés uniquement par des varie elle aussi en fonction de l'azimut. Ce phénomène est connu en tant que sonie directionnelle et variation de sonie observée pour différents azimuts était supérieure à ce qui pouvait être attendu des

  14. LA CAVITATION A L'ORIGINE DES BRUITS DU COEUR ET DES ACCIDENTS DE DCOMPRESSION EN PLONGE.

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    1 LA CAVITATION A L'ORIGINE DES BRUITS DU COEUR ET DES ACCIDENTS DE D?COMPRESSION EN PLONG?E. R'un phénomène de cavitation à l'origine des bruits de Korotkoff. Encouragés par l'aphorisme de MacDonald comme quoi le phénomène de cavitation est plus fréquent qu'on peut le penser dans le système cardio

  15. Article paru dans le journal de la Socit de Biologie, 202 (3), 201-211 (2008) La production de biocarburant lipidique avec des microalgues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, Olivier

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , cyanobactries, lipides, biodiesel. ABSTRACT : Lipid biofuel production with microalgae: potential and challenges : biofuel, microalgae, cyanobacteria, oil, biodiesel. #12;Article paru dans le journal de la Socit de Microalgae can accumulate fatty acids up to 80% of their dry weight (Chisti 2007). As a consequence the yield

  16. Rectorat de l'acadmie de paris Annexe 4 DP 7 DP 8

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    Mesbah, Mounir

    'avancement Conditions requises Date d'examen des conditions Conditions requises INFIRMIER HORS CLASSE - au moins 1 an d INFIRMIER DE CLASSE SUPERIEURE - au moins 9 ans de services effectifs dans un corps ou cadre d'emplois d'infirmiers de catgorie A ou dans un corps militaire d'infirmiers de niveau quivalent ; - dont 4 annes

  17. INSTITUT DES SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES cole doctorale nO

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    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ) Les performances des moteurs combustion interne sont limites par la quantit de gaz que leur tudes de cas : un turbocompresseur gomtrie fixe sur un moteur essence, une turbine gomtrie variable sur un moteur Diesel avec deux circuits de recirculation des gaz brls, et un turbocompresseur

  18. APPLICATION DES PALIERS A GAZ AUX GYROSCOPES Par G. GOBERT,

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    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    43 APPLICATION DES PALIERS A GAZ AUX GYROSCOPES Par G. GOBERT, Centre d'tudes Nuclaires de Saclay. Rsum. 2014 L'tude des frottements dans les paliers lubrification par gaz permet de cons- truire un avec, au centre, une turbine raction. Ces rotors sont placs entre deux butes coniques mtalliques

  19. Explorer : des cls pour mieux comprendre la matire

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les thories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'acclrateur fasse trembler le modle standard. Cette thorie des particules lmentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expriences ont t conus pour les clairer.

  20. PROJETS EN PPP, CONTRAINTE BUDGTAIRE ET CHOIX DES INVESTISSEMENTS

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    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PROJETS EN PPP, CONTRAINTE BUDG?TAIRE ET CHOIX DES INVESTISSEMENTS Rémy Prud'homme & Pierre Kopp1 1er mars 2006 JEL H43, H54 "Projets en PPP, contrainte budgétaire et choix des investissements Privé (PPP). Le financement est alors mixte : subvention publique et investissement privé. Parmi un