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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Secondary porosity in sandstones  

SciTech Connect

Secondary porosity in sandstones is caused by dissolution and fracturing, and is common in the sedimentary record. Secondary porosity commonly develops in the deep subsurface and thus provides an opportunity to extend exploration to depths traditionally considered unsuitable for exploration. Two contrasting routes of diagenesis exist in nature: porosity reduction and porosity enhancement. Porosity reduction is commonly caused by compaction and cementation, whereas porosity enhancement is primarily caused by dissolution of carbonate minerals. Two basic types of primary pores (intergranular and intragranular) and four basic types of secondary pores (grain fractures, rock fractures, intergranular, and intragranular) can be differentiated on the basis of (1) position of pores, (2) timing of origin, and (3) processes of origin. The proposed classification system is useful in inferring reservoir quality. Various types of secondary porosity are recognized using a comprehensive set of 20 criteria. The various criteria are based on manner of breakage, pore geometry, grain geometry, products of dissolution, and sediment packing. New evidence suggests that silicate minerals, including quartz, dissolve more commonly than have been reported. The abundant occurrence of secondary porosity in reservoir sandstones emphasizes the importance of secondary porosity in evaluating deep reservoirs.

Shanmugam, G.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Porosity gradients in marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The objectives of this study are: 1. To use selected Hydraulic Piston Core, porosity versus depth data (collected by shipboard sciennsts from DSDP Leg 64 to ODP Leg 120) and group it according to the major sediment type (Fig. 1) and to develop a data base... sites from DSDP Leg 64 to ODP Leg 120 were studied in an effort to determine the primary factors controlling the change in pomsity with depth. Each porosity vs. depth profile was divided into "compositional slices" which were grouped into seven...

Mahmood, Khalid

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

3

Secondary porosity in sandstones: basic contributions of Chepikov and Savkevich  

SciTech Connect

The concept of secondary porosity in sandstones - porosity caused primarly by dissolution - has gained considerable attention recently. The basic contributions made by Chepikov and Savkevich, however, have been ignored completely in North American publications. Chepikov et al not only developed the first set of criteria for recognizing secondary porosity, but also attributed the dissolution of cements to the arrival of oil. Savkevich was the first to illustrate the trend of increasing porosity at considerable depths. 1 figure, 1 table.

Shanmugam, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Secondary porosity in sandstones: basic contributions of Chepikov and Savkevich  

SciTech Connect

The concept of secondary porosity in sandstones-porosity caused primarily by dissolution--has gained considerable attention recently. The basic contributions made by Chepikov and Savkevich, however, have been ignored completely in North American publications. Chepikov et al not only developed the first set of criteria for recognizing secondary porosity, but also attributed the dissolution of cements to the arrival of oil. Savkevich was the first to illustrate the trend of increasing porosity at considerable depths.

Shanmugam, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Porosity in polysilsesquioxane xerogels  

SciTech Connect

Polysilsesquioxanes, [RSiO{sub 1.5}]{sub n} are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials in which silicon atoms are linked with up to three siloxane bonds to other monomer units in the polymer and the organic group is a pendent functionality. Polysilsesquioxanes are prepared by the hydrolysis and condensation of organotrialkoxysilanes (Scheme l). Organotrialkoxysilanes RSi(OR{prime}){sub 3}, have been extensively used as coupling agents for composites or surface treatments for materials. Polysilsesquioxanes have become increasingly popular for generating specialty coatings such as low k dielectric materials for microelectronic applications. While there is extensive information on the formation of polysilsesquioxanes, there has not been a survey of the ability of organotrialkoxysilanes to form gels until recently. The formation of polysilsesquioxanes gels has been shown to be very sensitive to the nature of the organic group. Many monomers will only form soluble oligomers or polymers upon hydrolysis and condensation, even when the reaction is conducted solvent-free with neat monomer and aqueous catalyst. Furthermore, there is little information concerning the influence of the organic group, R, on the porosity of the polysilsesquioxanes gels that are formed. In this paper the authors describe the preparation of polysilsesquioxane gels where R = H, methyl, ethyl, cyanoethyl, vinyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, chloromethyl, and chloromethylphenyl, and the characterization of the porosity of the respective xerogels. Gels were prepared from the hydrolysis and condensation of organotrimethoxysilanes, RSi(OEt){sub 3}, and organotriethoxy-silanes, RSi(OEt){sub 3}.

LOY,DOUGLAS A.; SCHNEIDER,DUANE A.; BAUGHER,BRIGITTA M.; RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

6

Porosity in Polysilsesquioxane Xerolgels  

SciTech Connect

Polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes is a convenient method for introducing organic functionality into hybrid organic-inorganic materials. However, not much is known about the effects of the organic substituent on the porosity of the resulting xerogels. In this study, we prepared a series of polysilsesquioxane xerogels from organotrialkoxysilanes, RSi(OR{sup 1}){sub 3}, with different organic groups (R = H, Me, Et dodecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, vinyl, chloromethyl, (p-chloromethyl) phenyl, cyanoethyl). Polymerizations of the monomers were carried out under a variety of conditions, varying monomer concentration, type of catalyst, and alkoxide substituent. The effect of the organic substituent on the sol-gel process was often dramatic. In many cases, gels were formed only at very high monomer concentration and/or with only one type of catalyst. All of the gels were processed as xerogels and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption porosimetry to evaluate their pore structure.

Baugher, B.M.; Loy, D.A.; Rahimian, K.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

7

Thermoelectric materials having porosity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

8

Variations in porosity with depth for marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Athy (193G); 5 = Hedberg (1936); 6 = Foster and Whalen (1966); 7 = Teodorovioh and Chernov (1968). curv:, are di -acCly . -. = Cributab' = Co ': ar. a!iona in . he oar a!&2 FJ s othe than deoti of &', '' i a '. ppl i cation of those porosi Cy ve... Athy (193G); 5 = Hedberg (1936); 6 = Foster and Whalen (1966); 7 = Teodorovioh and Chernov (1968). curv:, are di -acCly . -. = Cributab' = Co ': ar. a!iona in . he oar a!&2 FJ s othe than deoti of &', '' i a '. ppl i cation of those porosi Cy ve...

Katherman, Charles Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Petroleum reservoir porosity versus depth: Influence of geological age  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...periods. The Cretaceous seems to have...Middle East Cretaceous showed that...in the Upper Jurassic sandstones...in producing Cretaceous strata of the...Bothamsall oilfield, E. Midlands...Dhabi and the Amu Darya Basin: Marine...

S. N. Ehrenberg; P. H. Nadeau; Ø. Steen

10

Petroleum reservoir porosity versus depth: Influence of geological age  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in late Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs, Bothamsall oilfield, E. Midlands: Journal of the Geological Society of...carbonate reservoir quality: Examples from Abu Dhabi and the Amu Darya Basin: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v.-15, p...

S. N. Ehrenberg; P. H. Nadeau; Ø. Steen

11

Electrochemical techniques for the evaluation of porosity and corrosion rate for electroless nickel deposits on steel  

SciTech Connect

The use of electrochemical techniques in assessing the porosity of electroless nickel deposits (1--24 {micro}m) on steel substrates from hypophosphite baths is considered. The corrosion rate of the coated samples immersed in 0.125M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 22 C was determined using Tafel extrapolation and was found to decrease with decreasing porosity. Analysis of anodic polarization curves and current-time data at fixed potentials gave a good indication of the extent of deposit porosity. The use of galvanic coupling experiments between a non-porous coating and test samples of varying deposit thickness was also examined. The shape of the porosity vs. coating thickness curve was similar for all the methods investigated, the porosity decreasing for thicker deposits.

Kerr, C.; Barker, D.; Walsh, F. [Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry, Physics and Radiography

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Core image analysis of matrix porosity in The Geysers reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption is potentially an important consideration when calculating reserves at The Geysers. Our investigations of the mineralogical relationships in core samples have shown matrix pore spaces to be largely associated with fractures. Dissolution of calcite from hydrothermal veins increases porosity in the graywacke reservoir. The high relative surface area of secondary alteration phases could promote adsorption. In order to quantify porosity distribution and surface area, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images were analyzed using software developed for the interpretation of satellite imagery, This software classifies the images as either crystal or pore and then accumulates data on pore size, total porosity and surface area of the mineral-pore interface. Review of literature shows that data on thickness of adsorbed water layer does not exist for many of the mineral phases of interest in The Geysers. We have assumed thicknesses of 10, 100, and 5300 Angstroms for the adsorbed layer and calculated the relative proportions of adsorbed water. These calculations show 0.005%, 0.05%, and 2.5% of total water would be adsorbed using the above thicknesses.

Nielson, Dennis L.; Nash, Greg; Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Tripp, Alan C.

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

13

The effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of cordierite diesel particulate filter substrates  

SciTech Connect

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology depends on porous ceramic structures that trap the particulate matter in the diesel engine exhaust gas stream. The design of DPFs requires balancing the functional requirement of soot filtration with the mechanical properties and both are influenced by the porosity of the substrate. In addition, increasing the porosity of the substrate can assist with the catalytic washcoating, engine back pressure and engine efficiency. The effect of porosity on the elastic and fracture mechanical properties of cordierite based ceramic particulate filters was examined and will be described. Elastic modulus of DPF substrates was determined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy while fracture toughness was characterized using the double-torsion test method. The interrelationships among specimen thickness, wall orientation, porosity and mechanical properties of the filter substrates will be discussed. A materials selection procedure to obtain filters with high thermal shock resistance and optimal mechanical properties will be described.

Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Surface and Porosity of Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The validity of adsorption methods of measuring specific surface areas of solids (and, in particular, of adsorbents) is limited by the characteristics of the porosity. Methods based on the concept of multilayer adsorption, like the BET method and de Boer's t-method, are applicable only to non-porous or coarsely porous (including mesoporous) adsorbents. There is no general method of calculating the surface area of microporous adsorbents from adsorption data. For the "crack" model of the micropores in carbon adsorbents we can calculate the size and the geometrical area of the micropores from the parameters of the adsorption equation given by the theory of the volume filling of micropores, using a standard vapour (benzene). Almost identical results are obtained by using the adsorption of water vapour, which forms continuous monolayers in the micropores because of the dominant role of the hydrogen bond in adsorption. The geometric surface of micropores in carbon adsorbents is not a measure of the adsorption capacity of the sample, which is determined by dispersion forces, but it is relevant in kinetics and catalysis. The presence of micropores in non-porous or coarsely porous adsorbents makes the measurement of surface area by the BET or the de Boer method physically meaningless. In this case we can use the t/F method of Dubinin and Kadlets, which gives a measure of the volume of micropores and of the specific surface of mesopores. Kistler and Kiselev's capillary condensation method gives similar values for the specific area of the mesopores. 23 references.

M M Dubinin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Anisotropic poststack depth migration, eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

It is known that in areas with significant shale content, the isotropic assumption in depth migration is not correct, and this can lead to incorrect depth positioning if not properly accounted for. In this paper, we performed isotropic and anisotropic poststack depth migrations on a dataset from Eastern Venezuela to study the influence of anisotropy over the depth migration process. When interval velocities derived from surface seismic are compared with those velocities from check shots, significant differences are observed specially for depths associated with a thick sequence of shales identified in the area. These differences in interval velocities are used to obtain estimations of the anisotropic constants used in the anisotropic depth migration process. The anisotropic depth-migrated section allows to position correctly in depth known geological markers identified in well logs, while the results in the isotropic depth-migration show some mismatch with the depths obtained from well-log information.

Uzcategui, O.J.; Mujica, D.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Porous Polymer Networks: Synthesis, Porosity, and Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and exhibit high thermal and chemical stability. Their porosity was confirmed by N2 sorption isotherms at 77 K. One of these materials, PPN-3, has a Langmuir surface area of 5323...

17

Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic is described which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers. 3 figures.

Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

19

Porosity prediction in sandstones using erosional unconformities  

SciTech Connect

Erosional unconformities of subaerial origin are created by tectonic uplifts and eustatic sea level fall. Most erosional unconformities developed on sandstones are planes of increased porosity because uplifted sandstones are exposed to undersaturated CO/sub 2/-charged meteoric waters that result in dissolution of unstable framework grains and cements. The chemical weathering of sandstones is intensified in humid regions by the heavy rainfall, soil zones, lush vegetation, and accompanying voluminous production of organic and inorganic acids. Erosional unconformities are considered hydrologically open systems because of abundant supply of fresh meteoric water and relatively unrestricted transport of dissolved constituents away from the site of dissolution, causing a net gain in porosity near unconformities. Thus, porosity in sandstones tends to increase toward overlying unconformities. Such porosity trends have been observed in hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs in Alaska, Algeria, Australia, China, Libya, Netherlands, Norwegian North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Texas. A common attribute of these reservoirs is that they were all subaerially exposed under heavy rainfall conditions. An empirical model has been developed for the Triassic and Jurassic sandstone reservoirs in the Norwegian North Sea on the basis of the observed relationship that shows an increase in porosity in these reservoirs with increasing proximity to the overlying base of Cretaceous unconformity. An important practical attribute of this model is that it allows for the prediction of porosity in the neighboring undrilled areas by recognizing the base of Cretaceous unconformity in seismic reflection profiles and by constructing subcrop maps.

Shanmugam, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Porosity prediction in sandstones using erosional unconformities  

SciTech Connect

Erosional unconformities of subaerial origin are created by tectonic uplifts and eustatic sea level fall. Most erosional unconformities developed on sandstones are planes of increased porosity because uplifted sandstones are exposed to undersaturated CO/sub 2/-charged meteoric waters that result in dissolution of unstable framework grains and cements. The chemical weathering of sandstones is intensified in humid regions by heavy rainfall, lush vegetation, soil zones, and the voluminous production of inorganic and organic acids. Erosional unconformities are considered hydrologically open systems because of abundant supply of fresh meteoric water and relatively unrestricted transport of dissolved constituents away from the site of dissolution. Thus, porosity in sandstones commonly increases toward overlying unconformities. Empirical models have been developed on the basis of the observed relationship between erosional unconformities and porosity in the underlying sandstones in the North Sea (Middle Jurassic Brent Group) and in the Alaskan North Slope (Triassic Ivishak Formation). An important practical attribute of these models is that they allow for the prediction of porosity in frontier areas by recognizing erosional unconformities in seismic reflection profiles and by constructing subcrop maps for underlying sandstones. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs in Alaska, Algeria, Australia, China, Libya, Netherlands, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Texas occur immediately beneath major erosional unconformities.

Shanmugam, G.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Porosity prediction in sandstones using erosional unconformities  

SciTech Connect

Erosional unconformities of subaerial origin are created by tectonic uplifts and eustatic sea level fall. Most erosional unconformities developed on sandstones are planes of increased porosity because uplifted sandstones are exposed to undersaturated CO/sub 2/-charged meteoric waters that result in dissolution of unstable framework grains and cements. The chemical weathering of sandstones is intensified in humid regions by heavy rainfall, lush vegetation, soil zones, and the voluminous production of inorganic and organic acids. Erosional unconformities are considered hydrologically open systems because of abundant supply of fresh meteoric water and relatively unrestricted transport of dissolved constituents away from the site of dissolution. Thus, porosity in sandstones commonly increases toward overlying unconformities. Empirical models have been developed on the basis of the observed relationship between erosional unconformities and porosity in the underlying sandstones in the North Sea (Middle Jurassic Brent Group) and in the Alaskan North Slope (Triassic Ivishak Formation). An important practical attribute of these models is that they allow for the prediction of porosity in frontier areas by recognizing erosional unconformities in seismic reflection profiles and by constructing subcrop maps for underlying sandstones. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs in Alaska, Algeria, Australia, China, Libya, Netherlands, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Texas occur immediately beneath major erosional unconformities.

Shanmugam, G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Calorific and porosity development in carbonized wood  

SciTech Connect

Wood of four species (red oak, southern yellow pine, black cherry, and hybrid poplar) were carbonized in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere at an average heating rate of 3 degrees Centigrade/minute to selected final temperatures up to 700 degrees Centigrade. The effects of final carbonization temperature on selected properties of the char were obtained using an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter to investigate heat of combustion and a mercury porosimeter to investigate total porosity, real density, apparent density, and pore size distribution. Pore characteristics of carbonized wood developed before 300 degrees Centigrade in southern yellow pine and before 400 degrees Centigrade in red oak, black cherry, and hybrid poplar. Statistical analysis established linear relationships between heat of combustion versus final carbonization temperature in the carbonization temperature ranges investigated. The results of this study will aid in understanding optimum pryrolysis conditions for the development of calorific and porosity values. (Refs. 22).

Baileys, R.T.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Porosity and cementation in upper Cretaceous Mooreville and Demopolis Chalks, central Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Cyclically arranged chalky marl, marl, limestone, and sand facies comprise the Upper Cretaceous Mooreville and Demopolis Chalks, the lower two formation in the Selma Group, inner Coastal Plain of Alabama. In the central Alabama study area (Dallas, Lowndes, and Montgomery Counties), the Mooreville-Demopolis section is 305 m thick and the two main facies are chalky marl and marl. Chalky marl consists of 50-70% carbonate (nannofossil component plus isopachous cement) and is relatively impermeable (average permeability is 0.9 md). The marl has 30-50% carbonate (mainly nannofossil component) and has an average permeability of 0.13 md. Helium-calibrated porosity values range from 31 to 35% in chalky marl and 36 to 41% in the marl. Scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) of chalky marl and marl shows a relatively poor alignment of phyllosilicate grains in both facies. Under SEM, the calcareous nannofossil component, mainly coccoliths and rhabdoliths, shows pristine to cement-coated exterior surfaces. The cement coating is most common in the chalky marl. Sampling throughout the Mooreville-Demopolis section shows no apparent vertical (stratigraphic) trends in facies-specific petrologic characteristics such as permeability, helium-calibrated porosity, phyllosilicate grain alignment, nannofossil content, and extent of cementation. The most parsimonious explanation of the development and evolution of porosity and cementation in the study area is as follows. First, simple mechanical compaction from burial under a few hundred meters of sediment can readily explain the reduction in porosity to less than 40% in most samples from the Mooreville-Demopolis section. Secondary (facies-selective) cementation is a further cause for porosity reduction in chalky marl. Cementation is likely the result of calcareous nannofossil dissolution during compaction and carbonate solution-transfer via groundwater movement.

Holston, I.; King, D.T. Jr.; Bittner, E. (Auburn Univ., AL (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of interaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode signals. We demonstrate how a simple empirical formula describing the event distributions in the cathode/anode signal space can dramatically improve the energy resolution. We also estimate the energy and depth resolution of the detector as a function of the energy and the interaction depth. We also show a depth-sensing prototype system currently under development for EXIST in which cathode signals from 8, 16 or 32 crystals can be read-out by a small multi-channel ASIC board that is vertically edge-mounted on the cathode electrode along every second CZT crystal boundary. This allows CZT crystals to be tiled contiguously with minimum impact on throughput of incoming photons. The robust packaging is crucial in EXIST, which will employ very large area imaging CZT detector arrays.

J. Hong; E. C. Bellm; J. E. Grindlay; T. Narita

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

A Triple-Porosity Model for Fractured Horizontal Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A TRIPLE-POROSITY MODEL FOR FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS A Thesis by HASAN ALI H ALAHMADI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A Triple-Porosity Model for Fractured Horizontal Wells Copyright 2010 Hasan Ali H Alahmadi A TRIPLE-POROSITY MODEL FOR FRACTURED...

Alahmadi, Hasan Ali H.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

26

Role of halite in the evolution of sandstone porosity, upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation, Mississippi salt basin  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of petrographic point-count data, cement paragenesis, and scanning electron microscopy examination of pores has shown that poikilitic halite cement in sandstones of the Norphlet Formation in a core from Wayne County, Mississippi, formed following cementation by quartz, feldspar, dolomite, and anhydrite. Intergranular volume ranges from 26 to 42%, averaging 35%, indicating that an average of 10% of the rock volume was lost to compaction, and a further 10-15%, was lost to cementation prior to halite cementation, assuming a depositional porosity of about 45%. Most halite occurs as intergranular cement, but some halite is present as intragranular cement within framework feldspars and lithic fragments. Halite is easily removed from a sandstone during coring, slabbing, and thin-section preparation techniques that do not use oil-based fluids and muds, so the amount of porosity in these samples that is a product of artificial removal of halite is unknown. Although the present and former distribution of halite is poorly known, natural halite dissolution could have produced about 20% secondary porosity in the Norphlet Formation at depth in this part of the Mississippi Salt basin.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High-resolution, three-dimensional, compressional and shear wave velocity models, derived from microearthquake traveltimes, are used to map the distribution of Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California. Spatial resolution of the three-dimensional Poisson's ratio and porosity distributions is estimated to be 0.5 km horizontally and 0.8 km vertically. Model uncertainties, + or -1% in the interior and + or -2.3% around the edge of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r = V p /V s ratio and Psi = V p

28

Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal System, Wyoming Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal System, Wyoming Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Cores from two of 13 U.S. Geological Survey research holes at Yellowstone National Park (Y-5 and Y-8) were evaluated to characterize lithology, texture, alteration, and the degree and nature of fracturing and veining. Porosity and matrix permeability measurements and petrographic examination of the cores were used to evaluate the effects of lithology and hydrothermal alteration on porosity and permeability. The intervals studied in these two core holes span the conductive zone and the upper portion of

29

Significance of Secondary Porosity in Interpreting Sandstone Composition  

SciTech Connect

Secondary porosity resulting from dissolution of unstable framework grains such as feldspar and rock fragments (including chert) is common in sandstones. Extensive dissolution of framework grains may result in misinterpreting the original composition of a sandstone and, hence, in misinterpreting its provenance. To avoid these problems, secondary porosity caused by grain dissolution must be recognized. Sandstone composition may be properly evaluated by including the dissolved portion of a framework grain as a grain, rather than as porosity, while point counting. This should be useful in interpreting original composition of sandstones and in paleogeographic reconstruction of prospect areas.

Shanmugam, G.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

31

Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Analyzing Porosity using Petrographic Imaging Methods: Key for Petrophysics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5, “depositional porosity represents space that remains between grains, such as the ooids in the scanning electron micrograph (top), skeletal fragments or other particles. Diagenetic porosity, filled with blue epoxy in a thin section... these rock types and these classifications quickly display how much mud or grain content there is versus the skeletal grain content. 15 Figure 8. F. Jerry Lucia’s classification of carbonate interparticle pore space based on size and sorting...

Mcdaniel, Kathleen

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Usage of infinitesimals in the Menger's Sponge model of porosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work concerns the calculation of the infinitesimal porosity by using the Menger's Sponge model. This computation is based on the grossone theory considering the pore volume estimation for the Menger's Sponge and afterwards the classical definition of the porosity, given by the ratio between the volume of voids and the total volume (voids plus solid phase). The aim is to investigate the different solutions given by the standard characterization of the porosity and the grossone theory without the direct estimation of the fractal dimension. Once the utility of this procedure had been clarified, the focus moves to possible practical applications in which infinitesimal parts can play a fundamental role. The discussion on this matter still remains open.

M. C. Vita; S. De Bartolo; C. Fallico; M. Veltri

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

2009-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

35

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

37

from the project evaluation indicated that the porosity, void space  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the project evaluation indicated that the porosity, void space, the project evaluation indicated that the porosity, void space, and permeability of the target formations were lower than expected, and that the pressure in the formations increased with low injection rates. These results confirm the complex nature of the formations and demonstrate the importance of extensive drilling, formation evaluation, and testing to characterize and identify appropriate formations for CO 2 storage within the Appalachian Basin prior to injection. In addition to providing a significant geologic understanding of the formation, the project also provided several "lessons learned," ranging from practices

38

Scale dependence of intragranular porosity, tortuosity, and diffusivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may be in the ground for years or decades before they are discovered and targeted for remediation [e pores and flowing water is a recognized but poorly understood contributor to dispersion. Intragranular porosity, tortuosity, and diffusivity, Water Resour. Res., 46, W06513, doi:10.1029/2009WR008183. 1

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

39

NOTES ON NEUTRON DEPTH PROFILING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOTES ON NEUTRON DEPTH PROFILING by J.K. Shultis Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering College of Engineering Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66506 Dec. 2003 #12;Notes on Neutron Depth Profiling J. Kenneth Shultis December 2003 1 Introduction The purpose of neutron depth profiling

Shultis, J. Kenneth

40

Effect of electrode porosity on the electrospark deposition of recovery coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper examines how the porosity of electrode materials used to restore parts influences the electrospark deposition process. A higher porosity decreases the heat ... of heat remains for melting. Erosion and deposition

S. M. Kirilenko; O. V. Paustovskii; M. V. Karpets

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Carbon composition with hierarchical porosity, and methods of preparation  

SciTech Connect

A method for fabricating a porous carbon material possessing a hierarchical porosity, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic component, (iii) a dione component in which carbonyl groups are adjacent, and (iv) an acidic component, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a carbon material possessing a hierarchical porosity comprised of mesopores and macropores. Also described are the resulting hierarchical porous carbon material, a capacitive deionization device in which the porous carbon material is incorporated, as well as methods for desalinating water by use of said capacitive deionization device.

Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal Poisoning within an Individual Catalyst Particle using X-ray Microscopy Wednesday, August 21, 2013 - 1:30pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-226 Presented by Darius Morris, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a refining process for converting large and/or heavy molecules of oil feedstock into smaller and lighter hydrocarbons such as gasoline. During the cracking process, metal contaminants from the oil feedstock deactivate and restrict access into the catalyst particle, thus reducing the yield of gasoline byproducts. Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) has been used to determine the 3D composition and structure of an equilibrated (spent) FCC particle in

43

The development of MRI for the determination of porosity distribution in reservoir core samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scale porosity distributions. The existence of similarities between the different scales may indicate that porosity follows a fractal geometry. A key feature of fractals is their resemblance at various scales. I If evidence could be found... that the porosity does indeed follow a fractal geometry, this knowledge could be used to improve reservoir estimation procedures. & 2 Foot by foot porosity data was obtained using a Helium porosimeter for a three hundred foot vertical section of whole core...

Shivers, Jon Blake

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Geophysical Prospecting, 2006, 54, 565573 Influence of pore pressure on velocity in low-porosity sandstone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

than unity for low-porosity rocks and that it varies with porosity, rock texture and wave type. We Pressure strongly influences the mechanical and transport properties of rocks, such as porosity, velocity, permeability and resistivity. In a fluid-saturated rock, both pore pressure and confining pressure control

45

SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM K.D. Carlson1 , C: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Shrinkage Porosity, Hot Tears, Modeling Abstract Simulations are performed and hot tears in squeeze casting of magnesium alloys. Introduction Both shrinkage porosity and hot tears

Beckermann, Christoph

46

Laser Detection Of Material Thickness  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detection Of Material Thickness Detection Of Material Thickness Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of

47

Measurement of Porosity in Dilute Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this report are: (1) pretreated corn stover appeared to have more accessible pore volume than raw corn stover; (2) solute exclusion method--differences in the pore volume were not detectable due to the high variability of the measurements; (3) thermoporosimetry--differences in pore volume between pretreated samples were not observed despite the low variability of the measurement and a good correction was found between unfrozen water at 240K and xylan content; and (4) porosity measurements showed no correlation between ethanol yields and the volume accessible to an enzyme size probe, for this sample set.

Ishizawa, C.; Davis, M. F.; Johnson, D. K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Influence of depositional sand quality and diagenesis on porosity and permeability: Examples from Brent Group reservoirs, northern North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to examine correlations between reservoir quality and petrology in two data sets from the Middle Jurassic Brent Group. One of the data sets is from relatively shallow depth and has been little affected by chemical diagenesis (Statfjord Nord and Ost Fields; 2.3--2.6 km below the sea floor), while the second data set is from a more deeply buried reservoir having an advanced degree of diagenesis (Huldra Field; 3.6--3.9 km). Much of the total variation in porosity and permeability within each data set (0.02 mD to > 7 D in both sets) can be accounted for by laboratory measurements of parameters mainly related to depositional sand quality, including shaliness (represented by bulk-rock alumina/silica ratio), early carbonate cement, feldspar content, and grain size. Despite major differences in the proportions of different sedimentary facies in the two data sets, they have similar ranges of depositional sand quality and therefore probably had similar reservoir quality early in their burial history. Deeper burial diagenesis at Huldra Field has shifted the average of both porosity and permeability to lower values and produced a bimodal permeability distribution, apparently reflecting preferential preservation of permeability in the cleaner sandstones. On the basis of these examples, the author outlines an approach for unmixing the diagenetic and lithologic components of variation in regional compilations of sandstone porosity-permeability data. The procedure and its consequences are illustrated using a regional compilation of core data from the Brent Group of the northern North Sea.

Ehrenberg, S.N. [Statoil, Harstad (Norway)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Influence of depositional sand quality of porosity and permeability: Examples from Brent Group Reservoirs in the northern North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to examine correlation between reservoir quality and petrology in two data sets from the Middle Jurassic Brent Group. One of the data sets is from relatively shallow depth an has been little affected by chemical diagenesis (Staffjord Nord & Ost Fields 2.3-2.6 km below the sea floor), while the second data set is from a more deeply buried reservoir having an advanced degree of diagenesis (Huldra Field 3.6-3.9 km). Much of the total variation in porosity and permeability (0.02 mD to >7 D in both sets) can be accounted for by laboratory measurements of parameters mainly related to depositional sand quality, including {open_quotes}shaliness{close_quotes} (represented by bulk-rock alumina content), earl carbonate cement, feldspar content, and grain size. Despite major differences in the proportions of different sedimentary facies in the two data sets, they have similar ranges of depositional sand quality and therefore probably had similar reservoir quality early in their burial history. Deeper burial diagenesis at Huldra Field has shifted the average porosity and permeability lower and produced a bimodal permeability distribution, apparently reflecting preferential preservation of permeability in the cleaner sandstones. Based on these examples, a method is outlined for {open_quotes}unmixing{close_quotes} the diagenetic and lithologic components of variation in regional compilations of sandstone porosity-permeability data. The procedure and its consequences are illustrated using a regional compilation of core data from the Brent Group of northern North Sea.

