Sample records for der distributed energy

  1. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility need business model and an independent energy aggregator-business model. The approach of developing two group models of DER energy participation in the market is unique. The Detroit Edison (DECo, Utility)-led team includes: DTE Energy Technologies (Dtech, DER provider), Electrical Distribution Design (EDD, Virginia Tech company supporting EPRI’s Distribution Engineering Workstation, DEW), Systems Integration Specialists Company (SISCO, economic scheduling and real-time protocol integrator), and OSIsoft (PI software system for managing real-time information). This team is focused on developing the application engineering, including software systems necessary for DER’s integration, control and sale into the market place. Phase II Highlights Installed and tested an ICCP link with SSL (security) between DECo, the utility, and DTE Energy Technologies (DTECH), the aggregator, making DER data available to the utility for both monitoring and control. Installed and tested PI process book with circuit & DER operational models for DECo SOC/ROC operator’s use for monitoring of both utility circuit and customer DER parameters. The PI Process Book models also included DER control for the DECo SOC/ROC operators, which was tested and demonstrated control. The DER Tagging and Operating Procedures were developed, which allowed that control to be done in a safe manner, were modified for required MOC/MISO notification procedures. The Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW) was modified to include temperature normalized load research statistics, using a 30 hour day-ahead weather feed. This allowed day-ahead forecasting of the customer load profile and the entire circuit to determine overload and low voltage problems. This forecast at the point of common coupling was passed to DTech DR SOC for use in their economic dispatch algorithm. Standard Work Instructions were developed for DER notification, sale, and operation into the MISO market. A software mechanism consisting of a suite of new and revised functionality was developed that integrated with the local ISO such that offe

  2. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  3. Connecting Distributed Energy Resources to the Grid: Their Benefits to the DER Owner etc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poore, WP

    2003-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The vision of the Distributed Energy Research Program (DER) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is that the United States will have the cleanest and most efficient and reliable energy system in the world by maximizing the use of affordable distributed energy resources. Electricity consumers will be able to choose from a diverse number of efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly distributed energy options and easily connect them into the nation's energy infrastructure while providing benefits to their owners and other stakeholders. The long-term goal of this vision is that DER will achieve a 20% share of new electric capacity additions in the United States by 2010, thereby helping to make the nation's electric power generation and delivery system more efficient, reliable, secure, clean, economical, and diverse in terms of fuel use (oil, natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, etc.) and prime mover resource (solar, wind, gas turbines, etc.). Near- and mid-term goals are to develop new technologies for implementing and operating DER and address barriers associated with DER usage and then to reduce costs and emissions and improve the efficiency and reliability of DER. Numerous strategies for meeting these goals have been developed into a research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports generation and delivery systems architecture, including modeling and simulation tools. The benefits associated with DER installations are often significant and numerous. They almost always provide tangible economic benefits, such as energy savings or transmission and distribution upgrade deferrals, as well as intangible benefits, such as power quality improvements that lengthen maintenance or repair intervals for power equipment. Also, the benefits routinely are dispersed among end users, utilities, and the public. For instance, an end user may use the DER to reduce their peak demand and save money due to lower demand charges. Reduced end user peak demand, in turn, may lower a distribution system peak load such that upgrades are deferred or avoided. This could benefit other consumers by providing them with higher reliability and power quality as well as avoiding their cost share of a distribution system upgrade. In this example, the costs of the DER may be born by the end user, but that user reaps only a share of the benefits. This report, the first product of a study to quantify the value of DER, documents initial project efforts to develop an assessment methodology. The focus of currently available site-specific DER assessment techniques are typically limited to two parties, the owner/user and the local utility. Rarely are the impacts on other stakeholders, including interconnected distribution utilities, transmission system operators, generating system operators, other local utility customers, local and regional industry and business, various levels of government, and the environment considered. The goal of this assessment is to quantify benefits and cost savings that accrue broadly across a region, recognizing that DER installations may have local, regional, or national benefits.

  4. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectively use

  5. Evaluation of Distribution Analysis Software for DER Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, RH

    2003-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The term ''Distributed energy resources'' or DER refers to a variety of compact, mostly self-contained power-generating technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems and used to improve the operation of the electricity distribution system, whether or not those technologies are connected to an electricity grid. Implementing DER can be as simple as installing a small electric generator to provide backup power at an electricity consumer's site. Or it can be a more complex system, highly integrated with the electricity grid and consisting of electricity generation, energy storage, and power management systems. DER devices provide opportunities for greater local control of electricity delivery and consumption. They also enable more efficient utilization of waste heat in combined cooling, heating and power (CHP) applications--boosting efficiency and lowering emissions. CHP systems can provide electricity, heat and hot water for industrial processes, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control to improve indoor air quality. DER technologies are playing an increasingly important role in the nation's energy portfolio. They can be used to meet base load power, peaking power, backup power, remote power, power quality, as well as cooling and heating needs. DER systems, ranging in size and capacity from a few kilowatts up to 50 MW, can include a number of technologies (e.g., supply-side and demand-side) that can be located at or near the location where the energy is used. Information pertaining to DER technologies, application solutions, successful installations, etc., can be found at the U.S. Department of Energy's DER Internet site [1]. Market forces in the restructured electricity markets are making DER, both more common and more active in the distribution systems throughout the US [2]. If DER devices can be made even more competitive with central generation sources this trend will become unstoppable. In response, energy providers will be forced to both fully acknowledge the trend and plan for accommodating DER [3]. With bureaucratic barriers [4], lack of time/resources, tariffs, etc. still seen in certain regions of the country, changes still need to be made. Given continued technical advances in DER, the time is fast approaching when the industry, nation-wide, must not only accept DER freely but also provide or review in-depth technical assessments of how DER should be integrated into and managed throughout the distribution system. Characterization studies are needed to fully understand how both the utility system and DER devices themselves will respond to all reasonable events (e.g., grid disturbances, faults, rapid growth, diverse and multiple DER systems, large reactive loads). Some of this work has already begun as it relates to operation and control of DER [5] and microturbine performance characterization [6,7]. One of the most urgently needed tools that can provide these types of analyses is a distribution network analysis program in combination with models for various DER. Together, they can be used for (1) analyzing DER placement in distribution networks and (2) helping to ensure that adequate transmission reliability is maintained. Surveys of the market show products that represent a partial match to these needs; specifically, software that has been developed to plan electrical distribution systems and analyze reliability (in a near total absence of DER). The first part of this study (Sections 2 and 3 of the report) looks at a number of these software programs and provides both summary descriptions and comparisons. The second part of this study (Section 4 of the report) considers the suitability of these analysis tools for DER studies. It considers steady state modeling and assessment work performed by ORNL using one commercially available tool on feeder data provided by a southern utility. Appendix A provides a technical report on the results of this modeling effort.

  6. Optimizing Distributed Energy Resources and Building Retrofits with the Strategic DER-CAModel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    net, final and primary energy demand for heating, cooling,40% of the total final energy demand in Europe, and 36% ofDirect reduction of energy demand and increased use of

  7. Optimizing Distributed Energy Resources and Building Retrofits with the Strategic DER-CAModel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable Energy Project Analysis Software” (RETScreen) was developed from RETScreen International, Canada

  8. The urban design of distributed energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehan, Travis (Travis P.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) are a considerable research focus for cities to reach emissions reduction goals and meet growing energy demand. DERs, consisting of local power plants and distribution infrastructure, ...

  9. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a DER system. Distributed Energy Resources at Naval BaseFebruary 2003. “Distributed Energy Resources in Practice: A2004. “Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model

  10. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand ResponseControl of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Responseinstalled distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of

  11. Distributed energy resources in practice: A case study analysis and validation of LBNL's customer adoption model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen; Creighton, Charles; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pharmingen Distributed Energy Resources in Practice Tablemany regions. Distributed Energy Resources in Practice 10.of µGrid Distributed Energy Resource Potential Using DER-CAM

  12. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  13. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project...

  14. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alex Farrell of the Energy and Resources Group, UniversityMicrogrid Distributed Energy Resource Potential Using DER-of Distributed Energy Resources: The CERTS MicroGrid

  15. Victor Der | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of Energy MicrosoftVOLUME I ATheJuneEnergy Savings ForVictor

  16. Designing pricing strategies for coordination of networked distributed energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Designing pricing strategies for coordination of networked distributed energy resources Bahman, by a group of distributed energy resources (DERs). The aggregator interacts with the wholesale electricity. The objective is for the aggregator to design a pricing strategy for incentivizing DERs to modify their active

  17. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase DER adoption, and thus, shift building energy consumption to a more efficient alternative.

  18. Smart Grid Demos Provide Guidance on Integrating DER and RES into the Distribution System with Consideration of Transmission Impacts, Market Signals, and Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Hamilton, Stephanie [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)] [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Smith, Merrill [U.S. Department of Energy] [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the overall process for developing a planning criteria and deployment strategy for technology applications under the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Smart Grid programs. These activities described provide an understanding of each demonstration and how they individually and as group further industry knowledge of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Renewable Energy Sources (RES) impact the grid and how the distribution grid can interact with DER and RES in smart ways. Both USDOE through its Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration (RDSI) and EPRI via its Smart Grid Demonstration Program both assess how DER and RES can be integrated and operated to lower the carbon footprint.

  19. Fluorocarbons: Surface Free Energies and van der Waals Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Letters Fluorocarbons: Surface Free Energies and van der Waals Interaction Calum J. Drummond surface free energies based on contact angle measurements with dispersive organic liquids depend of dispersive materials, the surface free energy per unit area of a solid organic material can be used

  20. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  1. DER-CAM V3.10.5M

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003010IBMPC04 Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), Investment & Planing Version 3.10.5.m   

  2. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CAM Analysis of Policy, Tariff Design, Building Energy Use,14 3.3 Comparison of Utility Tariffs in Japan and the14 Table 4: Electricity Tariffs at Several Facilities in the

  3. Collaborative Broker for Distributed Energy Resources Joo Carlos Ferreira1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    knowledge. The energy broker uses an Information Communication Technology (ICT) network in orderCollaborative Broker for Distributed Energy Resources João Carlos Ferreira1 , Alberto Rodrigues da the design of a system to handle Distributed Energy Resources (DER), which is a new reality due

  4. A van der Waals free energy in electrolytes revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jancovici

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of three electrolytes separated by two parallel planes is considered. Each region is described by a dielectric constant and a Coulomb fluid in the Debye-H\\"uckel regime. In their book Dispersion Forces, Mahanty and Ninham have given the van der Waals free energy of this system. We rederive this free energy by a different method, using linear response theory and the electrostatic Maxwell stress tensor for obtaining the dispersion force.

  5. Sandia Energy - Distributed Energy Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    volatile than ever before, making frequency regulation, voltage regulation, and power balancing operations more strenuous for grid operators. A distributed energy storage unit...

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Distributed Energy Resource Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, S.W.

    2003-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DER) offer many benefits, some of which are readily quantified. Other benefits, however, are less easily quantifiable because they may require site-specific information about the DER project or analysis of the electrical system to which the DER is connected. The purpose of this study is to provide analytical insight into several of the more difficult calculations, using the PJM power pool as an example. This power pool contains most of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware. The techniques used here could be applied elsewhere, and the insights from this work may encourage various stakeholders to more actively pursue DER markets or to reduce obstacles that prevent the full realization of its benefits. This report describes methodologies used to quantify each of the benefits listed in Table ES-1. These methodologies include bulk power pool analyses, regional and national marginal cost evaluations, as well as a more traditional cost-benefit approach for DER owners. The methodologies cannot however determine which stakeholder will receive the benefits; that must be determined by regulators and legislators, and can vary from one location to another.

  7. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    where both optimal installed capacity and profitability varyParameters DER-MaDiM Installed Capacity Energy Consumptiondifferent results, installed capacities, changes in energy

  8. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay , Chris

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates the need for 375 MW of new generating capacity (or about one new power plant) per week for the next 20 years, most of which is forecast to be fueled by natural gas. The Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability Program (DEER) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has set a national goal for DER to capture 20 percent of new electric generation capacity additions by 2020 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2000). Cumulatively, this amounts to about 40 GW of DER capacity additions from 2000-2020. Figure ES-1 below compares the EIA forecast and DEER's assumed goal for new DER by 2020 while applying the same definition of DER to both. This figure illustrates that the EIA forecast is consistent with the overall DEER DER goal. For the purposes of this study, Berkeley Lab needed a target level of small-scale DER penetration upon which to hinge consideration of benefits and costs. Because the AEO2002 forecasted only 3.1 GW of cumulative additions from small-scale DER in the residential and commercial sectors, another approach was needed to estimate the small-scale DER target. The focus here is on small-scale DER technologies under 500 kW. The technology size limit is somewhat arbitrary, but the key results of interest are marginal additional costs and benefits around an assumed level of penetration that existing programs might achieve. Berkeley Lab assumes that small-scale DER has the same growth potential as large scale DER in AEO2002, about 38 GW. This assumption makes the small-scale goal equivalent to 380,000 DER units of average size 100 kW. This report lays out a framework whereby the consequences of meeting this goal might be estimated and tallied up. The framework is built around a list of major benefits and a set of tools that might be applied to estimate them. This study lists some of the major effects of an emerging paradigm shift away from central station power and towards a more dispersed and heterogeneous power system. Seventeen societal effects of small-scale DER are briefly summarized. Each effect is rated as high, medium or low, on three different scales that will help determine the optimal social investment. The three scales are: the magnitude of the economic benefit; the likelihood that the benefit can be monetized in efficient markets, i.e. internalized; and how tractable it might be to quantify each benefit analytically. Some of the modeling tools that may be used to estimate these effects are described in the Appendix.

  9. AN INTEGRATED TEST ENVIRONMENT FOR DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS HueyDer Chu and John E Dobson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    1 AN INTEGRATED TEST ENVIRONMENT FOR DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS Huey­Der Chu and John E Dobson Centre ABSTRACT Software testing is an essential component in achieving software quality. However, it is a very, manual testing is unpopular and often inconsistently executed. Therefore, a powerful environment

  10. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Energy and Innovative Technologies; NEC Laboratories America Inc.; Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Bozchalui, Mohammed C.; Sharma, Ratnesh; Marnay, Chris; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  11. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  12. Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Policies & Programs Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Distributed generation...

  13. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  14. Advanced Communication and Control of Distributed Energy Resources at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haukur Asgeirsson; Richard Seguin

    2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective was to create the communication and control system, the process and the economic procedures that will allow owners (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) connected in parallel to the electric distribution to have their resources operated in a manner that protects the electric utility distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. The Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW) (a power flow and short circuit modeling tool) was modified to calculate the real-time characteristics of the distribution network based on the real-time electric distribution network information and provide DER operating suggestions to the Detroit Edison system operators so that regional electric stability is maintained. Part of the suggestion algorithm takes into account the operational availability of DER’s, which is known by the Energy Aggregator, DTE Energy Technologies. The availability information will be exchanged from DTE Energy Technologies to Detroit Edison. For the calculated suggestions to be used by the Detroit Edison operators, procedures were developed to allow an operator to operate a DER by requesting operation of the DER through DTE Energy Technologies. Prior to issuing control of a DER, the safety of the distribution network and personnel needs to be taken into account. This information will be exchanged from Detroit Edison to DTE Energy Technologies. Once it is safe to control the DER, DTE Energy Technologies will issue the control signal. The real-time monitoring of the DECo system will reflect the DER control. Multi-vendor DER technologies’ representing approximately 4 MW of capacity was monitored and controlled using a web-based communication path. The DER technologies included are a photovoltaic system, energy storage, fuel cells and natural gas/diesel internal combustion engine generators. This report documents Phase I result for the Detroit Edison (Utility) led team, which also includes: DTE Energy Technology (DER provider & Aggregator), Electrical Distribution Design (Virginia Tech company supporting DEW); Systems Integration Specialists Company (real-time protocol integrator); and OSIsoft (software system for managing real-time information). This work was performed in anticipation of being selected for Phase II of the Advanced Communication and Control of Distributed Energy Resources project.

  15. Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison.www.gastechnology.org 2 #12;Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated-Battelle for the Department of Energy Subcontract Number: 4000052360 GTI Project Number: 20441 New York State Energy Research

  16. Integration of distributed energy resources. The CERTS Microgrid Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseter, Robert; Akhil, Abbas; Marnay, Chris; Stephens, John; Dagle, Jeff; Guttromsom, Ross; Meliopoulous, A. Sakis; Yinger, Robert; Eto, Joe

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolutionary changes in the regulatory and operational climate of traditional electric utilities and the emergence of smaller generating systems such as microturbines have opened new opportunities for on-site power generation by electricity users. In this context, distributed energy resources (DER)--small power generators typically located at users' sites where the energy (both electric and thermal) they generate is used--have emerged as a promising option to meet growing customer needs for electric power with an emphasis on reliability and power quality. The portfolio of DER includes generators, energy storage, load control, and, for certain classes of systems, advanced power electronic interfaces between the generators and the bulk power provider. This white paper proposes that the significant potential of smaller DER to meet customers' and utilities' needs can be best captured by organizing these resources into MicroGrids.

  17. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year.

  18. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible example California {mu}Grid for use in this study and in future work. The work performed during this year demonstrates the viability of DER-CAM and of our approach to analyzing adoption of DER.