Ehrenberg, S.N.; Bjorkum, P.A.; Naddeau, P.H. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE AND RESEARCH JOURNAL 32:3 (2008) 107–126 107 Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place MARGARET WICKENS PEARCE AND RENEE PUALANI LOUIS INTRODUCTION Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technolo- gies (GT... of geog- raphy at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. Renee Pualani Louis is Hawaiian and recently completed her doctorate in geography at the University of Hawai‘i at Ma¯noa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Published as M. Pearce and R. Louis. Mapping Indigenous depth...

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A dual-porosity reservoir model with a nonlinear coupling term  

SciTech Connect

Since their introduction by Barenblatt et al. (1960), double-porosity models have been widely used for simulating flow in fractured reservoirs, such as geothermal reservoirs. In a dual-porosity system, the matrix blocks provide most of the storage of the reservoir, whereas the fractures provide the global transmissivity. Initially, most work on dual-porosity models emphasized the development of analytical solutions to idealized reservoir problems. Increasingly, the dual-porosity approach is being implemented by numerical reservoir simulators. Accurate numerical simulation of a dual-porosity problem often requires a prohibitively large number of computational cells in order to resolve the transient pressure gradients in the matrix blocks. We discuss a new dual-porosity model that utilizes a nonlinear differential equation to approximate the fracture/matrix interactions, When implemented into a numerical simulator, it eliminates the need to discretize the matrix blocks, and thereby allows more efficient simulation of reservoir problems.

Zimmerman, R.W.; Chen, G.; Hadgu, T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Discrimination of porosity and fluid saturation using seismic velocity analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the invention is employed for determining the state of saturation in a subterranean formation using only seismic velocity measurements (e.g., shear and compressional wave velocity data). Seismic velocity data collected from a region of the formation of like solid material properties can provide relatively accurate partial saturation data derived from a well-defined triangle plotted in a (.rho./.mu., .lambda./.mu.)-plane. When the seismic velocity data are collected over a large region of a formation having both like and unlike materials, the method first distinguishes the like materials by initially plotting the seismic velocity data in a (.rho./.lambda., .mu./.lambda.)-plane to determine regions of the formation having like solid material properties and porosity.

Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Global Patterns of Groundwater Table Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...case study from a crystalline-rock watershed in southern India...E. Ingebritsen S. E. , Permeability of the continental crust: Implications...with exponentially decreasing permeability and porosity . Water Resour. Res. 46...

Y. Fan; H. Li; G. Miguez-Macho

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

55

ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

optical depth optical depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud optical depth Amount of light cloud droplets or ice particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

56

Prediction of the Fatigue Life of Cast Steel Containing Shrinkage Porosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of porosity becomes especially critical. An integrated design process is emerging in which a casting process] It is anticipated that such a design process will also help guide and improve casting inspection procedures INHOMOGENEITIES due to porosity are currently not considered in the design of structural components made from

Beckermann, Christoph

57

Borehole Stability Analysis in a Thermo-Poro-Elastic Dual Porosity Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and focus mainly on reservoirs represented by saturated rocks with a single porosity [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 reservoirs, management of nuclear waste disposal in a clay buffer, and geothermal hot dry rock energy (2012) 65-76" #12;of saturated porous rocks with a single porosity, highlighting the importance

Boyer, Edmond

58

Modeling the Effect of Finite-Rate Hydrogen Diffusion on Porosity Formation in Aluminum Alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Effect of Finite-Rate Hydrogen Diffusion on Porosity Formation in Aluminum Alloys KENT of hydrogen in the melt is developed to predict pore formation during the solidification of aluminum alloys by Lee et al.[3] Recent examples of porosity models for aluminum alloy castings, including the effect

Beckermann, Christoph

59

Shrinkage and porosity effects on heat and mass transfer during potato drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fruits and vegetables are porous in nature and undergo pronounced shrinkage during convective drying process. Therefore, shrinkage and porosity should be taken into consideration while predicting heat and mass transfer. This work was conducted to study shrinkage and porosity changes along with simultaneous heat and mass transport during the process. Potato slices were subjected to drying for 7 h at 62 °C. It was observed that shrinkage varies linearly with respect to moisture content and reduction in radial dimension of potato slices was around 35%. Porosity undergoes rapid increase after attaining certain moisture content in final stages of drying. The work was extended to study the influence of shrinkage and porosity on heat and mass transfer. Simulated results were validated with experimental values. This model can be employed to predict temperature, moisture, density profiles and to study shrinkage and porosity of various fruits and vegetables.

J. Aprajeeta; R. Gopirajah; C. Anandharamakrishnan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Evolution of porosity and diffusivity associated with chemical weathering of a basalt clast  

SciTech Connect

Weathering of rocks as a result of exposure to water and the atmosphere can cause significant changes in their chemistry and porosity. In low-porosity rocks, such as basalts, changes in porosity, resulting from chemical weathering, are likely to modify the rock's effective diffusivity and permeability, affecting the rate of solute transport and thus potentially the rate of overall weathering to the extent that transport is the rate limiting step. Changes in total porosity as a result of mineral dissolution and precipitation have typically been used to calculate effective diffusion coefficients through Archie's law for reactive transport simulations of chemical weathering, but this approach fails to account for unconnected porosity that does not contribute to transport. In this study, we combine synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography ({mu}CT) and laboratory and numerical diffusion experiments to examine changes in both total and effective porosity and effective diffusion coefficients across a weathering interface in a weathered basalt clast from Costa Rica. The {mu}CT data indicate that below a critical value of {approx}9%, the porosity is largely unconnected in the basalt clast. The {mu}CT data were further used to construct a numerical pore network model to determine upscaled, effective diffusivities as a function of total porosity (ranging from 3 to 30%) for comparison with diffusivities determined in laboratory tracer experiments. By using effective porosity as the scaling parameter and accounting for critical porosity, a model is developed that accurately predicts continuum-scale effective diffusivities across the weathering interface of the basalt clast.

Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Tomutsa, L.; Brantley, S.L.

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Stress anisotropy and velocity anisotropy in low porosity shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shales are known for often marked intrinsic anisotropy of many of their properties, including strength, permeability and velocity for example. In addition, it is well known that anisotropic stress fields can also have a significant impact on anisotropy of velocity, even in an isotropic medium. This paper sets out to investigate the ultrasonic velocity response of well-characterised low porosity shales from the Officer Basin in Western Australia to both isotropic and anisotropic stress fields and to evaluate the velocity response to the changing stress field. During consolidated undrained multi-stage triaxial tests on core plugs cut normal to bedding, Vpv increases monotonically with increasing effective stress and Vs1 behaves similarly although with some scatter. Vph and Vsh remain constant initially but then decrease within each stage of the multi-stage test, although velocity from stage to stage at any given differential stress increases. This has the impact of decreasing both P-wave (?) and S-wave anisotropy (?) through application of differential stress within each loading stage. However, increasing the magnitude of an isotropic stress field has little effect on the velocity anisotropies. The intrinsic anisotropy of the shale remains reasonably high at the highest confining pressures. The results indicate the magnitude and orientation of the stress anisotropy with respect to the shale microfabric has a significant impact on the velocity response to changing stress fields.

U. Kuila; D.N. Dewhurst; A.F. Siggins; M.D. Raven

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

System for measuring film thickness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

R tuart Haszeldine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Oil Charge Preserves Deep-Burial Porosity in Sandstones and Limestones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluvial, shallow marine and deepwater reservoirs with unusually large porosity at the field crest permeability and 10% extra porosity. Prevention of cementation is not due, in these cases, due to clay coating chalk reservoirs do not have these problems. Cementation normally destroys porosity by 3km, however many

Haszeldine, Stuart

65

Assessing the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Radiative Impact of Clouds of the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth W. O'Hirok and P. Ricchiazzi Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Analysis from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) reveals that the global mean cloud optical depth is surprisingly low (i.e., Ï„ = 3.8). While this value is probably dominated by extensive fields of cirrus, the average for liquid water clouds is also likely smaller than expected. It is in this regime (Ï„ <10) where remote measurements of cloud optical thickness or liquid water path (LWP)

66

A Novel Approach For the Simulation of Multiple Flow Mechanisms and Porosities in Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The state of the art of modeling fluid flow in shale gas reservoirs is dominated by dual porosity models that divide the reservoirs into matrix blocks that significantly contribute to fluid storage and fracture networks which principally control...

Yan, Bicheng

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Modification of the porosity of pillared clays by carbon deposition. I. Polymer carbonization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to use pillared clays (PILC) for selective adsorption, further modifications of ... on the porosity of Ti- and Al-PILC is discussed in terms of pore-blocking, ... resulted in a complete pore-blocking for...

N. Maes; E. F. Vansant

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The stability and porosity of FE-PILCs in an acid and basic environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe-PILCs were treated in a mild acid and basic environment (low concentrated acids and bases at ambient temperatures) for two days to evaluate their influence on the structure and porosity. All modified Fe-PIL...

I. Heylen; E. F. Vansant

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Porosity development in selected Jurassic sandstones from the Norwegian and North Seas, Norway — an overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petrographic analyses of selected Jurassic sandstone core specimens from wells in the Norwegian and North Seas, Norway, indicate that porosity development has been influenced significantly by provenance and se...

Richard E. Larese; Norman L. Haskell…

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and permeability of saturated soils at various porosities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Ottawa Sand . 4. Thermal Conductivity Data Analysis 5. Thermal Conductivity of Reference Materials 6. DC Resistivity Data with Plate Electrode System for Kaolinite at Porosity of 49% PAGE 48 52 54 66 71 AC Resistivity Data for Kaolinite... THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY, AND PERMEABILITY OF SATURATED SOILS AT VARIOUS POROSITIES A Thesis by JAMES KEITH ENDERBY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement...

Enderby, James Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Vertical Spatial Sensitivity and Exploration Depth of Low-Induction-Number Electromagnetic-Induction Instruments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...overestimates of d e and poor estimates of layer thickness and composition, water content, or depth to interfaces such as the water...agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to identify offsite movement of agrochemicals. J. Appl. Geophys. 47:251-259. georef;2007029067...

James B. Callegary; Ty P. A. Ferré; R. W. Groom

72

Secondary porosity and permeability of coal vs. gas composition and pressure  

SciTech Connect

We have been investigating the sequestration of atmospheric pollutants by injection into coal seams while at the same time enhancing hydrocarbon productivity by displacement of methane with pollutants. We found that changing the composition of the gas sorbed into the coal changes the porosity and permeability of the coal natural-fracture system owing to gas-content changes, which cause matrix swelling or shrinkage due to relative adsorption of different gases. We collected sufficient information to develop a method for predicting the permeability and porosity of a coalbed as a function of the secondary porosity system (SPS) pressure and the gas content and composition of the primary porosity system (PPS). The method uses data from injection/falloff tests with water and/or a weaker adsorbing gas (WAG) than CH{sub 4} and a stronger adsorbing gas (SAG) than CH{sub 4}. Estimates of effective permeability to gas and water obtained from these tests are used with an iterative computation procedure subject to constraints to solve for equivalent SPS porosity and absolute permeability at atmospheric pressure. Once calibrated, the model can be used to predict a coalbed's permeability and porosity as a function of injection pressure and injected-fluid composition, which in turn are used to predict injection performance. The model is applicable to production forecasts to account for SPS permeability and porosity changes as reservoir pressure declines with changes in gas composition. This paper describes the new model and discusses well-test procedures to obtain the data required for model calibration. Also included are coal property estimates resulting from Alberta Medicine River (Manville) coal core and test data and an example model calibration.

Mavor, M.J,; Gunter, W.D. [Tesseract Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

New depths with mobile rig  

SciTech Connect

Magee-Poole Drilling Company, a drilling contractor operating out of the south Texas drilling center of Alice, claims it operates the largest mobile drilling rig in the world. That is, it's the only wheel mounted portable rig that drills to 16,000 feet with 4 1/2-inch drill pipe - at least 3000 feet deeper than the previous mobile drilling rig ratings. The unit is designated the Ingersoll-Rand 1500 Series. What's more significant, according to co-owner Don Magee, is that the rig's portability gets the rotary table turning to the right sooner; it drills more footage per year. It rigs up in 1 1/2 days versus 3 to 4 days for a conventional skid type rig normally used at these depths. The unit's compact arrangement, with more components combined into single loads, makes possible its higher mobility. A conventional skid rig might require 25 to 30 truckloads to move the rig components, mud system, fuel and water tank, houses for utilities, storage and crew change, generators, and drill pipe. The new rig moves in anywhere from four to nine loads less. Further, the rig components weigh less without sacrificing durability.

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Evaluation of weld porosity in laser beam seam welds: optimizing continuous wave and square wave modulated processes.  

SciTech Connect

Nd:YAG laser joining is a high energy density (HED) process that can produce high-speed, low-heat input welds with a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. This is optimized by formation of a ''keyhole'' in the weld pool resulting from high vapor pressures associated with laser interaction with the metallic substrate. It is generally accepted that pores form in HED welds due to the instability and frequent collapse of the keyhole. In order to maintain an open keyhole, weld pool forces must be balanced such that vapor pressure and weld pool inertia forces are in equilibrium. Travel speed and laser beam power largely control the way these forces are balanced, as well as welding mode (Continuous Wave or Square Wave) and shielding gas type. A study into the phenomenon of weld pool porosity in 304L stainless steel was conducted to better understand and predict how welding parameters impact the weld pool dynamics that lead to pore formation. This work is intended to aid in development and verification of a finite element computer model of weld pool fluid flow dynamics being developed in parallel efforts and assist in weld development activities for the W76 and future RRW programs.

Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew; Faraone, Kevin M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Roach, Robert Allen; Norris, Jerome T.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Porosity enhancement from chert dissolution beneath Neocomian unconformity: Ivishak Formation, North Slope, Alaska: Discussion  

SciTech Connect

Shanmugam and Higgins (1988) concluded that chert dissolution was the dominant control of porosity and permeability trends in the fluvial facies of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay field. Chert dissolution, in turn, was interpreted to be a function of proximity to the Lower Cretaceous unconformity. In their opinion, the data presented by Shanmugam and Higgins are not sufficient to justify their conclusions. The authors apparently neglected to consider the effects of fundamental geological parameters (grain size and sorting) and processes (burial history) on porosity and permeability. In this discussion, the authors specifically address the effects of grain size, sorting, and burial history on porosity and permeability, to provide an alternative explanation of reservoir quality trends in the Ivishak reservoir. 3 figs.

Bloch, S.; McGowen, J.H. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA)); Duncan, J.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Midland, TX (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder Metallurgy Produced Titanium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

ORNL undertook an investigation using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate, to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal / minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders, are critical to achieve equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Chen, Wei [ORNL; Lim, Yong Chae [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Knudsen-to-Hydrodynamic Crossover in Liquid He3 in a High-Porosity Aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the drag force acting on a high porosity aerogel immersed in liquid He3 and its effect on sound propagation. The drag force is characterized by the Knudsen number, which is defined as the ratio of the quasiparticle mean free path to the radius of an aerogel strand. Evidence of the Knudsen-hydrodynamic crossover is clearly demonstrated by a drastic change in the temperature dependence of ultrasound attenuation in 98% porosity aerogel. Our theoretical analysis shows that the frictional sound damping caused by the drag force is governed by distinct laws in the two regimes, providing excellent agreement with the experimental observation.

H. Takeuchi; S. Higashitani; K. Nagai; H. C. Choi; B. H. Moon; N. Masuhara; M. W. Meisel; Y. Lee; N. Mulders

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Clean Cast Steel Technology: Effect of Micro-porosity on Tensile and Charpy Properties of Four Cast Steels  

SciTech Connect

The effect of these large shrink cavities on mechanical properties could be easily calculated using well established engineering formulas. Over the years, increases in computational and metallurgical resources have allowed the modeler to improve accuracy and increase the complexity of numerical predictors. An accurate prediction of micro-porosity, not observable using conventional radiographic techniques, and an engineering understanding of the effect on mechanical properties would give a designer confidence in using a more efficient casting design and a lower safety factor. This will give castings an additional design advantage. The goal of this project is to provide current and future modelers/designers with a tensile and Charpy property dataset for validation of micro-porosity predictors. The response of ultimate strength, elongation, and reduction in area to micro-porosity was very similar in all four alloys. Ultimate strength was largely unaffected by tensile fracture surface porosity until values of about 25% were reached and decreased linearly with increasing values. Elongation and reduction in area decreased sharply after less than 5% fracture surface porosity. Niyama values of about 0.7 were produced sound material and acceptable tensile properties. Ultrasonic velocities of 0.233 in/usec and higher produced acceptable tensile properties. Metallographic examination revealed a ratio of 4-6 to 1 in fracture surface porosity to metallographic porosity. Charpy impact properties were largely unaffected by the microporosity concentrations examined in this study and did not correlate to either Niyama values, fracture surface porosity, or metallographic porosity.

Griffin, John, A.; Bates, Charles, E.

2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

79

Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding  

SciTech Connect

We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Recommended Practice: Defense-in-Depth  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies May 2006 Prepared by Idaho National Laboratory Recommended Best Practice: Defense in Depth 2 Table of Contents Keywords............................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 3 Background ......................................................................................................................... 3 Overview of Contemporary Control System Architectures................................................. 4 Security Challenges in Control Systems .............................................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

An investigation on the effect of porosity on the transport properties of porous silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microelectronics technology today is dominated exclusively by Silicon (Si). The inefficiency of Si to emit light even at cryogenic temperatures has been overcome with the discovery of porous silicon (PS) and its visible luminescence at room temperature. The present investigation aims at analysing the effect of increasing porosity on the transport properties of porous silicon with reference to field and temperature-dependent dark and photo conductivity and further substantiating the results with modulation techniques. Pure silicon wafer of n-type was made porous by immersion in an appropriate etchant for a few minutes. The conductivity was found to increase as porosity increased and this effect could be attributed to the increase in the trap levels, with increasing porosity. Temperature-dependent studies reveal a decrease in activation energy with increase in porosity indicating an increase in conductivity. Reflectance and electroreflectance measurements were used to calculate the band gap of porous silicon. It was found to lie closer to the direct band gap of silicon. A reduction in the band gap of porous silicon has been observed.

J. Merline Shyla; Francis P. Xavier; P. Sagayaraj

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthony G. Evans* Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Thermal barrier and generating new thermal resistance solutions, as appropri- ate. A continuum heat flow analysis is usedDistributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor

Wadley, Haydn

83

The mechanism of porosity formation during solvent-mediated phase transformations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...importance of porosity generation by solvent-mediated phase transformation...used for most imaging, and green light (lambda g=547nm...insights into the mechanisms of solvent-mediated phase transformation...reprecipitation processes in solvent-mediated phase transformation...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Effect of Porosity on the Stiffness of Cast Steel RICHARD A. HARDIN and CHRISTOPH BECKERMANN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the location, amount, and size characteristics of micro- and macroporosity, an integrated design process service perfor- mance.[2] It is anticipated that such a design process will guide and improve inspection in cast metal due to porosity or inclusions are not considered directly in part design. Instead, ad

Beckermann, Christoph

85

Dual-Porosity Hollow Nanoparticles for the Immunoprotection and Delivery of Nonhuman Enzymes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dual-Porosity Hollow Nanoparticles for the Immunoprotection and Delivery of Nonhuman Enzymes Inanc 80045, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Although enzymes of nonhuman origin have been attack on nonhuman enzymes paving the way to in vivo applications including enzyme-prodrug therapies

Tsien, Roger Y.

86

Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics. O. Rozenbaum1 for the comprehension of the ceramics thermal properties. Keywords: ceramics, texture, emissivity spectra, infrared (2009) 580-590" DOI : 10.1007/s10765-008-0510-1 #12;2 Abstract Thermal and optical properties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Carbon Aerogels and Monoliths: Control of Porosity and Nanoarchitecture via Sol–Gel routes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Aerogels and Monoliths: Control of Porosity and Nanoarchitecture via Sol–Gel routes ... The synthesis of carbon aerogels by sol–gel like processes, i.e., hard templating, phase demixing, hydrothermal carbonization techniques, as well as by ionothermal syntheses are reviewed. ... carbon aerogels; sol?gel chemistry of carbon; hydrothermal carbonization; salt templating ...

Markus Antonietti; Nina Fechler; Tim-Patrick Fellinger

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

88

Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid breeder material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455­460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid@ucla.edu (S. Sharafat). breeder pebble beds remains a field of intense R&D for fusion power reactor B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2005.06.374 #12;456 S. Sharafat et al. / Fusion

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

89

Optimal Porosity Distribution for Minimized Ohmic Drop across a Porous Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA This paper considers the design of spatially varying porosity profiles-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA c Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology material, and additive loading; iii manufacturing convenience and cost; iv ideal expected thermal behavior

Subramanian, Venkat

90

Integration of Geology, Rock-Physics, Logs, and Pre-stack Seismic for Reservoir Porosity Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to obtain reservoir properties, such as porosity, both at the well locations and in the inter-well regions from seismic data and well logs. The seismic and well-log datasets are from an ...

Al Muhaidib, Abdulaziz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Estimation of axisymmetric spatial distributions of permeability and porosity from pressure-transient data acquired with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to quantify the spatial resolution and reliability of in situ permanent pressure data to detecting hydrocarbonEstimation of axisymmetric spatial distributions of permeability and porosity from pressure-transient data acquired with in situ permanent sensors Faruk O. Alpak*, Carlos Torres-Verdi´n, Kamy Sepehrnoori

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

92

Characterization of granite matrix porosity and pore-space geometry by in situ and laboratory methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the conclusion that a large part of the microscopic...porosity is substantially larger than the one measured...Rasilainen (1996) compared a large number of laboratory-based...sample relaxation after drilling of the impregnated and...conditions from a set of borehole intervals, subsequent......

M. Schild; S. Siegesmund; A. Vollbrecht; M. Mazurek

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes during dissolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes from X-ray microtomography data obtained before and after a set of dissolution experiments of pure.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport Carbon storage Permeability X-ray microtomography 1

Luquot, Linda

94

Critical insulation thickness for maximum entropy generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Critical insulation thickness is known to refer to the insulation thickness that maximises the rate of heat transfer in cylindrical and spherical systems. The same analogy is extended to the rate of entropy generation in the present study. The possible critical insulation thickness that yields a maximum rate of entropy generation is investigated. Entropy generation is related to heat transfer through and temperature distribution within the insulation material. It is found that there exists a critical insulation thickness for maximising the rate of entropy generation that is a function of the Bi number and the surface to ambient temperature ratio. The solution of such critical thickness is formulated analytically for both cylindrical and spherical geometries. It is also found that the critical insulation thickness for the rate of entropy generation does not coincide with that for the rate of heat transfer.

Ahmet Z. Sahin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Magnetic vortices in a distributed Josephson junction with electrodes of finite thickness  

SciTech Connect

A distributed Josephson junction with electrodes of finite thickness is considered in the case of high critical current density when the Josephson penetration depth {lambda}{sub {ital j}} is less than the London depth {lambda}{sub {ital L}}. A nonlinear nonlocal equation for steady-state distributions of phase difference {ital cphi} across the junction is derived. In the asymptotical case of thin electrodes an exact nonlinear solution for this equation which corresponds to an isolated at-rest Josephson vortex is found. A numerical investigation of the equation derived is carried out and some static and dynamic characteristics of vortices in such a Josephson junction are represented.

Alfimov, G.L.; Popkov, A.F. [F. V. Lukin`s Research Institute of Physicsl Problems, Zelenograd, Moscow, 103460 (Russian Federation)] [F. V. Lukin`s Research Institute of Physicsl Problems, Zelenograd, Moscow, 103460 (Russian Federation)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Reconstruction of original indium distribution in InGaAs quantum wells from experimental SIMS depth profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Depth profiling analysis of InGaAs/GaAs hetero-structures grown by MBE on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is reported. A novel two-step procedure for de-convolving experimental SIMS depth distribution is employed and the original In distribution in InGaAs quantum wells (QW) is estimated. The QW thickness calculated from the de-convolved profiles is shown to be in good agreement with the cross-sectional TEM images. The experimental In depth profile is shifted from the original In distribution due to the ion mixing process during depth profiling analysis. It is shown that the de-convolution procedure is suitable for reconstruction of the original QW width and depth by SIMS even for relatively high primary ion energies.

Yu. Kudriavtsev; R. Asomoza; S. Gallardo-Hernandez; M. Ramirez-Lopez; M. Lopez-Lopez; V. Nevedomsky; K. Moiseev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE  

SciTech Connect

X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

98

Porosity enhancement from chert dissolution beneath Neocomian unconformity: Ivishak Formation, North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Secondary porosity caused by chert dissolution is common in the hydrocarbon-producing fluvial facies of the Ivishak Formation (Triassic), North Slope, Alaska. Petrographic observations suggest that macroporosity caused by chert dissolution tends to increase toward the Neocomian unconformity. In the Prudhoe Bay field, a lateral increase in core porosity (from 15% at about 30 km from the unconformity to 30% near the unconformity) and in permeability (from 50 md at about 30 km from the unconformity to 800 md near the unconformity) is evident toward the unconformity. This increase occurs within the fluvial facies (zone 4) of nearly uniform grain size and framework composition (chert litharenite). Major chert dissolution probably took place during the Neocomian uplift when the Ivishak Formation was exposed to acidic meteoric waters in the near-surface environment. 16 figures, 3 tables.

Shanmugam, G.; Higgins, J.B.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The effect of GASAR processing parameters on porosity and properties in aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

The GASAR process involves the dissolution of hydrogen in a molten metal or alloy by controlling the hydrogen pressure and the temperature in a high pressure chamber. The difference between the hydrogen solubility in the melt and the solid is used to control the growth of hydrogen pores within the solidifying structure. Designed experiments have been performed to determine the relative effects of the saturation pressure, temperature, casting pressure, mold temperature and cooling rate on the total porosity, pore size, distribution and shape in pure nickel and aluminum alloys. The shape and distribution of pores was found to depend upon the structure of the primary solid pore nucleation and growth. Reducing the casting pressure had the strongest effect on increasing the total porosity and pore size.

Paradies, C.J.; Tobin, A. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States); Wolla, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

The effect of velocity and porosity profiles on the performance of fixed bed reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reactors. The reaction systems chosen offered a variety of reaction situations, including highly exothermic reactions, multiple and complex reaction schemes. A comparison of the calculated results by the two dimensional plug flow mcdel and the results... to be independent of axial direction in a bed packed with uniform size cylindrical or spherical particles. Martin(1978), using this data proposed a model for the porosity profile. Catalytic reactors are usually packed by uniform size spherical or cylindrical...

Amin, Kaushik

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

Pasyanos, M E

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments Dan Chen School of Computer Science¨ur Theoretische Informatik Abstract A Monte Carlo approximation algorithm for the Tukey depth problem in high. Keywords: Tukey depth, computational geometry 1. Introduction Tukey depth is also known as location depth

Morin, Pat

103

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous

104

MonolayerThickness of Block Copolymer Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.47 · Index of ref. for PS-PEHMA 1.51 #12;Annealing the films · Tg 22nm 24nm Height Images #12;AFM 12-33 26nm 28nm 30nm Bi-continuous #12;12-33Area% 13.08 31.55 41 Area % Thickness (nm) Monolayer: 18.86nm Bilayer: 37.72nm #12;Monolayer thickness 12

Petta, Jason

105

Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques  

SciTech Connect

Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.

Dorsch, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Katsube, T.J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Mineral Resources Div.; Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Dugan, B.E. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Mineral Engineering; Tourkow, L.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Determining Nighttime Atmospheric Optical Depth Using Mars Exploration Rover Images  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was compared to the expected flux to give nighttime optical depth values. The observed nighttime optical depth was consistently similar to the daytime optical depth values on both an individual image and sol-averaged basis. Recommendations are made going...

Bean, Keri Marie

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

107

PublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 maximum depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a video camera to complete installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory. NEPTUNE- tion systems that--using power and the internet--provide continuous, long-term monitoring of oceanPublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 THE 2.7km maximum depth beneath the ocean surface of neptune

Pedersen, Tom

108

Automatic history matching of dual porosity system with wellbore storage and skin constant rate case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vector notation Greek svmbols Interporosity flow shape factor, ft Viscosity, cp Porosity, fraction , ~mP 4 ~ ~ Oimensionless transfer coefficient kf (m~)f Oimensionless storativity ratio (mcf) $ me) Itl n Unit normal vector 66 REFERENCES 1... to the system of equations, the equations become d pod dS d'o 2 v'w- "of ? Sf['"'I' ? A 0 (A23) and Dm Dm( o 0) ( where 73 (, m'f jf ('m'fjf f (m'f) (A25) kf From the initial condition PD(rD, 0) = 0 PDF ( 0, 0) - 0 (rD. 0) = 0 Rearranging equation...

Olarewaju, Joseph Shola

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fabrication and electrical properties of La8.33Sb(SiO4)6O2 thick films for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study Sb-substituted La8.33Sb(SiO4)6O2 apatite thick films were fabricated by using a screen printing method and the structural and electrical properties of these materials with variation in sintering temperature for solid oxide fuel cells were investigated. With increased sintering temperatures the second phase La2SiO5 phase decreased and the specimens sintered at over 1350?°C showed typical X-ray diffraction patterns of apatite polycrystalline structure. The grain size increased and porosity decreased with increasing sintering temperatures. The thickness of all films was approximately 25–30??m. La8.33Sb(SiO4)6O2 thick films sintered at 1350?°C showed good conductivity and activation energy characteristics at 9.87?×?10?5 S cm?1and 1.24?eV respectively.

Dae-Young Kim; Sung-Gap Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (Glenmont, NY); Xu, Liming (Greenville, SC); Lewis, Doyle C. (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Magnetism in nanometer-thick magnetite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oldest known magnetic material, magnetite, is of current interest for use in spintronics as a thin film. An open question is how thin can magnetite films be and still retain the robust ferrimagnetism required for many applications. We have grown 1-nm-thick magnetite crystals and characterized them in situ by electron and photoelectron microscopies including selected-area x-ray circular dichroism. Well-defined magnetic patterns are observed in individual nanocrystals up to at least 520 K, establishing the retention of ferrimagnetism in magnetite two unit cells thick.

Matteo Monti; Benito Santos; Arantzazu Mascaraque; Oscar Rodríguez de la Fuente; Miguel Angel Niño; Tevfik Onur Mente?; Andrea Locatelli; Kevin F. McCarty; José F. Marco; Juan de la Figuera

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

113

Fast neutron background measurements at shallow depths  

SciTech Connect

We report on measurements of the neutron backgrounds for neutrino experiments at shallow depth (such as the proposed San Onofre neutrino oscillation experiment). A detector capable of pulse-shape discrimination measured the flux of fast neutrons at 20 mwe depth in the Stanford Underground Facility to be (1.07 {+-} 0.30) X 10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. An experiment, situated in the Tendon Gallery of the San Onofre Unit 2 reactor. studied spallation neutrons from muons traversing Pb and Cu. An underground experiment in the SUF, employing a detector filled with Gd-loaded liquid scintillator, is measuring the neutron production rate and multiplicity for muon spallation in low-A material (hydrocarbon-based liquid scintillator).

Chen, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Novikov, V. [Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dougherty, B.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fracture-enhanced porosity and permeability trends in Bakken Formation, Williston basin, western North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Fractures play a critical role in oil production from the Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston basin. The Bakken Formation in the study area is known for its low matrix porosity and permeability, high organic content, thermal maturity, and relative lateral homogeneity. Core analysis has shown the effective porosity and permeability development within the Bakken Formation to be related primarily to fracturing. In theory, lineaments mapped on the surface reflect the geometry of basement blocks and the zones of fracturing propagated upward from them. Fracturing in the Williston basin is thought to have occurred along reactivated basement-block boundaries in response to varying tectonic stresses and crustal flexure throughout the Phanerozoic. Landsat-derived lineament maps were examined for the area between 47/degrees/ and 48/degrees/ north lat. and 103/degrees/ and 104/degrees/ west long. (northern Billings and Golden Valley Counties, and western McKenzie County, North Dakota) in an attempt to identify large-scale fracture trends. In the absence of major tectonic deformation in the craton, a subtle pattern of fracturing has propagated upward through the sedimentary cover and emerged as linear topographic features visible on these large-scale, remote-sensed images.

Freisatz, W.B.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques  

SciTech Connect

Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (<2 nm) size distribution. Micropore and mesopore volumes correlate with organic matter content in the samples. Accessibility of pores in coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Rupp, John A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Property:Depth(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Depth(m) Depth(m) Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Depth(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 1.8 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + A Alden Large Flume + 3.0 + Alden Small Flume + 1.8 + Alden Tow Tank + 1.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 1.2 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.8 + Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 0.6 + C Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.6 + Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.7 + Carderock Circulating Water Channel + 2.7 +

117

Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties of Titanium Nitride Nano-Coatings. Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties of Titanium...

118

Thickness and drainage of perfluoropolyethers under compression  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Forces Apparatus was used to study the compression and drainage of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) between two flat parallel mica surfaces. In the case of Zdols and Demnum-SA, the PFPE can be squeezed out during slow compression to a final residual film one gyration diameter in thickness. This thickness remained constant up to the highest applied pressure of (is similar to)10 MPa. The residual thickness for Demnum-SA, with one active end group, was found to be approximately 40% larger than that for Zdol of the same molecular weight, with two active end groups. In contrast, Z03, with no active end groups, could be displaced completely from the contact. The dynamics of expulsion were studied by monitoring the variation of the gap width as a function of time after fast (a few milliseconds) step increase in the compressive load. It was found that Zdol behaves as the bulk liquid down to gap widths of 4 equivalent gyration diameters. A viscosity increase of more than 10 times was observed when the gap width was between 4 and 2 gyration diameters. Finally, slow compression to the maximum achievable pressure (approximately 10 MPa) led to a residual layer one gyration diameter in thickness trapped between the mica surfaces.

Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Huan; Gui, Jing

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Microstructure Modeling of Porosity-Graded Cathode Using Focused Ion Beam and Homogenization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

In this study, microstructure of a porosity-graded lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been characterized using focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) combined with image processing. Two-point correlation functions of the two-dimensional (2D) images taken along the direction of porosity gradient are used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. The effective elastic modulus of the two-phase porosity-graded cathode is predicted using strong contrast (SC) and composite inclusion (CI) homogenization techniques. The effectiveness of the two methods in predicting the effective elastic properties of the porositygraded LSM cathode is investigated in comparison with the results obtained from the finite element model (FEM).

Hamedani, Amani; Baniassadi, Majid; Sheidaei, A.; Pourboghrat, F.; Remond, Y.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

120

In-depth analysis of CIGS film for solar cells, structural and optical characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Space-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements performed on gradient-etched CuIn$_{1-x}$Ga$_x$Se$_2$ (CIGS) solar cells provide information about stress and texture depth profiles in the absorber layer. An important parameter for CIGS layer growth dynamics, the absorber thickness-dependent stress in the molybdenum back contact is analyzed. Texturing of grains and quality of the polycrystalline absorber layer are correlated with the intentional composition gradients (band gap grading). Band gap gradient is determined by space-resolved photoluminescence measurements and correlated with composition and strain profiles.

Slobodskyy, A; ~Ulyanenkova, T; ~Doyle, S; Powalla, M; ~Baumbach, T; ~Lemmer, U

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Thermal regulation of volume and porosity in lipid mesophases by coupling mobile ligands to soft membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short DNA linkers are increasingly being exploited for driving specific self-assembly of Brownian objects. DNA-functionalised colloids and nanoparticles can assemble into ordered or amorphous materials with tailored morphology. Recently, the same approach has been applied to compliant units, including emulsion droplets and lipid vesicles. The liquid structure of these substrates introduces new degrees of freedom: the tethers can diffuse and rearrange, radically changing the physics of the interactions. Unlike droplets, vesicles are extremely deformable and DNA-mediated adhesion causes significant shape adjustments. In this letter we investigate experimentally the thermal response of pairs and networks of DNA-tethered liposomes. We observe two intriguing and possibly useful collective properties: i) negative thermal expansion and ii) tuneable porosity of the liposome networks. A model providing a thorough understanding of this unexpected phenomenon is developed, explaining the emergent properties out of the interplay between the temperature-dependant tension of the bilayers and the DNA-mediated adhesive forces.

Lucia Parolini; Bortolo M. Mognetti; Jurij Kotar; Erika Eiser; Pietro Cicuta; Lorenzo Di Michele

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

122

Phase Diagram of Superfluid He3 in 99.3% Porosity Aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on continuous-wave NMR measurements of the energy gaps of the A-like and B-like superfluid phases of He3 at 28.4 mT confined to a 99.3% porosity silica aerogel. The gaps are suppressed by the presence of the aerogel in a temperature-independent manner, but the suppression is considerably stronger than expected from the suppression of Tc. We then use our measurements to calculate the free energy ratio between the A-like and B-like phases. The equilibrium AB transition temperature, derived from where this ratio reaches unity, is consistent with previous measurements of the initial displacement of the pinned AB interface on warming. On this basis, we present for the first time the equilibrium phase diagram of the A-like and B-like phases of superfluid He3 in aerogel.

J. E. Baumgardner and D. D. Osheroff

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

123

Ultrasonic thickness measurement of weathering steel  

SciTech Connect

The popular and traditional method of measuring thickness over a single time of flight path using the first echo received as the timing mark can make reliable measurements on weathering steel difficult. Multiple-echo measurement is capable of obtaining good, repeatable, and accurate measurements on not only weathering steels but on all metals used extensively today. Corrosion monitoring of weathering steel can be properly carried out provided the measurements taken are reliable.

Cartwright, D.L. [Cygnus Instruments Ltd., Dorchester (United Kingdom)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A de Sitter tachyon thick braneworld  

SciTech Connect

Among the multiple 5D thick braneworld models that have been proposed in the last years, in order to address several open problems in modern physics, there is a specific one involving a tachyonic bulk scalar field. Delving into this framework, a thick braneworld with a cosmological background induced on the brane is here investigated. The respective field equations — derived from the model with a warped 5D geometry — are highly non-linear equations, admitting a non-trivial solution for the warp factor and the tachyon scalar field as well, in a de Sitter 4D cosmological background. Moreover, the non-linear tachyonic scalar field, that generates the brane in complicity with warped gravity, has the form of a kink-like configuration. Notwithstanding, the non-linear field equations restricting character does not allow one to easily find thick brane solutions with a decaying warp factor which leads to the localization of 4D gravity and other matter fields. We derive such a thick brane configuration altogether in this tachyon-gravity setup. When analyzing the spectrum of gravity fluctuations in the transverse traceless sector, the 4D gravity is shown to be localized due to the presence of a single zero mode bound state, separated by a continuum of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes by a mass gap. It contrasts with previous results, where there is a KK massive bound excitation providing no clear physical interpretation. The mass gap is determined by the scale of the metric parameter H. Finally, the corrections to Newton's law in this model are computed and shown to decay exponentially. It is in full compliance to corrections reported in previous results (up to a constant factor) within similar braneworlds with induced 4D de Sitter metric, despite the fact that the warp factor and the massive modes have a different form.

Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: gabriel@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: aha@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: malagon@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: rigel@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Pulsar Wind Nebulae with Thick Toroidal Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate a class of pulsar wind nebulae that show synchrotron emission from a thick toroidal structure. The best studied such object is the small radio and X-ray nebula around the Vela pulsar, which can be interpreted as the result of interaction of a mildly supersonic inward flow with the recent pulsar wind. Such a flow near the center of a supernova remnant can be produced in a transient phase when the reverse shock reaches the center of the remnant. Other nebulae with a thick toroidal structure are G106.6+2.9 and G76.9+1.0. Their structure contrasts with young pulsar nebulae like the Crab Nebula and 3C 38, which show a more chaotic, filamentary structure in the synchrotron emission. In both situations, a torus-jet structure is present where the pulsar wind passes through a termination shock, indicating the flow is initially toroidal. We suggest that the difference is due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that operates when the outer boundary of the nebula is accelerating into freely expanding supernova ejecta. The instability gives rise to mixing in the Crab and related objects, but is not present in the nebulae with thick toroidal regions.

Roger A. Chevalier; Stephen P. Reynolds

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Depth profiling ambient noise in the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al. , 2005). The vertical profile of wind speed over the seavertical directionality…………… Depth-dependence of wind speedVertical noise directional density function versus depth. 93 Measured and acoustically estimated wind speeds.

Barclay, David Readshaw

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Determination of thickness and composition of high-k dielectrics using high-energy electrons  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the application of high-energy elastic electron backscattering to the analysis of thin (2–20 nm) HfO{sub 2} overlayers on oxidized Si substrates. The film composition and thickness are determined directly from elastic scattering peaks characteristic of each element. The stoichiometry of the films is determined with an accuracy of 5%–10%. The experimental results are corroborated by medium energy ions scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements, and clearly demonstrate the applicability of the technique for thin-film analysis. Significantly, the presented technique opens new possibilities for nm depth profiling with high spatial resolution in scanning electron microscopes.

Grande, P. L. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia) [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Venkatachalam, D. K.; Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Nandi, S. K. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia) [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

128

Pore-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Porosity, Irreducible Water Saturation, and Permeability of Clastic Rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Permeability of Clastic Rocks T. Torskaya, SPE; G. Jin, SPE; and C. Torres-Verd´in, SPE, The University permeability from well- log calculations of porosity and irreducible water satura- tion. However, these models to inves- tigate the influence of these factors on the permeability of clastic rocks for explicit pore

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

129

Drug Release from Self-Assembled Inorganic?Organic Hybrid Gels and Gated Porosity Detected by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Drug Release from Self-Assembled Inorganic?Organic Hybrid Gels and Gated Porosity Detected by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy ... Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Münster, Corrensstrasse 36, 48149 Münster, Germany, CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, Victoria, Australia, and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, Australia ...

Ansgar Bögershausen; Steven J. Pas; Anita J. Hill; Hubert Koller

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. Deposition on flat substrates yields February 4, 2010. Proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells are promising for future automotive applications

Gall, Daniel

131

Sound speed and attenuation in water-saturated glass beads as a function of frequency and porosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Mathematics, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1200; Austin TX 78712 Harry L. Swinney Station C1610; Austin TX 78712 (Dated: June 19, 2009) Sound propagation in water-saturated granular and then al- lowed to rest overnight to dissolve trapped gas bubbles. Sediment porosity was controlled

132

Output-Sensitive Algorithms for Tukey Depth and Related Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Output-Sensitive Algorithms for Tukey Depth and Related Problems David Bremner University of New de Bruxelles Pat Morin Carleton University Abstract The Tukey depth (Tukey 1975) of a point p halfspace that contains p. Algorithms for computing the Tukey depth of a point in various dimensions

Morin, Pat

133

Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials? microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials? crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surface?s top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

Yang, Qiguang [Norfolk State University; Williams, Frances [Norfolk State University; Zhao, Xin [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Krishnan, Mahadevan [AASC, San Leandro, California

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Depth dependence of ambient noise in the northeastern Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Omnidirectional ambient noise levels were measured at two deep?water locations in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.Hydrophones were positioned throughout the water column at depths ranging from about 200 m below the surface to about 150 m above the sea bottom. Analyses of the data over the frequencies from 15 to 800 Hz show that at low frequencies the noise levels decrease with increasing depth. The decrease with depth is greater below the critical depth than it is in the sound channel. These low?frequency noise levels and their depth dependence are independent of the wind speed. At higher frequencies the noise levels and the depth dependence are controlled by the wind?generated noise. At low wind speeds there is a decrease in levels below the critical depth but above this depth both increases and decreases in levels with depth were noted. At these high frequencies during high wind speeds the noise levels not only rise but also fill the water column to the extent that there is little decrease in level with increasing depth even for the region below the critical depth.

Gerald B. Morris

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Optimisation and sensitivity analysis of atmospheric plasma spraying parameters to minimise porosity in alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this investigation, an attempt has been made to establish an empirical relationship and is developed to predict the porosity level of alumina coated AZ31B magnesium alloy by incorporating process parameters such as power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate. The porosity of alumina coatings were evaluated by the digital image analysis method. The experiments were conducted based on a three factor, five level, central composite rotatable design matrix with full replications technique. The developed empirical relationship can be effectively used to predict the porosity level of alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimise the atmospheric plasma spraying parameters to attain the minimum porosity level. The results indicate that the input power has the greatest influence on porosity level, followed by stand-off distance and powder feed rate.

D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights  

SciTech Connect

4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

137

Implications of the UHECRs penetration depth measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The simple interpretation of PAO's UHECRs' penetration depth measurements suggests a transition at the energy range $1.1 - 35 \\cdot 10^{18} $ eV from protons to heavier nuclei. A detailed comparison of this data with air shower simulations reveals strong restrictions on the amount of light nuclei (protons and He) in the observed flux. We find a robust upper bound on the observed proton fraction of the UHECRs flux and we rule out a composition dominated by protons and He. Acceleration and propagation effects lead to an observed composition that is different from the one at the source. Using a simple toy model that take into account these effects, we show that the observations requires an extreme metallicity at the sources with metals to protons mass ratio of 1:1, a ratio that is larger by a factor of a hundred than the solar abundance. This composition imposes an almost impossible constraint on all current astrophysical models for UHECRs accelerators. This may provide a first hint towards new physics that emerges at $\\sim 100$ TeV and leads to a larger proton cross section at these energies.

Nimrod Shaham; Tsvi Piran

2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

138

Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Global Sediment Thickness Dataset updated for the Australian-Antarctic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Sediment Thickness Dataset updated for the Australian-Antarctic Southern Ocean Joanne author: jo.whittaker@utas.edu.au Key Points - Global minimum sediment thickness compilation updated for Australia Antarctica - Sediment thicknesses computed from seismic reflection and refraction data - Sediment

Müller, Dietmar

140

Recovery of SIMS depth profiles with account for nonstationary effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work we consider a method of accounting for the nonstationary effects in recovery of SIMS depth profiles. The depth resolution function (DRF) is described by Hofmann's nonstationary MRI (mixing-roughness-information depth) model using the depth-dependent parameters. The effects in question include the nonstationary atomic mixing and development of surface roughness. A mathematical description of the nonstationary depth profiling process by the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is proposed. The inverse problem is solved using an algorithm based on the Tikhonov regularization method. The proposed nonstationary recovery method is tested on both model and real structures. The development of surface roughness in SIMS depth profiling of the real structure was observed. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry (XRR) technique was used to verify the results of SIMS profiles restoration for periodic structure containing thin Ge layers in the Si matrix. The advantages of the proposed recovery algorithm to allow for the nonstationary effects are shown.

Pavel Andreevich Yunin; Yurii Nikolaevich Drozdov; Mikhail Nikolaevich Drozdov; Dmitry Vladimirovich Yurasov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Determination of porosity of lignocellulosic biomass before and after pretreatment by using Simonsâ Â’ stain and NMR techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

porosity porosity of lignocellulosic biomass before and after pretreatment by using Simons' stain and NMR techniques Xianzhi Meng a , Marcus Foston a,1 , Johannes Leisen b , Jaclyn DeMartini c , Charles E. Wyman c , Arthur J. Ragauskas a,⇑ a BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA b School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA c Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, BioEnergy Science Center, Riverside, CA 92507, USA h i g h l i g h t s  Cellulose accessibility was tested by Simons' stain and multiple NMR techniques.  Pretreatment increases the pore size and overall surface area of the

142

Characterization of porosity via secondary reactions. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1995--30 June 1995  

SciTech Connect

In the previous quarterly report (DE-FG22-91PC91305-14), we presented an analysis of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data obtained for Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal char. These samples exhibited considerable scattering. However, when the voids between the particles were filled with a liquid that had the same neutron scattering density as the carbon, the amount of scattering was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. Analysis of the scattering invariant in terms of surface area showed that the char had very little porosity. To date this has been the only contrast matching SANS study of carbon and the first recognition that interparticle scattering effects are important. In this report, we focus on SANS data obtained for a very different char--a phenolic resin char (PRC). The following was accomplished during the reporting period: contrast matching, SANS data obtained for resin char has been analyzed in detail. Conclusions derived from this analysis include: contrast matching SANS has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for monitoring the activation/gasification process. It is demonstrated how this technique can be used to address such important issues as the role of ``closed`` vs ``open`` porosity, and interparticle scattering. It has been used here to establish that the development of porosity in phenolic resin char upon gasification in air proceeds primarily by ``opening `` or originally ``closed`` porosity. This is quite different than the behavior of Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal char. for example, as presented in the previous quarterly report.

Calo, J.M.; Hall, P.J.; Antxustegi, M.M.; Zhang, L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking into account the combination of natural and engineered barriers, performance objectives, long-term risk assessments,...

144

Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation Meeting vss031rask2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab...

145

Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry? Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen...

146

Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies More Documents &...

147

BOUDREAU, BERNARD P. Mean mixed depth of sediments: The ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

bioturbation. Bioturbation is the mixing of surficial sediments as a re- sult of the activity .... that the mixed depth is limited by the increasing energy costs of deeper

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

148

Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.  

SciTech Connect

Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA); Norris, Jerome T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Chemical Depth Profiling from Neutron Reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

The material profile of a thin film can be analyzed by placing the film on a substrate and by sending a neutron beam onto it at various angles of incidence. Technically, the scattering length density of the film needs to be determined as a function of depth. A reflectometer is used to measure the amount of reflection (reflectivity) as a function of the angle of incidence. Mathematically, this is equivalent to sending the neutron beam onto the film at every energy but at a fixed angle of incidence. The film profile needs to be recovered from the measured reflectivity data. Unfortunately, the unique recovery is impossible, and many distinct unrelated profiles may correspond to the same reflectivity data. In our DOE/EPSCoR sponsored research, we have developed an analytical method to uniquely recover the profile of a thin film from the measured reflectivity data. We have shown that by taking reflectivity measurements with two different substrates, one can uniquely determine the film profile. Previously, it was known that one could uniquely recover the profile by taking reflectivity measurements with three different substrates, and our findings indicate that the same goal can be accomplished by using fewer measurements. At Mississippi State University we started an informal weekly seminar (called ''the reflectometry meeting'') at to attract various undergraduate and graduate students into the field. There were about 3 undergraduate students, 6 graduate students, and 2 faculty members attending these seminars. The PI has collaborated with Dr. Norm Berk at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on various aspects of neutron reflectometry, from which various interesting problems of theoretical and practical importance have arisen. One of these problems is closely related to the important mathematical problem known as analytic extrapolation. Under appropriate conditions (known to hold in neutron reflectometry), the reflection data taken in a finite interval of neutron energies uniquely determines the data at all energies. Even though the uniqueness is assured mathematically, there are currently no available methods for analytic extrapolation. Currently, we are working on this problem as it arises in neutron reflectometry and looking for mathematical and numerical methods to extrapolate reflection data to higher and lower neutron energies. A solution to this problem is expected to have a big impact not only in neutron reflectometry, but in many areas of physics and engineering. The PI has collaborated with Prof. Paul Sacks of Iowa State University, Prof. Daniil Sarkissian of Mississippi State University, and Prof. Levon Babadzanjanz of St. Petersburg State University, Russia on mathematical and numerical aspects of neutron reflectometry. These researchers jointly worked with the PI towards the preparation of numerical routines to extract the film profile from the reflection data. We have prepared a Mathematica interface running Fortran 95 algorithms to produce reflection data from a given profile. These Fortran 95 algorithms have been prepared by updating and modifying Prof. Sacks' Fortran 77 routine and by updating Dr. Gian Felcher's (of Argonne National Laboratory) Fortran 77 routine. We are also preparing similar algorithms written in Mathematica so that they can be used without needing Fortran. We are also working towards preparing algorithms in Fortran 95 and in Mathematica to produce the film profile from the given sets of reflectivity data.

Tuncay Aktosun

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

150

IMPROVED BOUSSINESQ-TYPE EQUATIONS FOR HIGHLY-VARIABLE DEPTH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPROVED BOUSSINESQ-TYPE EQUATIONS FOR HIGHLY-VARIABLE DEPTH JUAN CARLOS MU~NOZ GRAJALES AND ANDR´E NACHBIN Abstract. Intermediate depth, Boussinesq-type modeling is used to generalize previously known are extended from the analysis of KdV-type models to include the improved Boussinesq systems in contrast

Nachbin, André

151

Depth, and Motion inVision CMSC 436/636  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, perceived depth related #12;Head Motion Parallax Bruce and Green 90, p. 231. Kinetic Depth Effect Bruce displacement) #12;Structure from Motion Bruce and Green 90, pg. 328. #12;Image Segmentation Discontinuities Representation techniques parameters #12;Experimental Findings Control necessary for development Held

Rheingans, Penny

152

Project of Aerosol Optical Depth Change in South America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Paraguay Uruguay #12;Statistics of Aerosol M ean D ec 01 to 06 Mean Month AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela

Frank, Thomas D.

153

SEU sensitive depth in a submicron SRAM technology  

SciTech Connect

This work determines experimentally and by simulation the SEU sensitive depth in a 0.6 {micro}m SRAM technology. A good correlation is obtained between the two studies in the case of heavy ions deposing energy close to the critical energy. Other simulation results complete the first investigation by studying the minimum sensitive depth for ions deposing higher energies (at greater LET).

Detcheverry, C.; Bruguier, G.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)] [Univ. Montpellier II (France); Ecoffet, R. [CNES, Toulouse (France)] [CNES, Toulouse (France); Duzellier, S. [DERTS, Toulouse (France)] [DERTS, Toulouse (France); Barak, J.; Lifshitz, Y. [Soreq NRC, Yahvne (Israel)] [Soreq NRC, Yahvne (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

On depth and deep points: a calculus Ivan Mizera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Tukey's median) plays a fundamental role similar to that of linear functions in the mathematical (1929) and Chamberlin (1933). For multivariate location, the proposal of Tukey (1975) was developed halfspace or Tukey's depth; for other brands of depth in multivariate location see Liu, Parelius and Singh

Mizera, Ivan

155

Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AvgReservoirDepth AvgReservoirDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name AvgReservoirDepth Property Type Quantity Description Average depth to reservoir Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "AvgReservoirDepth" Showing 24 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 850 m0.85 km

156

The Galactic thick and thin disks: differences in evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent observations demonstrate that the thin and thick disks of the Galaxy have different chemical abundance trends and evolution timescales. The relative abundances of $\\alpha$-elements in the thick Galactic disk are increased relative to the thin disk. Our goal is to investigate the cause of such differences in thick and thin disk abundances. We investigate the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk in the framework of the open two-zone model with gas inflow. The Galactic abundance trends for $\\alpha$-elements (Mg, Si, O) and Fe are predicted for the thin and thick Galactic disks. The star formation histories of the thin and thick disks must have been different and the gas infall must have been more intense during the thick disk evolution that the thin disk evolution.

T. V. Nykytyuk; T. V. Mishenina

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

157

Process Simulation and Paint Thickness Measurement for Robotic Spray Painting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method and a computer program are developed for modeling of spray painting process, simulation of robotic spray painting, off-line programming of industrial robots and paint thickness measurement for painting of curved surfaces. The computer program enables the user to determine the painting strategies, parameters and paths. Surface models of the parts that are to be painted are obtained by using a CAD software. For paint thickness measurements, probe of the coating thickness measurement gage is attached to the wrist of the robot by using a feedback/safety adapter designed and manufactured for this purpose. Thicknesses are measured and transferred to the computer automatically. Then, obtained thickness data is processed and comparisons between simulated and measured thicknesses are made.

M.A. Sahir ARIKAN; Tuna BALKAN

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Magnetometry and transport data complement polarized neutron reflectometry in magnetic depth profiling  

SciTech Connect

Exchange coupled magnetic hard layer/soft layer thin films show a variety of complex magnetization reversal mechanisms depending on the hierarchy of interaction strengths within and between the films. Magnetization reversal can include uniform rotation, soft layer biasing, as well as exchange spring behavior. We investigate the magnetization reversal of a CoPt/Permalloy/Ta/Permalloy heterostructure. Here, Stoner-Wohlfarth-type uniform magnetization rotation of the virtually free Permalloy layer and exchange spring behavior of the strongly pinned Permalloy layer are found in the same sample. We investigate the complex magnetization reversal by polarized neutron reflectometry, magnetometry, and magneto-transport. The synergy of combining these experimental methods together with theoretical modeling is key to obtain the complete quantitative depth resolved information of the magnetization reversal processes for a multilayer of mesoscopic thickness.

Wang Yi; He Xi; Mukherjee, T.; Binek, Ch. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, Jorgenson Hall, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States); Fitzsimmons, M. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sahoo, S. [Seagate Technology, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55435 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

High-frequency filtered images of an optically thick edge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peculiarities of high-frequency filtering (contouring) of images of symmetric thick (extended along the optical axis) edge are investigated in analytical form by the Kirchhoff–Fresnel...

Chugui, Yu V; Sokolov, V A

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Abstract: High temperature oxygen...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics: Nano Structured Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: Magnetic components are typically the largest components in a power converter. To date, however, researchers haven't found an effective way to reduce their size without negatively impacting their performance. And, reducing the size of the converter's other components isn't usually an option because shrinking them can also diminish the effectiveness of the magnetic components. GE is developing smaller magnetic components for power converters that maintain high performance levels. The company is building smaller components with magnetic films. These films are created using the condensation of a vaporized form of the magnetic material. It's a purely physical process that involves no chemical reactions, so the film composition is uniform. This process makes it possible to create a millimeter-thick film deposition over a wide surface area fairly quickly, which would save on manufacturing costs. In fact, GE can produce 1-10 millimeter-thick films in hours. The magnetic components that GE is developing for this project could be used in a variety of applications, including solar inverters, electric vehicles, and lighting.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

Butcher, B.M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Characteristics of Arctic Sea-Ice Thickness Variability in GCMs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Skillful Arctic sea ice forecasts may be possible for lead times of months or even years owing to the persistence of thickness anomalies. In this study sea ice thickness variability is characterized in fully coupled GCMs and sea ice–ocean-only ...

Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth; Cecilia M. Bitz

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Southern Walker Lake Basin, situated in the Walker Lake structural domain, consists of primarily E-W directed extension along N-NNW striking normal faults. Water well drilling on the eastern slopes of the Wassuk Range, west of the city of Hawthorne, Nevada showed elevated temperatures. Two recent drill holes reaching downhole depths of more than 4000 ft give some insight to the geologic picture, but more information

165

Extended depth secondary recovery: more coal for the 80's  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of surface mining techniques presently in use which are physically or economically unable to recover all of the coal available. A new technique known as extended depth secondary recovery is presently available in the form of the Thin Seam Miner, which is able to recover 80-85% of this otherwise lost coal, to depths of 220 feet. Extended depth secondary recovery began with the auger, which has enjoyed moderate success, despite major drawbacks. Punch mining, longwall and shortwall technologies and the push-button miner all attempted to economically remine areas, with very little success. The Thin Seam Miner, on the other hand, not only recovers 80-85% of the coal in place to depths of 220 feet, but is environmentally sound, economically feasible, safe, and adapted to mine under all the seam conditions and grades of coal found in Appalachia.

Shearer, L.K.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

168

Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon supersaturated with sulfur  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the luminescence of Si supersaturated with S (Si:S) using depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy as the S concentration is varied over 2 orders of magnitude ...

Fabbri, Filippo

169

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Molecular Depth Profiling of Sucrose Films: A Comparative Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cs and O Ions. Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling of sucrose thin films were investigated using 10 keV C60+, 20 keV...