  19. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integrationand Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integration

  20. Distributed Energy Resources: Issues and Challenges Badrul H. Chowdhury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Chung-Li

    ; · Storage aspects of DER; · Microgrids; · Economic and operational aspects of DER; · Impact on power quality capacity, than centralized power units. DERs are power genera- tion or storage units that are connected of energy storage. If barriers can be removed, DERs can be valuable resources to the power generation

  1. VAN DER WAALS DISPERSION FORCE CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERFACIAL FREE ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VAN DER WAALS DISPERSION FORCE CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERFACIAL FREE ENERGY OF NEMATIC LIQUID energy of a nematic liquid crystal and the interfacial free energy of a nematic on a glass substrate. Introduction. -- The surface free energy of a nematic liquid crystal and the interfacial free energy of nematic

  2. Graphene on boron-nitride: Moiré pattern in the van der Waals energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neek-Amal, M. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee University, Lavizan, Tehran 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peeters, F. M. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial dependence of the van der Waals (vdW) energy between graphene and hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) is investigated using atomistic simulations. The van der Waals energy between graphene and h-BN shows a hexagonal superlattice structure identical to the observed Moiré pattern in the local density of states, which depends on the lattice mismatch and misorientation angle between graphene and h-BN. Our results provide atomistic features of the weak van der Waals interaction between graphene and BN which are in agreement with experiment and provide an analytical expression for the size of the spatial variation of the weak van der Waals interaction. We also found that the A-B-lattice symmetry of graphene is broken along the armchair direction.

  3. Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campusof Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, referring to the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) which was developed by the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), E-GAMS programmer is developed with a research of database of energy tariffs, DER (Distributed Energy Resources) technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption in Japan. E-GAMS is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills. In this research, by using E-GAMS, we present a tool to select the optimal combination of distributed energy system for an Ecological-Campus, Kitakyushu, Science and Research Park (KSRP). We discuss the effects of the combination of distributed energy technologies on the energy saving, economic efficiency and environmental benefits.

  4. Distributed Energy Resources at Naval Base Ventura County Building1512: A Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the second of a two-part study by BerkeleyLab of a DER (distributed energy resources) system at Navy Base VenturaCounty (NBVC). First, a preliminary assessment ofthe cost effectivenessof distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC)Building 1512 was conducted in response to the base s request for designassistance to the Federal Energy Management Program (Bailey and Marnay,2004). That report contains a detailed description of the site and theDER-CAM (Consumer Adoption Model) parameters used. This second reportcontains sensitivity analyses of key parameters in the DER system modelof Building 1512 at NBVC and additionally considers the potential forabsorption-powered refrigeration.The prior analysis found that under thecurrent tariffs, and given assumptions about the performance andstructure of building energy loads and available generating technologycharacteristics, installing a 600 kW DER system with absorption coolingand recovery heat capabilities could deliver cost savings of about 14percent, worth $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, thisstudy also suggested that significant savings could be obtained ifBuilding 1512 changed from its current direct access contract to a SCETOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) ratewithout installing a DER system. Evaluated on this tariff, the potentialsavings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent of thetotal bill, or $16,000 per year.

  5. Sandia Energy - Distributed Energy Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInApplied &ClimateContact Us

  6. van der Waals Interaction, Surface Free Energies, and Contact Angles: Dispersive Polymers and Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    van der Waals Interaction, Surface Free Energies, and Contact Angles: Dispersive Polymers and Liquids Calum J. Drummond*, and Derek Y. C. Chan CSIRO Division of Chemicals and Polymers, Private Bag 10 and ALVL are the non-retarded Hamaker constants for the heterointeraction between polymer and liquid across

  7. Distributed Energy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrack graphics4Dimitri Kusnezov - Chief Scientist

  8. Distributed Energy Resource Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Once a participating utility satisfies the minimum 2% requirement, the utility may invest in renewable energy facilities between 1 MW and 10 MW with a cumulative installed capacity equal to one p...

  9. Quasi-local-density approximation for a van der Waals energy functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John F. Dobson

    2003-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a possible form for a theory akin to local density functional theory, but able to produce van der Waals energies in a natural fashion. The usual Local Density Approximation (LDA) for the exchange and correlation energy $E_{xc}$ of an inhomogeneous electronic system can be derived by making a quasilocal approximation for the {\\it interacting} density-density response function $\\chi (\\vec{r},\\vec{r} ^{\\prime},\\omega)$, then using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and a Feynman coupling-constant integration to generate $E_{xc}$. The first new idea proposed here is to use the same approach except that one makes a quasilocal approximation for the {\\it bare} response $\\chi ^{0}$, rather than for $\\chi $. The interacting response is then obtained by solving a nonlocal screening integral equation in real space. If the nonlocal screening is done at the time-dependent Hartree level, then the resulting energy is an approximation to the full inhomogeneous RPA energy: we show here that the inhomogeneous RPA correlation energy contains a van der Waals term for the case of widely-separated neutral subsystems. The second new idea is to use a particularly simple way of introducing LDA-like local field corrrections into the screening equations, giving a theory which should remain reasonable for all separations of a pair of subsystems, encompassing both the van der Waals limit much as in RPA and the bonding limit much as in LDA theory.

  10. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, John; Ferguson, James; Ahmed-Zaid, Said; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Bennett, Keith

    2009-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho. Background: At its core, the technological challenge inherent in Wind Energy is the transformation of a highly variable form of energy to one which is compatible with the commercial power grid or another useful application. A major economic barrier to the success of distributed wind technology is the relatively high capital investment (and related long payback periods) associated with wind turbines. This project will carry out fundamental research and technology development to address both the technological and economic barriers. � Active drive train control holds the potential to improve the overall efficiency of a turbine system by allowing variable speed turbine operation while ensuring a tight control of generator shaft speed, thus greatly simplifying power conditioning. � Recent blade aerodynamic advancements have been focused on large, utility-scale wind turbine generators (WTGs) as opposed to smaller WTGs designed for distributed generation. Because of Reynolds Number considerations, blade designs do not scale well. Blades which are aerodynamically optimized for distributed-scale WTGs can potentially reduce the cost of electricity by increasing shaft-torque in a given wind speed. � Grid-connected electric generators typically operate at a fixed speed. If a generator were able to economically operate at multiple speeds, it could potentially convert more of the wind�s energy to electricity, thus reducing the cost of electricity. This research directly supports the stated goal of the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program for Distributed Wind Energy Technology: By 2007, reduce the cost of electricity from distributed wind systems to 10 to 15 cents/kWh in Class 3 wind resources, the same level that is currently achievable in Class 5 winds.

  11. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The following paper conducts a regional analysis of the U.S. and Chinese buildings? potential for adopting Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The expected economics of DER in 2020-2025 is modeled for a commercial and a multi-family residential building in different climate zones. The optimal building energy economic performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER CAM) which minimizes building energy costs for a typical reference year of operation. Several DER such as combined heat and power (CHP) units, photovoltaics, and battery storage are considered. The results indicate DER have economic and environmental competitiveness potential, especially for commercial buildings in hot and cold climates of both countries. In the U.S., the average expected energy cost savings in commercial buildings from DER CAM?s suggested investments is 17percent, while in Chinese buildings is 12percent. The electricity tariffs structure and prices along with the cost of natural gas, represent important factors in determining adoption of DER, more so than climate. High energy pricing spark spreads lead to increased economic attractiveness of DER. The average emissions reduction in commercial buildings is 19percent in the U.S. as a result of significant investments in PV, whereas in China, it is 20percent and driven by investments in CHP. Keywords: Building Modeling and Simulation, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Energy Efficiency, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), CO2 emissions 1. Introduction The transition from a centralized and fossil-based energy paradigm towards the decentralization of energy supply and distribution has been a major subject of research over the past two decades. Various concerns have brought the traditional model into question; namely its environmental footprint, its structural inflexibility and inefficiency, and more recently, its inability to maintain acceptable reliability of supply. Under such a troubled setting, distributed energy resources (DER) comprising of small, modular, electrical renewable or fossil-based electricity generation units placed at or near the point of energy consumption, has gained much attention as a viable alternative or addition to the current energy system. In 2010, China consumed about 30percent of its primary energy in the buildings sector, leading the country to pay great attention to DER development and its applications in buildings. During the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), China has implemented 371 renewable energy building demonstration projects, and 210 photovoltaics (PV) building integration projects. At the end of the 12th FYP, China is targeting renewable energy to provide 10percent of total building energy, and to save 30 metric tons of CO2 equivalents (mtce) of energy with building integrated renewables. China is also planning to implement one thousand natural gas-based distributed cogeneration demonstration projects with energy utilization rates over 70percent in the 12th FYP. All these policy targets require significant DER systems development for building applications. China?s fast urbanization makes building energy efficiency a crucial economic issue; however, only limited studies have been done that examine how to design and select suitable building energy technologies in its different regions. In the U.S., buildings consumed 40percent of the total primary energy in 2010 [1] and it is estimated that about 14 billion m2 of floor space of the existing building stock will be remodeled over the next 30 years. Most building?s renovation work has been on building envelope, lighting and HVAC systems. Although interest has emerged, less attention is being paid to DER for buildings. This context has created opportunities for research, development and progressive deployment of DER, due to its potential to combine the production of power and heat (CHP) near the point of consumption and delivering multiple benefits to customers, such as cost

  12. Distributed Wind Energy Workshop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0andEnergyGlobal Nuclearof aDepartment-ofBenefits »DiscoverDistributed

  13. Abstract--The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources into microgrids and large power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    resources (DER), many of them based on renewable energies, have experimented an unprecedented growth of the renewable energy sources, and its integration into power systems. One of the main technical issues1 Abstract-- The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources

  14. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  15. Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources to Maximize the Use of Wind Power in Rural Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Chunlian; Zhang, Yu

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this paper is to design control strategies for distributed energy resources (DERs) to maximize the use of wind power in a rural microgrid. In such a system, it may be economical to harness wind power to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels for electricity production. In this work, we develop control strategies for DERs, including diesel generators, energy storage and demand response, to achieve high penetration of wind energy in a rural microgrid. Combinations of centralized (direct control) and decentralized (autonomous response) control strategies are investigated. Detailed dynamic models for a rural microgrid are built to conduct simulations. The system response to large disturbances and frequency regulation are tested. It is shown that optimal control coordination of DERs can be achieved to maintain system frequency while maximizing wind power usage and reducing the wear and tear on fossil fueled generators.

  16. Verband der Deutschen Biokraftstoffindustrie VDB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate HomeVela Jump to:I Wind Farm Jump to:II

  17. Release for Announcement In, Energy Research Abstracts REA'DER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 c/) Release for Announcement In, Energy

  18. Flexible DER Utility Interface System: Final Report, September 2004--May 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, J.; John, V.; Danial, S. M.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.; Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to accelerate deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) such as wind, solar, and conventional backup generators to our nation's electrical grid, Northern Power Systems (NPS), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated to create a prototype universal interconnect device called the DER Switch.

  19. 1 / 4 Tuesday, July 02, 2013 Version List for DER-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , heating, domestic hot water, and natural gas only only natural gas as energy carrier for combined heat, but with California Peak Day Pricing modeled http://der.lbl.gov/sites/ der.lbl.gov/files/LBNL- 6267E_0.pdf Web multi temperature heat storage (65C and 95C) multi-energy carrier for distributed energy resources

  20. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, Nancy H. (Corrales, NM); Boyes, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ranade, Satishkumar J. (Las Cruces, NM)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  1. Distributed Energy Alternative to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison Service Territory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute; Kelly, John [Endurant Energy LLC

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nation's power grid, specifically the New York region, faces burgeoning energy demand and suffers from congested corridors and aging equipment that cost New York consumers millions of dollars. Compounding the problem is high-density buildup in urban areas that limits available space to expand grid capacity. Coincidently, these urban areas are precisely where additional power is required. DER in this study refers to combined heat and power (CHP) technology, which simultaneously generates heat and electricity at or near the point where the energy will be consumed. There are multiple CHP options available that, combined with a portfolio of other building energy efficiency (EE) strategies, can help achieve a more efficient supply-demand balance than what the grid can currently provide. As an alternative to expanding grid capacity, CHP and EE strategies can be deployed in a flexible manner at virtually any point on the grid to relieve load. What's more, utilities and customers can install them in a variety of potentially profitable applications that are more environmentally friendly. Under the auspices of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory representing the Office of Electricity of the U.S. Department of Energy, Gas Technology Institute (GTI) conducted this study in cooperation with Consolidated Edison to help broaden the market penetration of EE and DER. This study provides realistic load models and identifies the impacts that EE and DER can have on the electrical distribution grid; specifically within the current economic and regulatory environment of a high load growth area of New York City called Hudson Yards in Midtown Manhattan. These models can be used to guide new policies that improve market penetration of appropriate CHP and EE technologies in new buildings. The following load modeling scenarios were investigated: (1) Baseline: All buildings are built per the Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State (No CHP applied and no EE above the code); (2) Current Policy: This is a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario that incorporates some EE and DER based on market potential in the current economic and regulatory environment; (3) Modified Rate 14RA: This economic strategy is meant to decrease CHP payback by removing the contract demand from, and adding the delivery charge to the Con Edison Standby Rate PSC2, SC14-RA; (4) Carbon Trade at $20/metric tonne (mt): This policy establishes a robust carbon trading system in NY that would allow building owners to see the carbon reduction resulting from CHP and EE.

  2. This document is a preprint version of the final paper: M. Soshinskaya, W. H. J. Graus, J. M. Guerrero, and J. C. Vasquez, "Microgrids: experiences, barriers and success factors," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014 Elsevier.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ; Renewable Energy; Islanding; Distributed Generation; Energy Storage; Barriers Acronyms greenhouse gas (GHG); distributed generation (DG); distributed energy resources (DER); distributed storage (DS); Distribution System production. This has led to increased implementation of distributed generation (DG) technologies, which

  3. Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration, October 2001 Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration, October 2001 This 2001 paper discusses the National Rural...

  4. Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004 Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004 The purpose of this report is to...

  5. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's SequimReactors ToDecisionDistribution Grid

  6. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuary 2004 |Distribution Workshop

  7. Remainder estimates for the Long Range Behavior of the van der Waals interaction energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ioannis Anapolitanos

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The van der Waals-London's law, for a collection of atoms at large separation, states that their interaction energy is pairwise attractive and decays proportionally to one over their distance to the sixth. The first rigorous result in this direction was obtained by Lieb and Thirring [LT], by proving an upper bound which confirms this law. Recently the van der Waals-London's law was proven under some assumptions by I.M. Sigal and the author [AS]. Following the strategy of [AS] and reworking the approach appropriately, we prove estimates on the remainder of the interaction energy. Furthermore, using an appropriate test function, we prove an upper bound for the interaction energy, which is sharp to leading order. For the upper bound, our assumptions are weaker, the remainder estimates stronger and the proof is simpler. The upper bound, for the cases it applies, improves considerably the upper bound of Lieb and Thirring. However, their bound is much more general. Here we consider only spinless Fermions.

  8. Distributed energy resources in practice: A case study analysis and validation of LBNL's customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Owen; Creighton, Charles; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a Berkeley Lab effort to model the economics and operation of small-scale (<500 kW) on-site electricity generators based on real-world installations at several example customer sites. This work builds upon the previous development of the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment, and idealized operating schedule, that would minimize the site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a historic test period, usually a recent year. This study offered the first opportunity to apply DER-CAM in a real-world setting and evaluate its modeling results. DER-CAM has three possible applications: first, it can be used to guide choices of equipment at specific sites, or provide general solutions for example sites and propose good choices for sites with similar circumstances; second, it can additionally provide the basis for the operations of installed on-site generation; and third, it can be used to assess the market potential of technologies by anticipating which kinds of customers might find various technologies attractive. A list of approximately 90 DER candidate sites was compiled and each site's DER characteristics and their willingness to volunteer information was assessed, producing detailed information on about 15 sites of which five sites were analyzed in depth. The five sites were not intended to provide a random sample, rather they were chosen to provide some diversity of business activity, geography, and technology. More importantly, they were chosen in the hope of finding examples of true business decisions made based on somewhat sophisticated analyses, and pilot or demonstration projects were avoided. Information on the benefits and pitfalls of implementing a DER system was also presented from an additional ten sites including agriculture, education, health care, airport, and manufacturing facilities.

  9. Anforderungen an den Energie-und Leistungsumsatz der POWER TO GAS-Einheit im MICRO GRID eines industriellen Produktionsstandortes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    Anforderungen an den Energie- und Leistungsumsatz der POWER TO GAS- Einheit im MICRO GRID eines MICRO GRID angeschlossenen elektrischen Energiespeicher und eine ,,POWER TO GAS" -Anlage kompensiert werden. Die ,,POWER TO GAS"­ Anlage entnimmt dem MICRO GRID überschüssige elektrische Energie zur

  10. Ion Energy Distribution in Collisionless and Collisional, Capacitive RF Sheath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sheath 3 Model of Collisionless Ion Energy Distributions 3.1Ion Energy Distributions in Collisionless and Collisional,Fall 2012 Ion Energy Distributions in Collisionless and

  11. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system. Distributed Energy Resources at Naval Base Ventura2003. “Distributed Energy Resources in Practice: A Case2004. “Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: European Distributed Energies Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SMART Grid, Solar Sandia National Laboratories, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and European Distributed Energies Research Laboratories (DERlab) have organized a...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: renewable energy and distributed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SMART Grid, Solar Sandia National Laboratories, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and European Distributed Energies Research Laboratories (DERlab) have organized a...

  14. Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  15. Energy manager design for microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    signals to a building energy management system already inStadler. 2003 “Distributed Energy Resources in Practice: Aof µGrid Distributed Energy Resource Potential Using DER-CAM

  16. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.