171

Property:FirstWellDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FirstWellDepth FirstWellDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellDepth Property Type Quantity Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "FirstWellDepth" Showing 5 pages using this property. B Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 672 m0.672 km 0.418 mi 2,204.724 ft 734.906 yd + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 1,968 m1.968 km

172

Prediction of sinkage depth of footings on soft marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

instability on the side walls of the cavity. Footing size and sinkage depth of prototype footings are expected to have a significant effect on side- wall instability. (6) Tests in a geotechnical centrifuge are recommended as one means of studying gravity... instability on the side walls of the cavity. Footing size and sinkage depth of prototype footings are expected to have a significant effect on side- wall instability. (6) Tests in a geotechnical centrifuge are recommended as one means of studying gravity...

Yen, Shihchieh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps  

SciTech Connect

An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used.

Santa-aho, Suvi; Vippola, Minnamari; Lepistö, Toivo [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Hakanen, Merja [Stresstech Oy, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Sorsa, Aki; Leiviskä, Kauko [University of Oulu, Control Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

174

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Non-monotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before it increases and saturates to a value which depends on the roughness of the sliding surface. We use an index-matched interstitial liquid to probe the internal motion of the grains with fluorescence imaging in a regime where the liquid has no significant effect on the measured friction. The shear profiles obtained as a function of depth show decrease in slip near the sliding surface as the layer thickness is increased. We propose that the friction depends on the degree of grain confinement relative to the sliding surfaces.

Saloome Siavoshi; Ashish V. Orpe; Arshad Kudrolli

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating adhered to a substrate. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer is used to induce surface waves into the coating. The surface waves have a selected frequency and a fixed wavelength. Interpolation is used to determine the frequency of surface waves that propagate through the coating with the least attenuation. The phase velocity of the surface waves having this frequency is then calculated. The phase velocity is compared to known phase velocity/thickness tables to determine the thickness of the coating.

Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tow, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walter, John B (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Validity of automated x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy algorithm to determine the amount of substance and the depth distribution of atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The author reports a systematic study of the range of validity of a previously developed algorithm for automated x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis which takes into account the variation in both peak intensity and the intensity in the background of inelastically scattered electrons. This test was done by first simulating spectra for the Au4d peak with gold atoms distributed in the form of a wide range of nanostructures which includes overlayers with varying thickness a 5?Å layer of atoms buried at varying depths and a substrate covered with an overlayer of varying thickness. Next the algorithm was applied to analyze these spectra. The algorithm determines the number of atoms within the outermost 3 ? of the surface. This amount of substance is denoted AOS 3 ? (where ?   is the electron inelastic mean free path). In general the determined AOS 3 ? is found to be accurate to within ?10–20% depending on the depth distribution of the atoms. The algorithm also determines a characteristic length L which was found to give unambiguous information on the depth distribution of the atoms for practically all studied cases. A set of rules for this parameter which relates the value of L to the depths where the atoms are distributed was tested and these rules were found to be generally valid with only a few exceptions. The results were found to be rather independent of the spectral energy range (from 20 to 40?eV below the peak energy) used in the analysis.

Sven Tougaard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cone Depth and the Center Vertex Theorem Gary L. Miller Todd Phillips Don Sheehy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract We generalize the Tukey depth to use cones instead of halfspaces. We prove a generalization of the most enduring definitions of data depth is the Tukey depth, also known as the half-space depth. The Tukey depth of a point p relative to a point set S is defined as the minimum number of points on one

Miller, Gary L.

179

Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing  

SciTech Connect

Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

180

Crustal thickness and support of topography on Venus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The topography of a terrestrial planet can be supported by several mechanisms: (1) crustal thickness variations, (2) density variations in the crust and mantle, (3) dynamic support, and (4) lithospheric stresses. Each of ...

James, Peter Benjamin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ARM - Evaluation Product - Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Site(s) PVC SGP General Description The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer Hemispheric (SASHE) is a ground-based instrument that measures both direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR)-an instrument that has been in the ARM Facility stable for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the SASHE provides hyperspectral measurements from about 350 nm to 1700 nm at a wavelength resolution from 1 to several nanometers, while the MFRSR only

182

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM Fed) has long been one of the Nation's principal sources of proved reserves. At the end of 2009, the GOM Fed accounted for close to one-fifth of oil proved reserves (second only to Texas) and just over four percent of natural gas proved reserves (the country's seventh largest reporting region). 1 Natural gas proved reserves from the GOM Fed have gradually diminished, both volumetrically and as a percentage of overall U.S. proved reserves. The latter is especially true in recent years as onshore additions (particularly those associated with shale gas activity) have increased considerably. Proved oil reserves from

183

Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Heat Flow At Standard Depth Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Heat Flow At Standard Depth Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface temperature cause perturbations to the geothermal gradient which may be significant to depths of at least 1000 m, and major corrections are required to determine absolute values of heat flow from the Earth's interior. However, detailed climatic models remain contentious and estimates of error in geothermal gradients differ widely. Consequently, regions of anomalous heat flow which

184

Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but that penetration depths into saturated packings tend to be smaller. This result suggests that, for the range of impact energies observed, the stopping force is set by static contact forces between grains within the bed, and that the presence of liquid serves, primarily, to enhance these contact forces. The enhancement to the stopping force has a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices.

Theodore A. Brzinski III; Jorin Schug; Kelly Mao; Douglas J. Durian

2015-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

185

Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 2 of 3: Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by RE/SPEC, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

An Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS. An Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS. Abstract: Hydrogen depth distributions in silicon, zinc oxide...

187

Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...correlations found across the foot by Hatala et al. [11], D'Aout...and in the heel and mid-foot, when depth was compared with...difference in the predictive power of peak pressure and the PT...applied by the trackmaker's foot during print formation is the...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

189

Steady periodic waves bifurcating for fixed-depth rotational flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-current interactions [29, 37] or flows generated by wind-shear [30] (see [6] for a comprehensive discussion than the mass-flux. It is important to note that fixing the mass-flux p0 does not fix the depth d

190

Human Activities Recognition with RGB-Depth Camera using HMM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In this paper, we propose a method to detect fall using a system made up of RGB-Depth cameras. The major benefit. An evaluation has been conducted within a real smart environment with 26 subjects which were performing any]), Gaussian Mixture Model [6], least median of squares [1], occupancy grid [5]. Then the second stage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Parameterised structured light imaging for depth edge detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, [amin, amax], from the projector/camera', `width of horizontal stripes, w', and `minimum detectable depth difference, rmin'. As can be seen in Fig. 1a, amax and rmin are given as the input parameters of [amin, amax] are guaranteed to be detected. However, awkwardly enough, amin is found at a later step

California at Santa Barbara, University of

192

WaveCurrent Interactions in Finite Depth JEROME A. SMITH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wave­Current Interactions in Finite Depth JEROME A. SMITH Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La (Longuet-Higgins 1969; Hasselmann 1971; Garrett and Smith 1976; and many others). In particular, Hassel) changes in wave momentum that absorb some of the radiation stress gradients. Garrett and Smith (1976

Smith, Jerome A.

193

Correction to “Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights”  

SciTech Connect

In the paper “Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights” by Y. Shinozuka et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD020596, 2013), Tables 1 and 2 were published with the column heads out of order. Tables 1 and 2 are published correctly here. The publisher regrets the error.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2014-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

194

Wave-current interaction in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, the nonlinear interaction of waves and current in water of finite depth is studied. Wind is not included. In the first part, a 2D theory for the wave effect on a turbulent current over rough or smooth bottom ...

Huang, Zhenhua, 1967-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

196

Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Deuterium Depth Profile in Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten Exposed to Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of radiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. The ions, however, are limited in range to only a few microns into the surface. Hence, some uncertainty remains about the increase of trapping at radiation damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, which penetrate much farther into the bulk material. With the Japan-US joint research project: Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), the tungsten samples (99.99 % pure from A.L.M.T., 6mm in diameter, 0.2mm in thickness) were irradiated to high flux neutrons at 50 C and to 0.025 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 1021-1022 m-2s-1, ion fluence: 1025-1026 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). First results of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed in TPE have been reported previously. This paper presents the latest results in our on-going work of deuterium depth profiling in neutron-irradiated tungsten via nuclear reaction analysis. The experimental data is compared with the result from non neutron-irradiated tungsten, and is analyzed with the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) to elucidate the hydrogen isotope behavior such as retention and depth distribution in neutron-irradiated and non neutron-irradiated tungsten.

Masashi Shimada; G. Cao; Y. Hatano; T. Oda; Y. Oya; M. Hara; P. Calderoni

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Seismic inversion and attributes analysis for porosity evaluation of the tight gas sandstones of the Whicher Range field in the Perth Basin, Western Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A comprehensive understanding of porosity variations in tight gas sandstones plays an important role in reservoir management and provision of plans for developing of the field. This is especially important when we encounter with some degree of complexity in reservoir characteristics of these sandstones. Reservoir properties of tight gas sandstones of the Whicher Range field, the target reservoir of this study, were affected by internal reservoir heterogeneity mostly related to depositional and diagenetic features of the reservoir sandstones. In this study, 2D seismic data in combination with well log data were used for prediction of porosity based on seismic inversion technique and multi-attribute regression analysis. The results show that acoustic impedance from model based inversion is the main seismic attribute in reservoir characterization of tight sandstones of the field. Wide variations in this parameter can be effectively used to differentiate the reservoir sandstones based on their tightness degree. Investigation of porosity by this method resulted in 2D-view of porosity variations in sandstone reservoir which is in accordance with variations in geological characteristics of tight gas sandstones in the field. This view can be extended to a 3D-view in the framework of reservoir model to follow the variations throughout the field.

Rahim Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi; Reza Moussavi-Harami; Reza Rezaee; Majid Nabi-Bidhendi; Ali Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials » Advanced Materials » Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick Protective Coatings A method for applying a protective coating on an article. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick Protective Coatings A method for applying a protective coating on an article, comprising the following steps: selecting an article with a surface for applying a coating thickness; creating undercut grooves on the article, where the grooves depend beneath the surface to a bottom portion with the grooves having an upper width on the surface and a lower width on the bottom portion connected by side walls, where at least one of the side walls connects the

200

Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bryan Pivovar (PI) Bryan Pivovar (PI) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sept 30, 2009 Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives To assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in meeting cost, durability, and performance targets in the areas of Electrocatalysts and MEAs. Approach: Novel Synthesis and Electrode Studies Pt nanotubes (UC-R) Pt coated carbon nanotubes Synthesis of novel catalysts based on extended surfaces due to 3M's demonstrated improvements in specific activity and durability using similar systems. Electrode architecture design, based on novel catalyst structures that allow thick (~10 µm), dispersed electrodes to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

Perdieu, Louisa H. (Overland Park, KS)

2000-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

202

Eight-year Climatology of Dust Optical Depth on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from Martian year 24 to 31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the Martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced, but possibly incomplete, spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure weighted in space, time, and retrieval uncertainty. In order to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we validat...

Montabone, L; Millour, E; Wilson, R J; Lewis, S R; Cantor, B A; Kass, D; Kleinboehl, A; Lemmon, M; Smith, M D; Wolff, M J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Drilling/producing depths; Two records and a revision  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that record depths for natural gas or oil well drilling or producing continue to be rare occurrences, although one or two still come in each year. Records fell in Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) District 9 and in the California area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in 1990. Deep drilling and production has traditionally been defined as well depths greater than 15,000 ft. Smith Tool reported that 9.4% of all active rotary rigs were dedicated to targets below 15,000 ft at the beginning of 1991. Deep rigs had dropped to 8.1% by year-end 1991, but remained above the 1989 and 1990 levels of 8.4 and 7.6%, respectively. In 1988 about 11% of active rigs were drilling deep at any given time.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Joint Depth Estimation and Camera Shake Removal from Single Blurry Image Ming-Hsuan Yang1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. While depth information is critical in blur removal, the blur im- age provides an additional cueJoint Depth Estimation and Camera Shake Removal from Single Blurry Image Zhe Hu1 Li Xu2 Ming contain depth information which can be exploited. We propose to jointly estimate scene depth and remove

Yang, Ming-Hsuan

205

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan Abstract We present the first optimal algorithm to compute the maximum Tukey depth (also known as location or halfspace depth , the Tukey depth of a point q IRd is defined as: min{|P | : over all halfspaces containing q}. We

Chan, Timothy M.

206

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Auger and depth profile analysis of synthetic crystals for dispersion of soft x-rays  

SciTech Connect

Numerous samples have been fabricated and analyzed as part of a program to produce soft x-ray dispersion elements for various laboratory applications. The majority of this work has centered around the carbon/tungsten system, although several other low-Z/high-Z pairs have been investigated. This report describes the development of certain vacuum-deposition techniques for fabricating these dispersion elements, based upon results obtained from x-ray reflectivity measurements and Auger depth-profile analysis. The composition of the films is chiefly alternating layers of tungsten carbide and carbon. Excess carbon is introduced during the deposition of the tungsten to ensure that the carbide layer is fully stoichiometric. Layer thickness ranged from approx. 5 to 30 A for the carbide and from approx. 15 to 80 A for the carbon. The reflectivity measurements were made using Fe and Al K/sub ..cap alpha../ at grazing incidence. The emphasis in these studies is on the application of surface-analysis results in suggesting modifications to the fabrication process and in evaluating the results such modifications have on the layer stoichiometry, continuity, and periodicity of the dispersion elements so produced.

Rachocki, K.D.; Brown, D.R.; Springer, R.W.; Arendt, P.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Thermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal barrier coating for high temperature applications, a discrete layer of ceramic material is bondedThermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes Senthil S. Vel and Rajeev Baskiyar method to obtain the temperature, displacements and thermal stresses. In addition to the thermal

Vel, Senthil

209

X-ray spectra transmitted through Compton-thick absorbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray spectra transmitted through matter which is optically thick to Compton scattering are computed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Applications to the BeppoSAX data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy in Circinus, and to the spectral modeling of the Cosmic X-ray Background, are discussed.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

210

Mechanics of thick-shell microcapsules made by microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Double emulsion templates made by microfluidics allow for the production of tailored and monodisperse microcapsules. However, their mechanical properties cannot be predicted by traditional analytical models because of their relatively thick shells. In this work, we produce thick-shelled microcapsules with varying sizes and shell thicknesses and mechanically characterize them in single-capsule compression tests using Weibull statistics. We simulate their compression with finite element modeling and find a good agreement with the experimental results under linear elastic conditions, which enables the prediction of elastic properties based on bulk material parameters. Analysis of the simulated stresses show that capsules with a thickness-to-radius ratio above 20% consistently fail at a constant maximum principal stress in accordance with the brittle nature of their bulk material, enabling the extrapolation of their failure loads as well. Combining this structure-property correlation with processing-structure relationships found in previous studies provides a general predictive framework for the assembly of monodisperse microcapsules with tunable mechanics for protection and/or controlled release of encapsulants.

Philipp W. Chen; Jonathan Brignoli; André R. Studart

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ecology of Plants and Light CAM plants have thick,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

orientation to maximize light exposure. Species Adaptations-Sun Solar tracking by leaves increases light1 Ecology of Plants and Light CAM plants have thick, succulent tissues to allow for organic acid and Light Some CAM plants not obligated to just CAM Can use C3 photosynthesis during day if conditions

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

212

Sensing roller for in-process thickness measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for processing materials by sensing roller, in which the sensing roller has a plurality of conductive rings (electrodes) separated by rings of dielectric material. Sensing capacitances or impedances between the electrodes provides information on thicknesses of the materials being processed, location of wires therein, and other like characteristics of the materials. 6 figs.

Novak, J.L.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

213

Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the form of bark, wood chips, sawdust, cotton gin trash, rice hulls, and sugar ba- gasse (Kleit et al. 1994. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was positively related to particulate sizeThrough-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and agricultural fiber composites Ronnie Y

214

Coherent radar ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems are designed to use pulse compression techniques and coherent integration to obtain the high sensitivity required to measure the thickness of more than 4 km of cold ice. We used these systems to collect radar data over the interior and margins...

Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Braaten, David A.; Leuschen, C.; Legarsky, J.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Stiles, J.; Allen, C.; Jezek, K.; Akins, T.

2001-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

215

Depth-dependent magnetism in epitaxial MnSb thin films: effects of surface passivation and cleaning  

SciTech Connect

Depth-dependent magnetism in MnSb(0001) epitaxial films has been studied by combining experimental methods with different surface specificities: polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), x-ray resonant magnetic scattering and spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy (SPLEEM). A native oxide {approx}4.5 nm thick covers air-exposed samples which increases the film's coercivity. HCl etching efficiently removes this oxide and in situ surface treatment of etched samples enables surface magnetic contrast to be observed in SPLEEM. A thin Sb capping layer prevents oxidation and preserves ferromagnetism throughout the MnSb film. The interpretation of Mn L{sub 3,2} edge XMCD data is discussed.

Aldous J. D.; Sanchez-Hanke C.; Burrows, C.W.; Maskery, I.; Brewer, M.S.; Hase, T.P.A.; Duffy, J.A.; Lees, M. Rs; Decoster, T.; Theis, W.; Quesada, A.; Schmid, A.K.; Bell, G.R.

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Influence of layer thickness on the quality of mercury cadmium telluride epilayers grown by the interdiffused multilayer process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interdiffused multilayer process (IMP) in which alternate submicron layers of CdTe and HgTe are grown by metal–organic vapor?phase epitaxy(MOVPE) and are allowed to interdiffuse during the deposition of subsequent layers has been used to growmercurycadmium telluride epitaxially on CdTe substrates. A thorough investigation by electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) shows that epilayers of 1×1 cm grown by this method have a reasonable lateral homogeneity with lateral fluctuations in the alloy composition being less than ±0.008. The homogeneity in depth of the composition of the layer is of the order of ±0.005 and the interface region is quite abrupt (less than 3000 Å in thickness). These characteristics are quite attractive and compare well with state of the art liquid?phase epitaxy (LPE) materials. In order to understand better the potential of this relatively novel growth method we have investigated the dependence of the quality of the layers on the combined thickness of the CdTe and HgTe layers each pair of which constitutes a cycle. Materialsgrown from a small number of thick cycles were found to be highly strained or downright inhomogeneous. Those grown from a high number of very thin cycles also were found to be highly strained and to have relatively large fluctuations in composition with the depth of the layer. However for intermediate cycle thicknesses of the order of 2500 Å the epilayers were found to be strain?free and the density of polarizable defects was found to be negligible; i.e. those materials were found not to be impurity doped and to be relatively free of charged extended defects. For this reason the best IMP materials are at this time superior to LPE materials. On the other hand they were found to exhibit a significant amount of alloy clustering which is not surprising given the growth method and thus still are inferior to bulk or molecular beam epitaxy(MBE)n?type materials.

Paul M. Raccah; Z. Zhang; J. W. Garland; Amy H. M. Chu; M. J. Bevan; J. Thompson; K. T. Woodhouse

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

Carmignani, B

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Additively manufactured 3D porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs mimic trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and surface roughness dependent manner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15–70% with compressive moduli of 2579–3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process. Osteoblasts (MG63 cells) exhibited high viability when grown on the constructs. Proliferation (DNA) and alkaline phosphatase specific activity, an early differentiation marker, decreased as porosity increased, while osteocalcin, a late differentiation marker, as well as osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 increased with increasing porosity. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs with the highest porosity and surface modification supported the greatest osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. These results indicate that additively manufactured 3D porous constructs mimicking human trabecular bone and produced with additional surface treatment can be customized for increased osteoblast response. Increased factors for osteoblast maturation and differentiation on high porosity constructs suggest the enhanced performance of these surfaces for increasing osseointegration in vivo.

Alice Cheng; Aiza Humayun; David J Cohen; Barbara D Boyan; Zvi Schwartz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Appendix PORSURF: Porosity Surface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rate in SANTOS is The base gas generation rate is representative of relatively high gas production rates from both microbial degradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber...

220

Far?Infrared Interference Technique for Determining Epitaxial Silicon Thickness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interference technique in the frequency range 30–200 cm?1 has been used for the first time to determine the thickness of low?conductivity epitaxialfilms deposited on a highly conducting silicon substrate. It is shown that for thick epitaxialfilms (d?4 ?m) the frequency at which half?order minimum occurs is highly sensitive to the epilayer?substrate interface carrier concentration profile. In general the far ir thickness is close to that obtained by angle?stain technique. A combination of ir and far?ir measurements therefore yields valuable information regarding the interface carrier concentration profile. The far?ir technique can replace the costly and destructive methods presently used such as angle stain and capacitance?voltage measurements made on specially fabricated diodes. The paper also discusses the optical constants of silicon in the far ir. The calculations show that it is necessary to use the energy?dependent anisotropicscattering time to correctly evaluate the optical constant in the far ir.

M. A. Saifi; R. H. Stolen

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells (Feet per Well) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 View History Exploratory and Development Wells 5,426 5,547 5,508 5,613 6,064 5,964 1949-2008 Crude Oil 4,783 4,829 4,836 4,846 5,111 5,094 1949-2008 Natural Gas 5,616 5,757 5,777 5,961 6,522 6,500 1949-2008 Dry Holes 5,744 5,848 5,405 5,382 5,578 5,540 1949-2008 Exploratory Wells 6,744 6,579 6,272 6,187 6,247 6,322 1949-2008 Crude Oil 6,950 8,136 8,011 7,448 7,537 7,778 1949-2008 Natural Gas 6,589 5,948 5,732 5,770 5,901 5,899 1949-2008 Dry Holes 6,809 6,924 6,437 6,340 6,307 6,232 1949-2008

222

Magnetic Flares and the Observed Optical Depth in Seyfert Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We here consider the pressure equilibrium during an intense magnetic flare above the surface of a cold accretion disk. Under the assumption that the heating source for the plasma trapped within the flaring region is an influx of energy transported inwards with a group velocity close to $c$, e.g., by magnetohydrodynamic waves, this pressure equilibrium can constrain the Thomson optical depth $\\tau_T$ to be of order unity. We suggest that this may be the reason why $\\tau_T\\sim 1$ in Seyfert Galaxies. We also consider whether current data can distinguish between the spectrum produced by a single X-ray emitting region with $\\tau_T\\sim 1$ and that formed by many different flares spanning a range of $\\tau_T$. We find that the current observations do not yet have the required energy resolution to permit such a differentiation. Thus, it is possible that the entire X-ray/$\\gamma$-ray spectrum of Seyfert Galaxies is produced by many independent magnetic flares with an optical depth $0.5<\\tau_T<2$.

Sergei Nayakshin; Fulvio Melia

1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors  

SciTech Connect

A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 0.7}P{sub 0.3}){sub 2} (BaP122). These phenomena probably coincide with anomalous Meissner effect reported in pnicitde superconductors [Prozorov et al. (2010b)] however more studies are needed in order to clarify this.

Prommapan, Plegchart

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Vertically Loaded Anchor: Drag Coefficient, Fall Velocity, and Penetration Depth using Laboratory Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The offshore oilfield industry is continuously developing unique and break-through technologies and systems to extract hydrocarbons from ever increasing ocean depths. Due to the extreme depths being explored presently, large anchors are being...

Cenac, William

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable penetration depth Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2002; 54:365398 (DOI: 10.1002nme.427) Summary: data with the help of ash X-ray, e.g. penetration depth, rate of rod consumption, mass e ciency... conguration is the depth of...

226

Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Oliver Astley 2014.11.12 The challenges of offshore, deep sea drilling are, in a word,...

227

Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Vibration of circular plates, of several thicknesses, with three supports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ o ~ ~ i Prccedure and DeeoriPt'alen Of APPSXat'aua ~ ~ e ~ a ~ 0 ~ ~ i EmPirioal Ccrrelabicn Of Dataa ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 01 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i Kathemat, ical Theory of Thin Plates ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ a ~ ~ ~ Heeultaa ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a... (cps) e M = symmetric mode, ie. 1, 2, 3, and 4. h= thickness of circular plate, in, Vhen there are mox'e than-thoro variables involved in the x esult, s of an experimental research, an empirical xelat, ionsh1p concerning the several variables may...

Ballentine, John Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

229

Primal--Dual Algorithms for Data Depth David Bremner, Komei Fukuda, and Vera Rosta  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the generalization of the median of S by Tukey. The computation of the halfspace depth of a point is equivalent as multivariate generalizations of ranks to complement classical multivariate analysis, by Tukey (1974), Oja (1983 out that the halfspace depth of Tukey and the regression depth of Rousseeuw and Hu­ bert have all

Bremner, David

230

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG application of thickness-weighted averaging to the Boussinesq equa- tions of motion results in averaged

Young, William R.

232

Ultrasonic thickness measurements on corroded steel members: a statistical analysis of error  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose is to determine the suitability of ultrasonic thickness testing of corroded tubular members for the offshore industry. The research can be divided into two parts: 1) determining the error in an ultrasonic thickness measurement associated...

Konen, Keith Forman

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - ag thick film Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on GaAs 110 only when... of many atomic layers, leading to the existence of a thickness window within which smooth metal films can... often depends on the film thickness. ......

234

Thickness Change in Molecularly Thin Lubricant Under Flying Head in Hard Disk Drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In hard disk drives (HDDs), lubricants on disks are very important material to reduce head and disk wear. Thus, it is necessary to ... thickness to keep lubricant thickness constant on rotating disks. For this pu...

K. Yanagisawa; T. Watanabe; Y. Kawakubo; M. Yoshino

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Calibrations of filter radiometers for determination of atmospheric optical depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric optical depths are determined by relating ground-based measurements of direct solar radiation to the extraterrestrial value, I0, that a filter radiometer would read outside the atmosphere. Usually I0 is determined by the Langley extrapolation technique from a high-altitude site, where clear and highly stable atmospheric conditions may be found. Alternatively, I0 can be measured in situ from a stratospheric balloon experiment. We have employed both methods and found agreement to better than 1 %. Filter radiometers tend to change over time, especially when used operationally outdoors. Absolute calibrations in the laboratory are used to monitor the radiometric stability of filter radiometers at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD/WRC, Switzerland). A spectral calibration facility based on a calibrated trap detector from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) is used to relate the filter radiometer to an accurate and long-term traceable standard. An FEL-lamp-based standard, previously used for several years, was compared with the new trap standard via a filter radiometer at four wavelengths between 368 nm and 862 nm and revealed a systematic difference of the order of 5 %. The link between radiometric and I0 calibration is the value of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum at the filter radiometer wavelengths which can be determined from these two calibrations and compared with published values.

Ch Wehrli

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Cloud point determination using a thickness shear mode resonator  

SciTech Connect

Crude oils and crude oil products contain substantial amounts of petroleum waxes, consisting of a distribution of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. These waxes or paraffins have limited solubility in oil and tend to precipitate out at a temperature determined by the concentration and constituents of the wax. Precipitation and deposition of wax results in narrowing of pipelines, making crude oil recovery difficult. A parameter of practical importance is the wax precipitation temperature, traditionally known as the cloudpoint, at which visible crystallization occurs. Deposition problems arise in oil field operations at or below this temperature. Several techniques can be used to determine the cloud point: (1) visual observation, (2) viscosity measurement, (3) differential thermal analysis, and (4) pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. This report describes a method for determination of cloud point with the use of a thickness shear mode resonator.

Spates, J.J. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, S.J.; Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Germer, J.W. [Petrolite Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Study on Ferroelectric Thick Film Insulator Sleeve On Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ferroelectric lead germanate Pb 5 Ge 3O11 (PGO) thick film in the alumina insulator sleeve of the 400 Joule Mather?type plasma focus device PF?400J is studied. The breakdown phase along the insulator is fundamental for the formation of a homogeneous and symmetric current sheath that is essential for a good plasma pinching high neutron yield and X?ray emissions. For over several hundreds of electrical discharges the films show good mechanical and electric performance. From the beginning the operating system is highly reproducible shot to shot with a clear definition of the plasma pinch on the axis of discharge. The grade of influence of the electron emission from the ferroelectric is experimentally studied.

Gustavo Sylvester; Patricio Silva; José Moreno; Marcelo Zambra; Leopoldo Soto

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Optically Thick Outflows of Supercritical Accretion Discs: Radiative Diffusion Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly supercritical accretion discs are probable sources of dense optically thick axisymmetric winds. We introduce a new approach based on diffusion approximation radiative transfer in a funnel geometry and obtain an analytical solution for the energy density distribution inside the wind assuming that all the mass, momentum and energy are injected well inside the spherization radius. This allows to derive the spectrum of emergent emission for various inclination angles. We show that self-irradiation effects play an important role altering the temperature of the outcoming radiation by about 20% and the apparent X-ray luminosity by a factor of 2-3. The model has been successfully applied to two ULXs. The basic properties of the high ionization HII-regions found around some ULXs are also easily reproduced in our assumptions.

P. Abolmasov; S. Karpov; Taro Kotani

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes  

SciTech Connect

Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

Smedley-Stevenson, R. P. [AWE PLC, Aldermaston Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Fracture toughness of thick section dissimilar electron beam weld joints  

SciTech Connect

Microstructural investigations as well as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness test based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics were performed on single pass, full penetration similar and dissimilar electron beam (EB) welds of 40 mm thick 316L type austenitic steel and high alloyed fine tempered martensitic 9Cr 1Mo Nb V (P91 -ASTM A213) steel. The latter modified steel has been developed to fill up the gap between 12Cr steel and austenitic stainless steels with respect to the high temperature properties and better weldability. Furthermore, it shows a small thermal expansion coefficient and is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking like the austenitic steel. The weldment properties were evaluated by microstructural analysis, microhardness, Charpy V- notch impact, and by newly developed flat microtensile specimens (0.5 mm thick). The dissimilar EB weld metal and HAZ of P91 steel has been shown to be microstructurally and mechanically distinct from both austenitic and martenistic parent metals. The use of microsized rectangular tensile specimens provides unique solution to the problem of the mechanical property determination of the narrow EB weld joint. The HAZ of the 9Cr1Mo steel exhibits extremely poor CTOD toughness properties in as-welded condition at room temperature. The CTOD values obtained were believed to be represent the intrinsic property of this zone, since the distance of the crack tip to the austenitic steel part was too large to receive a stress relaxation effect from low strength side on the crack tip (by accommodating the applied strains in the high toughness, lower strength 316L plate).

Kocak, M.; Junghans, E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Application of FLake for the prediction of ice thickness for inland waters in the Netherlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of FLake for the prediction of ice thickness for inland waters in the Netherlands Cisco in the Netherlands. In cold spells numerous ditches, canals and lakes get frozen and many people go out for ice in the Netherlands. in ice thickness predictions. KNMI issues ice thickness predictions, based on a model of De Bruin

Stoffelen, Ad

242

Digenetic Changes in Macro- to Nano-Scale Porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone:L An (Ultra) Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Backscattered Electron Imagining Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Small- and Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS and USANS) provide powerful tools for quantitative analysis of porous rocks, yielding bulk statistical information over a wide range of length scales. This study utilized (U)SANS to characterize shallowly buried quartz arenites from the St. Peter Sandstone. Backscattered electron imaging was also used to extend the data to larger scales. These samples contain significant volumes of large-scale porosity, modified by quartz overgrowths, and neutron scattering results show significant sub-micron porosity. While previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior over many orders of magnitude, careful analysis of our data shows both fractal and pseudo-fractal behavior. The scattering curves are composed of subtle steps, modeled as polydispersed assemblages of pores with log-normal distributions. However, in some samples an additional surface-fractal overprint is present, while in others there is no such structure, and scattering can be explained by summation of non-fractal structures. Combined with our work on other rock-types, these data suggest that microporosity is more prevalent, and may play a much more important role than previously thought in fluid/rock interactions.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Jackson, Andrew [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Littrell, Ken [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Advanced forecast of coal seam thickness variation by integrated geophysical method in the laneway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal seam thickness variation has a direct relationship with coal mine design and mining, and the mutation locations of the thickness are generally the gas accumulation area. In order to justify the feasibility and validity of advanced forecast about the thickness change, we carried out geophysical numerical simulation. Utilizing generalized Radon transform migration, coal-rock interface can be identified with an error of less than 2%. By the calculation of 2.5D finite difference method, transient electric magnetic response characteristics of the thickness variation is conspicuous. In a coal mine the case study indicated that: the reflected wave energy anomaly offer interface information of the thickness change point; the apparent resistivity provide the physical index of the thick or thin coal seam area; synthesizing two kinds of information can predict the thickness variation tendency ahead of the driving face, which can ensure the safety of driving efficiency.

Wang Bo; Liu Sheng-dong; Jiang Zhi-hai; Huang Lan-ying

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

ARM - Evaluation Product - MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsMicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth ProductsMicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) 1999.05.01 - 2004.05.14 Site(s) SGP General Description The MPLCOD VAP retrieves the column cloud visible optical depth using LIDAR derived backscatter from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized Backscatter) and radiosonde thermodynamic profiles. The optical depth retrieval is derived following Comstock et al. (2001), which retrieves visible optical depth and layer average backscatter-to-extinction ratio (k) at the lidar wavelength for each backscatter profile. Data Information Data Directory Contacts Principal Investigator Jennifer Comstock (509) 372-424

245

Computing a Maximal Depth Point in the Plane Stefan Langerman # William Steiger +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], [7],[10],[11]. One of the more familiar ones was proposed by John Tukey [12], a natural extension to d > 1 of the notion in (1). Given a set S = {P 1 , . . . , Pn} of n points in R d , the Tukey depth is a point µ of maximal depth, and we write # # = #(S) for the Tukey depth of a median. For integer k > 0 let

Langerman, Stefan

246

High-energy x-ray diffractometer for nondestructive strain depth profile measurement  

SciTech Connect

We describe a lab-based high-energy x-ray diffraction system and a new approach to nondestructively measuring strain profiles in polycrystalline samples. This technique utilizes the tungsten K{sub ?1} characteristic radiation from a standard industrial x-ray tube. We introduce a simulation model that is used to determine strain values from data collected with this system. Examples of depth profiling are shown for shot peened aluminum and titanium samples. Profiles to 1 mm depth in aluminum and 300 ?m depth in titanium with a depth resolution of 20 ?m are presented.

Al-Shorman, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan)] [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan); Jensen, T. C.; Gray, J. N. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... .1038/nature09401 Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphereHarry W.Green IIH W

Harry W. Green II; Wang-Ping Chen; Michael R. Brudzinski

2010-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

248

A new high luminosity UHV orange type magnetic spectrometer used for depth selective Mössbauer spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) a combination with an electrostatic retardation field around the sample will provide an even higher resolution. For depth selective conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy...

B. Stahl; R. Gellert; G. Klingelhöfer…

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Drazen, Jeffrey C., and Brad A. Seibel. Depth-related trends in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constant levels of enzymatic activity in the brains and hearts of fishes regardless of depth (Childress and Somero. 1979; Sullivan and Somero 1980; Siebenaller ...

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

250

Effect of speckles on the depth sensitivity of laser Doppler perfusion imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theoretical model is presented and experimentally validated that allows the prediction of the effect of speckles on the depth sensitivity of laser Doppler perfusion imaging. It is...

Rajan, V; Varghese, B; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A depth-16 circuit for the AES S-box joan@imada.sdu.dk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metric (gate count, depth, energy consumption, etc.). In practice, no known techniques can reliably find. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Southern Denmark. Partially sup- ported

252

Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

Nachbar, H.D.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

An integrated approach to characterize reservoir connectivity to improve waterflood infill drilling recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 3 Permeability Correlation. 2. 3. 1 Lithological Description. . 2. 3. 2 Porosity-Permeability Transform. . . . 2. 4 Porosity and Permeability Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 4 7 7 . . . 10 . . . 1 0 . . . 1 0 . . . 1 1 . . . 1... Kriged areal permeability distribution in vertical direction between well 69 & 138. . . . 36 3. 9 3-D kriged distribution profile of subsea depth in the study area. . . 38 3. 10 3-D kriged distribution profile of pay thickness in the study area. , 39...

Malik, Zaheer Ahmad

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

The logic behind thick, liquid-walled, fusion concepts  

SciTech Connect

It may be possible to surround the region where fusion reactions are taking place with a neutronically thick liquid blanket which has penetrations that allow only a few tenths of a percent of the neutrons to leak out. Even these neutrons can be attenuated by adding an accurately placed liquid or solid near the target to shadow-shield the beam ports from line-of-sight neutrons. The logic of such designs are discussed and their evolution is described with examples applied to both magnetic and inertial fusion (HYLIFE-II). These designs with liquid protection are self healing when exposed to pulsed loading and have a number of advantages-over the usual designs with solid first walls. For example, the liquid-protected solid components will last the life of the plant, and therefore the capacity factor is estimated to be approximately 10% higher than for the non-liquid-walled blankets, because no blanket replacement shutdowns are required. The component replacement, operations, and maintenance costs might be half the usual value because no blanket change-out costs or accompanying facilities are required. These combined savings might lower the cost of electricity by 20%. Nuclear-grade construction should not be needed, largely because the liquid attenuates neutrons and results in less activation of materials. Upon decommissioning, the reactor materials should qualify for disposal by shallow burial even when constructed of ordinary 304 stainless steel. The need for a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron test facility to develop first-wall materials is avoided or greatly reduced, saving billions of development dollars. Flowing molten Li, the molten salt Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), and molten Li{sub l7}Pb{sub 83} have been considered. An advantage of molten salt is that it will not burn and has a low tritium solubility and therefore low tritium inventory.

Moir, R.W.

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Thin-thick hydrogen target for nuclear physics  

SciTech Connect

In spectroscopic studies of unstable nuclei, hydrogen targets are of key importance. The CHyMENE Project aims to provide to the nuclear physics community a thin and pure solid windowless hydrogen or deuterium target. CHyMENE project must respond to this request for the production of solid Hydrogen. The solid hydrogen target is produced in a continuous flow (1 cm/s) by an extrusion technique (developed with the PELIN laboratory) in a vacuum chamber. The shape of the target is determined by the design of the nozzle at the extrusion process. For the purpose, the choice is a rectangular shape with a width of 10 mm and a thickness in the range of 30-50 microns necessary for the physics objectives. The cryostat is equipped with a GM Cryocooler with sufficient power for the solidification of the hydrogen in the lower portion of the extruder. In the higher part of the cryostat, the hydrogen gas is first liquefied and partially solidified. It is then compressed at 100 bars in the cooled extruder before expulsion of the film through the nozzle at the center of the reaction vacuum chamber. After the previous step, the solid hydrogen ribbon falls by gravity into a dedicated chamber where it sublimes and the gas is pumped and evacuated in a exhaust line. This paper deals with the design of the cryostat with its equipment, with the sizing of the thermal bridge (Aluminum and copper), with the results regarding the contact resistance as well as with the vacuum computations of the reaction and recovery hydrogen gas chambers.

Gheller, J.-M.; Juster, F.-P.; Authelet, G. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SACM, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Vinyar, I. [PELIN Limited Liability Company 27 A, Gzhatskaya Str, office 103 St. Petersbourg 195220 (Russian Federation); Relland, J. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SIS, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Commeaux, C. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, campus Universitaire-Bat 103, 91406 Orsay cedex (France)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

256

From Low-Cost Depth Sensors to CAD: Cross-Domain 3D Shape Retrieval via  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications for 3D shape retrieval, such as high-quality 3D scanning, manipulation and printing. NoteFrom Low-Cost Depth Sensors to CAD: Cross-Domain 3D Shape Retrieval via Regression Tree Fields Yan@us.ibm.com Abstract. The recent advances of low-cost and mobile depth sensors dramatically extend the potential of 3D

Chang, Shih-Fu

257

Taphonomic Trends Along a Forereef Slope: Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. I. Location and Water Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contribution focuses on the influence of EOD and water depth. The dimension of time...locations were selected to be representative of EOD depth ranges. The location and transect...the influence of dissolution was much more EOD specific. Dissolution was highest in Codakia...

W. RUSSELL CALLENDER; GEORGE M. STAFF; KARLA M. PARSONS-HUBBARD; ERIC N. POWELL; GILBERT T. ROWE; SALLY E. WALKER; CARLTON E. BRETT; ANNE RAYMOND; DONNA D. CARLSON; SUZANNE WHITE; ELIZABETH A. HEISE

258

Total Sediment Load from SEMEP Using Depth-Integrated Concentration Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Sediment Load from SEMEP Using Depth-Integrated Concentration Measurements Seema C. Shah sediment load calculations on the basis of depth-integrated sediment concentration measurements for channels with significant sediment transport in suspension. The series expansion of the modified Einstein

Julien, Pierre Y.

259

Discussion of "Location-Scale Depth" by I. Mizera and C. H. Muller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the distance from zi (or any monotonic function of the distance) recovers the classical no- tion of Tukey depth to Tukey depth in hyperbolic space School of Information & Computer Science, Univ. of California, Irvine. By standard techniques for modeling hyperbolic space in Euclidean spaces, all the previous machinery of Tukey

Eppstein, David

260

Ecient computation of location depth contours by methods of computational geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the center of the deepest contour is called the Tukey median. The only available implemented algorithms for the depth contours and the Tukey median are slow, which limits their usefulness. In this paper we describe practice. Keywords: Bagplot, Bivariate Median, Graphical Display, Robust Estimation, Tukey Depth 1

Souvaine, Diane

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes with either a light emitting diode (LED) based light curing unit (LCU) or a conventional halogen LCU do reserved. Keywords: Blue light emitting diodes; Light curing unit; Composites; Irradiance; Spectrum; Depth

Ashworth, Stephen H.

262

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility-Hames, and Thomas P. Quinn Abstract: Bed scour, egg pocket depths, and alteration of stream-bed surfaces by spawning chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) were measured in two Pacific Northwest gravel-bedded streams. Close

Montgomery, David R.

263

Method for determining depth and shape of a sub-surface conductive object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The depth to and size of an underground object may be determined by sweeping a controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) signal and locating a peak response when the receiver spans the edge of the object. The depth of the object is one quarter wavelength in the subsurface media of the frequency of the peak. 3 figures.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, Jr.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

264

A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Optically thin clouds (e.g. optical depth < 3) can have a significant impact on radiative heating in the atmosphere, particularly in the cold upper troposphere. Currently, there is no value-added product (VAP) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program archive that produces thin cloud optical depth, particularly at the Tropical Western Pacific and North Slope of Alaska sites. A VAP is under development to obtain the cirrus cloud visible optical depth from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized

265

Comment on Magnetohydrodynamic non-Darcy mixed convection heat transfer from a vertical heated plate embedded in a porous medium with variable porosity, by Dulal Pal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the above paper the author treats the boundary layer flow along a vertical flat plate, immersed in a Darcy Brinkman Forchheimer porous medium. The porosity and the permeability of the porous medium are variable across the boundary layer. In addition a magnetic field with constant strength is applied normal to the plate. The fluid temperature at the plate is constant and different from that of the ambient fluid. This temperature difference creates a buoyancy force and the flow is characterized as mixed convection. The partial differential equations of the boundary layer flow are transformed into ordinary differential equations and subsequently are solved with the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. The results are presented in two tables and 11 figures.

Pantokratoras, Asterios

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Thick-Target Neutron Yield from the 19F(alpha,n) Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thick-target neutron yields from the 19F(alpha,n) reaction are reported for E(alpha) = 3.5 - 10.0 MeV.

E. B. Norman; T. E. Chupp; K. T. Lesko; G. L. Woodruff; P. J. Grant

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Simulation of micellar-polymer flooding of a layered oil reservoir of nonuniform thickness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamics of oil displacement from a layered reservoir of nonuniform thickness consisting of two hydrodynamically connected layers of different absolute permeability is studied. Results of numerical calcula...

N. S. Khabeev; N. A. Inogamov

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Thick-Target Neutron Yield from the 19F(alpha,n) Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thick-target neutron yields from the 19F(alpha,n) reaction are reported for E(alpha) = 3.5 - 10.0 MeV.

Norman, E B; Lesko, K T; Woodruff, G L; Grant, P J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evaluation of slug tests in wells containing a finite-thickness skin  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a finite-thickness skin (low-permeability zone surrounding the well bore face) on the response of slug tests is investigated by using a numerical model and a simple analytical solution. The results show that, for skins of finite thicknesses, estimates of hydraulic conductivity provided by slug tests can be more representative of the skin than of the surrounding formation. When a finite-thickness skin is present, the slug test response is shifted along the horizontal axis, making estimates of hydraulic conductivity unreliable. This result is different from that obtained by using an analytical solution for a skin of infinitesimal thickness.

Faust, C.R.; Mercer, J.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Agreement Between Local and Global Measurements of the London Penetration Depth  

SciTech Connect

Recent measurements of the superconducting penetration depth in Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} appeared to disagree on the magnitude and curvature of {delta}{lambda}{sub ab}(T), even near optimal doping. These measurements were carried out on different samples grown by different groups. To understand the discrepancy, we use scanning SQUID susceptometry and a tunnel diode resonator to measure the penetration depth in a single sample. The penetration depth observed by the two techniques is identical with no adjustments. We conclude that any discrepancies arise from differences between samples, either in growth or crystal preparation.

Lippman, Thomas M.; Kalisky, Beena; Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, Makariy; Budko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Moler, Kathryn A.

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

271

Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

....................................................................................................................................................14 Figures 1. Image of oil emulsion from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico offA Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy By Roger N. Clark (AVIRIS) Team, 2010, A method for quantitative mapping of thick oil spills using imaging spectroscopy: U

Torgersen, Christian

273

UTL CONSOLIDATION AND OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE CURING OF THICK COMPOSITE STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 M00-022 UTL CONSOLIDATION AND OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE CURING OF THICK COMPOSITE STRUCTURES John Player fabrication of complex composite structures, but significant thickness reduction may occur during cure due fiber/Hexcel 8552 thermoset prepreg. KEY WORDS: Composite Structures, Cure Modeling, Ultrasonics

Roylance, David

274

An Affordable Approach for Robust Design of Thick Laminated Composite Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Affordable Approach for Robust Design of Thick Laminated Composite Structure Wei Chen* Assistant of thick laminated composite structures. Our approach integrates the principles of the Robust Concept-level optimization procedure for managing the complexity of composite structure optimization. Foundational

Chen, Wei

275

Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments-non-premixed, flame-spread Submitted to Twenty-Ninth International Symposium on Combustion, Sapporo, Japan, July 21 ­ July 26, 2002. #12;Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity

276

Effective elastic thickness of South America and its implications for intracontinental deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective elastic thickness of South America and its implications for intracontinental deformation. Within cratonic South America, Te variations are observed at regional scale: relatively lower Te occurs.y. Components: 13,516 words, 8 figures. Keywords: elastic thickness; South America; lithospheric structure

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

277

Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading Daniel in composites with thickness tapering has been a concern in applications of carbon fibers. This study explored the resistance to delamination under fatigue loading of carbon and glass fiber prepreg laminates with the same

278

Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry and sediment thickness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and sediment thickness Jon M. Collisa and William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute110 8th Street within elastic sediment layers. When these methods are implemented together, the parabolic equation method can be applied to problems involving variations in bathymetry and the thickness of sediment layers

279

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before

Kudrolli, Arshad

280

Optimal phosphor thickness for portal imaging Jean-Pierre Bissonnette 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal phosphor thickness for portal imaging Jean-Pierre Bissonnette 1 a), 2 b) London Regional this approach to determine which of eight phosphor screen thicknesses ranging between 67 and 947 mg/cm2 modest improvements in the indices of image quality for phosphor screens thicker than 350­400 mg/cm2

Cunningham, Ian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for Wind as wind blade size has increased. Typical blade joints use paste adhesives several millimeters thick aircraft, which are also of relevance to wind blades in many instances. The strengths of lap-shear and many

282

In-depth distribution of rusts on a plain carbon steel and weathering steels exposed to coastal–industrial atmosphere for 17 years  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-depth distribution of rusts on two weathering steels and a plain carbon steel exposed to atmosphere for 17 years under a bridge at a coastal + industrial region in Japan were studied. In the rust layer on all specimens, ?-FeOOH, ?-FeOOH, ?-FeOOH, Fe3O4 and so-called amorphous rust were found. Within rust layers, there were thick parts and thin parts, which were finely and complicatedly distributed on steels. Among these rust species, ?-FeOOH was dominant on all specimens. ?-FeOOH appeared almost homogeneously through the rust layer. Its concentration was higher on weathering steels than on plain carbon steel. ?-FeOOH was found mainly at thick parts and was scarce at thin parts of rust layers. Concentration of ?-FeOOH was higher and that of ?-FeOOH was lower on weathering steels than on plain carbon steel. Amorphous rust was located at the bottom of the rust layer irrespective of steel types. Concentration of magnetite was negatively correlated with concentration of ?-FeOOH.

K. Asami; M. Kikuchi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates.  

SciTech Connect

The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in inconsistent proportions of metal and glassy phase particles present during the subsequent firing process. The consequences were subtle, intermittent changes to the thick film microstructure that gave rise to the reaction layer and, thus, the low pull strength phenomenon. A mitigation strategy would be the use of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques to create thin film bond pads; this is multi-chip module, deposited (MCM-D) technology.

Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Abstract Temperature gradient drilling has historically been a key tool in the exploration for geothermal resources in the Great Basin, USA, but regulatory, environmental, and accessibility issues, as well as the expense of drilling, are increasingly limiting its use. In cases where thermal groundwater is not overlain by near-surface cold aquifers, it is possible to augment temperature gradient drilling with temperatures measured from a 2-meter depth. We discuss the development of a rapid, efficient, and

285

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Wednesday, 25 January 2006 00:00 The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level insights into the mechanism of exchange bias, specifically the involvement of mutual interactions between two kinds of uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet and spins in the ferromagnet.

286

Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Gianelli, Scott Columbia University - NASA/GISS Lacis, Andrew NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Carlson, Barbara NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Category: Aerosols Bimodal aerosol retrievals, and high-resolution retrevals of nitrogen dioxide, are performed on the Langley optical depth data from the RSS 103 device that was situated in Barrow, Alaska between March and August in 1999. The results show a higher fine mode aerosol optical depth on average than was retrieved by the RSS 102 at the SGP site. The seasonal cycle is also reversed with high values at Barrow occurring in the spring and low values in the summer. The fine mode effective radius also appears to

287

Influence of planting depth on landscape establishment of container-grown trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and productivity (sustainability) of trees within terrestrial ecosystems. Tree planting depth, i.e. location of the root collar relative to soil grade, is of particular concern for tree growth, development, and performance in the landscape. A series of model...

Bryan, Donita Lynn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Shear wave seismic velocity profiling and depth to water table earthquake site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..................................................................................................... 6 Summary of seismic refraction/reflection methodsShear wave seismic velocity profiling and depth to water table ­ earthquake site response measurements for Valley County, Idaho Lee M. Liberty and Gabriel M. Gribler, Boise State University Center

Barrash, Warren

289

Latent heating contribution from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and intensities in the tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Latent Heating (LH) from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and convective intensities are quantified with 15 years of LH retrievals from Version 7 Precipitation Radar (PR) products of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)...

Chuntao Liu; Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Edward Zipser

290

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

291

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

292

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect perceived depth Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Medicine 36 Department of Computer Science & Engineering WUCSE-2006-17 Summary: of the effect of color on perceived depth began in latter half of the 19th century (see Payne...

293

Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island Sound- trichia (Spirotrichea) and Choreotrichia (Spirotrichea) across an environmental gradient. We assessed SSU- tion showed any clear relationship to measured environmental parameters (temperature, salinity

Katz, Laura

294

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking- Level 2 (in-depth)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about level 2 (in-depth...

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - aes depth profile Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

73, No. 2, 1996, pp. 259--272. Summary: zone parameters Y and S, its depth H cz and the opacity (T ; ae; Y ). The basic assumption here... in mind that for a given sound speed...

296

E-Print Network 3.0 - antiproton depth dose Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the depth of the potential well... of antiprotons G. Gabrielse a , J. Estrada a , J.N. Tan a , P. Yesley a , N.S. Bowden a , P. Oxley a , T. Roach a... Positrons are used...

297

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Particle Size and Optical Depth Using Polarimetric Sensor Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a conceptual approach toward the remote sensing of cirrus cloud particle size and optical depth using the degree of polarization and polarized reflectance associated with the first three Stokes parameters, I, Q, and U, for the ...

S. C. Ou; K. N. Liou; Y. Takano; R. L. Slonaker

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-129 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Depth Value-Added Product A Koontz C Flynn G Hodges J Michalsky J Barnard March 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S....

299

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased...

300

Uncertainty in Contaminant Concentration Fields Resulting from Atmospheric Boundary Layer Depth Uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relationship between atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth uncertainty and uncertainty in atmospheric transport and dispersion (ATD) simulations is investigated by examining profiles of predicted concentrations of a contaminant. Because ...

Brian P. Reen; Kerrie J. Schmehl; George S. Young; Jared A. Lee; Sue Ellen Haupt; David R. Stauffer

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

302

In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15??m thick. Using a 0.1?mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1?mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the lower Olentangy shale (Hamilton group)  

SciTech Connect

The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as the Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit. Maps are included.

Majchszak, F.L.; Honeycutt, M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale  

SciTech Connect

The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as the Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit.

Majchszak, F.L.; Honeycutt, M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

OUTPUT-SENSITIVE ALGORITHMS FOR TUKEY DEPTH AND RELATED PROBLEMS David Bremner Dan Chen John Iacono Stefan Langerman Pat Morin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OUTPUT-SENSITIVE ALGORITHMS FOR TUKEY DEPTH AND RELATED PROBLEMS David Bremner Dan Chen John Iacono Stefan Langerman Pat Morin ABSTRACT. The Tukey depth (Tukey 1975) of a point p with respect to a finite p. Algorithms for computing the Tukey depth of a point in various dimensions are considered

Bremner, David

306

Depth to bedrock using gravimetry in the Reno and Carson City, Nevada, basins Robert E. Abbott and John N. Louie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of geothermal wells, and one wildcat oil well. Depths in Carson City are consistent with depths from existing needed to model ground motion in the Mexico City basin. Frankel and Vidale (1992) used water well depth shaking at the surface. Poor existing gravity and well-data coverage of the basins below the rapidly

307

Development of a dual-porosity model for vapor-dominated fractured geothermal reservoirs using a semi-analytical fracture/matrix interaction term  

SciTech Connect

A new type of dual-porosity model is being developed to simulate two-phase flow processes in fractured geothermal reservoirs. At this time it is assumed that the liquid phase in the matrix blocks remains immobile. By utilizing the effective compressibility of a two-phase water/steam mixture in a porous rock, flow within the matrix blocks can be modeled by a single diffusion equation. This equation in turn is replaced by a non-linear ordinary differential equation that utilizes the mean pressure and mean saturation in the matrix blocks to calculate the rate of fluid flow between the matrix blocks and fractures. This equation has been incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH to serve as a source/sink term for computational gridblocks that represent the fracture system. The new method has been compared with solutions obtained using fully-discretized matrix blocks, on a problem involving a three-dimensional vapor-dominated reservoir containing an injection and a production well, and has been found to be quite accurate.

Zimmerman, R.W.; Hadgu, T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns  

SciTech Connect

Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

Hoffman, E.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Optical Histology: A Method to Visualize Microvasculature in Thick Tissue Sections of Mouse Brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Austin J. Moy1,2 , Matthew P. Wiersma1,2 , Bernard Choi1,2,3 * 1 Beckman Laser Institute, University: Moy AJ, Wiersma MP, Choi B (2013) Optical Histology: A Method to Visualize Microvasculature in Thick

Rose, Michael R.

310

Impact of the insulation materials’ features on the determination of optimum insulation thickness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The optimum thickness of the building envelope insulation materials depends on a large number of ... used in the building, and specifically the insulation ones, are included in the process to calculate the optimu...

Jérôme Barrau; Manel Ibanez; Ferran Badia

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot

312

Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness from the GOCART Model and Comparisons with Satellite and Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Georgia Institute of Technology–Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the aerosol optical thickness ? for major types of tropospheric aerosols including sulfate, dust, organic carbon ...

Mian Chin; Paul Ginoux; Stefan Kinne; Omar Torres; Brent N. Holben; Bryan N. Duncan; Randall V. Martin; Jennifer A. Logan; Akiko Higurashi; Teruyuki Nakajima

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Despite proven economic benefit, the hydraulic fracture fluid damages the producing formation and the propped fracture. To analyze the gel damage effect quantitatively, the filter cake thickness is used as a parameter that has not been measured before...

Xu, Ben

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

314

Extrusion of Aluminum Tubes with Axially Graded Wall Thickness and Mechanical Characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study the indirect extrusion of seamless aluminum tubes with variable wall thickness was investigated. Therefore, an axially moveable stepped mandrel was applied. Investigations revealed that wall thickness transitions can either be graded over the tube length or very sharp. The microstructures in thin-walled and thick-walled tube sections were investigated. The local variation of the extrusion ratio and with that the tube wall thickness, product velocity and product temperature during the process lead to significantly different local microstructures at TB=400 °C. At TB=500 °C the microstructure was homogeneously recrystallized with similar grain size in all different tube sections. Furthermore, the mechanical tube properties were characterized by three point bending tests.

M. Negendank; S. Müller; W. Reimers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Analysis of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness: A Newly Created Database for 2000-2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of Antarctic sea ice thickness are sporadic in space and time, hindering knowledge of its variability. A proxy based on stage of development data from the National Ice Center (NIC) weekly operational charts is used to create a high...

Morgan, Benjamin Patrick

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

316

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the upper Olentangy Shale  

SciTech Connect

This map represents the net thickness of the radioactive shale facies included in that part of the Olentangy Shale of Ohio which correlates to the West Falls, Sonyea, and Genesee Formations of New York State. Specifically excluded from consideration is the uppermost part of the upper Olentangy Shale which correlates to the Java Formation of New York. The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as the Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit.

Honeycutt, M.; Majchszak, F.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The Doppler effect in the field of a thick spherical shell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relativistic field of a thick spherical shell of matter is worthy of notice inasmuch as it provides the only known example of a Euclidean pocket in a Riemannian space-time. The boundary conditions are used to...

V. V. Narlikar F.A.Sc.; Ayodhya Prasad M.Sc.

1949-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CdTeCdS Magic-CoreThick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Authors: Deng, Z., Schulz, O., Lin, S., Ding, B., Liu, X., Wei, X., Ros, R.,...

319

The effect of stratum thickness ratio on crossflow in a stratified petroleum reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF STRATUM THICKNESS RATIO ON CROSSFLOW IN A STRATIFIED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR A Thesis By Michael J. Kereluk Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 4966 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF STRATUM THICKNESS RATIO ON CROSSFLOW IN A STRATIFIED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR A Thesis By Michael I. Kereluk Approved as to style and content by: Chazrma of Com 'ttee...

Kereluk, Michael Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Thickness estimation of subsurface layers in asphalt pavement using monstatic ground penetrating radar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Approved as to style and content by...

Lau, Chun Lok

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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321

Minimum thickness for circumferential sleeve repair fillet welds in corroded gas pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The minimum weldable pipe wall thickness for sleeve repair welds is numerically assessed in this work, as a function of pressure during the welding operations of a corroded gas pipeline, according to the approach by Battelle. The minimum weldable thickness is found to increase when the flow rate of the transported gas in the section being repaired increases. Integrity of the repairs is assessed, and alternative measures to momentarily increase the flow in the area of the repair are evaluated.

A.P Cisilino; M.D Chapetti; J.L Otegui

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1, Canada and Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4, Quebec, Canada and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Ionizing Radiation Standards, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council (NRC), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4, Quebec, Canada and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

Allison, L.J. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC (United States). National Climatic Data Center

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO{sub 3}/LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time.

Kassas, Ahmad, E-mail: a.kassas.mcema@ul.edu.lb [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Lakiss, Hassan [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Faculty of Engineering, Section III, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamieh, Tayssir [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP, Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP, MISR, and MODIS Marchand, Roger Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ackerman, Thomas Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Joint histograms of Cloud Top Height (CTH) and Optical Depth (OD) derived by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are being widely used by the climate modeling community in evaluating global climate models. Similar joint histograms of CTH-OD are now being produced by the NASA Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. There are notable differences in the histograms being produced by these three projects. In this poster we analyze some of the differences and discuss how the

327

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level insights into the mechanism of exchange bias, specifically the involvement of mutual interactions between two kinds of uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet and spins in the ferromagnet.