  17. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  18. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty AfzalEnergy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty ?DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected

  19. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We take the perspective of a microgrid that has installed distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of distributed generation with combined heat and power applications. Given uncertain electricity and fuel prices, the microgrid minimizes its expected annual energy bill for various capacity sizes. In almost all cases, there is an economic and environmental advantage to using DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected annualized energy bill is reduced by 9percent while CO2 emissions decline by 25percent. Furthermore, the microgrid's risk is diminished as DER may be deployed depending on prevailing market conditions and local demand. In order to test a policy measure that would place a weight on CO2 emissions, we use a multi-criteria objective function that minimizes a weighted average of expected costs and emissions. We find that greater emphasis on CO2 emissions has a beneficial environmental impact only if DR is available and enough reserve generation capacity exists. Finally, greater uncertainty results in higher expected costs and risk exposure, the effects of which may be mitigated by selecting a larger capacity.

  20. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Glavan, Drazen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  1. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Dispersed Energy Resources Deployment. Berkeley, LawrenceAdoption of Distributed Energy Resources Ozbek, A. 2001.Adoption of Distributed Energy Resources Figure 39. Figure

  2. Modeling of Customer Adoption of Distributed Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling of Customer Adoption of Distributed Energy Resources CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Reliability Technology Solutions Modeling of Customer Adoption of Distributed Energy Resources Prepared the consequences. #12;#12;Modeling of Customer Adoption of Distributed Energy Resources iii Table of Contents

  3. Resilient Core Networks for Energy Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuntze, Nicolai; Rudolph, Carsten; Leivesley, Sally; Manz, David O.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—Substations and their control are crucial for the availability of electricity in today’s energy distribution. Ad- vanced energy grids with Distributed Energy Resources require higher complexity in substations, distributed functionality and communication between devices inside substations and between substations. Also, substations include more and more intelligent devices and ICT based systems. All these devices are connected to other systems by different types of communication links or are situated in uncontrolled environments. Therefore, the risk of ICT based attacks on energy grids is growing. Consequently, security measures to counter these risks need to be an intrinsic part of energy grids. This paper introduces the concept of a Resilient Core Network to interconnected substations. This core network provides essen- tial security features, enables fast detection of attacks and allows for a distributed and autonomous mitigation of ICT based risks.

  4. Energy Balanced Chain in Distributed Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howitt, Ivan

    Energy Balanced Chain in Distributed Sensor Networks Ivan Howitt Electrical & Computer Engineering because of their higher traffic. This paper suggests an energy balanced chain (EBC) which can efficiently the energy balance optimization problem in terms of the segmentation space. By adjusting the transmission

  5. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcomeLongEnergy StorageB.

  6. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the n umber of years to a positive cash flow. Some important technologies, e.g. thermally activated cooling, are absent, and ceilings on DG adoption are determined by some what arbitrary caps on the number of buildings that can adopt DG. These caps are particularly severe for existing buildings, where the maximum penetration for any one technology is 0.25 percent. On the other hand, competition among technologies is not fully considered, and this may result in double-counting for certain applications. A series of sensitivity runs show greater penetration with net metering enhancements and aggressive tax credits and a more limited response to lowered DG technology costs. Discussion of alternatives to the current code is presented in Section 4. Alternatives or improvements to how DG is modeled in NEMS cover three basic areas: expanding on the existing total market for DG both by changing existing parameters in NEMS and by adding new capabilities, such as for missing technologies; enhancing the cash flow analysis but incorporating aspects of DG economics that are not currently represented, e.g. complex tariffs; and using an external geographic information system (GIS) driven analysis that can better and more intuitively identify niche markets.

  7. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicle charging and electrolyzers Energy storage Building and industrial loads and demand response Smart grid sensing, automation, and microgrids Informed efforts in...

  8. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    engines, microturbines, gas turbines, and fuel cells. Byreciprocating engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. Costin the DER-CAM analysis Gas Turbine Capacity (kW) Capital

  9. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcomeLongEnergy StorageB.DETL Permalink

  10. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy | Departmentthe SantaofTheCentury Challenges |The

  11. Distribution Drive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy InformationSite Analysis Tool

  12. Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdleBiologicalCrosscuttingDepartment ofDistributed Wind

  13. Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DER Technologies Cost Data in China (USD) Technologies Fixedin Northern China make the CHP system not cost-effective.for China -- a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs

  14. Superstatistical distributions from a maximum entropy principle Erik Van der Straeten* and Christian Beck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Christian

    NS, United Kingdom Received 27 June 2008; published 3 November 2008 We deal with a generalized parameter, a changing amplitude of Gaussian white noise, the fluctuating energy dissipation in turbulent , wind velocity fluctuations 18 , hydroclimatic fluctuations 19 , the statistics of train departure

  15. Analysis of Hawaii Biomass Energy Resources for Distributed Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Institute School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology Scott Q. Turn Vheissu Keffer MiltonAnalysis of Hawaii Biomass Energy Resources for Distributed Energy Applications Prepared for State) concentrations on a unit energy basis for sugar cane varieties and biomass samples

  16. Distributed Energy Financial Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan: EnergyTracer-Determined ResidenceFinancial Group

  17. Distributed Energy Systems Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan: EnergyTracer-Determined ResidenceFinancial

  18. Assessment of Distributed Generation Potential in JapaneseBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida,Masaru

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet growing energy demands, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and on-site generation coupled with effective utilization of exhaust heat will all be required. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems (or microgrids). This research investigates a method of choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at the Berkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination of installed equipment from available DER technologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical and thermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads can be served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, and cooling. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examined and DER-CAM applied to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Based on the optimization results, energy and emission reductions are evaluated. Furthermore, a Japan-U.S. comparison study of policy, technology, and utility tariffs relevant to DER installation is presented. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savings were most noticeable in the sports facility (a very favourable CHP site), followed by the hospital, hotel, and office building.

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  20. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRS Issuesof the U.S.Profile: Verizon

  1. EIS Distribution | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S.ContaminationJulySavannahFebruary 25, 2013 New Geothermal Data|

  2. Distributed Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilariaDirectDirectCalculatorkilowatt

  3. Abstract --Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) demand response, distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    to accurately estimate the transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies, where dynamics on time scales of seconds to minutes demand response. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population

  4. Distributed Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilariaDirectDirectCalculator Jump to:

  5. Distributed Wind Energy Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <SiteLtd Di S P Jump

  6. Distribution Categories: Magnetic Fusion Energy (UC-20)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Schematic illustrating ion or electron electron beam target interaction 4 2 Flow chart of A8THERMAL-2Distribution Categories: Magnetic Fusion Energy (UC-20) Inertia! Confinement Fusion (UC-21) ANL and square time pulse 16 11 The effect of higher initial temperatures and energy densities on the melting

  7. Synthesised Constraint Models for Distributed Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Wolfgang

    generation [1], demand-side manage- ment, or building control software. In a producer-based view, supplySynthesised Constraint Models for Distributed Energy Management Alexander Schiendorfer, Jan frequently encountered in energy management systems such as the coordination of power generators in a virtual

  8. Energy Distribution of Black Plane Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Halpern

    2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the Einstein energy-momentum complex to calculate the energy distribution of static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. This solution is expressed in terms of three parameters: the mass, electric charge and cosmological constant. We compare the energy distribution to that of the Reissner-Nordstrom-anti-de Sitter solution, pointing to qualitative differences between the models. Finally, we examine these results within the context of the Cooperstock hypothesis.

  9. Tailored ion energy distributions on plasma electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economou, Demetre J. [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4004 (United States)] [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4004 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As microelectronic device features continue to shrink approaching atomic dimensions, control of the ion energy distribution on the substrate during plasma etching and deposition becomes increasingly critical. The ion energy should be high enough to drive ion-assisted etching, but not too high to cause substrate damage or loss of selectivity. In many cases, a nearly monoenergetic ion energy distribution (IED) is desired to achieve highly selective etching. In this work, the author briefly reviews: (1) the fundamentals of development of the ion energy distribution in the sheath and (2) methods to control the IED on plasma electrodes. Such methods include the application of “tailored” voltage waveforms on an electrode in continuous wave plasmas, or the application of synchronous bias on a “boundary electrode” during a specified time window in the afterglow of pulsed plasmas.

  10. Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 This report...

  11. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for...

  12. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of...

  13. Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage...

  14. 9-26 QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    -26 QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastructure | April 2015 QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastructure | April 2015...

  15. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation DOE U.S. Department of Energy DPR Dynamic Power Resource DS distributed storage DSM demand side management D-SMES distributed superconducting magnetic energy...

  16. Comments on: Distributed Energy Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate,CobaltColdin679April

  17. EIS Distribution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of98-F, Western22,EERE Solar SunShotAbsorption8,HOWARDEIR SOPEISEIS

  18. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's SequimReactors ToDecision

  19. Energy distribution of Kerr spacetime using Moller energy momentum complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamal G. L. Nashed

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the energy momentum complex given by M{\\o}ller in 1978 based on the absolute parallelism, the energy distribution in Kerr spacetime is evaluated. The energy with this spacetime is found to be the same as it was earlier evaluated using different definitions mainly based on the metric tensor.

  20. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

  1. Energy Distribution in f(R) Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; M. Farasat Shamir

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The well-known energy problem is discussed in f(R) theory of gravity. We use the generalized Landau-Lifshitz energy-momentum complex in the framework of metric f(R) gravity to evaluate the energy density of plane symmetric solutions for some general f(R) models. In particular, this quantity is found for some popular choices of f(R) models. The constant scalar curvature condition and the stability condition for these models are also discussed. Further, we investigate the energy distribution of cosmic string spacetime.

  2. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.

  3. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  4. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  5. Distributed Generation Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy Information At1986)Distributed

  6. STATE OF CALIFORNIA DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE DX AC SYSTEMES ACCEPTANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE DX AC SYSTEMES ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-14A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE MECH-14A NA7.5.13 Distributed Energy Storage DX AC DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE DX AC SYSTEMES ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-14A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

  7. Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Clean and Renewable Energy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supply and demand, including renewable energy resources and generating technologies, while representingDistributional and Efficiency Impacts of Clean and Renewable Energy Standards for Electricity on recycled paper #12;Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Clean and Renewable Energy Standards

  8. Study of the ArBr-, AC, and Krl-anions and the corresponding neutral van der Waals complexes by anion zero electron kinetic energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    by anion zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy Yuexing Zhao, Ivan Yourshaw, Georg Reiser, Caroline C a zero electron kinetic energy @EKE) spectroscopy study of sev- eral rare gas halide (RgX-) anionsI-, and the corresponding open-shell van der Waals complexes, ArBr, ArI, and KrI, were studied with anion zero electron

  9. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices 2012 DOE...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: PNM Distributed Energy Solar Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PNM Distributed Energy Solar Power Program Mesa del Sol Project Is Finalist for International Smart Grid Action Network 2014 Award of Excellence On July 31, 2014, in Distribution...

  11. Distributed/Stationary Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DistributedStationary Fuel Cell Systems DistributedStationary Fuel Cell Systems Photo of stationary fuel cell The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing high-efficiency fuel...

  12. Energy-Momentum Distribution in Weyl Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; Tasnim Fatima

    2005-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we evaluate energy and momentum density distributions for the Weyl metric by using the well-known prescriptions of Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Papaterou and M$\\ddot{o}$ller. The metric under consideration is the static axisymmetric vacuum solution to the Einstein field equations and one of the field equations represents the Laplace equation. Curzon metric is the special case of this spacetime. We find that the energy density is different for each prescription. However, momentum turns out to be constant in each case.

  13. How Distributed Wind Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearningDepartmentDistributed wind energy

  14. Advanced Distributed Generation LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindeySanta Clara,Addington,Admire,CA 94105Advanced Distributed

  15. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BPL Global

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at an aggregated scale of more than 1 MW, to provide grid support. Actual performance data with respect to each specified function above is to be collected during the Phase II field demonstration. At a minimum, the Phase II demonstration shall span one year of field operations. The demonstration performance will need to be validated by the target customer(s) for acceptance and subsequent implementation. An ISO must be involved in demonstration planning and execution. As part of the Phase II work, BPL Global shall develop a roadmap to commercialization that identifies and quantifies the potential markets for the integrated, aggregated DER systems and for the communication and control technologies demonstrated in Phase I. In addition, the roadmap must identify strategies and actions, as well as the regional and national markets where the aggregated DER systems with communication and control solutions will be introduced, along with a timeline projected for introduction into each identified market. In Phase I of this project, we developed a proof-of-concept ACCP system and architecture and began to test its functionality at real-world sites. These sites had just over 10 MW of DERs and allowed us to identify what needed to be done to commercialize this concept. As a result, we started Phase II by looking at our existing platform and identified its strengths and weaknesses as well as how it would need to evolve for commercialization. During this process, we worked with different stakeholders in the market including: Independent System Operators, DER owners and operators, and electric utility companies to fully understand the issues from all of the different perspectives. Once we had an understanding of the commercialized ACCP system, we began to document and prepare detailed designs of the different system components. The components of the system with the most significant design improvements were: the on-site remote terminal unit, the communication technology between the remote site and the data center, and the scalability and reliability of the data center application.

  16. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial-sector distributed energy resources (DER) with combined heat and power (CHP) in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. Historically, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. In our research, we examine how these medium-sized commercial buildings might implement DER and CHP. The buildings are able to adopt and operate various technologies, e.g., photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, batteries and thermal storage systems. We apply the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs and/or CO2 emissions. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California, existing tariffs of major utilities, and expected performance data of available technologies in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for these buildings. We compare different policy instruments, e.g., a CO2 pricing scheme or a feed-in tariff (FiT), and show their contributions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goals of additional 4 GW CHP capacities and 6.7 Mt/a GHG reduction in California by 2020. By applying different price levels for CO2, we find that there is competition between fuel cells and PV/solar thermal. It is found that the PV/solar thermal adoption increases rapidly, but shows a saturation at high CO2 prices, partly due to limited space for PV and solar thermal. Additionally, we find that large office buildings are good hosts for CHP in general. However, most interesting is the fact that fossil-based CHP adoption also increases with increasing CO2 prices. We will show service territory specific results since the attractiveness of DER varies widely by climate zone and service territory.

  17. QUADRENNIAL ENERGY REVIEW: ENERGY TRANSMISSION, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ ReportEnergyProvidingPumpkinDistribution

  18. Distributed Wind - Economical, Clean Energy for Industrial Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trapanese, A.; James, F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed wind energy works for industrial clients. Corporations and other organizations are choosing to add Distributed Wind energy to their corporate goals for a numerous reasons: economic, environmental, marketing, values, and attracting new...

  19. Distributed Wind - Economical, Clean Energy for Industrial Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trapanese, A.; James, F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed wind energy works for industrial clients. Corporations and other organizations are choosing to add Distributed Wind energy to their corporate goals for a numerous reasons: economic, environmental, marketing, values, and attracting new...

  20. Dynamic Voltage Regulation Using Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many distributed energy resources (DE) are near load centres and equipped with power electronics converters to interface with the grid, therefore it is feasible for DE to provide ancillary services such as voltage regulation, nonactive power compensation, and power factor correction. A synchronous condenser and a microturbine with an inverter interface are implemented in parallel in a distribution system to regulate the local voltage. Voltage control schemes of the inverter and the synchronous condenser are developed. The experimental results show that both the inverter and the synchronous condenser can regulate the local voltage instantaneously, while the dynamic response of the inverter is faster than the synchronous condenser; and that integrated voltage regulation (multiple DE perform voltage regulation) can increase the voltage regulation capability, increase the lifetime of the equipment, and reduce the capital and operation costs.

  1. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Presentations Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 1 Presentations On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy...

  2. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014, the Department of Energy hosted a 2-day workshop on "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies." The purpose of the workshop was to foster...

  3. Energy Distribution of a Charged Regular Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Radinschi

    2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the energy distribution of a charged regular black hole by using the energy-momentum complexes of Einstein and M{\\o}ller.

  4. QER Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastruct...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report: Energy Transmission, Storage, and Distribution Infrastructure | April 2015 S-1 Summary SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS The U.S. energy landscape is changing. The United States has...

  5. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant’s thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control with a thermostat at each workstation were implemented for 3 cities representing 3 different climatic regions and control scenarios. It is shown that optimization allows DECS to deliver a higher level of individual and population thermal comfort while achieving annual energy savings between 14 and 26% compared to OSFA. The optimization model also allowed us to study the influence of the partitions’ thermal resistance and the variability of internal loads at each office. These influences didn’t make significant changes in the optimized energy consumption relative to OSFA. The results show that it is possible to provide thermal comfort for each occupant while saving energy compared to OSFA Furthermore, to simplify the implementation of this approach, a fuzzy logic system has been developed to generalize the overall optimization strategy. Its performance was almost as good as the gradient system. The fuzzy system provided thermal comfort to each occupant and saved energy compared to OSFA. The energy savings of the fuzzy system were not as high as for the gradient-optimized system, but the fuzzy system avoided complete connectivity, and the optimization did not have to be repeated for each population. 3. We employed a detailed CFD model of adjacent occupied cubicles to extend the thermal-circuit model in three significant ways: (a) relax the “office wall” requirement by allowing energy to flow between zones via advection as well as conduction, (b) improve the comfort model to account both for radiation as well as convection heat transfer, and (c) support ventilation systems in which the temperature is stratified, such as in underfloor air distribution systems. Initially, three-dimensional CFD simulations of several cubicle configurations, with an adjoining corridor, were performed both to understand the advection between cubicles and the

  6. Understanding Fault Characteristics of Inverter-Based Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses issues and provides solutions for dealing with fault current contributions from inverter-based distributed energy resources.

  7. Integration of distributed energy resources. The CERTS Microgrid Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Distributed Energy Resources - The C E R T S M i c r o Gof Distributed Energy Resources - The C E R T S M i c r o Gof Distributed Energy Resources - The C E R T S M i c r o G

  8. Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other statistics based on our simulations, calculated simulation results. · Parker's nanoflare heating model vs observations · Energy distributions of nanoflares

  9. Ductless Hydronic Distribution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us DrewDual LoopDistribution

  10. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy,Policy ActDetroit7471Site-WideonDuctless Hydronic Distribution

  11. Multiplicity Distributions in QCD at Very High Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Dremin

    1994-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results in QCD on multiplicity distributions are briefly reviewed. QCD is able to predict very tiny features of multiplicity distributions which demonstrate that the negative binomial distribution (and, more generally, any infinitely divisible distribution) is inappropriate for precise description of experimental data. New fits of high energy multiplicity distributions can be derived.

  12. Ab Frhjahr 2009 startet hier der Bau von sechs Offshore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vollmer, Heribert

    Ent- wicklung der Offshore-Wind- energie besondere Bedeutung zu. Derzeit laufen in der AusAb Frühjahr 2009 startet hier der Bau von sechs Offshore- Windenergieanlagen (OWEA) vom Typ Wind- parks sind etwa die Erweite- rung des Pilotprojektes alpha ventus, der Park Borkum West (45

  13. ber den Gebrauch der Differenzen in der Lehre der Reihen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Straten, Duco

    , entspringt der dritten 15 etc; daher tritt es klar zutage, dass der hunderste Term dieser Reihe für x = 100 etc Terme A, B, C, D, E, F, G etc, woher es sofort klar zutage tritt, dass G der siebte Term der

  14. A Smart Energy System: Distributed Resource Management, Control and Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    A Smart Energy System: Distributed Resource Management, Control and Optimization Yong Ding, Student of distributed energy resource and consumption management, which proposes to design a networked and embedded platform for realizing a dynamic energy mix and optimizing the energy consumption dy- namically. Based

  15. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deru, D. Crawley (2006), “Zero Energy Buildings: A Criticaland Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings Michaeland Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings 1 Michael

  16. Spectral energy distributions of selfgravitating QSO discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwin Sirko; Jeremy Goodman

    2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of steady accretion discs at high accretion rates, as appropriate for bright QSOs, under the assumption that the outer parts are heated sufficiently to maintain marginal gravitational stability, presumably by massive stars formed within the disc. The SED is independent of the nature of these auxiliary sources if their inputs are completely thermalized. Standard assumptions are made for angular momentum transport, with an alpha parameter less than unity. With these prescriptions, the luminosity of the disc is sensitive to its opacity, in contrast to standard discs powered by release of orbital energy alone. Compared to the latter, our discs have a broader SED, with a second peak in the near-infrared that is energetically comparable to the blue bump. The energy in the second peak increases with the outer radius of the disc, provided that the accretion rate is constant with radius. By comparing our computed SEDs with observed ones, we limit the outer radius of the disc to be less than 10^5 Schwarzschild radii, or about one parsec, in a typical QSO. We also discuss some properties of our minimum-Q discs in the regions where auxiliary heating is dominant (10^3-10^5 Schwarzschild radii).

  17. Energy Distribution of a Stringy Charged Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragab M. Gad

    2003-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy distribution associated with a stringy charged black hole is studied using M{\\o}ller's energy-momentum complex. Our result is reasonable and it differs from that known in literature using Einstein's energy-momentum complex.

  18. An Analysis of the DER Adoption Climate in Japan UsingOptimization Results for Prototype Buildings with U.S. Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida,Masaru

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research demonstrates economically optimal distributedenergy resource (DER) system choice using the DER choice and operationsoptimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer AdoptionModel (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination of installedequipment given prevailing utility tariffs and fuel prices, siteelectrical and thermal loads (including absorption cooling), and a menuof available equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeitidealized, that shows how site useful energy loads can be served atminimum cost. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examinedand DER-CAM is applied to select the economically optimal DER system foreach. Based on the optimization results, energy and emission reductionsare evaluated. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbonemissions, and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savingswere most noticeable in the prototype sports facility, followed by thehospital, hotel, and office building. Results show that DER with combinedheat and power equipment is a promising efficiency and carbon mitigationstrategy, but that precise system design is necessary. Furthermore, aJapan-U.S. comparison study of policy, technology, and utility tariffsrelevant to DER installation is presented.

  19. Anisotropic contribution to the van der Waals and the Casimir-Polder energies for CO$_2$ and CH$_4$ molecules near surfaces and thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiyam, Priyadarshini; Shajesh, K V; Persson, Clas; Schaden, Martin; Brevik, Iver; Parsons, Drew F; Milton, Kimball A; Malyi, Oleksandr I; Boström, Mathias

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand why carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) and methane (CH$_4$) molecules interact differently with surfaces, we investigate the Casimir-Polder energy of a linearly polarizable CO$_2$ molecule and an isotropically polarizable CH$_4$ molecule in front of an atomically thin gold film and an amorphous silica slab. We quantitatively analyze how the anisotropy in the polarizability of the molecule influences the van der Waals contribution to the binding energy of the molecule.

  20. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response underof Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response underof Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under

  1. Distributed Energy Resources at Naval Base Ventura County Building 1512: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003. “Distributed Energy Resources in Practice: A Case2004. “Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption ModelDistributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations”

  2. Spectral energy distribution for GJ406

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; Yu. Lyubchik; J. Tennyson; D. J. Pinfield

    2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of modelling the bulk of the spectral energy distribution (0.35 - 5 micron) for GJ406 (M6V). Synthetic spectra were calculated using the NextGen, Dusty and Cond model atmospheres and incorporate line lists for H2O, TiO, CrH, FeH, CO, MgH molecules as well as the VALD line list of atomic lines. A comparison of synthetic and observed spectra gives Tef = 2800 +/- 100 K. We determine M$_bol = 12.13 +/- 0.10 for which evolutionary models by Baraffe et al. (2003) suggest an age of around 0.1 -- 0.35 Gyr consistent with its high activity. The age and luminosity of GJ406 correspond to a wide range of plausible masses (0.07 -- 0.1 Msun).

  3. Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Linden, Paul; Buhl, Fred

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    whole? building energy simulation program EnergyPlus that whole?building energy simulation program, to allow design validated whole?building energy simulation program of its 

  4. Distributed Energy Fuel Cells Electricity Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based On Autothermal Cyclic Reforming · Proton Conducting

  5. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jason, Andrew J. (Los Alamos, NM); Blind, Barbara (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  6. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and thermal equipment, and energy storage - collectivelysolar thermal collectors, and energy storage devices can be

  7. Modeling of Field Distribution and Energy Storage in Diphasic Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Modeling of Field Distribution and Energy Storage in Diphasic Dielectrics S. K. Patil, M. Y, USA Modeling of electrostatic field distribution and energy storage in diphasic dielectrics containing to the increased energy storage density. For composites with lower volume fractions of high-permittivity inclusions

  8. Non resonant transmission modelling with Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    be used as an alternative to Statistical Energy Analysis for describing subsystems with low modal overlap1 Non resonant transmission modelling with Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis L. Maxit Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis (SmEdA) can

  9. Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng-dimensional direct simulations due to obvious numerical difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other;3D Simulation of Parker's model · Magnetic energy limited by disruptions. ==0.000625(64x64x16) =0

  10. The Impact of Distributed Programming Abstractions on Application Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilevich, Eli

    The Impact of Distributed Programming Abstractions on Application Energy Consumption Young-Woo Kwon of their energy consumption patterns. By varying the abstractions with the rest of the functionality fixed, we measure and analyze the impact of distributed programming abstractions on application energy consumption

  11. Photovoltaic DER System Could Save USPS $25,000 per Year in Marina del Rey, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In numerous projects, government agencies are demonstrating the economic and environmental value of using distributed energy resources (DER) to provide reliable electricity for Federal facilities. These projects also show how renewable DER systems such as photovoltaics (PV) can be effectively integrated into utility power grids to provide added power during peak demand periods in populous regions and states. This four-page case study describes a recent project in which the United States Postal Service (USPS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), a national laboratory, the local utility, and a private company to install a PV DER system at the USPS Marina Processing and Distribution Center in Inglewood, California. This system is expected to shave 10% off the facility's 1.2-megawatt peak power demand and save more $25,000 per year in utility costs.

  12. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Carl Imhoff, PNNL More Documents & Publications Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 1 Presentations Estimating the...

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop distributed HVAC components to supplement the central HVAC system to reduce the energy required by current compressed gas air conditioners by at least one-third....

  14. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE)...

  15. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC...

  16. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 2011 CHPIndustrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review - Summary Report Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Advanced Manufacturing Home Key Activities Research &...

  17. Modeling of Thermal Storage Systems in MILP Distributed Energy Resource Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and a Ph.D. in Energy and Resources, all from the Universityof distributed energy resources," in Power and EnergyPouresmaeil, "Distributed energy resources and benefits to

  18. The value of schedule update frequency on distributed energy storage performance in renewable energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The value of schedule update frequency on distributed energy storage performance in renewable of Distributed Energy Storage devices for Renewable Energy integration. The primary objective is to describe scheduling on the storage performance in renewable energy integration. Optimal schedules of Distributed

  19. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    these renewable energy and storage technologies would makechiller, energy storage, or solar-based technologies areStorage Technologies,” ACEEE 2008 Summer Study on Energy

  20. Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program and its Combined Heat and Power program.

  1. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  2. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results show the interesting effects of DER adoption at three different tariff structures with regard to time of use

  3. TU Berlin, Fak. IV, Institut fr Energie-und Automatisierungstechnik Seite 1 von 11 Elektrische Energiesysteme / Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    .07.2010 Klausur Elektrische Energiesysteme / Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik 3 26.07.2010 Die Klausur besteht aus 4,1) beschrieben werden. An das Netz wird ein Verbraucher in Dreieckschaltung mit ZV = (10 + j5) geschaltet. Alle

  4. Microgrid modeling using the stochastic Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model DER-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    output introduce time-of-use tariffs for home electricityinfo – electricity/NG tariffs (time of use, demand charges),

  5. Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems Selc¸uk K¨ose Department throughout a power distribution system. Due to the parasitic impedances of the power distribution networks current to the load circuits [3]. The complexity of the high performance power delivery systems has

  6. Articles about Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and is poised for future growth that could double the capacity of renewable electricity generation from resources like wind power by 2020. March 31, 2014 PNNL Reports Distributed...

  7. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and deal only with solar cogeneration units that are assumedand Distributed. cogeneration). These provide just underparameters. as conventional cogeneration units. technologies

  8. Energy Department Announces Distributed Wind Competitiveness...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for projects led by Pika Energy, Northern Power Systems, Endurance Wind Power, and Urban Green Energy that will help drive down the cost of small and medium-sized wind energy...

  9. Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Linden, Paul; Buhl, Fred

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC  energy  for  large  office  building  new  construction  for  given UFAD  market HVAC energy  for  large  office  building  new construction  for  given  UFAD market HVAC energy for large office building new construction for given UFAD market

  10. 2011 CHP/Industrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11 CHPIndustrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review - Agenda 2011 CHPIndustrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review - Agenda Agenda for the CHP Industrial Distributed...

  11. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  12. ITP Distributed Energy: CHP Project Development Handbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CHP. CHP is an efficient, clean, and reliable approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single fuel source. CHP can increase operational efficiency and decrease energy...

  13. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagecooling, solar electric and thermal equipment, and energysolar thermal collectors coupled to absorption chillers are an economic approach to energy

  14. atom energy distributions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atom energy distributions First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Energy distribution and...

  15. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management 3. Marnay, C. , G.Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management 15. PG&E tariffs (Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management Figures Figure 1.

  16. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crawley (2006), “Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look atManagement in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings Michael Stadler,Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings 1 Michael Stadler

  17. Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT), which includes both initial partonic and final hadronic interactions, we study the rapidity distributions of charged particles such as protons, antiprotons, pions, and kaons in heavy ion collisions at RHIC...

  18. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind Energy Statistics for Large Arrays of Wind Turbines (wind energy program is based on such a design Therefore Justus, for example, has found that a is cubic, wind turbine

  19. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tax increases, larger solar collector/absorption chillerphotovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagecapacity of solar thermal collectors carbon emissions

  20. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHP investment. However, solar thermal collectors coupled to absorption chillers are an economic approach to energy cost

  1. C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/Au(111): Interface dipoles, band alignment, charging energy, and van der Waals interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abad, E.; Martinez, J. I.; Flores, F.; Ortega, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, ES-28049 Madrid (Spain); Dappe, Y. J. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 (CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 67034 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the benzene/Au(111) interface taking into account charging energy effects to properly describe the electronic structure of the interface and van der Waals interactions to obtain the adsorption energy and geometry. We also analyze the interface dipoles and discuss the barrier formation as a function of the metal work-function. We interpret our DFT calculations within the induced density of interface states (IDIS) model. Our results compare well with experimental and other theoretical results, showing that the dipole formation of these interfaces is due to the charge transfer between the metal and benzene, as described in the IDIS model.

  2. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003), “Distributed Energy Resources Customer AdoptionGas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Characterizations,”National Renewable Energy Resource Laboratory, Golden, CO,

  3. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Characterizations”,National Renewable Energy Resource Laboratory, Golden, CO,Edwards, “Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption

  4. TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION AND ENERGY BALANCE IN THE ELECTRODE DURING GMAW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    I ll l ). TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION AND ENERGY BALANCE IN THE ELECTRODE DURING GMAW Yong-Seog Kim and Energy Balance in the Electrode during GMAW by Yong-Seog Kim and T.W. Eagar Department of Materials shielding gases (argon, helium, and C02) using the PHOENICS computer code. An energy balance analysis

  5. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the needed technologies and costs for achieving a ZC building or microgrid.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: distributed energy resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microgrid, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, SMART Grid, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering Mayor Says New System Will 'Keep Everyone...

  7. Picking up the PACE : a new tool for financing energy efficiency and distributed renewable energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dadakis, Jacquelyn (Jacquelyn MacKenzie)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the potential of new legislation in Louisiana to provide municipal financing for energy efficient building retrofits and distributed renewable energy. First, the thesis identifies how energy efficiency ...

  8. Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for Provision of Ancillary Services: Architectures and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    to a battery vehicle aggregator to be used as a controllable load for energy peak shaving during peak hours energy resources (DERs), e.g., photovoltaic (PV) installations, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and thermostatically-controlled loads (TCLs), that can be potentially used to provide ancillary services, e

  9. Distributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    (DRRs), sign a contract with an aggregating entity--the demand response provider--so as their load canDistributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources Alejandro D networks. These algorithms are relevant for load curtailment control in demand response programs, and also

  10. DISTRIBUTED COGNITIVE MAC FOR ENERGY-CONSTRAINED OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Zhao Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of California, Davis, CA 94536 dynamics, channel fading statistics, and energy consumption characteristics of the secondary user.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any

  11. Distributed-scale Renewable Energy Projects (Smaller than 10...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Most Federal distributed-scale renewable energy projects (smaller than 10 MWs) can be broken down into nine steps. The first two fall within the planning phase, while the remaining...

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I -- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version) DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution I -- What's At Stake Webinar (Text Version) Below is the text version of the...

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- How to Get it Right Webinar (Text Version) DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right Webinar (Text Version) Below is the text...

  14. Tips: Booklet Distribution | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNews & Solar Solar HowDucts

  15. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome| Department

  16. Mail and Distribution | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for #SpaceWeek Join us forDepartment

  17. Nord Distribution Solaire | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: Energy Resources Jump to:Nigeria:LLCNon-Tectonic JumpNorco,Nord

  18. Energy Efficiency, Renewables, Advanced Transmission and Distribution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |in STEMEnergyI.of Energy Energy Efficiency

  19. DistributionDrive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy InformationSite

  20. Topography, energy and the global distribution of bird species richness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storch, David

    Topography, energy and the global distribution of bird species richness Richard G. Davies1,*, C data on the global distribution of extant continental and continental island bird species to test, 1988; Currie 1991; Allen et al. 2002). Its role is also argued to extend to the influence of solar

  1. Imprints of energy limitation in transverse momentum distributions of jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rybczy?ski, Maciej

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a Tsallis nonextensive approach, we analyse distributions of transverse spectra of jets. We discuss the possible influence of energy conservation laws on these distributions. Transverse spectra of jets exhibit a power-law behavior of $1/p_T^n$ with the power indices $n$ similar to those for transverse spectra of hadrons.

  2. TU Berlin, Fak. IV, Institut fr Energie-und Automatisierungstechnik Seite 1 von 16 Elektrische Energiesysteme / Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    .07.2011 Klausur Elektrische Energiesysteme / Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik 3 25.07.2011 Die Klausur besteht aus 4 das unten stehende Netz kann durch eine Y-Ersatzschaltung mit Spannungsquellen von ULN = 400 V, fN = 50 Hz mit einer jeweiligen Innenimpedanz von ZL = (0,1+j0,3) beschrieben werden. An das Netz soll

  3. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  4. Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Propane) Chugach EA Anchorage, AK Flint Energies Reynolds, GA Delaware County EC Delhi, NY (Propane) TVA Chattanooga, TN P ? P P? H ? F Baldwin EMC Summerdale, AL ? DoD CERL-Logan Yosemite, CA (Propane) P DoD CERL-Logan Cherry Point, NC (Propane) P 1st Rochdale CG New York, NY First Energy, OH A P #12;Co-op Renewables

  5. Sandia Energy » Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitche Home About npitche This author hasSandia Student Wins Best

  6. Energy Efficiency, Renewables, Advanced Transmission and Distribution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal RegisterHydrogenDistribution Technologies Issued: July 29, 2009

  7. Charmonium Transverse Momentum Distribution in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zebo Tang; Nu Xu; Kai Zhou; Pengfei Zhuang

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Charmonium transverse momentum distribution is more sensitive to the nature of the hot QCD matter created in high energy nuclear collisions, in comparison with the yield. Taking a detailed transport approach for charmonium motion together with a hydrodynamic description for the medium evolution, the cancelation between the two hot nuclear matter effects, the dissociation and the regeneration, controls the charmonium transverse momentum distribution. Especially, the second moment of the distribution can be used to differentiate between the hot mediums produced at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  8. IPCC Data Distribution Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia,IDGWP Wind Farm Jump to:ILab Incubator PtyION

  9. Distributed Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilariaDirectDirectCalculator Jump

  10. Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies),

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuary 2004 | Department of Energy

  11. Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuary 2004 | Department of EnergyOctober

  12. Other Distributed Generation Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorthOlympia GreenThesource HistoryOsram

  13. Time-resolved ion energy distribution meas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003 (NextTime-Resolved Study of Bondingresolved

  14. Distributed Generation Technologies DGT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site

  15. US Solar Distributing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin HydropowerTrinityTurnbullGlobal Map-Annex 1EIAUS

  16. Energy Dependent Growth of Nucleon and Inclusive Charged Hadron Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongmin Wang; Zhao-Yu Hou; Xian-Jing Sun

    2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Color Glass Condensate formalism, charged hadron p_{T} distributions in p+p collisions are studied by considering an energy-dependent broadening of nucleon's density distribution. Then, in the Glasma flux tube picture, the n-particle multiplicity distributions at different pseudo-rapidity ranges are investigated. Both of the theoretical results show good agreement with the recent experimental data from ALICE and CMS at \\sqrt{s}=0.9, 2.36, 7 TeV. The predictive results for p_{T} and multiplicity distributions in p+p and p+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider are also given in this paper.