328

In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs January 7, 2014 - 5:30pm Addthis These solar power collection dishes at Sandia National Labs' National Solar Thermal Test Facility are capable of some of the highest solar to electricity conversion. In January 2008, this technology set a new solar-to-grid system conversion efficiency record of 31.25 percent net efficiency rate; the technology is still available to benefit the U.S. by delivering power at all hours of the day by implementing thermal energy storage. CSP with storage provides important benefits to integrate more renewable energy to our electric power supply by mitigating resource variability and satisfying peak demand after sunset. | Photo courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories.

329

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level insights into the mechanism of exchange bias, specifically the involvement of mutual interactions between two kinds of uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet and spins in the ferromagnet.

330

The impact of water depth on safety and environmental performance in offshore oil and gas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports on an empirical analysis of company-reported incidents on oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico between 1996 and 2010. During these years, there was a dramatic increase in the water depths at which offshore oil and gas is extracted. Controlling for platform characteristics such as age, quantity of oil and gas produced, and number of producing wells, we find that incidents (such as blowouts, injuries, and oil spills) are positively correlated with deeper water. Controlling for these and other characteristics, for an average platform, each 100 feet of added depth increases the probability of a company-reported incident by 8.5%. While further research into the causal connections between water depth and platform risks is warranted, this study highlights the potential value of increased monitoring of deeper water platforms.

Lucija Muehlenbachs; Mark A. Cohen; Todd Gerarden

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Organic matter accumulation in a thick, lacustrine, Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequence in Gabon: Facies and maturity variations  

SciTech Connect

A total of about forty core samples representing an almost two kilometer thick, lacustrine sedimentary sequence of Neocomian age in the south Gabon basin was analysed for its hydrocarbon generation potential, maturity and further organic matter characteristics. Organic carbon concentrations are variable and not particularly high (0.4-5%), but the organic matter is hydrogen-rich. This hydrogen-richness finds its expression in high hydrogen indices (about 600 to 700 mg hc/g TOC) which decrease with increasing maturation. According to pyrolysis experiments, hydrocarbon generation from the immature sediments is predicted to begin only at temperatures greater than 100{degrees}C and reaches a maximum only at temperatures greater than 150{degrees}C, because the organic material possesses a very high thermal stability. Such a high thermal stability was already established for lacustrine organic matter from some other deposits (e.g. Green River oil shales) and is certainly an important factor for the evaluation of hydrocarbon potentials in lacustrine basins. The maturity of the organic matter changes from immature to mature with increasing depth. Peak oil generation stage was almost reached by the deepest samples as indicated by a variety of optical and geochemical parameters. Generated petroleum should be wax-rich and rather poor in gas, except if oil to gas cracking occurs within the source rocks. With respect to molecular geochemistry, several interesting pecularities were found. As an example, variable distributions of several unknown tetracyclic terpanes (molecular formula C{sub 24}H{sub 42}) were detected in the samples of lower maturity. Two series of terpane pseudohomologues occur in the more mature samples, one of which is assumed to consist of diahopanes, the other yet remaining unknown. These compounds seem to be widely distributed in lacustrine sediments of higher maturity, thus possibly representing maturity and/or facies indicators.

Ralf, L.; Wilkes, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Retail market test: An in-depth evaluation of a new product concept for lamb.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RETAIL NAREET TS ST. AN IN-DEPTH EVALUATION Oi' A NET' PRODUCT CONCEPT FOH L&ivn A Thesis RUPERT KENNETH NA. LOS Submitted to the Oraduate College of the Texas Af:N University in partial fulfillment oi the ". Suire::ants for the degree... or FLASIcg 0: Sl IENCE August 1967 Najor Subject: Agricultural Economics RETAIL RAPE T. TEST: AN IN-DEPTH EVALUATION OF A N N PRODUCT CONCEPT FOR itANB A Thesis By ROBEPT KENNEIil NA YIOR Apptoved ia to stvi' and content by: (C'noise~an o: Convii...

Naylor, Robert Kenneth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1  

SciTech Connect

This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

334

An empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles into concrete targets  

SciTech Connect

We develop an empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles penetrating concrete targets at normal impact. Our penetration equation contains a single, dimensionless empirical constant that depends only on the unconfined compressive strength of the target. We determine the empirical constant from penetration depth versus striking velocity data for targets with unconfined compressive strengths of nominally 14 MPa (2 ksi), 35 MPa (5 ksi), and 97 MPa (14 ksi). Predictions are in good agreement with six sets of penetration data for striking velocities between 250 and 800 m/s.

Forrestal, M J; Altman, B S [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cargile, J D [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)] [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Hanchak, S J [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Research Inst.] [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Research Inst.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Growth valley dividing single-and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: combinatorial study of nominal thickness of Co catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thickness of Co catalyst Kazunori Kakehi1 , Suguru Noda1* , Shigeo Maruyama2 , and Yukio Yamaguchi1 1 thickness of Co catalyst, the structure of the catalyst particles, and the structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growing from the catalysts was investigated. A gradient thickness profile of Co was prepared

Maruyama, Shigeo

336

Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Human Motion Capture Using 3D Reconstruction Based on Multiple Depth Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Human motion is a critical aspect of interacting, even between people. It has become an interesting field to exploit in human-robot interaction. Even with today's computing power, it remains a difficult task to successfully follow the human's motion ... Keywords: human posture reconstruction, depth sensing, sensor fusion, machine learning, voxel

Wassim Filali; Jean-Thomas Masse; Frederic Lerasle; Jean-Louis Boizard; Michel Devy

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Synchronized B and 13 C Diamond Delta Structures for an Ultimate In-Depth Chemical Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiles in diamond was achieved by the determination of the depth resolution function (DRF). The measurement of this DRF was performed thanks to isotopic-enriched diamond. Applied to boron delta-doped diamond structures, this analysis has resolved edge widths close to 0.3 nm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Estimates of heat flow from Cenozoic seafloor using global depth and age data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-independent estimate of the total heat output of Cenozoic seafloor is 18.6 to 20.5 TW, which leads to a global output: Oceanic heat flow; Global heat budget; Subsidence rate 1. Introduction The total heat output of the EarthEstimates of heat flow from Cenozoic seafloor using global depth and age data Meng Wei , David

Sandwell, David T.

340

Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on simulated mixed layer depth and upper ocean temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on simulated mixed layer depth and upper ocean temperature. Citation: Lee, T., and W. T. Liu (2005), Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on simulated mixed layer 2005. [1] Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on a near-global ocean model are studied by forcing

Talley, Lynne D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Estimates of North American summertime planetary boundary layer depths derived from space-borne lidar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), are sensitive to empirical parameters in addition to the diagnostic method chosen and verification by direct determines the PBL depth using the TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) method. This method identifies the PBL exchanges of energy, moisture, momentum, carbon, and pollutants between the surface and the atmosphere

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

342

Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons at shallow depth J. Busenitz,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons at shallow depth F. Boehm,3 J. Busenitz,1 B. Cook,3 G Received 23 June 2000; published 12 October 2000 The yield of neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons of one and two neutron captures was determined. Modeling the neutron capture efficiency allowed us

Piepke, Andreas G.

343

Influence of sample degradation and tissue depth on blubber cortisol in beluga whales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cortisol concentrations in a variety of biological tissues have been used to obtain short-term to long-term estimates of activation of the physiological stress response. In recent years, blubber has been demonstrated to be a good candidate tissue from which to extract steroid hormones, but no method for extracting cortisol from blubber of any marine mammal has been published and the effects of sample storage and variation in blubber depth on cortisol concentrations are unknown. The objectives of this study were to identify a method for extracting cortisol from blubber in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and to evaluate the concentration of hormones in relation to blubber depth and degradation from long-term storage using samples collected and archived over the past 30 years. Cortisol was extracted from blubber of beluga whales by modifying an existing progesterone-blubber extraction method. Cortisol concentrations were lower in degraded samples, but time in storage did not affect cortisol after controlling for sample quality. Cortisol concentrations increased with blubber depth, with highest concentrations in blubber closest to the muscle. These results show that although cortisol in blubber samples collected and archived prior to extraction may be degraded, high quality samples without visible degradation after long-term storage can still yield useful measures of cortisol. Additionally, sample depth should be controlled for during sample collection. These findings provide necessary information for developing accurate sampling protocols for extracting cortisol from blubber of marine mammals, including sampling by biopsy dart.

Marci R. Trana; James D. Roth; Gregg T. Tomy; W. Gary Anderson; Steven H. Ferguson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Alkyl nitrate (C 1 -C 3 ) depth profiles in the tropical Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrations with a [ iPr]/[Et] ratio of 0.1±0.0. Noat all depths with an [iPr]/[Et] ratio of 0.2 ± 0.0. Thiswith ethyl nitrate with an [iPr]/[Et] ratio of 0.2 ± 0.0.

Dahl, E. E; Yvon-Lewis, S. A; Saltzman, E. S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Scene-adaptive accurate and fast vertical crowd counting via joint using depth and color information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reliable and real-time crowd counting is one of the most important tasks in intelligent visual surveillance systems. Most previous works only count passing people based on color information. Owing to the restrictions of color information influences themselves ... Keywords: Crowd counting, Multimodal joint multimedia processing, Ordinary depth camera, Real time system, Scene-adaptive scheme

Huiyuan Fu, Huadong Ma, Hongtian Xiao

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The TUM Gait from Audio, Image and Depth (GAID) database: Multimodal recognition of subjects and traits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recognizing people by the way they walk-also known as gait recognition-has been studied extensively in the recent past. Recent gait recognition methods solely focus on data extracted from an RGB video stream. With this work, we provide a means for multimodal ... Keywords: Acoustic gait recognition, Depth gradient histogram energy image, Gait energy image, Gait recognition, Multimodal fusion, Soft biometrics

Martin Hofmann; Jürgen Geiger; Sebastian Bachmann; Björn Schuller; Gerhard Rigoll

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Creating a stereoscopic magic-lens to improve depth perception in handheld augmented reality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Handheld Augmented Reality (AR) is often presented using the magic-lens paradigm where the handheld device is portrayed as if it was transparent. Such a virtual transparency is usually implemented using video captured by a single camera rendered on the ... Keywords: binocular disparity, depth perception, handheld, mobile, parallax, stereoscopic rendering, user study, virtual transparency

Klen ?opi? Pucihar; Paul Coulton; Jason Alexander

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf carbonates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf their production is tied to light and wave energy, carbonate sediments are most effectively produced in shallow processes of storm and wave reworking influence the seabed through submarine erosion and sediment

Purkis, Sam

349

Pose Estimation from a Single Depth Image for Arbitrary Kinematic Skeletons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a variety of applications (eg. [8]). While recent tech- nological advances have made capturing depth images Saxena2 and Hod Lipson1 1 School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2 Department of Computer Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY dll73@cornell.edu, asaxena@cs.cornell.edu, hod

Wikswo, John

350

Planetary boundary layer depth in Global climate models induced biases in surface climatology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Earth has warmed in the last century with the most rapid warming occurring near the surface in the arctic. This enhanced surface warming in the Arctic is partly because the extra heat is trapped in a thin layer of air near the surface due to the persistent stable-stratification found in this region. The warming of the surface air due to the extra heat depends upon the amount of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere, which is described by the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this way the depth of the ABL determines the effective response of the surface air temperature to perturbations in the climate forcing. The ABL depth can vary from tens of meters to a few kilometers which presents a challenge for global climate models which cannot resolve the shallower layers. Here we show that the uncertainties in the depth of the ABL can explain up to 60 percent of the difference between the simulated and observed surface air temperature trends and 50 percent of the difference in temperature variability...

Davy, Richard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Effects of induced flow on the depths of active back-arc basins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The depth of active back-arc basins, younger than 10 Ma is correlated to the angle of subduction, in that the deepest basins are associated with steep angles of subduction, and the shallowest to small angles of subduction. A two-dimensional comer...

Tomlins, Robynn Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

352

Probing the Depths of CSP-M: A new fdr-compliant Validation Tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probing the Depths of CSP-M: A new fdr-compliant Validation Tool Michael Leuschel and Marc Fontaine,fontaine}@cs.uni-duesseldorf.de Abstract. We present a new animation and model checking tool for CSP. The tool covers the CSP-M language in the source code, has an LTL model checker and can be used for combined CSP B specifications. During

Southampton, University of

353

Grassmannian Representation of Motion Depth for 3D Human Gesture and Action Recognition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

benefit from the geometric structure of the Grassmaniann manifold. The experimental evaluation- care systems and smart home systems [3]. The main challenges in almost action recognition system al. [5], represent each depth map sequence as a 4D grid by dividing the space and time axes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9647, USA ABSTRACT The occurrence of early diagenetic Ca-rhodochrosite [(Mn,Ca)CO3] is reported in association with `griotte'-type nodular limestones from basinal settings

Gilli, Adrian

355

Proper management of wildlife populations requires an in-depth knowledge of habitat require-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proper management of wildlife populations requires an in-depth knowledge of habitat require- ments not call at wind speeds > 4.8 km/h and with clear to foggy skies. Frogs called at tempera- tures > 14°C and wind speeds

McCallum, Malcolm

356

Rapid optical method for logging dust concentration versus depth in glacial ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a cable that can lower the device down a 3-in. 7.5-cm borehole filled with butyl acetate. LED photons to the attenuation by particles.6 The AMANDA collaboration recently completed a large observatory, buried in deep a hot-water drilling tech- nique, they melted cylindrical holes down to depths of 2000 m in which were

Price, P. Buford

357

The E-utilities In-Depth: Parameters, Syntax and More Eric Sayers, PhD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The E-utilities In-Depth: Parameters, Syntax and More Eric Sayers, PhD NCBI sayers@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Introduction This chapter serves as a reference for all supported parameters for the E-utilities, along with accepted values and usage guidelines. This information is provided for each E-utility in sections below

Levin, Judith G.

358

Intermediate-depth Circulation of the Indian and South Pacific Oceans Measured by Autonomous Floats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intermediate-depth Circulation of the Indian and South Pacific Oceans Measured by Autonomous Floats of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, 306 autonomous floats were deployed in the tropical and South autonomous floats that are not acoustically tracked, but rather surface at regular intervals to be located by

Davis, Russ

359

London penetration depth and coherence length of SU(3) vacuum flux tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transverse profile of the chromoelectric field generated by a quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum is analysed within the dual superconductor scenario, then the London penetration depth and coherence length are extracted. The color field is determined on the lattice through a connected correlator of two Polyakov loops measured on smeared configurations.

Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Francesca Cuteri; Alessandro Papa

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

360

3D MODEL RETRIEVAL BASED ON DEPTH LINE DESCRIPTOR Mohamed Chaouch and Anne Verroust-Blondet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3D MODEL RETRIEVAL BASED ON DEPTH LINE DESCRIPTOR Mohamed Chaouch and Anne Verroust-Blondet INRIA.verroust}@inria.fr. ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a novel 2D/3D approach for 3D model matching and retrieving. Each model information provides a more accurate description of 3D shape boundaries than using other 2D shape descriptors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

3D VIDEO QUALITY EVALUATION WITH DEPTH QUALITY VARIATIONS Gustavo Leon, Hari Kalva, and Borko Furht  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3D VIDEO QUALITY EVALUATION WITH DEPTH QUALITY VARIATIONS Gustavo Leon, Hari Kalva, and Borko Furht on 3D video perception on autostereoscopic displays. This study was done using objective as well image quality and compression on the perceived 3D experience. Another objective is to evaluate the use

Kalva, Hari

362

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact for the distribution of drinking water. HDPE pipes are exposed to an internal pressure due to water flow. Furthermore

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural permeability controls on fluid flow in oil and gas reservoirs. Fault zones are composed of many deformation elements will receive 20 weeks bespoke, residential training of broad relevance to the oil and gas industry: 10 weeks

Henderson, Gideon

364

Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Utilizing commercial mine blasts and local earthquakes, as well as a dense array of portable seismographs, we have achieved long-range crustal refraction profiles across northern Nevada and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In our most recent refraction experiment, the Idaho-Nevada-California (INC) transect, we used a dense spacing of 411 portable seismographs and 4.5-Hz geophones. The instruments were able to record events ranging from large mine blasts to small local earthquakes.

365

Thickness of surficial sediment at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thickness of surficial sediment was determined from natural-gamma logs in 333 wells at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho to provide reconnaissance data for future site-characterization studies. Surficial sediment, which is defined as the unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie the uppermost basalt flow at each well, ranges in thickness from 0 feet in seven wells drilled through basalt outcrops east of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to 313 feet in well Site 14 southeast of the Big Lost River sinks. Surficial sediment includes alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits that generally accumulated during the past 200 thousand years. Additional thickness data, not included in this report, are available from numerous auger holes and foundation borings at and near most facilities.

Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Ackerman, D.J.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Thickness measurement system for transparent plates using dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups  

SciTech Connect

A low-cost high-precision thickness measurement system for transparent plates that uses dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups is proposed. The two DVD pickups are used as the transmitter and the receiver in the measurement system, respectively. One of the DVD pickups emits a laser to the other DVD pickup (receiver) and projects on the photodiode integrated circuit of the receiver. The transparent plate is placed in the optical path to change the focused point that will affect the focusing error signal (FES) of the receiver. Using the FES, a mathematical model for thickness measurement based on the geometric optical method is developed. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 1.5 {mu}m, and the uncertainty is estimated to be {+-}1.37 {mu}m for the measured thickness of 150{mu}m.

Liu, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Shien-Chang; Huang, Hsueh-Liang

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Axial-scanning low-coherence interferometer method for noncontact thickness measurement of biological samples  

SciTech Connect

We investigated a high-precision optical method for measuring the thickness of biological samples regardless of their transparency. The method is based on the precise measurement of optical path length difference of the end surfaces of objects, using a dual-arm axial-scanning low-coherence interferometer. This removes any consideration of the shape, thickness, or transparency of testing objects when performing the measurement. Scanning the reference simplifies the measurement setup, resulting in unambiguous measurement. Using a 1310 nm wavelength superluminescent diode, with a 65 nm bandwidth, the measurement accuracy was as high as 11.6 {mu}m. We tested the method by measuring the thickness of both transparent samples and nontransparent soft biological tissues.

Kim, Do-Hyun; Song, Chul-Gyu; Ilev, Ilko K.; Kang, Jin U.

2011-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

368

Green light emitting diode grown on thick strain-reduced GaN template  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report a green light-emitting diode (LED) grown on thick strain-reduced GaN template. As the injection current changes from 20 mA to 120 mA, blue-shift of EL peak wavelength reduces from 9.3 nm for the LED on sapphire substrate to 6.8 nm for the LED grown on thick strain-reduced GaN template. Furthermore, the light output power and external quantum efficiency of the LED on thick strain-reduced GaN template are respectively 1.48 mW and 2.5% at the forward current of 20 mA, which is twice as much as the LED on sapphire substrate. In contrast, the reverse current is 2 ?A lower than that of the LED on the sapphire at ?8 V.

Jiankun Yang; Tongbo Wei; Qiang Hu; Ziqiang Huo; Baojuan Sun; Ruifei Duan; Junxi Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

LATERAL HEAT FLOW INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THICKNESS INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN CFRP  

SciTech Connect

In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry [Nondestructive Technologies Laboratory, GE--Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

370

Thickness and density of adsorbed additive layer on metal surface in lubricant by neutron reflectometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thickness and density of the adsorbed additive layer on a metal surface in lubricant were directly measured by neutron reflectometry. First, two kinds of metal surfaces, iron and copper, on ultra-flat silicon blocks were prepared by physical vapor deposition. After that, each target surface was analyzed by neutron reflectometry in air, in base oil and in base oil with an additive. Poly-alpha-olefin was used as the base oil, while deuterated acetic acid was used as an additive. Fitting operation based on Parratt's theory showed that the thicknesses of the adsorbed layers on the iron and copper surfaces were quite thin, only 2.0 nm. The friction coefficients of the metal surfaces measured by a ball-on-disk tribometer decreased considerably when the acetic acid was added to the base oil. It was concluded that the additive adsorbed layers on the metal surfaces considerably affected friction properties despite being only several nanometers thick.

Tomoko Hirayama; Takashi Torii; Yohei Konishi; Masayuki Maeda; Takashi Matsuoka; Kazuko Inoue; Masahiro Hino; Dai Yamazaki; Masayasu Takeda

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Physicochemical controls on absorbed water film thickness in unsaturated geological media  

SciTech Connect

Adsorbed water films commonly coat mineral surfaces in unsaturated soils and rocks, reducing flow and transport rates. Therefore, it is important to understand how adsorbed film thickness depends on matric potential, surface chemistry, and solution chemistry. Here, the problem of adsorbed water film thickness is examined through combining capillary scaling with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Novel aspects of this analysis include determining capillary influences on film thicknesses, and incorporating solution chemistry-dependent electrostatic potential at air-water interfaces. Capillary analysis of monodisperse packings of spherical grains provided estimated ranges of matric potentials where adsorbed films are stable, and showed that pendular rings within drained porous media retain most of the 'residual' water except under very low matric potentials. Within drained pores, capillary contributions to thinning of adsorbed films on spherical grains are shown to be small, such that DLVO calculations for flat surfaces are suitable approximations. Hamaker constants of common soil minerals were obtained to determine ranges of the dispersion component to matric potential-dependent film thickness. The pressure component associated with electrical double layer forces was estimated using the compression and linear superposition approximations. The pH-dependent electrical double layer pressure component is the dominant contribution to film thicknesses at intermediate values of matric potential, especially in lower ionic strength solutions (< 10 mol m{sup -3}) on surfaces with higher magnitude electrostatic potentials (more negative than - 50 mV). Adsorbed water films are predicted to usually range in thickness from 1 to 20 nm in drained pores and fractures of unsaturated environments.

Tokunaga, T.

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

Simultaneous measurement of group refractive index and thickness of optical samples using optical coherence tomography  

SciTech Connect

Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3x3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.

Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

373

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

Steinman, D.A.

1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

The Use of Silicon Structures with Rapid Doping Level Transitions to Explore the Limitations of SIMS Depth Profiling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Semiconductor devices continue to shrink, with an immediate prospect of spatial dimensions ?1µm laterally and SIMS depth resolution of ?lµm (2...

M. G. Dowsett; D. S. McPhail; R. A. A. Kubiak…

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Feasibility of the Application of a Spar-type Wind Turbine at a Moderate Water Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The feasibility of the application of a spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth is studied in this paper. In the oil and gas industries, spar-type offshore platforms are widely applied in deep water. The same idea is used in offshore wind technology to present the Hywind concept based on a catenary moored spar in deep water. The draft of the spar limits the application of spar-type wind turbines in shallow water. However, it is possible to design spar-type wind turbines for moderate water depths. The present article studies the feasibility and performance of such a design. A spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth called “ShortSpar” is introduced in the present article. A catenary moored spar-type support structure is applied as a base for the 5-MW NREL land-based turbine. The power performance, structural integrity and dynamic responses of a 5-MW catenary moored spar-type wind turbine in deep water (DeepSpar) have previously been studied. In the present article, the responses of the spar-type wind turbines, ShortSpar and DeepSpar, are compared. The HAWC2 code is used to carry out the coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic analyses. Different environmental conditions are used to compare the responses. A dynamic link library (DLL) is used to feed the mooring forces at each time step into the HAWC2 code. The force-displacement relationships are obtained from the Simo-Riflex code. The comparison of the responses of ShortSpar and DeepSpar in different load cases indicates the feasibility of implementation of spar-type wind turbine in moderate water depths. The results show that the spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth exhibits good performance, and its responses are reasonable compared with those associated with a spar-type wind turbine in deep water. The total mass (the structural mass plus the ballast) of ShortSpar is 35% less than the mass of DeepSpar, while the statistical characteristics of the generated power are almost the same for both spars. This mass reduction for ShortSpar helps to achieve a more cost-effective solution for floating wind turbines at a moderate water depth.

Madjid Karimirad; Torgeir Moan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface: Part II: Material deformations, influence of coating thickness and Young's modulus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Material deformations and the influence of coating thickness and elastic modulus were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress, strain, and displacement computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating was linearly elastic, and the steel substrate was elastic–plastic, taking into account strain hardening effects. It was shown that a thin TiN ceramic coating on a steel substrate has only a very slight effect on friction and on the plastic deformations (i.e., the groove formation) in the surface, but changes considerably the stress pattern at the surface. The stress simulations showed how a thicker hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity that a thinner one. Higher tensile stresses at the coating/substrate interface increase the risk for interface cracks and delamination of the thicker coating. A stiffer hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity than a more elastic one. The stiffer coating will accommodate higher tensile stresses with the same indentation depth compared to a more elastic one. The results show that much more attention should be given to optimizing the elastic properties of the coating than previously has been done. In many cases, it can be much more effective to improve the wear resistance of the coated surface by focusing on the elastic modulus of the coating than changing the coating thickness.

Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen; Helena Ronkainen; Kim Wallin; Simo Varjus; Jari Koskinen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

THE COMPTON-THICK SEYFERT 2 NUCLEUS OF NGC 3281: TORUS CONSTRAINTS FROM THE 9.7 {mu}m SILICATE ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

We present mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 3281, obtained with the Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph at the Gemini-South telescope. The spectra present a very deep silicate absorption at 9.7 {mu}m, and [S IV] 10.5 {mu}m and [Ne II] 12.7 {mu}m ionic lines, but no evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. We find that the nuclear optical extinction is in the range 24 mag {<=} A{sub V} {<=} 83 mag. A temperature T = 300 K was found for the blackbody dust continuum component of the unresolved 65 pc nucleus and the region at 130 pc SE, while the region at 130 pc NW reveals a colder temperature (200 K). We describe the nuclear spectrum of NGC 3281 using a clumpy torus model that suggests that the nucleus of this galaxy hosts a dusty toroidal structure. According to this model, the ratio between the inner and outer radius of the torus in NGC 3281 is R{sub 0}/R{sub d} = 20, with 14 clouds in the equatorial radius with optical depth of {tau}{sub V} = 40 mag. We would be looking in the direction of the torus equatorial radius (i = 60{sup 0}), which has outer radius of R{sub 0} {approx} 11 pc. The column density is N{sub H} {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} and the iron K{alpha} equivalent width ({approx}0.5-1.2 keV) is used to check the torus geometry. Our findings indicate that the X-ray absorbing column density, which classifies NGC 3281 as a Compton-thick source, may also be responsible for the absorption at 9.7 {mu}m providing strong evidence that the silicate dust responsible for this absorption can be located in the active galactic nucleus torus.

Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Winge, C. [Gemini Observatory, c/o Aura, Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); RodrIguez-Ardila, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica/MCT, Rua dos Estados Unidos 154, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Carciofi, A. C., E-mail: dinalva.aires@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Assess in-depth contributions of selected scenarios to goals across sectors  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in-depth contributions of selected scenarios to goals across sectors in-depth contributions of selected scenarios to goals across sectors Jump to: navigation, search Stage 3c LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities Develop_BAU Stage 4: Prioritizing and Planning for Actions Begin execution of implementation plans 1.0. Organizing the LEDS Process 1.1. Institutional Structure for LEDS 1.2. Workplan to Develop the LEDS 1.3. Roles and responsibilities to develop LEDS 2.1. Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities 2.2. Compile lessons learned and good practices from ongoing and previous sustainable development efforts in the country 2.3. Assess public and private sector capacity to support initiatives 2.4. Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other

379

Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of the Effective Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. BE12.0201

380

[Geothermal system temperature-depth database and model for data analysis]. 5. quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

During this first quarter of the second year of the contract activity has involved several different tasks. The author has continued to work on three tasks most intensively during this quarter: the task of implementing the data base for geothermal system temperature-depth, the maintenance of the WWW site with the heat flow and gradient data base, and finally the development of a modeling capability for analysis of the geothermal system exploration data. The author has completed the task of developing a data base template for geothermal system temperature-depth data that can be used in conjunction with the regional data base that he had already developed and is now implementing it. Progress is described.

Blackwell, D.D.

1998-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60 deg. and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions we define X(mu)max as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of X(mu)max as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

Pierre Auger Collaboration

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

382

Effect of Ion Skin Depth on Relaxation of Merging Spheromaks to a Field-Reversed Configuration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ion skin depth on the relaxation of merging spheromaks to a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is studied experimentally for a wide range of size parameter S* (ratio of minor radius to ion skin depth) from 1 to 7. The two merging spheromaks are observed to relax to an FRC or a new spheromak depending on whether the initial poloidal eigenvalue is smaller or larger than a threshold value. The bifurcation value is found to increase with decreasing size parameter S*, indicating that the low-S* condition provides a wide bifurcated range of relaxation to an FRC. The FRC-style relaxation under the low-S* conditions was accompanied by the suppression of the low-n modes (n is the toroidal mode number) activity. The fast rotations of the modes were followed by suppression of the low-n modes.

Eiichirou Kawamori and Yasushi Ono

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

383

Report on Analysis of Forest Floor Bulk Density and Depth at the Savannah River Site.  

SciTech Connect

The forest floor data from the Savannah River Site consists of two layers, the litter layer and the duff layer. The purpose for the study was to determine bulk density conversion factors to convert litter and duff depth values in inches to forest floor fuel values in tons per acre. The primary objective was to collect litter and duff samples to adequately characterize forest floor depth and bulk density for combinations of 4 common forest types (loblolly/slash pine, longleaf pine, pine and hardwood mix, upland hardwood), 3 age classes (5-20, 20-40, 40+ years old) and 3 categories of burning history (0-3, 3-10, 10+ years since last burn).

Bernard R. Parresol

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Contour Charts of SOFAR Speed and Axis Depth in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sound speeds calculated from the physical properties of sea water as measured at hydrographic stations were used to construct contour charts of SOFAR?speed and SOFAR?axis depth for the Pacific Ocean. Wilson's formula was used for the calculation of speed. Data were averaged for 1° squares plotted and smooth contours were drawn manually. Speeds averaged along great?circle paths are compared with those measured for explosions. The charts show steep gradients along the Antarctic convergence and at the convergence of the Oyashio and Kuroshio extension. The region of highest speed as well as greatest axis depth was that extending eastward from Australia to about the 150°W. The charts are used in a program for calculating source coordinates of earthquakeT phases.