  17. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyRio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyRio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed Energy

  18. Distributional Energy-Momentum Densities of Schwarzschild Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshiharu Kawai; Eisaku Sakane

    1997-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    For Schwarzschild space-time, distributional expressions of energy-momentum densities and of scalar concomitants of the curvature tensors are examined for a class of coordinate systems which includes those of the Schwarzschild and of Kerr-Schild types as special cases. The energy-momentum density $\\tilde T_\\mu^{\

  19. automated energy distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    automated energy distribution First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Automated Energy...

  20. activation energy distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activation energy distribution First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Photoelectron energy...

  1. Distributed Construction and Maintenance of Bandwidth and Energy Efficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korpeoglu, Ibrahim

    wireless RF technology designed initially for cable replacement at indoor places, but also supports usageDistributed Construction and Maintenance of Bandwidth and Energy Efficient Bluetooth Scatternets on simulations, the paper also presents the improvements in bandwidth-efficiency and reduction in energy

  2. Integration of Distributed Energy The CERTS MicroGrid Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resources The MicroGrid Concept Appendices Prepared for Transmission Reliability Program Office of PowerIntegration of Distributed Energy Resources The CERTS MicroGrid Concept CALIFORNIA ENERGY;Preface The U.S. Electricity Grid Today The U.S. electric power system is in the midst of a fundamental

  3. Energy Department Announces Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13,Statement | DepartmentBlog EnergyFuels |

  4. Articles about Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartment ofATVMAgriculturalAn1(BENEFIT) -AprilEvents

  5. On the spatial distribution of thermal energy in equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equipartition theorem states that in equilibrium thermal energy is equally distributed among uncoupled degrees of freedom which appear quadratically in the system's Hamiltonian. However, for spatially coupled degrees of freedom --- such as interacting particles --- one may speculate that the spatial distribution of thermal energy may differ from the value predicted by equipartition, possibly quite substantially in strongly inhomogeneous/disordered systems. Here we show that in general the averaged thermal energy may indeed be inhomogeneously distributed, but is universally bounded from above by $\\frac{1}{2}k_BT$. In addition, we show that in one-dimensional systems with short-range interactions, the thermal energy is equally partitioned even for coupled degrees of freedom in the thermodynamic limit.

  6. 2011 CHP/Industrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 CHPIndustrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review - Summary Report 2011 CHPIndustrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review - Summary Report Summary report of the 2011...

  7. Distributed Wind Turbines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrack graphics4Dimitri Kusnezov - Chief Scientist11 Three

  8. NREL: Electric Infrastructure Systems Research - Distributed Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit | NationalWebmaster To contactK-12 Students

  9. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Cubiccurrent Coal

  10. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S. OffshoreOil

  11. Tips: Booklet Distribution | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a home builder1 of 12 Santiago Seage,The5,MarchofTips:

  12. NREL: Electric Infrastructure Systems Research - Distributed Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NRELChemicalIndustryIssuePhotoEducation

  13. Distributed Wind 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuary 2004 | DepartmentJanuary

  14. Distribution Grid Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuary 2004 | DepartmentJanuaryVersionSystems

  15. Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782A andS F J9Quarterly Coal

  16. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e&Funding andMaterialPathway Cost

  17. Electricity Transmission and Distribution Technologies - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnetEffectiveElectricApril 2015 |

  18. Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers SubfoldersU.S. Refining

  19. Fusion barrier distributions in systems with finite excitation energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; N. Takigawa; A. B. Balantekin

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Eigen-channel approach to heavy-ion fusion reactions is exact only when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is zero. In order to take into account effects of finite excitation energy, we introduce an energy dependence to weight factors in the eigen-channel approximation. Using two channel problem, we show that the weight factors are slowly changing functions of incident energy. This suggests that the concept of the fusion barrier distribution still holds to a good approximation even when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is finite. A transition to the adiabatic tunneling, where the coupling leads to a static potential renormalization, is also discussed.

  20. Playas Grid Reliability and Distributed Energy Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Van; Weinkauf, Don; Khan, Mushtaq; Helgeson, Wes; Weedeward, Kevin; LeClerc, Corey; Fuierer, Paul

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The future looks bright for solar and renewable energies in the United States. Recent studies claim that by 2050, solar power could supply a third of all electricity demand in the country’s western states. Technology advances, soft policy changes, and increased energy consciousness will all have to happen to achieve this goal. But the larger question is, what would it take to do more throughout the United States? The studies tie future solar and renewable growth in the United States to programs that aim to lower the soft costs of solar adoption, streamline utility interconnections, and increase technology advances through research and development. At the state and local levels, the most important steps are: • Net metering: Net metering policies lets customers offset their electric bills with onsite solar and receive reliable and fair compensation for the excess electricity they provide to the grid. Not surprisingly, what utilities consider fair is not necessarily a rate that’s favorable to solar customers. • Renewable portfolio standards (RPS): RPS policies require utilities to provide a certain amount of their power from renewable sources; some set specific targets for solar and other renewables. California’s aggressive RPS1 of 33% renewable energy by 2020 is not bankrupting the state, or its residents. • Strong statewide interconnection policies: Solar projects can experience significant delays and hassles just to get connected to the grid. Streamlined feasibility and impact analysis are needed. Good interconnection policies are crucial to the success of solar or renewable energy development. • Financing options: Financing is often the biggest obstacle to solar adoption. Those obstacles can be surmounted with policies that support creative financing options like third-party ownership (TPO) and property assessed clean energy (PACE). Attesting to the significance of TPO is the fact that in Arizona, it accounted for 86% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in Q1 20132. Policies beyond those at the state level are also important for solar. The federal government must play a role including continuation of the federal Investment tax credit,3 responsible development of solar resources on public lands, and support for research and development (R&D) to reduce the cost of solar and help incorporate large amounts of solar into the grid. The local level can’t be ignored. Local governments should support: solar rights laws, feed-in tariffs (FITs), and solar-friendly zoning rules. A great example of how effective local policies can be is a city like Gainesville, Florida4, whose FIT policy has put it on the map as a solar leader. This is particularly noteworthy because the Sunshine State does not appear anywhere on the list of top solar states, despite its abundant solar resource. Lancaster, California5, began by streamlining the solar permitting process and now requires solar on every new home. Cities like these point to the power of local policies, and the ability of local governments to get things done. A conspicuously absent policy is Community Choice energy6, also called community choice aggregation (CCA). This model allows local governments to pool residential, business, and municipal electricity loads and to purchase or generate on their behalf. It provides rate stability and savings and allows more consumer choice and local control. The model need not be focused on clean energy, but it has been in California, where Marin Clean Energy7, the first CCA in California, was enabled by a state law -- highlighting the interplay of state and local action. Basic net metering8 has been getting a lot of attention. Utilities are attacking it9 in a number of states, claiming it’s unfair to ratepayers who don’t go solar. On the other hand, proponents of net metering say utilities’ fighting stance is driven by worries about their bottom line, not concern for their customers. Studies in California10, Vermont11, New York12, and Texas13 have found that the benefits of net metering (like savings on investments

  1. Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, Stadler; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon; Lai, Judy; Mégel, Olivier; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Together with OSIsoft LLC as its private sector partner and matching sponsor, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) won an FY09 Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to commercialize Berkeley Lab's optimizing program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) using a software as a service (SaaS) model with OSIsoft as its first non-scientific user. OSIsoft could in turn provide optimization capability to its software clients. In this way, energy efficiency and/or carbon minimizing strategies could be made readily available to commercial and industrial facilities. Specialized versions of DER-CAM dedicated to solving OSIsoft's customer problems have been set up on a server at Berkeley Lab. The objective of DER-CAM is to minimize the cost of technology adoption and operation or carbon emissions, or combinations thereof. DER-CAM determines which technologies should be installed and operated based on specific site load, price information, and performance data for available equipment options. An established user of OSIsoft's PI software suite, the University of California, Davis (UCD), was selected as a demonstration site for this project. UCD's participation in the project is driven by its motivation to reduce its carbon emissions. The campus currently buys electricity economically through the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA). The campus does not therefore face compelling cost incentives to improve the efficiency of its operations, but is nonetheless motivated to lower the carbon footprint of its buildings. Berkeley Lab attempted to demonstrate a scenario wherein UCD is forced to purchase electricity on a standard time-of-use tariff from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), which is a concern to Facilities staff. Additionally, DER-CAM has been set up to consider the variability of carbon emissions throughout the day and seasons. Two distinct analyses of value to UCD are possible using this approach. First, optimal investment choices for buildings under the two alternative objectives can be derived. Second, a week-ahead building operations forecaster has been written that executes DER-CAM to find an optimal operating schedule for buildings given their expected building energy services requirements, electricity prices, and local weather. As part of its matching contribution, OSIsoft provided a full implementation of PI and a server to install it on at Berkeley Lab. Using the PItoPI protocol, this gives Berkeley Lab researchers direct access to UCD's PI data base. However, this arrangement is in itself inadequate for performing optimizations. Additional data not included in UCD's PI database would be needed and the campus was not able to provide this information. This report details the process, results, and lessons learned of this commercialization project.

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: National Account Energy Alliance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http:...

  3. Energy Management of Steam Distribution Systems Through Energy Audits and Computerized Reporting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers, N.; Mandzuk, N.

    ENERGY KANAGEKBNT OF STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS THROUGH BNKRGY AUDITS AND COItPlTl'ERIZED REPORTING PROGRAtIS NORMAN J. RIVERS and HARTIN MANDZUK Armstrong Machine Works, Inc. Three Rivers, Michigan ABSTRACT This presentation will highlight... the economic losses associated with steam distribution systems and how to establish good energy management programs to reduce energy cost by 15 to 25 percent. Recognizing energy losses in steam systems involves I 1. Steam lost through defective valves...

  4. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site. This study showed that advanced energy technologies are economical for many customers on the two SCE circuits analyzed, providing certain customers with considerable energy cost savings. Using reasonable assumptions about market penetration, the study showed that adding distributed generation would reduce peak demand on the two circuits enough to defer the need to upgrade circuit capacity. If the DE is optimally targeted, the deferral could economically benefit SCE, with cost savings that outweigh the lost revenues due to lower sales of electricity. To a lesser extent, economically justifiable energy-efficiency, photovoltaic technologies, and demand response could also help defer circuit capacity upgrades by reducing demand.

  5. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing the focus towards “what to observe” rather than “how to observe” in large sensor networks, allowing the agents to actively determine both the structure of the network and the relevance of the information they are seeking to collect. In addition to providing an implicit coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Outcome Summary: All milestones associated with this project have been completed. In particular, private sensor objective functions were developed which are aligned with the global objective function, sensor effectiveness has been improved by using “sensor teams,” system efficiency has been improved by 30% using difference evaluation func- tions, we have demonstrated system reconfigurability for 20% changes in system con- ditions, we have demonstrated extreme scalability of our proposed algorithm, we have demonstrated that sensor networks can overcome disruptions of up to 20% in network conditions, and have demonstrated system reconfigurability to 20% changes in system conditions in hardware-based simulations. This final report summarizes how each of these milestones was achieved, and gives insight into future research possibilities past the work which has been completed. The following publications support these milestones [6, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19].

  6. The Broad Band Spectral Energy Distributions of SDSS Blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Huaizhen; Jiang, Yunguo; Yi, Tingfeng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compiled the radio, optical, and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broad band spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat-spectral radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacs objects. On the other hand, the broad band spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects (LBLs) objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs) have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme also is revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameter.

  7. Jahresbericht der Research Academy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schüler, Axel

    Jahresbericht der Research Academy Leipzig 2008 #12;Inhalt Die Research Academy Leipzig 3 Vorwort Research Academy Leipzig im Aufwind 3 Die Arbeit der RAL-Doktorandenvertretung 2008 4 Fächerübergreifendes Qualifikationsprogramm Die Veranstaltungen der Research Academy Leipzig 2008 5 Seminar ,,Junge Wissenschaft und Praxis" 6

  8. Department of Energy Budget Execution Funds Distribution and Control Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As a service to all Department of Energy (DOE) elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), this Manual provides the user with a single source for references, definitions, and procedural requirements for distributing and controlling Department of Energy (DOE) funds. Accordingly, the Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 135.1A, Budget Execution—Funds Distribution and Control, dated 1-9-06. Paragraph 5, of DOE O 135.1A defines organizational responsibilities pertinent to this Manual. Cancels DOE M 135.1-1.

  9. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distribution for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maury Cuna, GHI; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  10. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distributions for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maury Cuna, G H I; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  11. Laboratory tests of IEC DER object models for grid applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blevins, John D. (PE Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ); Menicucci, David F.; Byrd, Thomas, Jr. (,; .); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ginn, Jerry W.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan (Primecore, Inc.)

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District (SRP) and Sandia National Laboratories to jointly develop advanced methods of controlling distributed energy resources (DERs) that may be located within SRP distribution systems. The controls must provide a standardized interface to allow plug-and-play capability and should allow utilities to take advantage of advanced capabilities of DERs to provide a value beyond offsetting load power. To do this, Sandia and SRP field-tested the IEC 61850-7-420 DER object model (OM) in a grid environment, with the goal of validating whether the model is robust enough to be used in common utility applications. The diesel generator OM tested was successfully used to accomplish basic genset control and monitoring. However, as presently constituted it does not enable plug-and-play functionality. Suggestions are made of aspects of the standard that need further development and testing. These problems are far from insurmountable and do not imply anything fundamentally unsound or unworkable in the standard.

  12. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  13. JET Experiments to Assess Finite Larmor Radius Effects on Resonant Ion Energy Distribution during ICRF Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JET Experiments to Assess Finite Larmor Radius Effects on Resonant Ion Energy Distribution during ICRF Heating

  14. Transmission Pricing of Distributed Multilateral Energy Transactions to Ensure System Security and Guide Economic Dispatch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilic, Marija; Hsieh, Eric; Remanan, Prasad

    2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission Pricing of Distributed Multilateral Energy Transactions to Ensure System Security and Guide Economic Dispatch...

  15. Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system X dependence of the thermal stability factor, the width of the thermal energy barrier distribution- ropy energy distribution and the interaction and the thermal energy barrier distribution determined

  16. Category:Energy Distribution Organizations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual Model Add.png AddTechniques page? For

  17. Distributed Renewable Energy Finance and Policy Toolkit | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilariaDirectDirectCalculator

  18. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  19. Electric Drive Vehicles: A Huge New Distributed Energy Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric Drive Vehicles: A Huge New Distributed Energy Resource Alec Brooks AC Propulsion, Inc. San Dimas, California www.acpropulsion.com #12;The Old and the New.. Old way of thinking: Electric vehicles are an unnecessary burden to an over- taxed electricity grid New way of thinking: Electric drive vehicles

  20. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity generated by distributed energy resources (DER) located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumer requirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid. Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associated with transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricity delivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities to purchase energy when attractive. On-site thermal power generation is typically less efficient than central station generation, but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and utilizing combined heat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scale on-site generation to displace fuel purchases, then DER can become attractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts, the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressed using a mixed-integer linear programme, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, and information (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies, DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selecting the units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. In this paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion of the option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep an inventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lower costs even further by reducing off-peak generation and relying on storage. This and other effects of storages are demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in San Francisco, California, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacity of heat storage is calculated.

  1. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.

  2. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy Information At1986)DistributedTool

  3. A U.S. and China Regional Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/egrid. [24] Wang,Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Characterizations.CO: National Renewable Energy Resource Laboratory Report TP-

  4. Dynamic Interactions of PV units in Low Volatge Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Dynamic Interactions of PV units in Low Volatge Distribution Systems M. J. Hossain, J. Lu Griffith. Abstract--Photovoltaic (PV) units along with other distributed energy resources (DERs) are located close, robust control, stability. I. Introduction The integration level of PV units in low and medium voltage

  5. DER Certification Laboratory Pilot, Accreditation Plan, and Interconnection Agreement Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, T.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Ferraro, R.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the first steps toward creating the organization, procedures, plans and tools for distributed energy resources (DER) equipment certification, test laboratory accreditation, and interconnection agreements. It covers the activities and accomplishments during the first period of a multiyear effort. It summarizes steps taken to outline a certification plan to assist in the future development of an interim plan for certification and accreditation activities. It also summarizes work toward a draft plan for certification, a beta Web site to support communications and materials, and preliminary draft certification criteria.

  6. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  7. Coordination and Control of Distributed Energy Resources for Provision of Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Coordination and Control of Distributed Energy Resources for Provision of Ancillary Services--This paper discusses the utilization of distributed energy resources on the distribution side of the power side of a power system, it has been ac- knowledged that there exist many distributed energy resources

  8. Brief Announcement: Energy-Optimal Distributed Algorithms for Minimum Spanning Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Maleq

    associated with the messages exchanged among the nodes in a distributed algorithm, and design energy-efficient) problem, an important problem in distributed computing. We study energy-efficient distributed algorithms Algorithm, Energy-Efficient, Mini- mum Spanning Tree, Distributed Approximation Algorithm 1. MODEL

  9. NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.: System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

  10. Isospin mixing and energy distributions in three-body decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Garrido; D. V. Fedorov; H. O. U. Fynbo; A. S. Jensen

    2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of the second 2$^+$ resonance in $^{6}$Li is investigated with special emphasis on its isospin 0 components. The wave functions are computed in a three-body model ($\\alpha$+$n$+$p$) using the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method combined with complex scaling. In the decay into three free particles the symmetry conserving short-range interaction dominates at short distance whereas the symmetry breaking Coulomb interaction dominates at intermediate and large distances resulting in substantial isospin mixing. We predict the mixing and the energy distributions of the fragments after decay. Computations are consistent with available experiments. We conjecture that nuclear three-body decays frequently produce such large isospin mixing at large distance where the energy distributions. are determined.

  11. Recoil proton distribution in high energy photoproduction processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Bartos; E. A. Kuraev; Yu. P. Peresunko; E. A. Vinokurov

    2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    For high energy linearly polarized photon--proton scattering we have calculated the azimuthal and polar angle distributions in inclusive on recoil proton experimental setup. We have taken into account the production of lepton and pseudoscalar meson charged pairs. The typical values of cross sections are of order of hundreds of picobarn. The size of polarization effects are of order of several percents. The results are generalized for the case of electroproduction processes on the proton at rest and for high energy proton production process on resting proton.

  12. Property:EIA/861/ActivityDistribution | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jumpallowed valuesActivityDistribution Jump

  13. DA (Distribution Automation) (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|CoreCpWingCushing,DA (Distribution Automation) (Smart

  14. Distributed Generation Study/Emerling Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm < Distributed Generation Study

  15. Distributed Generation Study/Floyd Bennett | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm < Distributed Generation

  16. Distributed Generation Study/Harbec Plastics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm < Distributed

  17. Distributed Generation Study/Hudson Valley Community College | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm < DistributedInformation

  18. Energy Conservation in a Manufacturing Facility Through Distributed Microprocessor Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, C. A.; Kaiser, V. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .. ', ENERGY GONSERVATION IN A ~UiliUFACTURING FACILITY THROUGH DISTRIBUTED MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL C. A. Garcia* and V. A. Kaiser** .:' *Real Estate & Construction Division, IBM Corporation, Tarrytown New York, U.S.A. **Profimatics, Inc... at the central plant is manually switched to one of up to 16 data highways at a time, pro viding communication to the MVCU's and LFCM's in each building. The CCM serves as a communication multiplexer between the Series/1 computer and the data highways...

  19. Jules Verne Das Land der Pelze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    - zer ­ ein speziell dazu angewiesener Soldat ­ zuführ- te. Manchmal verfing sich der Wind in der Esse

  20. Multiport Converter Topologies for Distributed Energy System Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawke, Joshua

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies into singular systems, there is a growing appetite for multiport converter (MPC) design. In response, three unique DER MPC topologies are presented: the power sharing converter (PSC), the multi-level nine switch converter (ML9SC), and the modular...

  1. Statistical distributions for Hamiltonian systems coupled to energy reservoirs and applications to molecular energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebeling, Werner

    Statistical distributions for Hamiltonian systems coupled to energy reservoirs and applications to molecular energy conversion W. Ebeling Institute of Physics, Humboldt-University, Newtonstr. 19, Berlin, Germany and Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Center, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krak´ow, Poland

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 The

  3. Ris Energy Report 4 References 11. Blasio, R. de; Basso, T. (2004). Standardisation on DER (p. 236).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy, Solar 2004, ANZSES, Perth, Australia, December 2004. www.Risø.dk/vea/projects/ipsys 19. WAsRisø Energy Report 4 References References 11. Blasio, R. de; Basso, T. (2004). Standardisation - High wind energy penetration systems Planning. In: European Community Wind Energy Conference 1994 (p

  4. AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Industrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic Framework for8.pdfAL2008-07.pdf2 ofAMIIndustrial

  5. Coastal zone wind energy. Part I. Synoptic and mesoscale controls and distributions of coastal wind energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garstang, M.; Nnaji, S.; Pielke, R.A.; Gusdorf, J.; Lindsey, C.; Snow, J.W.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a method of determining coastal wind energy resources. Climatological data and a mesoscale numerical model are used to delineate the available wind energy along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. It is found that the spatial distribution of this energy is dependent on the locations of the observing sites in relation to the major synoptic weather features as well as the particular orientation of the coastline with respect to the large-scale wind.

  6. Predicting the Power Output of Distributed Renewable Energy Resources within a Broad Geographical Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalkiadakis, Georgios

    Predicting the Power Output of Distributed Renewable Energy Resources within a Broad Geographical potentially dis- tributed renewable energy resources (su years, estimating the power output of in- herently intermittent and potentially distributed renewable

  7. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ Firestone, R. , (2004), “Distributed Energy Resources Customersolar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, batteries and thermal storage systems. We apply the Distributed Energy Resources Customer

  8. Distributed Energy Resources at Naval Base Ventura County Building 1512: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost estimates) Figure 4: Capital and O&M Costs Sensitivity – Separate Refrigeration Load Distributed Energy Resourcescost estimates) Figure 8: Capital and O&M Costs Sensitivity Analysis – Integrated Refrigeration Load Distributed Energy Resources

  9. An Adaptive Voltage Control Algorithm with Multiple Distributed Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DE) with power electronics (PE) interfaces with the right control are capable of providing reactive power related ancillary services. Voltage regulation in particular has drawn much attention. In this paper the challenges to control multiple DEs to regulate the local voltage in distribution systems is addressed and a decentralized adaptive voltage control method is proposed. The simulation results in different system conditions show that this adaptive voltage control method is capable of satisfying the fast response speed requirement without causing oscillation or instability of the system. Since this method has high tolerance to the shortage of the system parameters and can be widely adaptive to the variable operation situations of the power systems, it is very suited for the utility application.

  10. Energy shaping of port-Hamiltonian systems by using alternate passive Aneesh Venkatraman and Arjan van der Schaft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    Energy shaping of port-Hamiltonian systems by using alternate passive outputs Aneesh Venkatraman the energy in a desired manner. I. INTRODUCTION Port-Hamiltonian models [1] encompass a very large class storage elements and are characterized by a set of energy-storing elements, resistive ports and external

  11. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergy Vehicle Analysis 2013|Department56213 Distributed

  12. Gewaltiger war nur der Urknall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gewaltiger war nur der Urknall Das soll der Auf- macher werden KONGRESSBERICHT 60 M A X P L A N C K tatsächlich einen Gammablitz. Allerdings war der nicht von der Erde gekommen, son- dern aus dem Weltraum. Es extraterrestrische Physik in Garching beteiligt waren, in eine Erdumlaufbahn brachte. Das Ergeb- nis war absolut

  13. A Quantum Phase Transition in the Cosmic Ray Energy Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We here argue that the "knee" of the cosmic ray energy distribution at $E_c \\sim 1$ PeV represents a second order phase transition of cosmic proportions. The discontinuity of the heat capacity per cosmic ray particle is given by $\\Delta c=0.450196\\ k_B$. However the idea of a deeper critical point singularity cannot be ruled out by present accuracy in neither theory nor experiment. The quantum phase transition consists of cosmic rays dominated by bosons for the low temperature phase E E_c$. The low temperature phase arises from those nuclei described by the usual and conventional collective boson models of nuclear physics. The high temperature phase is dominated by protons. The transition energy $E_c$ may be estimated in terms of the photo-disintegration of nuclei.

  14. Velocity distribution of high-energy particles and the solar neutrino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2001-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy infers high velocity and high velocity is a concept of special relativity. The Maxwellian velocity distribution is corrected to be consistent with special relativity. The corrected distribution reduces to the Maxwellian distribution for small velocities, contains a relatively depleted high-energy tail and vanishes at the velocity of light. This corrected distribution will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but keep solar sound speeds.

  15. Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe Gregor Giebel Niels Gylling energy in Europe? · Distribution of wind energy all over Europe leads to smoothing of the wind power energy can easily supply up to ~20% of the European demand. At this stage, · Less than 13% of the wind

  16. Utility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference ASES Solar 96 at least half of its energy obtained from energy efficiency and renewable resources by the year 2000. Solar energy, distributed generation resource. Investments made in solar power today are expected to provide

  17. Cost-and Energy-Aware Load Distribution Across Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost- and Energy-Aware Load Distribution Across Data Centers Kien T. Le Ricardo Bianchini Margaret a framework to manage energy and cost Determine a request distribution across data centers Minimize cost while OverallCost = periods of day, data centers DCCost DCCost = Base Energy + Dynamic Energy Assume Load

  18. Vernetzung der Verkehrstrger (Eck)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    ) Verkehrswesenseminar Grundlagen der Modellierung und Simulation von Verkehr (Nagel) Praxis des Seeverkehrs (Linde) Die und Betrieb Maritimer Systeme (Prof. Holbach) Grundlagen des Seeverkehrs (Linde) Objektorientiertes) Binnenschifffahrt (Linde) Aktuelle Themen im Straßenwesen (Richter) Schienen- güterverkehr (Siegmann) Konstruktion

  19. Alternative energy estimation from the shower lateral distribution function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Souza, V; Brito, J; Dobrigkeit, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Souza, Vitor de; Escobar, Carlos O.; Brito, Joel; Dobrigkeit, Carola; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface detector technique has been successfully used to detect cosmic ray showers for several decades. Scintillators or Cerenkov water tanks can be used to measure the number of particles and/or the energy density at a given depth in the atmosphere and reconstruct the primary particle properties. It has been shown that the experiment configuration and the resolution in reconstructing the core position determine a distance to the shower axis in which the lateral distribution function (LDF) of particles shows the least variation with respect to different primary particles type, simulation models and specific shapes of the LDF. Therefore, the signal at this distance (600 m for Haverah Park and 1000 m for Auger Observatory) has shown to be a good estimator of the shower energy. Revisiting the above technique, we show that a range of distances to the shower axis, instead of one single point, can be used as estimator of the shower energy. A comparison is done for the Auger Observatory configuration and the new...

  20. Alternative energy estimation from the shower lateral distribution function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitor de Souza; Carlos O. Escobar; Joel Brito; Carola Dobrigkeit; Gustavo Medina-Tanco

    2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface detector technique has been successfully used to detect cosmic ray showers for several decades. Scintillators or Cerenkov water tanks can be used to measure the number of particles and/or the energy density at a given depth in the atmosphere and reconstruct the primary particle properties. It has been shown that the experiment configuration and the resolution in reconstructing the core position determine a distance to the shower axis in which the lateral distribution function (LDF) of particles shows the least variation with respect to different primary particles type, simulation models and specific shapes of the LDF. Therefore, the signal at this distance (600 m for Haverah Park and 1000 m for Auger Observatory) has shown to be a good estimator of the shower energy. Revisiting the above technique, we show that a range of distances to the shower axis, instead of one single point, can be used as estimator of the shower energy. A comparison is done for the Auger Observatory configuration and the new estimator proposed here is shown to be a good and robust alternative to the standard single point procedure.

  1. Asynchronous Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for the Provisioning of Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    Asynchronous Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for the Provisioning of Ancillary the stability of asynchronous coordination protocols and studies their application to energy resource it towards energy resource provisioning of ancillary services in a power grid. I. INTRODUCTION The presence

  2. Abstract-Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    generation includes microturbine generators, internal combustion engines (ICEs), and fuel cells. Frequently

  3. Emission Lines and the Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Wilkes; P. J. Green; S. Mathur; J. C. McDowell

    1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Many years of study have failed to conclusively establish relations between a quasar's spectral energy distribution (SED) and the emission lines it is thought to produce. This is at least partially due to the lack of well-observed SEDs. We present initial results from a line--SED study for a sample of 43 quasars and active galaxies for which we have optical and ultra-violet spectra and far-infrared--X-ray SEDs. We present the results of tests for correlations between line equivalent widths and SED luminosity and slope parameters and compare these results to those from earlier studies. We find that the Baldwin effect is weaker when the luminosity is defined close to the ionising continuum of that line and conclude that the detailed SED is likely to be important in making further progress.

  4. Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Tor A. Johansena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Field Tor A. Johansena Camilla Storaaa that the primary energy source, solar radiation, cannot be manipulated. The distributed solar collector eld may, Norway. Model-based control of the outlet temperature of a distributed solar col- lector eld is studied

  5. VALIDIERUNG DER EINDIMENSIONALEN HYGROTHERMISCHEN WANDMODELLE DER MODELICA-BIBLIOTHEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VALIDIERUNG DER EINDIMENSIONALEN HYGROTHERMISCHEN WANDMODELLE DER MODELICA wurde in dem Verbundsprojekt GENSIM die Modelica-Bibliothek ,,BuildingPhysicsLibrary'' entwickelt Validierungsrechnungen des in Modelica (www.modelica.org) entwickelten Modelica-1D- Wandmodells. Das Modell

  6. Minimizing Energy Consumption in a Water Distribution System: A Systems Modeling Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, John

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In a water distribution system from groundwater supply, the bulk of energy consumption is expended at pump stations. These pumps pressurize the water and transport it from the aquifer to the distribution system and to elevated storage tanks. Each...

  7. Actual trends of decentralized CHP integration -- The Californian investment subsidy system and its implication for the energy efficiency directive (Aktuelle Trends in der dezentralen KWK Technologie Integration -- Das kalifornische Fordermodell und dessen Implikation fur die Endenergieeffizienzrichtlinie)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sinne – wie in einem Verbrennungsmotor – statt und dadurchVergleich zu einem Verbrennungsmotor. Der Hauptunterschied

  8. Poster Abstract: Energy-Efficient Distributed Support Vector Machines for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    Poster Abstract: Energy-Efficient Distributed Support Vector Machines for Wireless Sensor Networks of interest. In this paper, we present two energy-efficient algorithms to perform distributed incremental centralized SVM training methods, while being much more efficient in terms of energy cost. 1. INTRODUCTION One

  9. Model-predicted distribution of wind-induced internal wave energy in the world's oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Model-predicted distribution of wind-induced internal wave energy in the world's oceans Naoki 9 July 2008; published 30 September 2008. [1] The distribution of wind-induced internal wave energy-induced internal wave energy in the world's oceans, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C09034, doi:10.1029/2008JC004768. 1

  10. SUBGRID PARAMETERIZATION OF SNOW DISTRIBUTION FOR AN ENERGY AND MASS BALANCE SNOW COVER MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    SUBGRID PARAMETERIZATION OF SNOW DISTRIBUTION FOR AN ENERGY AND MASS BALANCE SNOW COVER MODEL & Sons, Ltd. #12;1 SUBGRID PARAMETERIZATION OF SNOW DISTRIBUTION FOR AN ENERGY AND MASS BALANCE SNOW of the lumped snowpack mass and energy balance applied to a 26-ha rangeland catchment with high spatial

  11. A Technology for Electronic Energy Meters Intelligent Accounting Using Distributed Database over TCP/IP Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    4 8 A Technology for Electronic Energy Meters Intelligent Accounting Using Distributed Database in their entirety. 2. Electronic energy metersaccountingtechnology developed inthe project The technology under Collection Electronic Energy Meters Distributed Database over TCP/IP Network Optical Head Optical Port RS-232

  12. Development of a High-Speed Static Switch for Distributed Energy and Microgrid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; Lynch, J.; John, V.; Meor Daniel, S.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources can provide power to local loads in the electric distribution system and benefits such as improved reliability. Microgrids are intentional islands formed at a facility or in an electrical distribution system that contains at least one distributed resource and associated loads. Microgrids that operate both electrical generation and loads in a coordinated manner can offer additional benefits to the customer and local utility. The loads and energy sources can be disconnected from and reconnected to the area or local utility with minimal disruption to the local loads, thereby improving reliability. This paper details the development and testing of a highspeed static switch for distributed energy and microgrid applications.

  13. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  14. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  15. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  16. Energy Efficiency Potential for Distribution Transformers in the APEC Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APERC, 2012. APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook 5thand, based on the APERC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook (BUENAS calculates final energy demand according to the UEC

  17. Are distributed energy technologies a viable alternative for institutional settings? : lessons from MIT Cogeneration Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tapia-Ahumada, Karen de los Angeles

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decades, distributed energy (DE) resources received considerable attention and support because of the confluence of technology development - particularly gas turbines - and deregulation - which would allow ...

  18. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy5. Regional Results for the CO2 Pricing Scheme no-invest

  19. Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report -- October 28, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Technology Workshop, held October 28, 2010 in Denver, Colorado.

  20. ITP Distributed Energy: 2008 Combined Heat and Power Baseline...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Legal Notice This report was prepared as a result of work sponsored by the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) though a U.S. Department of Energy Special Energy...

  1. Developing and Implementing the Foundation for a Renewable Energy-Based "Distribution Generation Micro-grid": A California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Co-Funded Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilly, P.; Sebold, F. D.; Carpenter, M.; Kitto, W.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Energy Commission has been implementing its Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) and Renewable Energy Programs since early 1998. In the last two years, the demand for renewable distributed generation systems has increased rapidly...