Rockne H. Johnson; Roger A. Norris

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water, and ice conspire with the prevailing environmental conditions 52 to produce macroscopic ice by Henry (2000). The first comprehensive and tractable model 57 for ice lens growth was produced by O1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses 3

Rempel, Alan W.

386

Terahertz Sensor for Non-Contact Thickness and Quality Measurement of Automobile Paints of Varying Complexity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to resolve coating layers down to a thickness of 18 $mu{hbox{m}}$ and was validated for both single- and multi-layer automobile paint samples. Results of the terahertz measurements were benchmarked against other techniques that are currently used for non...

Su, Ke; Shen, Yao-Chun; Zeitler, J. Axel

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

387

Coating application and evaluation for heavy wall thickness, temperature and pressure pipeline  

SciTech Connect

A Venezuelan oil company is developing a project for high pressure gas injection for oil recovery. This project has a compression plant to increase the gas pressure from 1,200 to 9,000 psi. Due to the high gas pressure (9,000 psi) and high temperature (90 C), a carbon steel API 5L-X60 with 2.5 in thickness pipe has been selected. The gas is transported from the compression plant to the injection well. This type of pipeline is unique in the world and in the authors` knowledge no one has applied and evaluated external coating for this combination of heavy wall thickness, pressure and temperature pipeline. Dual fusion bonded epoxy was selected as main coating, combined with high temperature sleeves for the joints. Several parameters were considered in the selection of the coating: high temperature, wall thickness, application condition, heat during the welding process and coating performance in the lab. The large amount of heat accumulated during the application, due to the thick wall, requires a modification of coating application parameters, as well as the cooling condition. The evaluation of the coating was performed with a specially designed test for high temperatures. The laboratory results (impact resistance, degree of curing, cathodic disbonding, adhesion and hot water immersion) indicate that the application condition used was good to obtain a product under specification.

Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Alvarez, E. [Intevep, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Tecnologia de Materiales

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Layer-thickness dependence of cw photoluminescence in single a-Si:H layers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photoluminescence data are presented for ultrathin single layers of a-Si:H deposited on a-SiO2. We observe a nonmonotonic shift of the luminescence peak with layer thickness, indicating that more than one mechanism is operative. Possible sources of the opposing shifts are discussed.

B. A. Wilson; C. M. Taylor; J. P. Harbison

1986-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different ABSTRACT: A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes

390

Is cartilage thickness different in young subjects with and without patellofemoral pain?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Stanford, CA, USA { Rehabilitation R&D Center, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA Summary factor in the development of pain in the female population. ª 2006 OsteoArthritis Research Society in the osteoarthritic population21,24e26 . Cartilage thickness may also play a role in patellofemoral pain because

Delp, Scott

391

Variation in hominoid molar enamel thickness Tanya M. Smith a,*, Anthony J. Olejniczak a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Variation in hominoid molar enamel thickness Tanya M. Smith a,*, Anthony J. Olejniczak a , Lawrence; fax: C49 341 35 50 399. E-mail addresses: tsmith@eva.mpg.de (T.M. Smith), aolejnic@ic.sunysb.edu (A has been commonly assessed as a linear measurement of enamel visible in worn or naturally fractured

Smith, Tanya M.

392

Electrical performance of RTV silicone rubber coating of different thicknesses on porcelain  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of coating thickness of room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber on its electrical performance in salt-fog of 250 {micro}S/cm and 1,000 {micro}S/cm at 0.5 kV{sub rms}/cm is presented. Porcelain rods coated with RTV silicone rubber to a thickness from 0.17 to 0.99 mm were studied. The dependence of current pulse rate and cumulative number of current pulses on coating thickness were determined as a function of time of exposure to combined electric stress and salt-fog. The surface roughness and the total content of low molecular weight (LMW) silicone fluid in the coating were measured before and after the salt-fog test as a function of coating thickness. The effects of heating the RTV in an electric oven on the production and loss of LMW silicone fluid were investigated in order to elucidate the influence of the heat generated by dry band discharges. The loss of weight of RTV at high temperatures (370 C) due to the decomposition of the alumina trihydrate filler into alumina and water was measured and found to be close to the theoretical value.

Deng, H.; Hackam, R. [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL SEA-ICE THICKNESS VARIABILITY IN THE ROSS SEA Beth A. Schellenberg  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

routinely produced weekly ice charts since the 1970's. From the period of 1995 to 2000, classificationINVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL SEA-ICE THICKNESS VARIABILITY IN THE ROSS SEA Beth A. Schellenberg P1.23 1. INTRODUCTION A number of studies suggest a connections between sea-ice variability

Geiger, Cathleen

394

Improvement of radar ice-thickness measurements of Greenland outlet glaciers using SAR processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extensive aircraft-based radar ice-thickness measurements over the interior and outlet-glacier regions of the Greenland ice sheet have been obtained by the University of Kansas since 1993, with the latest airborne surveys conducted in May 2001...

Braaten, David A.; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Namburi, Saikiran; Paden, John; Gurumoorthy, Krishna K.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory July 23, 2013 Abstract Light trapping in solar the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption

California at Irvine, University of

396

Fracture of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Sheet under Through-Thickness Crack Growth Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The failure of thin-wall components such as fuel cladding may be caused by crack initiation on the component surface and subsequent crack growth through its thickness. This study has determined the fracture toughness of hydrided cold-worked stress relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet subject to through-thickness crack growth at 25 deg. C. The experimental approach utilizes a novel procedure in which a narrow linear strip of brittle hydride blister across the specimen width creates a well-defined pre-crack upon initial loading. The subsequent crack growth resistance is then characterized by four-point bending of the specimen and an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. At room temperature, the through-thickness fracture toughness (K{sub Q}) is sensitive to the orientation of the hydride platelets, and K{sub Q} {approx_equal} 25 MPavm for crack growth through a mixed in-plane/out-of-plane hydride field. In contrast, K{sub Q} is much higher ({approx_equal} 75 MPavm) when the hydride platelets are oriented predominantly in the plane of the sheet (and therefore normal to both the crack plane and the crack growth direction). The implication of these fracture toughness values to the fracture strain behavior of hydrided Zircaloy-4 under through-thickness crack growth conditions is illustrated. (authors)

Raynaud, P.A.; Koss, D.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Motta, A.T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females D. Cavanagh, M. Steyn * Forensic Anthropology Research Centre, Department of Anatomy, University of Pretoria, P.O. Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 1. Introduction Forensic facial

Frey, Pascal

398

Multi-mode wavepath depth imaging for the SEG/EAGE salt model  

SciTech Connect

Elastic depth imaging of both P-wave and S-wave prestack seismic reflection data is formulated as a degraded form of Kirchhoff migration known as Wavepath Migration (WM). Applications to the SEG/EAGE salt model show that the method is sufficiently versatile anti relaitively inexpensive. It handles S-wave data with at least the same accuracy as Pwave data when local mode conversions are removed. WM also provides an understanding of multi-mode illumination.

Druzhinin, A. (Alexander); House, L. S. (Leigh S.); Pajchel, J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Damping of magnetic fields via ambipolar diffusion and decay of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in the post decoupling era heats the intergalactic medium (IGM). Collisional ionization weakly ionizes the IGM, producing an optical depth to scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The optical depth generated at $z\\gg 10$ does not affect the "reionization bump" of the CMB polarization power spectrum at low multipoles, but affects the temperature and polarization power spectra at high multipoles. Using the Planck 2013 temperature and lensing data together with the WMAP 9-year polarization data, we constrain the present-day field strength, $B_0$, smoothed over the damping length at the decoupling epoch as a function of the spectral index, $n_B$. We find the 95% upper bounds of $B_0<0.56$, 0.31, and 0.14 nG for $n_B=-2.9$, $-2.5$, and $-1.5$, respectively. For these spectral indices, the optical depth is dominated by dissipation of the decaying MHD turbulence that occurs shortly after the decou...

Kunze, Kerstin E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

TOF-SIMS/MALDI-TOF combination for the molecular weight depth profiling of polymeric bilayer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A polymeric bilayer composed of two poly(styrene) layers differing by their molecular weights (MW) was elaborated to mimic a MW gradient and analyzed by a combination of TOF-SIMS, MALDI-MS and Nanoscratch (NS). A direct TOF-SIMS profiling conducted using a Cs+ ion beam lead to the detection of fragments from carbonated layers without any data about their MW, making the fine bilayer architecture indistinguishable. Spots of various depths were hence created using the same Cs+ ion bombardment for different sputtering times, and further mass-analyzed by the recently developed Surface-Layer MALDI-MS technique, to evaluate the MW of the very top polymeric layer of each crater. The off-line combination of ion etching and LASER analysis allowed a molecular weight depth profile to be plotted, as a function of the physical depth measured by NS in each crater (instead of the usual sputter time). This original coupling is expected to provide useful molecular and/or molecular weight data about complex organic and/or polymeric multi-layers or gradients.

Thierry Fouquet; Grégory Mertz; Nicolas Desbenoit; Gilles Frache; David Ruch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening � What might have caused global warming � Whether global warming

Ford, Andrew

402

Probing the electronic structure of graphene sheets with various thicknesses by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The electronic structure of an aggregation of graphene sheets with various thicknesses was probed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. A uniform oxidation of the graphene sheets in the flat area was observed regardless of the thickness, while in the folded area the result could be strongly affected by the geometry. Moreover, thick parts of the aggregation showed strong angle-dependence to the incident X-ray, while thin parts showed less angle-dependence, which might be related to the surface wrinkles and ripples. The electronic structure differences due to the geometry and thickness suggest a complicated situation in the aggregation of graphene sheets.

Bai, Lili; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn; Zhong, Jun, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

403

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures. Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

404

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures.Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

405

A Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements J. C. Barnard and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Observational studies of shortwave cloud optical thickness, c , play an important role in determining how clouds affect climate. Accordingly, considerable effort has been, and continues to be expended to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of c over the globe. This effort involves satellite and ground-based measurements that infer c from measurements of the reflection or transmission of solar radiation. Transmitted solar radiation forms the basis of several important algorithms designed to calculate c ; these algorithms use either spectral irradiances (Min and Harrison 1996; henceforth referred

406

Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness  

SciTech Connect

Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?°C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Tunneling density of states as a function of thickness in superconductor/ strong ferromagnet bilayers  

SciTech Connect

We have made an experimental study of the tunneling density of states (DOS) in strong ferromagnetic thin films (CoFe) in proximity with a thick superconducting film (Nb) as a function of d{sub F}, the ferromagnetic thickness. Remarkably, we find that as d{sub F} increases, the superconducting DOS exhibits a scaling behavior in which the deviations from the normal-state conductance have a universal shape that decreases exponentially in amplitude with characteristic length d* {approx} 0.4 nm. We do not see oscillations in the DOS as a function of d{sub F}, as expected from predictions based on the Usadel equations, although an oscillation in T{sub c}(d{sub F}) has been seen in the same materials.

Reymond, S.

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

409

Transmission Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements of 238U in Thick Targets  

SciTech Connect

Transmission nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements were made on targets consisting of Pb and depleted U with total areal densities near 86 g/cm2. The 238U content n the targets varied from 0 to 8.5percent (atom fraction). The experiment demonstrates the capability of using transmission measurements as a non-destructive technique to identify and quantify the presence of an isotope in samples with thicknesses comparable to he average thickness of a nuclear fuel assembly. The experimental data also appear to demonstrate the process of notch refilling with a predictable intensity. Comparison of measured spectra to previous backscatter 238U measurements indicates general agreement in observed excited states. Two new 238U excited states and possibly a third state have also been observed.

Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Wilson, Cody; Korbly, Steve

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Ferroelectric polymer-ceramic composite thick films for energy storage applications  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully fabricated large area free standing polyvinylidene fluoride -Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PVDF-PZT) ferroelectric polymer-ceramic composite (wt% 80–20, respectively) thick films with an average diameter (d) ?0.1 meter and thickness (t) ?50 ?m. Inclusion of PZT in PVDF matrix significantly enhanced dielectric constant (from 10 to 25 at 5 kHz) and energy storage capacity (from 11 to 14 J/cm{sup 3}, using polarization loops), respectively, and almost similar leakage current and mechanical strength. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of ? and ? crystalline phases and homogeneous distribution of PZT crystals in PVDF matrix. It was also found that apart from the microcrystals, well defined naturally developed PZT nanocrystals were embedded in PVDF matrix. The observed energy density indicates immense potential in PVDF-PZT composites for possible applications as green energy and power density electronic elements.

Singh, Paritosh; Borkar, Hitesh; Singh, B. P.; Singh, V. N.; Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Evaluation of Cadmium-Free Thick Film Materials on Alumina Substrates  

SciTech Connect

A new cadmium-free material system was successfully evaluated for the fabrication of thick film hybrid microcircuits at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The characterization involved screen printing, drying and firing two groups of resistor networks which were made using the current material system and the cadmium-free material system. Electrical, environmental and adhesion tests were performed on both groups to determine the more suitable material system. Additionally, untrimmed test coupons were evaluated to further characterize the new materials. The cadmiumfree material system did as well or better than the current material system. Therefore, the new cadmium-free material system was approved for use on production thick film product.

L. H. Perdieu

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

High?frequency imaging of thickness degradation in steel containment vessels and liners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An area of concern in some nuclear power plants is thickness degradation of embedded steel containments just below the interface where the steel enters concrete. This is an area which cannot be examined by traditional UT testing due to the inaccessibility imposed by the concrete. In this numerical feasibility study high?frequency vibrational sources placed above the interface are used to excite elastic waves in the steel which propagate into the embedded area. The waves that reflect and scatter from the surface roughness caused by thickness degradation are detected and used to determine and map the degradation of the steel. A range?dependent stratified layer wave?number integration based numerical model (OASES) is used to calculate the field in the scenario. Decomposition of the field into longitudinal shear and surface waves is used to determine the optimal transducer orientations for transmit and receive. [Work supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Commision.

Joseph E. Bondaryk

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Infrared Imaging of the Nanometer-Thick Accumulation Layer in Organic Field-Effect Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on infrared (IR) spectro-microscopy of the electronic excitations in nanometer-thick accumulation layers in FET devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene). IR data allows us to explore the charge injection landscape and uncovers the critical role of the gate insulator in defining relevant length scales. This work demonstrates the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for the investigation of physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices.

Z. Q. Li; G. M. Wang; N. Sai; D. Moses; M. C. Martin; M. Di Ventra; A. J. Heeger; D. N. Basov

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

414

Thickness measurement of aluminum, titanium, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films by x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has received a great deal of attention in the last few years as a quantitative means of determining both the stoichiometry and thickness of many different kinds of films. Examples include Ag and Cu films on mica substrates, Sn-Pb alloys on steel substrates, Al-Ti multilayers on Cu substrates and oxide films on silicon substrates. In XRF the sample is irradiated with x-rays which in turn cause x-rays to be given off by the sample. These x-rays that are given off by the sample can then be analyzed both for energy and intensity. The energy of the x-rays is characteristic of the elemental makeup of the sample and the intensity of the x-rays is dependent on how much of the particular element is present. The intensity then can be related to the thickness of a film if the stoichiometry of the film can be assumed constant. With the increased interest in silicides and more recently, the self-aligned silicide (salicide) process (8-10) for VLSI applications, in-line process monitoring of silicide film thickness has become important to integrated circuit manufacturing. In this study, the number of x-ray photons given of by Al, Ti, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films on silicon-based substrates was quantified so that a film thickness for an unknown sample could then be determined easily. In addition, XRF is a more accurate technique, limited principally by the accuracy technique, limited principally by the accuracy of the reference used and the amount of time the x-ray photons are counted.

Ernst, S.; Lee, C.O.; Lee, J.J. (Motorola, Inc., Advanced Products Research and Development Lab., Austin, TX (US))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Migration error in transversely isotropic media with linear velocity variation in depth  

SciTech Connect

Given the sensitivity of imaging accuracy to the velocity used in migration, migration founded (as in practice) on the erroneous assumption that a medium is isotropic can be expected to be inaccurate for steep reflectors. Here, we estimate errors in interpreted reflection time and lateral position as a function of reflector dip for transversely isotropic models in which the axis of symmetry is vertical and the medium velocity varies linearly with depth. We limit consideration to media in which ratios of the various elastic moduli are independent of depth. Tests with reflector dips up to 120 degrees on a variety of anisotropic media show errors that axe tens of wavelengths for dips beyond 90 degrees when the medium (unrealistically) is homogeneous. For a given anisotropy, the errors are smaller for inhomogeneous media; the larger the velocity gradient, the smaller the errors. For gradients that are representative of the subsurface, lateral-position errors tend to be minor for dips less than about 60 degrees, growing to two to five wavelengths as dip passes beyond 90 degrees. These errors depend on reflector depth and average velocity to the reflector only through their ratio, i.e., migrated reflection time. Migration error, which is found to be unrelated to the ratio of horizontal to vertical velocity, is such that reflections with later migrated reflection times tend to be more severely over-migrated than are those with earlier ones. Over a large range of dips, migration errors that arise when anisotropy is ignored but inhomogeneity is honored tend to be considerably smaller than those encountered when inhomogeneity is ignored in migrating data from isotropic, inhomogeneous media.

Larner, K.; Cohen, J.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Migration error in transversely isotropic media with linear velocity variation in depth  

SciTech Connect

Given the sensitivity of imaging accuracy to the velocity used in migration, migration founded (as in practice) on the erroneous assumption that a medium is isotropic can be expected to be inaccurate for steep reflectors. Here, we estimate errors in interpreted reflection time and lateral position as a function of reflector dip for transversely isotropic models in which the axis of symmetry is vertical and the medium velocity varies linearly with depth. We limit consideration to media in which ratios of the various elastic moduli are independent of depth. Tests with reflector dips up to 120 degrees on a variety of anisotropic media show errors that axe tens of wavelengths for dips beyond 90 degrees when the medium (unrealistically) is homogeneous. For a given anisotropy, the errors are smaller for inhomogeneous media; the larger the velocity gradient, the smaller the errors. For gradients that are representative of the subsurface, lateral-position errors tend to be minor for dips less than about 60 degrees, growing to two to five wavelengths as dip passes beyond 90 degrees. These errors depend on reflector depth and average velocity to the reflector only through their ratio, i.e., migrated reflection time. Migration error, which is found to be unrelated to the ratio of horizontal to vertical velocity, is such that reflections with later migrated reflection times tend to be more severely over-migrated than are those with earlier ones. Over a large range of dips, migration errors that arise when anisotropy is ignored but inhomogeneity is honored tend to be considerably smaller than those encountered when inhomogeneity is ignored in migrating data from isotropic, inhomogeneous media.

Larner, K.; Cohen, J.K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Depth of Interaction Enhanced Gamma-Ray Imaging for Medical Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel design for an inexpensive depth of interaction capable detector for gamma rays, suitable for nuclear medical applications, especially Positron Emission Tomography, has been developed. The design takes advantage of the strong correlation between the width of the scintillation light distribution in continuous crystals and the depth of interaction of the gamma-ray. For measuring the distribution width, an inexpensive modification of the commonly used charge dividing circuits that allows analogue and instantaneous computation of the 2nd moment has been developed and is presented in this work. The method has been tested with a detector made of a continuous LSO-scintillator of dimensions 42x42x10 cubic mm and optically coupled to the compact large area position sensitive photomultiplier H8500 from Hamamatsu. The mean resolution in all non-trivial moments was found to be smaller than 5% but their direct use as estimates for the three-dimensional photoconversion position turned out to be unsuitable. Standard polynomial interpolation in higher dimensions has been adopted to reconstruct the impact positions of the gamma-rays from the measured moments. When using the reconstructed impact positions, the intrinsic mean spatial resolution of the detector was found to be 1.9 mm for the transverse components and 3.9 mm for the depth of interaction. Using directly the bare moments as position estimate, the intrinsic mean spatial resolution of the detector was found to be 3.4 mm and 4.9 mm, respectively. The cost for the required detector improvements are essentially negligible.

Christoph W. Lerche

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Hardness measurements of Ar[sup +]-beam treated polyimide by depth-sensing ultra low load indentation  

SciTech Connect

Polyimide Kapton and spin-cast polyamic acid (PAA) on sapphire have been implanted with 1 MeV Ar ions to a dose of 4.7[times]10[sup 15] cm[sup [minus]2] at ambient temperature. The properties of both pristine and implanted surfaces were characterized by a depth-sensing low-load indentation technique. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of substrate, indentation rate, relaxation, and indentation technique. The results showed that (1) hardness was depth-dependent and decreased with increasing indentation depth, (2) measurements of the ion beam hardened surface with the untreated material as a substrate underestimated the hardness while measurements over the sapphire substrate overestimated it, (3) the effects of loading/unloading rates were apparent in the load displacement results, and (4) hardness values measured using the force modulation technique showed very little depth dependence. The hardness value at 100 nm depth is used for comparison purposes since the hardness value at this depth was almost independent of substrate, indentation rate, and indentation method. The hardness of Kapton, which was measured using the techniques described herein, was increased by over 30 times after Ar implantation, from 0.43 to 13 GPa at 100 nm indentation depth. A similar increase in hardness was also observed for polyamic acid. This result suggests that spin-cast PAA film may have potential technological applications for protective coatings where hardness and wear resistance are required.

Lee, E.H.; Lee, Y.; Oliver, W.C.; Mansur, L.K. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Barium even-to-odd isotope abundance ratios in thick disk and thin disk stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the Ba even-to-odd isotope abundance ratios in 25 cool dwarf stars with the metallicity [Fe/H] ranged between 0.25 and --1.35. Our method takes advantage of the hyperfine structure (HFS) affecting the \\ion{Ba}{ii} resonance line of the odd isotopes. The fractional abundance of the odd isotopes of Ba is derived from a requirement that Ba abundances from the resonance line $\\lambda 4554$ and subordinate lines $\\lambda 5853$ and $\\lambda 6496$ must be equal. The results are based on NLTE line formation and analysis of high resolution (R $\\sim60000$) high signal-to-noise (S/N $\\ge 200$) observed spectra. We find that the fraction of the odd isotopes of Ba grows toward the lower Ba abundance (or metallicity) and the mean value in the thick disk stars equals 33 $\\pm$ 4%. This indicates the higher contribution of the $r-$process to barium in the thick disk stars compared to the solar system matter. The obtained fraction increases with the [Eu/Ba] abundance ratio growth in agreement with expectations. A significant fraction of the \\emph{even} isotopes of Ba found in old Galactic stars (the thick disk stars), $\\sim67$%, is in contrast to the prediction of the "classical" model of the $s-$process and favors the value predicted by the "stellar" models of Arlandini et al. (1999) and Travaglio et al. (1999).

L. Mashonkina; G. Zhao

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

420

A reliable control system for measurement on film thickness in copper chemical mechanical planarization system  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, a variety of film thickness measurement techniques for copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) are subsequently proposed. In this paper, the eddy-current technique is used. In the control system of the CMP tool developed in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, there are in situ module and off-line module for measurement subsystem. The in situ module can get the thickness of copper film on wafer surface in real time, and accurately judge when the CMP process should stop. This is called end-point detection. The off-line module is used for multi-points measurement after CMP process, in order to know the thickness of remained copper film. The whole control system is structured with two levels, and the physical connection between the upper and the lower is achieved by the industrial Ethernet. The process flow includes calibration and measurement, and there are different algorithms for two modules. In the process of software development, C++ is chosen as the programming language, in combination with Qt OpenSource to design two modules’ GUI and OPC technology to implement the communication between the two levels. In addition, the drawing function is developed relying on Matlab, enriching the software functions of the off-line module. The result shows that the control system is running stably after repeated tests and practical operations for a long time.

Li, Hongkai; Qu, Zilian; Zhao, Qian; Tian, Fangxin; Zhao, Dewen; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Analysis Procedures for Double-Shell Target Concentricity and Wall Thickness  

SciTech Connect

The LLNL Target Fabrication Team (TFT) asked the Center for Non-Destructive Characterization (CNDC) to use CNDC's KCAT or Xradia's Micro computed tomography (CT) system to collect three-dimensional (3D) tomographic data of a set of double-shell targets and determine, among other items, the following: (1) the concentricity of the outer surface of the inner shell with respect to the inner surface of the outer shell with an accuracy of 1-2 micrometers, and (2) the wall thickness uniformity of the outer shell with an accuracy of 1-2 micrometers. The CNDC used Xradia's Micro CT system to collect the data. Bill Brown performed the concentricity analysis, and John Sain performed the wall thickness uniformity analysis. Harry Martz provided theoretical guidance, and Dan Schneberk contributed technical (software) support. This document outlines the analysis procedures used in each case. The double-shell targets, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, consist of an inner shell (or capsule), a two-piece spherical aerogel intermediary shell, and a two-piece spherical outer shell. The three elements are designed and fabricated to be concentric--with the aerogel shell acting as a spacer between the inner shell and outer shell--with no to minimum air gaps in the final assembly. The outer diameters of the aerogel and outer shells are 444 and 550 micrometers, respectively, so the wall thickness of the outer shell is 53 micrometers.

Sain, J D; Brown, W D; Martz, H E; Schneberk, D J

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

423

Interpretation of the depths of maximum of extensive air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

To interpret the mean depth of cosmic ray air shower maximum and its dispersion, we parametrize those two observables as functions of the first two moments of the ln A distribution. We examine the goodness of this simple method through simulations of test mass distributions. The application of the parameterization to Pierre Auger Observatory data allows one to study the energy dependence of the mean ln A and of its variance under the assumption of selected hadronic interaction models. We discuss possible implications of these dependences in term of interaction models and astrophysical cosmic ray sources.

Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Smoluchowski Coagulation Models Of Sea Ice Thickness1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and insulating properties. Inclusion of a dynamic sea-ice component in General25 Circulation Models (GCMs Of Sea Ice Thickness1 Distribution Dynamics2 D. Godlovitch,1 R. Illner,2 and A. Monahan,1 D. Godlovitch ICE Abstract. Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential de-3 crease

Illner, Reinhard

425

Thickness monitoring of graphene on SiC using low-energy electron diffraction P. J. Fisher  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Thickness monitoring of graphene on SiC using low-energy electron diffraction P. J. Fisher IBM T of epitaxial graphene on SiC is monitored in-situ using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The possibility of using LEED as an in-situ thickness monitor of the graphene is examined. The ratio of primary diffraction

Feenstra, Randall

426

Electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices controlled by the thickness of paraelectric layer in a wide temperature range  

SciTech Connect

As functions of the paraelectric layer thickness, misfit strain and temperature, the electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices are investigated using a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau thermodynamic model. Ferroelectric phase transition driven by the relative thickness of the superlattice is found to dramatically impact the electrocaloric response. Near the phase transition temperature, the magnitude of the electrocaloric effect is maximized and shifted to lower temperatures by increasing the relative thickness of paraelectric layer. Theoretical calculations also imply that the electrocaloric effect of the superlattices depends not only on the relative thickness of paraelectric layer but also on misfit strain. Furthermore, control of the relative thickness of paraelectric layer and the misfit strain can change availably both the magnitude and the temperature sensitivity of the electrocaloric effect, which suggests that ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices may be promising candidates for use in cooling devices in a wide temperature range.

Ma, D. C.; Lin, S. P. [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, W. J.; Zheng, Yue, E-mail: zhengy35@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Xiong, W. M. [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Biao, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Effect of the thickness and hydrogen treatment on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined effects of the thickness and hydrogen post-annealing treatment on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were investigated as a potential substitute for indium tin oxide transparent conductive oxide. In the as-deposited films, microstructural evolution initially improved the crystallinity up to the thickness of 160 nm accompanying enhanced electrical and optical properties, but further thickness increase resulted in the deterioration of these properties attributable to the development of ZnGa2O4 and Ga2O3 phases originating from the excessive amount of the Ga dopant. Post-annealing treatment of the GZO films in a hydrogen atmosphere improved the electrical and optical properties substantially through possible reduction of the oxide phases and passivation of the surfaces and grain boundaries. In this case, electrical and optical properties remained almost similar for the thickness above 160 nm indicating that there exists a certain optimal film thickness.

Min-Jung Lee; Jinhyong Lim; Jungsik Bang; Woong Lee; Jae-Min Myoung

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Test plan for evaluating the operational performance of the prototype nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler  

SciTech Connect

The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by a privatization contractor from two double-shell feed tanks, 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume, representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. A plan has been developed for the cold testing of this nested, fixed-depth sampling system with simulant materials. The sampling system will fill the 500-ml bottles and provide inner packaging to interface with the Hanford Sites cask shipping systems (PAS-1 and/or ''safe-send''). The sampling system will provide a waste stream that will be used for on-line, real-time measurements with an at-tank analysis system. The cold tests evaluate the performance and ability to provide samples that are representative of the tanks' content within a 95 percent confidence interval, to sample while mixing pumps are operating, to provide large sample volumes (1-15 liters) within a short time interval, to sample supernatant wastes with over 25 wt% solids content, to recover from precipitation- and settling-based plugging, and the potential to operate over the 20-year expected time span of the privatization contract.

REICH, F.R.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

429

Dip-moveout error in transversely isotropic media with linear velocity variation in depth  

SciTech Connect

Levin modeled the moveout, within common-mid-point (CMP) gathers, of reflection from plane-dipping reflectors beneath homogeneous, transversely isotropic media. For some media, when the axis of symmetry for the anisotropy was vertical, the author found departures in stacking velocity from predictions based upon the familiar cosine-of-dip correction for isotropic media. Here, the author does similar tests, again with transversely isotropic models with vertical axis of symmetry, but now allowing the medium velocity of vary linearly with depth. Results for the same four anisotropic media studied by Levin show behavior of dip-corrected stacking velocity with reflector dip that, for all velocity gradients considered, differs little from that for the counterpart homogeneous media. As with isotropic media, travel times in an inhomogeneous, transversely isotropic medium can be modeled adequately with a homogeneous model with vertical velocity equal to the vertical rms velocity of the inhomogeneous medium. In practice, dip-moveout (DMO) is based on the assumption that either the medium is homogeneous or its velocity varies with depth, but in both cases isotropy is assumed. It turns out that for only one of the traversely isotropic media considered here--shale-limestone--would v(z) DMO fail to give an adequate correction within CMP gathers. For the shale-limestone, fortuitously the constant-velocity DMO gives a better moveout correction than does the v(z) DMO.