  2. Electron energy distributions in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Sang-Heon, E-mail: ssongs@umich.edu, E-mail: Sang-Heon.Song@us.tel.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Yang, Yang, E-mail: yang-yang@amat.com [Applied Materials Inc., 974 E. Arques Avenue, M/S 81312, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States); Chabert, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.chabert@lpp.polytechnique.fr [LPP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, Paris XI, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Kushner, Mark J., E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizing and controlling electron energy distributions (EEDs) is a continuing goal in plasma materials processing as EEDs determine the rate coefficients for electron impact processes. There are many strategies to customize EEDs in low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), for example, pulsing and choice of frequency, to produce the desired plasma properties. Recent experiments have shown that EEDs in low pressure ICPs can be manipulated through the use of static magnetic fields of sufficient magnitudes to magnetize the electrons and confine them to the electromagnetic skin depth. The EED is then a function of the local magnetic field as opposed to having non-local properties in the absence of the magnetic field. In this paper, EEDs in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (mICP) sustained in Ar are discussed with results from a two-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model. Results are compared with experimental measurements. We found that the character of the EED transitions from non-local to local with application of the static magnetic field. The reduction in cross-field mobility increases local electron heating in the skin depth and decreases the transport of these hot electrons to larger radii. The tail of the EED is therefore enhanced in the skin depth and depressed at large radii. Plasmas densities are non-monotonic with increasing pressure with the external magnetic field due to transitions between local and non-local kinetics.

  3. Dynamical Energy Analysis - determining wave energy distributions in complex vibro-acoustical structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregor Tanner

    2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approach towards determining the distribution of mechanical and acoustic wave energy in complex built-up structures. The technique interpolates between standard Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and full ray tracing containing both these methods as limiting case. By writing the flow of ray trajectories in terms of linear phase space operators, it is suggested here to reformulate ray-tracing algorithms in terms of boundary operators containing only short ray segments. SEA can now be identified as a low resolution ray tracing algorithm and typical SEA assumptions can be quantified in terms of the properties of the ray dynamics. The new technique presented here enhances the range of applicability of standard SEA considerably by systematically incorporating dynamical correlations wherever necessary. Some of the inefficiencies inherent in typical ray tracing methods can be avoided using only a limited amount of the geometrical ray information. The new dynamical theory - Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) - thus provides a universal approach towards determining wave energy distributions in complex structures.

  4. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, VOLUME I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Totals Supply/Demand Balance Distributed Cases Supply/Demand Balance Centralized Cases Primary Energy SupplyPrimary Energy Supply to California (10 Petroleum Natural Gas Hydroe1ectric Geothermalb Nuclear LPG Coal Total

  5. Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Maleq

    1 Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks of a class of simple and local algorithms called Nearest Neighbor Tree (NNT) algorithms for energy-efficient

  6. Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campus of Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction Pay Back Year Year Do-Nothing DER with CHP PV+(DER with CHP) GA-K-500 CHPMT--C-60*2 CHPGA-K-150 PAFC-200 FC+(DER with CHP) GA-K-500 CHPMT- -C- 60 CHPGA-

  7. GridAgents DER Testing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-265

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, K.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objectives are to perform research, development, and pilot-scale testing of advanced, next-generation distribution operational strategies using ConEdison's 3G: Distribution System of the Future and associated infrastructure for the real-world Test Bed (demonstration network) combined with the Infotility GridAgents: Secure Agent Framework for Energy as the software platform for advanced operational strategies development. The objective is to accelerate high-payoff technologies that, because of their risk, are unlikely to be developed in a timely manner without a partnership between industry and the Federal government. NREL will be responsible for the evaluation of equipment design and control methods for DER integration and testing of prototype DER technologies and control equipment at the NREL test facility.

  8. On an Improvement of the Planck radiation Energy Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego Saa

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability distribution function for thermodynamics and econophysics is obtained by solving an equilibrium equation. This approach is different from the common one of optimizing the entropy of the system or obtaining the state of maximum probability, which usually obtains as a result the Boltzmann distribution. The Gamma distribution is proposed as a better equation to describe the blackbody radiation in substitution of Planck's radiation equation. Also, a new form of entropy is proposed, that maintains the correct relation with the Clausius' formula.

  9. Laser spark distribution and ignition system - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced...

  10. Renewable Energy Co-Location of Distribution Facilities (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation applies to distribution facilities, which include poles and wires, cables, pipelines, or other underground conduits by which a renewable generator is able to (i) supply electricity...

  11. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration. 2001. "Annual Energy Outlook 2002." DOE/EIA-SOAPP TAF T&D TSI Annual Energy Outlook 2002 combined heatEIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates

  12. Doktorandinnen und Doktoranden der Fakultt IV (Stand: 12.06.2014) + 2 Neueintrge Nachname, Vorname E-Mail-Adresse Promotionsthema betreuende/r Professor/in Fachgebiet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    Energy Harvestern für autarke Sensorik zur Bewertung der Wechselwirkung von Umweltverträglichkeit unf

  13. ITP Distributed Energy: 2008 Combined Heat and Power Baseline...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Legal Notice This report was prepared as a result of work sponsored by the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission). It does not necessarily represent the views of the...

  14. ITP Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Governor COMBINED HEAT AND POWER MARKET ASSESSMENT Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: ICF International,...

  15. FEMP Offers Training on Distributed-Scale Renewable Energy Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    be able to: Plan facility renewable energy projects using available screening tools for renewable energy resources, savings to investment ratio analysis, and feasibility studies...

  16. Simulation of energy performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of demand response actions on baseline-buildingDemand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings”Demand Response Performance Results California Energy Commission Building

  17. Non-Uniform Entropy Compression for Uniform Energy Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    -non-homogeneity in the network. Bottleneck nodes trade computation energy for transmission energy, which extends and normalizesNon-Uniform Entropy Compression for Uniform Energy Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks to increase the network's lifetime and to normalize the energy use per unit time, but they each have

  18. Distributed Wireless Control for Building Energy Management Alan Marchiori and Qi Han

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Qi "Chee"

    Distributed Wireless Control for Building Energy Management Alan Marchiori and Qi Han Department building energy management systems are es- sential to enabling the development of mass-market, low- energy to the total energy efficiency. As building technologies and materi- als improve, the relative impact

  19. Sub-grid parameterization of snow distribution for an energy and mass balance snow cover model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sub-grid parameterization of snow distribution for an energy and mass balance snow cover model model of the lumped snowpack mass and energy balance applied to a 26-ha rangeland catchment with high (Af). The energy state variable is evolved through an energy balance. The snow water equivalence state

  20. Balancing Peer and Server Energy Consumption in Large Peer-to-Peer File Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lachlan

    Balancing Peer and Server Energy Consumption in Large Peer-to-Peer File Distribution Systems}@swin.edu.au Abstract--Network induced energy consumption is a significant fraction of all ICT energy consumption. It is shown that using peer-to-peer and naively minimizing the transfer time results in energy consumption

  1. Work distribution of an expanding gas and transverse energy production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Bin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work distribution of an expanding extreme relativistic gas is shown to be a gamma distribution with a different shape parameter as compared with its non-relativistic counterpart. This implies that the shape of the transverse energy distribution in relativistic heavy ion collisions depends on the particle contents during the evolution of the hot and dense matter. Therefore, transverse energy fluctuations provide additional insights into the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in these collisions.

  2. Work distribution of an expanding gas and transverse energy production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Zhang; Jay P. Mayfield

    2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The work distribution of an expanding extreme relativistic gas is shown to be a gamma distribution with a different shape parameter as compared with its non-relativistic counterpart. This implies that the shape of the transverse energy distribution in relativistic heavy ion collisions depends on the particle contents during the evolution of the hot and dense matter. Therefore, transverse energy fluctuations provide additional insights into the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in these collisions.

  3. Abstract Microgrids are a new concept for future energy dis-tribution systems that enable renewable energy integration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Emmanuel

    1 Abstract ­ Microgrids are a new concept for future energy dis- tribution systems that enable renewable energy integration and improved energy management capability. Microgrids consist of multiple power quality and power distribution reliability, microgrids need to operate in both grid

  4. The Energy Distribution in a Static Spherically Symmetric Nonsingular Black Hole Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Radinschi

    2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the energy distribution in a static spherically symmetric nonsingular black hole space-time by using the Tolman's energy-momentum complex. All the calculations are performed in quasi-Cartesian coordinates. The energy distribution is positive everywhere and be equal to zero at origin. We get the same result as obtained by Y-Ching Yang by using the Einstein's and Weinberg's prescriptions.

  5. Distributed Resource Energy Analysis and Management System (DREAMS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distributed roof-top PV resources and factor advanced 15-minute short term wind and solar forecasting capability for the region into the EMS decision-making process. This...

  6. Industrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio Review - Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Power James Zurlo, Dresser Waukesha 4:15 pm-5:00 pm Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center Richard...

  7. Distribution Infrastructure and End Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOEDepartment ofOff-Gas fromDistributedDistribution

  8. Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy cost optimization of a water-supply network is a very important practical .... nonlinear equations for energy conservation. .... [water balance equations] ...... Israel Institute of Technology, Technion, Technion City, Haifa 32000, Israel.

  9. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is used to displace compressor cooling. However, in order toless energy than a compressor cooling system. Since there is

  10. Energy Aware Distributed Speech Recognition for Wireless Mobile Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    studied in the literature. The back- end ASR search including hidden Markov model (HMM) state output drain if used indiscriminately. In this work, we examine the energy usage of a DSR system with respect- related energy drain and propose techniques to minimize energy usage in both areas while maintaining

  11. Integration of Distributed Energy The CERTS MicroGrid Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this report. #12 Foundation's Power Systems Engineering Research Center, and Sandia National Laboratories. #12;LBNL-50829 Systems Integration Program Public Interest Energy Research California Energy Commission Prepared

  12. Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as combined heat and power (CHP), photovoltaics (PV), andCombined Heat and Power (CHP), DER-CAM Introduction Chinacombined heat and power (CHP), and electrical storage in

  13. Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    makes CHP system generally not attractive in residentialresidential flat tariffs are generally not attractive for CHP and5 Residential Building DER Technologies Selection City CHP (

  14. Economic regulation of electricity distribution utilities under high penetration of distributed energy resources : applying an incentive compatible menu of contracts, reference network model and uncertainty mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Jesse D. (Jesse David)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing changes in the use and management of electricity distribution systems - including the proliferation of distributed energy resources, smart grid technologies (i.e., advanced power electronics and information and ...

  15. Energy Loss Distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between Concentric Rotating Cylinders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, H S; Phan-Thien, N; Yeo, K S; Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Yeo, Khoon Seng

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of energy loss due to viscosity friction in plane Couette flow and Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders are studied in detail for various flow conditions. The energy loss is related to the industrial processes in some fluid delivery devices and has significant influence on the flow efficiency, flow stability, turbulent transition, mixing, and heat transfer behaviours, etc. Therefore, it is very helpful to know about the energy loss distribution in the flow domain and to know its influence on the flow for understanding the flow physics. The calculation method of the energy loss distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders has not been found in open literature. In this note, the principle and the calculation are given for single cylinder rotating of inner or outer cylinder, and counter and same direction rotating of two cylinders. For comparison, the distribution of energy loss in a plane Couette flow is also derived for various flow conditi...

  16. Control of ions energy distribution in dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Chao, E-mail: cye@suda.edu.cn; He, Haijie; Huang, Fupei; Liu, Yi [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)] [School of Physics Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Xiangying [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ion energy distributions (IEDs) in the dual-frequency magnetron sputtering discharges were investigated by retarding field energy analyzer. Increasing power ratio of 2?MHz to 13.56 (27.12 or 60) MHz led to the evolution of IEDs from a uni-modal distribution towards a uni-modal distribution with high-energy peak shoulder and a bi-modal distribution. While increasing power ratio of 13.56?MHz to 27.12?MHz and 27.12?MHz to 60?MHz, led to the increase of peak energy. The evolution of IEDs shape and the increase of peak energy are due to the change of ions responding to the average field of high-frequency period towards the instantaneous sheath potential of low-frequency period.

  17. Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model for energy efficiency in radio over fiber distributed indoor antenna Wi-Fi network Yves Josse communications in indoor environments. In this paper, the power consumption and energy efficiency of a DAS using for different transmission configurations, yielding a distance- dependent energy efficiency model. In a second

  18. Secure Distributed Solution for Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehab, Mohamed

    Secure Distributed Solution for Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid Mohammad Emails: {mrahman4, lbai2, mshehab, ealshaer}@uncc.edu Abstract--The demand-side energy management is crucial to optimize the energy usage with its production cost, so that the price paid by the users

  19. Energy Consumption in Data Analysis for On-board and Distributed Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kargupta, Hilol

    Energy Consumption in Data Analysis for On-board and Distributed Applications Ruchita Bhargava Energy consumption is an important issue in the growing number of data mining and machine learning of the energy consumption characteristics of dif- ferent data analysis techniques. The paper com- pares

  20. Toward Energy-Efficient and Distributed Mobile Health Monitoring Using Parallel Offloading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    monitoring systems, Chowdhury et al. proposed MediAlly, a middleware for supporting energy-efficient, long1 Toward Energy-Efficient and Distributed Mobile Health Monitoring Using Parallel Offloading Jong is emerging, little effort has been investigated in an energy-efficient management of sensor information

  1. Chirality Distribution and Transition Energies of Carbon Nanotubes J. Maultzsch,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Chirality Distribution and Transition Energies of Carbon Nanotubes H. Telg,1 J. Maultzsch,1 S Raman scattering on isolated nanotubes we obtained the optical transition energies, the radial breathing and the optical transition energies vary strongly with their chiral index n1; n2 [5]. Because the synthesis

  2. An Electricity Trade Model for Multiple Power Distribution Networks in Smart Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . A microgrid is a small scale power network, which contains one or multiple types of renewable power generators complicated with the adoption of energy storage [5]. For a power network, the amount of energy generationAn Electricity Trade Model for Multiple Power Distribution Networks in Smart Energy Systems

  3. Entropy and multifractal analysis of multiplicity distributions from pp simulated events up to LHC energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. K. Suleymanov; M. Sumbera; I. Zborovsky

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Using three different Monte Carlo generators of high energy proton-proton collisions (HIJING, NEXUS, and PSM) we study the energy dependence of multiplicity distributions of charged particles including the LHC energy range. Results are used for calculation of the information entropy, Renyi's dimensions and other multifractal characteristics of particle production.

  4. Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Accepted 13 March 2013 Available online 26 March 2013 Keywords: Snow Energy-balance Temperature intercepts snow- fall, alters the snow/atmosphere energy exchange and reduces wind speed. Dense canopies tendEvaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models

  5. Active electron energy distribution function control in direct current discharge using an auxiliary electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigert, I. V. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Demidov, V. I. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States) [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron energy distribution functions are studied in the low voltage dc discharge with a constriction, which is a diaphragm with an opening. The dc discharge glows in helium and is sustained by the electron current emitted from a heated cathode. We performed kinetic simulations of dc discharge characteristics and electron energy distribution functions for different gas pressures (0.8 Torr-4 Torr) and discharge current of 0.1 A. The results of these simulations indicate the ability to control the shape of the electron energy distribution functions by variation of the diaphragm opening radius.

  6. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report Cover | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartment of Energy Information2012 Awards forEnergy3

  7. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartment of Energy Information2012 Awards forEnergy32013

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    comfort model enhancementvalidation, climate system efficiency parameters and system trade off, and powertrain mode operation changes to further vehicle energy saving while...

  9. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Cooling, Heating, and Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    United States Government or any agency thereof. Abstract Investigators analyzed the energy consumption and end-user economics of Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems in...

  10. ITP Distributed Energy: The Market for CHP in Florida, August...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4 * CHP is more efficient than separate generation of electricity and thermal energy * Higher efficiency translates to lower operating cost * Higher efficiency reduces...

  11. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: 2005 CHP Action Agenda: Innovating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the year, workshops were also held in coordination with regional AE firms, state energy agencies, and gas utility user groups. DOE Regional Project Development Support and...

  12. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resources at Naval Base Ventura Country Building 1512 7.August 2001. “Naval Base Ventura County Standby GeneratorEnergy Resources at Naval Base Ventura Country Building 1512

  13. Fact Sheet: 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers New Training on Energy ManagementAugustin TargetEnergySheet

  14. Distributed Control of Residential Energy Systems using a Market Maker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    , in particular reverse power flow during daytime periods of peak generation coupled with low residential load distribution networks and shave peak demand without large-scale capital costs for feeder replacement.weller}@newcastle.edu.au) Abstract: The recent rapid uptake of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) installations provides many

  15. Energy Scaling Laws for Distributed Inference in Random Fusion Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yukich, Joseph E.

    the minimum spanning tree, and above by a suboptimal policy, referred to as Data Fusion for Markov Random, the policy with the minimum average energy consumption is bounded below by the average energy of fusion along models, Eu- clidean random graphs, stochastic geometry and data fusion. I. INTRODUCTION WE consider

  16. Scaling Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Peak Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    large-scale centralized energy storage systems at strategic points in the grid, such as at power plants. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. e-Energy'13, May 21­24, 2013, Berkeley, California, USA. Copyright 2013 ACM 978

  17. A U.S. and China Regional Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    adapted from [9]) Representative city State Miami Houstonclimate zones and representative cities [10] Lhs CumulativeDER technologies Representative city CHP (kW) Electric

  18. Multi-Building Microgrids for a Distributed Energy Future in Portugal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity tariff “MT – Médias utilizações em ciclo semanal normal” for the Education,electricity tariff considered in the DER-CAM runs for the Education,

  19. Distribution of Time-Energy Entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Zhang; Hiroki Takesue; Sae Woo Nam; Carsten Langrock; Xiuping Xie; M. M. Fejer; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter, we report an experimental realization of distributing entangled photon pairs over 100 km of dispersion-shifted fiber. In the experiment, we used a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide to generate the time-energy entanglement and superconducting single-photon detectors to detect the photon pairs after 100 km. We also demonstrate that the distributed photon pairs can still be useful for quantum key distribution and other quantum communication tasks.

  20. Measurement of Energy Distribution of Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Alpha-particles and MeV Energy Knock-on Deuterons in JET Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of Energy Distribution of Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Alpha-particles and MeV Energy Knock-on Deuterons in JET Plasmas

  1. The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

  2. Unconditional Security of Time-Energy Entanglement Quantum Key Distribution Using Dual-Basis Interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zheshen

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HDQKD) offers the possibility of high secure-key rate with high photon-information efficiency. We consider HDQKD based on the time-energy entanglement produced by spontaneous ...

  3. Distribution of Energy and Convergence to Equilibria in Extended Dissipative Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallay, Thierry

    Distribution of Energy and Convergence to Equilibria in Extended Dissipative Systems Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier Universitâ??e de Grenoble & CNRS BP 74 38402 Saint­Martin­d'Hâ??eres, France Thierry.Gallay

  4. Distribution of Energy and Convergence to Equilibria in Extended Dissipative Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallay, Thierry

    Distribution of Energy and Convergence to Equilibria in Extended Dissipative Systems Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier Universit´e de Grenoble & CNRS BP 74 38402 Saint-Martin-d'H`eres, France Thierry.Gallay

  5. Energy-efficient control of a smart grid with sustainable homes based on distributing risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ono, Masahiro, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to develop a distributed control system for a smart grid with sustainable homes. A central challenge is how to enhance energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty. A major source of uncertainty ...

  6. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, VOLUME I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Year 2025 Annual Energy~ 10 Btu Heat Electricity Fuels orBalance Distributed Cases (trillion Btu) A ! -feat >350! lPfor California Industry (10 12 Btu): Scenario B Process Heat

  7. GTT 2012 Distribution Workshop - Documents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 Budget Fossil EnergyFullGO 2009 Annual NEPAPolicyGTO 2013andGTT

  8. Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNS Electric,RMPipeline First Oil CeremonyCurriculumof Energy

  9. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA Newsletters 2010 ARRA Newsletters American20122 Wind201320142014 DOE|4

  10. Iowa Distributed Wind Generation Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii | Open EnergyIGPIntevacInvisibleIowa

  11. Central Assam Electricity Distribution Company Ltd CAEDCL | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd: China Datang CorporationCenterCentraisCentral

  12. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |in STEMEnergyI.of Energy EnergyPrecipitator

  13. Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan: EnergyTracer-DeterminedInformationLinen <

  14. Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan: EnergyTracer-DeterminedInformationLinen

  15. Request for Information for Distributed Wind Energy Systems | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy Small TeamNOTDeliveryDepartment of EnergyRequest

  16. Advanced Distributed Generation LLC ADG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwiki HomeASNAddGlobe Jump to:AdvancedAdvancedLLC ADG

  17. Distributed Generation Systems Inc DISGEN | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy Information At1986)

  18. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy Information

  19. Distributed Wind Site Analysis Tool (DSAT) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy InformationSite Analysis Tool (DSAT)

  20. The energy distribution of atoms in the field of thermal blackbody radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. V. Prigara

    2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the principle of detailed balance and the assumption on the absorption cross-section consistent with available astrophysical data, we obtain the energy distribution of atoms in the field of thermal blackbody radiation and show that this distribution diverges from the Boltzmann law.

  1. Nuclear parton distribution functions and energy loss effect in the Drell-Yan reaction off nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ChunGui Duan; LiHua Song; ShuoHe Wang; GuangLie Li

    2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the different sets of nuclear parton distribution functions, we present a analysis of the E866 experiments on the nuclear dependence of Drell-Yan lepton pair production resulting from the bombardment of Be, Fe and W targets by 800GeV protons at Fermilab. It is found that the quark energy loss in cold nuclei is strongly dependent on the used nuclear parton distribution functions. The further prospects of using relatively low energy proton incident on nuclear targets are presented by combining the quark energy loss rate determined from a fit to the E866 nuclear-dependent ratios versus $x_1$, with the nuclear parton distribution functions given from lA deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data. The experimental study of the relatively low energy nuclear Drell-Yan process can give valuable insight in the enengy loss of fast quark propagating a cold nuclei and help to pin down nuclear parton distributions functions.

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 014607 (2010) Fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    , and Nuclear Engineering, NES 1-25, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180, USA 2 Los Alamos National Lab, Los; published 19 January 2010) A new method of measuring fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy are necessary for accurate, detailed neutronics calculations for new

  3. Energy Management Program at Atlanta Postal Service Distribution Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.; Ansari, A.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Postal Service operates more than 38,000 post offices across the country and spends $350 million annually on utilities (1). Driven by President Clinton's 1999 Executive Order that mandates a 35 percent reduction in federal energy consumption...

  4. Multiport Converter Topologies for Distributed Energy System Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawke, Joshua

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel cell hybrid energy storage (MFC+HES) converter. First, low-voltage and medium-voltage PSC architectures are shown to decouple series-connected source currents and enable independent control. Multidimensional modeling and analysis is then discussed...

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report describing the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future chpreport12-08.pdf More Documents & Publications CHP: A Clean Energy...

  6. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: HUD Combined Heat and Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PREPARED FOR U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY September 2010 HUD CHP Guide 3- Introduction to...

  7. Distributed connected wind farms (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro

  8. Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:

  9. Alexander Hinneburg # Umbenennen der Dateien

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinneburg, Alexander

    Übung 4 Alexander Hinneburg #12;Aufgabe 1 # Umbenennen der Dateien: cp data_set_ALL_AML_train.txt ALL_AML_grow.train.orig.txt cp data_set_ALL_AML_independent.txt ALL_AML_grow.test.orig.txt #Zaehlen der Zeilen wc ALL_AML_*orig.txt # 7130 533422 1860350 ALL_AML_grow.test.orig.txt # 7130 590458 2046808

  10. Distributed Power Flow Control: Distributed Power Flow Control using Smart Wires for Energy Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    GENI Project: Smart Wire Grid is developing a solution for controlling power flow within the electric grid to better manage unused and overall transmission capacity. The 300,000 miles of high-voltage transmission line in the U.S. today are congested and inefficient, with only around 50% of all transmission capacity utilized at any given time. Increased consumer demand should be met in part with more efficient and an economical power flow. Smart Wire Grid’s devices clamp onto existing transmission lines and control the flow of power within—much like how internet routers help allocate bandwidth throughout the web. Smart wires could support greater use of renewable energy by providing more consistent control over how that energy is routed within the grid on a real-time basis. This would lessen the concerns surrounding the grid’s inability to effectively store intermittent energy from renewables for later use.

  11. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  12. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube| DepartmentStatementDepartmentDiggingDistributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

  13. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) Testing Facility for Distributed Energy Storage (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer.J.; Lundstrom, B.; Simpson, M.; Pratt, A.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing deployment of distributed, variable generation and evolving end-user load profiles presents a unique set of challenges to grid operators responsible for providing reliable and high quality electrical service. Mass deployment of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) has the potential to solve many of the associated integration issues while offering reliability and energy security benefits other solutions cannot. However, tools to develop, optimize, and validate DESS control strategies and hardware are in short supply. To fill this gap, NREL has constructed a power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test facility that connects DESS, grid simulator, and load bank hardware to a distribution feeder simulation.

  14. Central Versus Distributed Hydrogen Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas CategoricalAdministration-UpperNationalfor Los

  15. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of Energy Establishing the

  16. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of Energy Establishing theWorkshop -

  17. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOral Testimony ofMonitoring, Protection |purposeTheFact

  18. Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's NuclearSpurring SolarSystem,Department ofTechnology

  19. Property:Distributed Generation Function | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jump to:DeploymentSectorFunction Jump to:

  20. Property:Distributed Generation Prime Mover | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jump to:DeploymentSectorFunction Jump

  1. Property:Distributed Generation System Enclosure | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jump to:DeploymentSectorFunction

  2. Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jump

  3. Property:Distributed Generation/Site Description | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jumpallowed values for this property are:

  4. Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010In addition toDOEDepartmentDeliveryRecord of078This

  5. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkle CommunicationsSimultaneous

  6. List of Other Distributed Generation Technologies Incentives | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Incentives

  7. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRS Issuesof the U.S. GlassEnergy

  8. Measuring the Resilience of Energy Distribution Systems | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC) Richard2015 RD Workshop AgendaNationalWorkSome

  9. Distributed Generation Study/Matlink Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <

  10. Distributed Generation Study/Modern Landfill | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site Description Other Utility

  11. Distributed Generation Study/Oakwood Health Care Center | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site Description Other

  12. Distributed Generation Study/Patterson Farms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site Description OtherBiogas

  13. Distributed Generation Study/SUNY Buffalo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site Description

  14. Distributed Generation Study/Sea Rise 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site DescriptionNew York Site

  15. Distributed Generation Study/Sea Rise 2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site DescriptionNew York

  16. Distributed Generation Study/Tudor Gardens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site DescriptionNew

  17. Distributed Generation Study/VIP Country Club | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site DescriptionNewVIP Country

  18. Distributed Generation Study/Waldbaums Supermarket | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <Site DescriptionNewVIP

  19. Distributed Solar Power Ltd Di S P | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling Farm <SiteLtd Di S P Jump to:

  20. Category:Smart Grid Projects - Electric Distributions Systems | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGo BackLocation MediaGrant

  1. GridLab Power Distribution System Simulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/ExplorationGoods | OpenInformation BestInformationGridLab

  2. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost FoamCooling and Heating Based on

  3. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost FoamCooling and Heating Based

  4. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost FoamCooling and Heating BasedCooling

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost FoamCooling and Heating

  6. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost FoamCooling and HeatingCooling and

  7. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost FoamCooling and HeatingCooling

  8. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry Research U.S.Biomaterials | Departmentof the

  9. Asymptotic Approximations to the Distributed Activation Energy Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    applicability in situations, such as computational fluid dynamics modelling of coal-fired boilers, where- plex chemical systems such as coal pyrolysis. MRM assumes that the process can be represented Energy Model (DAEM) or multiple reaction model (MRM) for coal pyrolysis [4] may be applied to either

  10. An Energy Transmission and Distribution Network Using Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bing

    to reduce global warming and greenhouse gases emission. As electric vehicles (EVs) have batteries that can of global warming, greenhouse effect and climate change is too much CO2 emission. The power and energy results. Finally, Section VI concludes this paper. II. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION One of the main causes

  11. Air Quality Impacts of Distributed Energy Resources Implemented in the Northeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    of the United States have appropriate characteristics in terms of market deregulation, natural gas prices of the northeastern United States. A methodol- ogy for predicting future market penetration of DER that considers economics and emission factors was used to estimate the most likely implementation of DER. The methodology

  12. Leading neutron energy and pT distributions in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ZEUS Collaboration; S. Chekanov

    2007-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of energetic neutrons in $ep$ collisions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The neutron energy and $p_T^2$ distributions were measured with a forward neutron calorimeter and tracker in a $40 \\pb^{-1}$ sample of inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data and a $6 \\pb^{-1}$ sample of photoproduction data. The neutron yield in photoproduction is suppressed relative to DIS for the lower neutron energies and the neutrons have a steeper $p_T^2$ distribution, consistent with the expectation from absorption models. The distributions are compared to HERA measurements of leading protons. The neutron energy and transverse-momentum distributions in DIS are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and to the predictions of particle exchange models. Models of pion exchange incorporating absorption and additional secondary meson exchanges give a good description of the data.

  13. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  14. Relative grain boundary area and energy distributions in nickel Jia Li, Shen J. Dillon 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    Relative grain boundary area and energy distributions in nickel Jia Li, Shen J. Dillon 1 , Gregory boundary energies and areas are inversely correlated. Ó 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd and focused ion beam serial sectioning. These data have been used to determine the relative areas of different

  15. Effect of nonsinusoidal bias waveforms on ion energy distributions and fluorocarbon plasma etch selectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Effect of nonsinusoidal bias waveforms on ion energy distributions and fluorocarbon plasma etch etching Si and SiO2 in fluorocarbon plasmas could be controlled by adjusting the width and energy etch rates.9 In fluorocarbon gas mixtures, the selectivity of SiO2 over Si is based on the deposition

  16. Plasma molding over surface topography: Energy and angular distribution of ions extracted out of large holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Demetre J.

    Plasma molding over surface topography: Energy and angular distribution of ions extracted out November 2001 Plasma molding over surface topography was investigated by measuring the energy and angular critically on the shape of the meniscus plasma­sheath boundary formed over the surface topography. For plasma

  17. Energy-efficiency and Security Issues in the Cisco Nexus Virtual Distributed Benjamin Peterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Energy-efficiency and Security Issues in the Cisco Nexus Virtual Distributed Switching Benjamin--Virtualization technologies have brought with them the promise of increased security and energy saving. Such was the case with the Cisco Nexus virtual switching environment. However, possible security issues of this environment have

  18. Vibrational-Rotational Energy Distributions in the Reaction O-+ D2 f OD + D-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrar, James M.

    Vibrational-Rotational Energy Distributions in the Reaction O- + D2 f OD + D- Yue Li, Li Liu,§ and James M. Farrar* Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Recei) and D2 to form OD and D- was studied using the crossed molecular beam technique at collision energies

  19. A Game-Theoretic Framework for Control of Distributed Renewable-Based Energy Resources in Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    A Game-Theoretic Framework for Control of Distributed Renewable-Based Energy Resources in Smart¸ar Abstract-- Renewable energy plays an important role in distributed energy resources in smart grid systems. Deployment and integration of renewable energy resources require an intelligent management to optimize

  20. Limiting Energy Loss Distributions for Multiphoton Channeling Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenco, M V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results in the theory of multiphoton spectra for coherent radiation sources are overviewed, with the emphasis on channeling radiation. For the latter case, the importance of the order of resummation and averaging is illustrated. Limiting shapes of multiphoton spectra at high intensity are discussed for different channeling regimes. In some spectral regions, there emerges an approximate correspondence between the radiative energy loss and the electron integrals of motion.

  1. Energy distribution of 2+1 dimensional black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo Balart

    2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy distributions for a black hole solution resulting from coupling electrodynamics and gravity in 2+1 dimensions are obtained. This solution considers the correction for a 2+1 static charged black hole from the first contribution of the weak field limit of one loop QED in 2+1 dimensions. The Einstein and Moller energy-momentum prescriptions are used to evaluate the energy distributions associated with the mentioned 2+1 dimensional black hole and other 2+1 black hole solutions coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics. A relation that connects the coefficients of both prescriptions is established.

  2. Ordnung zur nderung der Diplomprfungsordnung der Universitt Bremen fr den Studiengang Berufs-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmeister, Thomas S.

    folgende Fassung: ,,(1) Diese Prüfungsordnung in der Fassung vom 13. Dezember 2006 tritt mit der tritt mit der Genehmigung durch den Rektor in Kraft. Bremen, den 6. März 2007 Der Rektor der Universität

  3. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Fuel Distribution Buses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit | NationalWebmaster ToStaffCapabilitiesFuel

  4. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Thermal Distribution Bus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure The foundation ofThermal

  5. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof1-SCORECARD-09-21-11 Page 1

  6. Request for Information for Distributed Wind Energy Systems | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR -Department ofEMSpent Nuclear Fuels Request ForPublic

  7. Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sandLaserLaser SeedingVehicles and

  8. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a homeZappos.comThe Office of

  9. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Energy System Basics Video Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NRELChemicalIndustryIssue

  10. Distributed Generation Lead-by-Example Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFTJanuary 2004 | Department ofLead-by-Example

  11. Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of Staffing Model5ThomasEnergy ofCell Researchon

  12. Market Assessment of Distributed Energy in New Commercial and Institutional

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECSEnergy PlansMaterials forBuilding and

  13. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGeneration |10 DOEGoals During NRELHighTitle,Workshop -

  14. Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube| DepartmentStatementDepartment of EnergyHydropower Technologies28, 2010 |

  15. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e& FuelInvited Guests

  16. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Powering Microturbines With Landfill Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 The United States

  17. Using field emission to control the electron energy distribution in high-pressure microdischarges at microscale dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yingjie; Go, David B. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)] [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle simulations of high-pressure microdischarges at gaps below 10 ?m show that the electron energy distribution becomes non-continuous, with discrete peaks corresponding to specific inelastic collisions. The relative magnitude of these peaks and shape of the energy distribution can be directly controlled by the parameter pressure times distance (pd) and the applied potential across the gap. These parameters dictate inelastic collisions experienced by electrons and as both increase the distribution smooths into a Maxwellian-like distribution. By capitalizing on field emission at these dimensions, it is possible to control the energy distribution of free electrons to target specific, energy dependent reactions.

  18. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A...

  19. The energy distribution of beta CrB for the specific stellar abundances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Castelli

    1998-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The comparison of the observed and computed energy distributions of beta CrB has shown that a model with the specific chemical composition of the star can account for the visual enery distribution, while it is still unable to reproduce ultraviolet observations shortward of 1700 A. Furthermore, the predicted absorption of strong Fe II and Mg II UV lines is much larger than the observed one.

  20. INAUGURAL -DISSERTATION Erlangung der Doktorwrde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    Quierschied/Saar Tag der mündl. Prüfung 16.1 0.1996 #12;Optical Measurernents of Small-Scale Wind-Generated