Larner, K.L. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geophysics)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Dip-moveout error in transversely isotropic media with linear velocity variation in depth  

SciTech Connect

Levin (1990) modeled the moveout, within Common-midpoint (CMP) gathers, of reflections from plane-dipping reflectors beneath homogeneous, transversely isotropic media. For some media, when the axis of symmetry for the anisotropy was vertical, he found departures in stacking velocity from predictions based upon the familiar cosine-of-dip correction for isotropic media. Here, I do similar tests, again with transversely isotropic models with vertical axis of symmetry, but now allowing the medium velocity to vary linearly with depth. Results for the same four anisotropic media studied by Levin show behavior of dip-corrected stacking velocity with reflector dip that, for all velocity gradients considered, differs little from that for the counterpart homogeneous media. As with isotropic media, traveltimes in an inhomogeneous, transversely isotropic medium can be modeled adequately with a homogeneous model with vertical velocity equal to the vertical rms velocity of the inhomogeneous medium. In practice, dip-moveout (DMO) is based on the assumption that either the medium is homogeneous or its velocity varies with depth, but in both cases isotropy is assumed. It turns out that for only one of the transversely isotropic media considered here --shale-limestone -- would v(z) DMO fail to give an adequate correction within CMP gathers. For the shale-limestone, fortuitously the constant-velocity DMO gives a better moveout correction than does the v(z) DMO.

Larner, K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Dip-moveout error in transversely isotropic media with linear velocity variation in depth  

SciTech Connect

Levin (1990) modeled the moveout, within Common-midpoint (CMP) gathers, of reflections from plane-dipping reflectors beneath homogeneous, transversely isotropic media. For some media, when the axis of symmetry for the anisotropy was vertical, he found departures in stacking velocity from predictions based upon the familiar cosine-of-dip correction for isotropic media. Here, I do similar tests, again with transversely isotropic models with vertical axis of symmetry, but now allowing the medium velocity to vary linearly with depth. Results for the same four anisotropic media studied by Levin show behavior of dip-corrected stacking velocity with reflector dip that, for all velocity gradients considered, differs little from that for the counterpart homogeneous media. As with isotropic media, traveltimes in an inhomogeneous, transversely isotropic medium can be modeled adequately with a homogeneous model with vertical velocity equal to the vertical rms velocity of the inhomogeneous medium. In practice, dip-moveout (DMO) is based on the assumption that either the medium is homogeneous or its velocity varies with depth, but in both cases isotropy is assumed. It turns out that for only one of the transversely isotropic media considered here --shale-limestone -- would v(z) DMO fail to give an adequate correction within CMP gathers. For the shale-limestone, fortuitously the constant-velocity DMO gives a better moveout correction than does the v(z) DMO.

Larner, K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

An in-depth longitudinal analysis of mixing patterns in a small scientific collaboration network  

SciTech Connect

Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on large-scale statistical analyses of networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a small-scale network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research center involved in the development and application of sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortativity mixing of these node characteristics: academic department, affiliation, position, and country of origin of the individuals in the network. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration.

Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pepe, Alberto [UCLA

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Offshore oil: Investigating production parameters of fields of varying size, location and water depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper derives empirical estimates of field depletion level, depletion rate, decline rate and characteristic time intervals in offshore oil production based on a global field-by-field database containing 603 offshore oil fields. Statistical distributions as well as arithmetic and weighted averages of production parameters are derived for different categories of fields specified by size, location and water depth. A significant tendency of small fields having higher depletion and decline rates is found. Similarly, OECD countries generally have higher rates compared to non-OECD countries. Trends related to water depth are not clearly distinguishable and require additional investigation of time related aspects. Resulting spreads in derived parameter estimates are found to be well described by positively skewed probability distributions. Also, in line with theory, a strong correlation between depletion and decline rate is found. According to the study, the net share of global offshore production from smaller and deeper fields is increasing. A continuation of these trends would likely have implications for future aggregate offshore production behaviour, most notably, increasing global aggregate decline rates.

David Sällh; Henrik Wachtmeister; Xu Tang; Mikael Höök

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Linda Suttora*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Andrew Wallo, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted an integrated protection system for the safety of radioactive waste disposal similar to the concept of a safety case that is used internationally. This approach has evolved and been continuously improved as a result of many years of experience managing low-level waste (LLW) and mixed LLW from on-going operations, decommissioning and environmental restoration activities at 29 sites around the United States. The integrated protection system is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking into account the combination of natural and engineered barriers, performance objectives, long-term risk assessments, maintenance of those assessments based on the most recent information to ascertain continued compliance, site-specific waste acceptance criteria based on the risk assessment and a commitment to continuous improvement. There is also a strong component of stakeholder involvement. The integrated protection system approach will be discussed to demonstrate the commitment to safety for US DOE disposal.

435

Free-surface hydrodynamics of a submerged prolate spheroid in finite water depth based on the method of multipole expansions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......particular, we employ the following fundamental relation that expresses any exterior...Also, it appears that the water depth does not affect considerably the degree needed...M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover Publications......

Ioannis K. Chatjigeorgiou; Touvia Miloh

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The relationship between induction case depth and load power for high frequency, high load power and short heating time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relationship between induction case depth and load power is derived. Excellent agreement is obtained between ... calculated from the derived equation and the experimental data obtained for a constant heating ...

W. T. Shieh

1972-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Bi 3 + cluster primary ions in SIMS depth profiling of YBaCuO high-temperature superconductor films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SIMS depth profiling of YBa2Cu3O7 high-temperature superconductor films was performed using a TOF.SIMS-...2Cu3O7 films based on detection of cluster secondary ions.

M. N. Drozdov; Yu. N. Drozdov…

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Source Parameters for Moderate Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains with Implications for the Depth Extent of Seismicity  

SciTech Connect

Six earthquakes within the Zagros Mountains with magnitudes between 4.9 and 5.7 have been studied to determine their source parameters. These events were selected for study because they were reported in open catalogs to have lower crustal or upper mantle source depths and because they occurred within an area of the Zagros Mountains where crustal velocity structure has been constrained by previous studies. Moment tensor inversion of regional broadband waveforms have been combined with forward modeling of depth phases on short period teleseismic waveforms to constrain source depths and moment tensors. Our results show that all six events nucleated within the upper crust (<11 km depth) and have thrust mechanisms. This finding supports other studies that call into question the existence of lower crustal or mantle events beneath the Zagros Mountains.

Adams, A; Brazier, R; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

439

A New Algorithm for Finding Mixed Layer Depths with Applications to Argo Data and Subantarctic Mode Water Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new hybrid method for finding the mixed layer depth (MLD) of individual ocean profiles models the general shape of each profile, searches for physical features in the profile, and calculates threshold and gradient MLDs to assemble a suite of ...

James Holte; Lynne Talley

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Well Log Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Well Log Techniques Well Log Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (1) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Downhole Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: depth and thickness of formations; lithology and porosity can be inferred Stratigraphic/Structural: reservoir thickness, reservoir geometry, borehole geometry Hydrological: permeability and fluid composition can be inferred Thermal: direct temperature measurements; thermal conductivity and heat capacity Dictionary.png Well Log Techniques: Well logging is the measurement of formation properties versus depth in a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 {plus_minus} 8.8 (SD) plants/m{sup 2}. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots.

Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Transient Phenomena and Impurity Relocation in SIMS Depth Profiling using Oxygen Bombardment: Pursuing the Physics to Interpret the Data [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Transient Phenomena and Impurity Relocation in SIMS Depth Profiling using Oxygen Bombardment: Pursuing the Physics...analysis or depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can only be achieved, for positively charged ions, if the...

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

Nguyen, Ba-Son [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Fin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Perng, Dung-Ching, E-mail: dcperng@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering Department, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

444

Improved Teapot Method and Tracking with Thick Quadrupoles for the LHC and its Upgrade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The comparison between tracking with thick and thin lens models for the LHC has been studied. A widely-used method to generate thin models is based on the TEAPOT slicing, which, in the original implementation, was limited to a maximum of four slices. In this paper, an improved method is presented, which overcomes the limitation in the number of slices of the original TEAPOT. The performance is analysed and the impact on numerical simulation of the dynamic aperture is evaluated, both for the LHC and its upgrade, HL-LHC.

Burkhardt, H; Giovannozzi, M; Risselada, T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the Huron and Chagrin members of the Ohio shale  

SciTech Connect

The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit.

Majchszak, F.L.; Honeycutt, M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric function, band gap, and exciton binding energies of ultrathin ZnO films as a function of film thickness have been obtained with spectroscopic ellipsometry. As the film thickness decreases, both real (?{sub 1}) and imaginary (?{sub 2}) parts of the dielectric function decrease significantly, and ?{sub 2} shows a blue shift. The film thickness dependence of the dielectric function is shown related to the changes in the interband absorption, discrete-exciton absorption, and continuum-exciton absorption, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect on both the band gap and exciton binding energies.

Li, X. D.; Chen, T. P., E-mail: echentp@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Z. [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Leong, K. C. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte Ltd, 738406 Singapore (Singapore)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

A statistical study of the depth of precipitable water in western Texas and eastern New Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the followi ig pages follow the style of the Journal of AppLied Meteomologi. . . 1. 5 MEAN PRECIPITATION MEAN PRECIPITABLE WATER N IJI I. O Z / / 0. 0 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D FIG. I. PRECIPITABLE WATER AND PRECIPITA- TION VS Tl ME OF YEA R ( EL.... 2 14 1. 6 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 500 RETURN PERIOD T (YEARS) FIG. 4. A PLOT OF DEPTH OF PRECITI TABLE WATER vs RETURN PERIOD FOR EL PASO, TEXAS. 39 where n a =? x (?) and Y n X =X-o f x o n (32) The theoretical...

Baker, Samuel Erick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

448

Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

A system for combined three-dimensional morphological and molecular analysis of thick tissue specimens  

SciTech Connect

We present a new system for simultaneous morphological and molecular analysis of thick tissue samples. The system is composed of a computer assisted microscope and a JAVA-based image display, analysis and visualization program that allows acquisition, annotation, meaningful storage, three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of structures of interest in thick sectioned tissue specimens. We describe the system in detail and illustrate its use by imaging, reconstructing and analyzing two complete tissue blocks which were differently processed and stained. One block was obtained from a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lumpectomy specimen and stained alternatively with Hematoxilyn and Eosin (H&E), and with a counterstain and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the ERB-B2 gene. The second block contained a fully sectioned mammary gland of a mouse, stained for Histology with H&E. We show how the system greatly reduces the amount of interaction required for the acquisition and analysis and is therefore suitable for studies that require morphologically driven, wide scale (e.g., whole gland) analysis of complex tissue samples or cultures.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Jones, Arthur; Garcia-Rodriguez, Enrique; Yuan Chen, Ping; Idica, Adam; Lockett, Stephen J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

2002-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

450

The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements  

SciTech Connect

The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV {le} E{sub {alpha}} {le} 10 MeV. The {gamma}-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the {alpha}-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the {alpha}-induced direct production {gamma}-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

Heaton, R.K. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Comparisons on thin and thick neutron target for low energy proton beam  

SciTech Connect

As the progress on accelerator physics and neutronics, the compact neutron sources driven by low energy and high intensity beam are becoming extensively developed and researched all around the world. The neutron target of an accelerator driven neutron source is one of the key components, and the stability of the neutron target affect the operation and performance of the neutron facility. When a low energy proton is projected to the beryllium target, the main reaction is the inelastic scattering between the proton and extra-nuclear electrons. As the decreasing of proton energy, the rate of elastic scattering between proton and target nucleus begins to increase. When the energy of proton is very low, the pickup charge reaction begins to appear. Focus on the problems brought by high intensity proton beam such as proton implantation, radiation damages, heat deposition and gas production, we performed sufficient numerical simulations for both thin and thick target determined by proton range. The results show that the critical problem for thick target is the proton implantation, causing the forming of bubbles and beryllium flaked in vacuum. The thin target sacrifices a little neutron yield, but avoid the proton stopped in target, and decrease the radiation damage and energy deposition. (authors)

Zhong, B.; Yu, G.; Wang, X.; Wang, K. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Remotely sensing the thickness of the Bushveld Complex UG2 platinum reef using borehole radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The planar, 80 cm thick, lossy dielectric reefs of the Bushveld are embedded in rocks that are almost transparent at ground penetrating radar frequencies of 10–125 MHz. Pothole sensing practices are based largely on using borehole radars to observe departures of the reefs from planarity. Surveys are run in ~200 m near-horizontal boreholes that are drilled into the footwalls of the reef. Careful laboratory measurements of the Jonscher dielectric parameters of the stratigraphic column through the UG2 reef are translated by electro-dynamic modelling into a prediction that platinum reef thinning can be sensed remotely by footwall borehole radars. This proposition sheds light on the results of a recent borehole radar survey that was shot in ~180 m long AXT (48 mm diameter) boreholes. Areas of sub-economical UG2 thickness (typically less than ~50 cm) were mapped by studying the relative amplitudes of echoes from the reef and a pyroxenite–anorthosite interface in its hanging wall, with the radar deployed beneath the UG2 in its footwall.

C M Simmat; P Le R Herselman; M Rütschlin; I M Mason; J H Cloete

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

C. Edwards; S. Dixon; A. Widdowson; S. B. Palmer

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A  

SciTech Connect

Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Thickness Dependence of Oxygen Reduction Reaction Kinetics on Strontium-Substituted Lanthanum Manganese Perovskite Thin-Film Microelectrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics was investigated on dense La?.?Sr?.?MnO? microelectrodes as a function of temperature and microelectrode thickness using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface oxygen ...

la O’, G. J.

456

High-precision green densities of thick films and their correlation with powder, ink, and film properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A precise geometrical method employing optical profilometry for green density measurements of thick films is presented that provides a typical reproducibility of 0.1–0.2% theoretical density (TD) and a measurement uncertainty of 0.2–0.4% TD for layer thicknesses of around 50 ?m. The procedure can be applied for all thick films with a dried thickness of 10 ?m or greater. In a case study, the green densities of screen-printed zirconia layers were investigated as a function of the starting powders (grain sizes from 0.1 to 0.4 ?m), the solid content, the chain length of ethyl cellulose as binder and its concentration, and two different dispersants and their concentration. Rheological ink properties, surface roughness, drying stresses from deflection measurements, the mechanical properties of green films, and the equivalent compaction pressure were measured and correlated with the green density data. Compressive binder forces and lubrication effects dominated the packing of the particles.

R. Mücke; O. Büchler; N.H. Menzler; B. Lindl; R. Vaßen; H.P. Buchkremer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

A new sensor concept for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and thickness of plate structures using modified wave propagation theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Acousto Photonic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TAP-NDE) is employed to remotely initiate and acquire interrogating ultrasonic waves. Parameters including pressure, temperature and plate thickness are determined through exploring the dispersion features...

Lo, Tzu-Wei

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Mechanism of Thickness Dependence of Critical Current Density in HTS YBaCuO7-x Film and Its Elimination Using Nano-Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

current carrying capability is jeopardized by a mysterious thickness dependence of the critical current density (Jc) --- Jc monotonically decreases with increasing thickness (t) at 77 K and self-field (SF). This poses a great challenge for both HTS...

Wang, Xiang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

"Defense-in-Depth" Laser Safety and the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the largest and most energetic laser in the world contained in a complex the size of a football stadium. From the initial laser pulse, provided by telecommunication style infrared nanoJoule pulsed lasers, to the final 192 laser beams (1.8 Mega Joules total energy in the ultraviolet) converging on a target the size of a pencil eraser, laser safety is of paramount concern. In addition to this, there are numerous high-powered (Class 3B and 4) diagnostic lasers in use that can potentially send their laser radiation travelling throughout the facility. With individual beam paths of up to 1500 meters and a workforce of more than one thousand, the potential for exposure is significant. Simple laser safety practices utilized in typical laser labs just don't apply. To mitigate these hazards, NIF incorporates a multi layered approach to laser safety or 'Defense in Depth.' Most typical high-powered laser operations are contained and controlled within a single room using relatively simplistic controls to protect both the worker and the public. Laser workers are trained, use a standard operating procedure, and are required to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as Laser Protective Eyewear (LPE) if the system is not fully enclosed. Non-workers are protected by means of posting the room with a warning sign and a flashing light. In the best of cases, a Safety Interlock System (SIS) will be employed which will 'safe' the laser in the case of unauthorized access. This type of laser operation is relatively easy to employ and manage. As the operation becomes more complex, higher levels of control are required to ensure personnel safety. Examples requiring enhanced controls are outdoor and multi-room laser operations. At the NIF there are 192 beam lines and numerous other Class 4 diagnostic lasers that can potentially deliver their hazardous energy to locations far from the laser source. This presents a serious and complex potential hazard to personnel. Because of this, a multilayered approach to safety is taken. This paper presents the philosophy and approach taken at the NIF in the multi-layered 'defense-in-depth' approach to laser safety.

King, J J

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

460

Building America Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies: Part II, New Construction- August 13, 2014- Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Rigid Insulation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, Cladding Attachment Over Thick Rigid Exterior Insulation, was delivered at the Building America webinar on August 13, 2014.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth thickness porosity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Variations in K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange depth in commercial and experimental float glass compositions  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the results of ion-exchange experiments conducted on 17 commercial soda-lime-silicate (SLS) float glass and 8 experimental SLS glass compositions. A significant variation in the depth of K{sup +} penetration with relatively small changes in composition was observed. The data were fit to a multiple regression model in which the major oxides are the independent variables and depth of K{sup +} is the dependent variable. The model indicates that increased depth of exchange (increased interdiffusion coefficient) correlates predominantly with increased K{sub 2}O and/or Na{sub 2}O content of the glass, with a decreased total alkaline earth content and with the ratio of CaO/MgO.

Sinton, C.W.; LaCourse, W.C.; O'Connell, M.J.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Numerical Simulations of Optically Thick Accretion onto a Black Hole - II. Rotating Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we report on recent upgrades to our general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics code, Cosmos++, including the development of a new primitive inversion scheme and a hybrid implicit-explicit solver with a more general closure relation for the radiation equations. The new hybrid solver helps stabilize the treatment of the radiation source terms, while the new closure allows for a much broader range of optical depths to be considered. These changes allow us to expand by orders of magnitude the range of temperatures, opacities, and mass accretion rates, and move a step closer toward our goal of performing global simulations of radiation-pressure-dominated black hole accretion disks. In this work we test and validate the new method against an array of problems. We also demonstrate its ability to handle super-Eddington, quasi-spherical accretion. Even with just a single proof-of-principle simulation, we already see tantalizing hints of the interesting phenomenology associated with the coupling ...

Fragile, P Chris; Anninos, Peter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Wavelength- and thickness-independent optical coatings for integrated circuit metallization layers  

SciTech Connect

Detailed measurements have been made of the optical properties of sputtered tantalum silicide films on aluminum layers used in integrated circuit fabrication. This new multicomponent conductor (TaSi/sub x/ on aluminum), which is currently in use because of its exceptional electrical, physical, and chemical properties, was also found to have superior optical properties compared to aluminum alone. The addition of the thin silicide layers reduces both the total hemispherical and diffuse reflectance properties by up to 45% over the 265--800-nm wavelength range with almost no dependence on film thickness. Unlike other optical coatings used on metal layers in integrated circuit manufacturing, the silicide films do not need to be removed after photolithography and pattern transfer processes are completed: aluminum wire bonding from the completed circuit (with silicide coating) to the package is highly reliable and reproducible.

Draper, B.L.; Mahoney, A.R.; Bailey, G.A.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Development of a cold-neutron imaging detector based on thick gaseous electron multiplier  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of our recent studies on a cold-neutron imaging detector prototype based on THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM). The detector consists of a thin Boron layer, for neutron-to-charged particle conversion, coupled to two THGEM electrodes in cascade for charge amplification and a position-sensitive charge-readout anode. The detector operates in Ne/(5%)CF{sub 4}, at atmospheric pressure, in a stable condition at a gain of around 10{sup 4}. Due to the geometrical structure of the detector elements (THGEM geometry and charge read-out anode), the image of detector active area shows a large inhomogeneity, corrected using a dedicated flat-filed correction algorithm. The prototype provides a detection efficiency of 5% and an effective spatial resolution of the order of 1.3 mm.

Cortesi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen PSI CH-5234 (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Zboray, R.; Kaestner, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen PSI CH-5234 (Switzerland); Prasser, H.-M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Spatial coherence effect on layer thickness determination in narrowband full-field optical coherence tomography  

SciTech Connect

Longitudinal spatial coherence (LSC) is determined by the spatial frequency content of an optical beam. The use of lenses with a high numerical aperture (NA) in full-field optical coherence tomography and a narrowband light source makes the LSC length much shorter than the temporal coherence length, hence suggesting that high-resolution 3D images of biological and multilayered samples can be obtained based on the low LSC. A simplified model is derived, supported by experimental results, which describes the expected interference output signal of multilayered samples when high-NA lenses are used together with a narrowband light source. An expression for the correction factor for the layer thickness determination is found valid for high-NA objectives. Additionally, the method was applied to a strongly scattering layer, demonstrating the potential of this method for high-resolution imaging of scattering media.

Safrani, Avner; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

467

A unidirectional invisible PT-symmetric complex crystal with arbitrary thickness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new class of $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric complex crystals which are almost transparent and one-way reflectionless over a broad frequency range around the Bragg frequency, i.e. unidirectionally invisible, regardless of the thickness $L$ of the crystal. The $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric complex crystal is synthesized by a supersymmetric transformation of an Hermitian square well potential, and exact analytical expressions of transmission and reflection coefficients are given. As $L$ is increased, the transmittance and reflectance from one side remain close to one and zero, respectively, whereas the reflectance from the other side secularly grows like $ \\sim L^2$ owing to unidirectional Bragg scattering. This is a distinctive feature as compared to the previously studied case of the complex sinusoidal $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potential $V(x)=V_0 \\exp(-2i k_ox)$ at the symmetry breaking point, where transparency breaks down as $L \\rightarrow \\infty$.

Stefano Longhi

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

468

Analyses of cracks in thick stiffened plates repaired with single-sided composite patch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigated the effect of composite patches applied to thick stiffened plates with single-sided repairs. A simplified analytical model was derived to predict the reduction in the mode I strain energy release rates resulting from the single-sided composite patches. Finite element analyses were also conducted to compute the mode I strain energy release rates with and without composite patches, and their results were compared to the analytical model prediction. Furthermore, changes in the location of the neural axis with single-side patches were examined with their effects on the effectiveness of the patch repair with variations in both material and geometric parameters of the patch and plate. The neutral axis location in the patched plate played an important role to influence the effectiveness of the composite patch.

Y.W. Kwon; B.L. Hall

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Design of thick aperture for fine-resolution neutron penumbral imaging  

SciTech Connect

Compact sources of 14-MeV neutrons have been imaged with a penumbral-coded aperture at a two-point resolution of 80{mu}m. We desire to improve the penumbral-aperture microscope to obtain resolutions as fine as 10{mu}m. In penumbral-coded-aperture imaging, the resolution is ultimately limited by the sharpness of the aperture point-spread function. I present a design for a thick penumbral aperture that provides the desired sharpness over a field of view of 150{mu}m. The point-spread function of these apertures is sufficiently isoplanatic and distortion-free to allow linear reconstruction of complex source distributions. The designs is generally appropriate for similar imaging techniques, such as fine-resolution neutron or gamma-ray pinhole imaging. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Ress, D.

1989-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

470

Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle  

SciTech Connect

The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

471

Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in Vicinity of Broken Clouds from Reflectance Ratios: Case Study  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed reflectance ratio (RR) method for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) is evaluated using extensive airborne and ground-based data sets collected during the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) and the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS), which took place in June 2007 over the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site. A detailed case study is performed for a field of single-layer shallow cumuli observed on June 12, 2007. The RR method is applied to retrieve the spectral values of AOD from the reflectance ratios measured by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) for two pairs of wavelengths (660 and 470 nm and 870 and 470 nm) collected at a spatial resolution of 0.05 km. The retrieval is compared with an independent AOD estimate from three ground-based Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The interpolation algorithm that is used to project MFRSR point measurements onto the aircraft flight tracks is tested using AOD derived from NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The RR AOD estimates are in a good agreement (within 5%) with the MFRSR-derived AOD values for the 660-nm wavelength. The AODs obtained from MAS reflectance ratios overestimate those derived from MFRSR measurements by 15-30% for the 470-nm wavelength and underestimate the 870-nm AOD by the same amount.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris A.; Alexandrov, Mikhail

2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

472

Rut depth, soil compaction and rolling resistance when using bogie tracks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are few studies of rolling resistance for bogie tracks on forestry machines. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of wheels and two types of bogie tracks on rut formation, cone index, and vehicle rolling resistance on some typical forest soils in Sweden. In an experiment, two types of tracks were put on a trailer with a bogie with hydraulic extension on the pulling bar giving the trailer repeatable travelling speed. Loads of 0 and 9.9 Mg were used on the trailer. The main results of this study are: Compared to rather wide and soft tires, tracks on the bogie reduced rut depth by up to 40% and cone index in the ruts by about 10%, although the tracks increased the mass on the trailer by 10–12%. The relative rolling resistance coefficient was not higher for tracks than for wheels. Further studies should be conducted to show the effect of track tension on rolling resistance and flotation and of the effects of tracks on heavy vehicles on subsoil compaction.

Gunnar Bygdén; Lars Eliasson; Iwan Wästerlund

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

In-depth survey report of Roadway Express, Inc. , Toledo, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth survey was conducted at Roadway Express, Inc., Toledo, Ohio to determine relative exposures to diesel aerosols among the four major presumably exposed job groups of road drivers, local drivers, dock workers, and mechanics. Element carbon sampling results at the Roadway terminal in Toledo, Ohio, during cold weather indicated low level exposures only slightly above geometric mean ambient residential and highway background concentrations in road drivers and local drivers. Exposures were significantly above background highway concentrations in dock workers and in mechanics, with exposures of 29 and 58 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/cu m), respectively. The highest levels of exposure were to mechanics working in the shop. Exposure to nitrogen oxides and respirable particulates were far below recommended limits. The major source of exposures in dock workers appeared to be the operation of diesel powered fork lift trucks on the dock. The principal source in mechanics was the entry and egress of diesel tractors to and from the shop area, but the more enclosed environment in which they were working exacerbated concentrations of diesel aerosols.

Zaebst, D.D.; Ringenburg, V.; Sanderson, W.

1989-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

474

Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti#12;cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s#6; superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

Kim, Hyunsoo [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in Vicinity of Broken Clouds from Reflectance Ratios: Sensitivity Study  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a sensitivity study to better understand the potential of a new method for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) under partly cloudy conditions. This method exploits reflectance ratios in the visible spectral range and provides an effective way to avoid three-dimensional (3D) cloud effects. The sensitivity study is performed for different observational conditions and random errors in input data. The results of the sensitivity study suggest that this ratio method has the ability to detect clear pixels even in close proximity to clouds. Such detection does not require a statistical analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) horizontal distribution of reflected solar radiation, and thus it could be customized for operational retrievals. In comparison with previously suggested approaches, the ratio method has the capability to increase the "harvest" of clear pixels. Similar to the traditional Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA), the ratio method has a low computational cost for retrieving AOD. In contrast to the IPA method, the ratio method provides much more accurate estimations of the AOD values under broken cloud conditions: pixel-based and domain-averaged estimations of errors in AOD are about 25% and 10%, respectively. Finally, both the ratio-based cloud screening and the accuracy of domain-averaged ratio-based AOD values do not suffer greatly when 5% random errors are introduced in the reflectances.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Depth of Maximum of Air-Shower Profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Composition Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (Xmax), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the distributions with predictions from a variety of hadronic interaction models for variations in the composition of the primary cosmic rays and examining the quality of the fit. Regardless of what interaction model is assumed, we find that our data are not well described by a mix of protons and iron nuclei over most of the energy range. Acceptable fits can be obtained when intermediate masses are included, and when this is done consistent results for the proton and iron-nuclei contributions can be found using the available models. We observe a strong energy dependence of the resulting proton fractions, and find no support from any of the models for a significant contribution from iron nuclei. However, we also observe a...

,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

REICH, F.R.

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

478

Atmospheric Temperature Effect for ? Mesons Observed at a Depth of 846 m.w.e.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experiment reported was a measurement of the effect of variations in atmospheric temperatures on the intensity of ? mesons observed underground at a depth of 846 m.w.e. The average energy of these particles is known to be ?2×1011 ev. A total of ?1.2×106 coincidences, between two large trays of Geiger counters located in a salt mine, was collected over a two-year period. The correlation between variations in counting rate and simultaneous variations in effective atmospheric temperature was analyzed. The effective temperature was determined from radiosonde measurements of atmospheric temperatures at pressure levels up to 20 millibars performed by a U. S. Air Force weather observation unit near the salt mine. The resulting temperature coefficient is 0.22±0.06 percent per degree and the correlation coefficient is 0.75. The results are compared with those obtained from similar measurements at 1574 m.w.e. and with the theoretical values of the temperature coefficient derived from various schemes describing the production of ? mesons with high energies.

Noah Sherman

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Muon-induced neutron and pion production in an organic liquid scintillator at a shallow depth  

SciTech Connect

The production of fast neutrons and pions by inelastic interactions of cosmic-ray muons in an organic liquid scintillator has been investigated. A detector filled with 190 liters of a 0.09% gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator was installed in the Stanford Underground Facility, at an underground depth of approximately 20 meters water equivalent. The detector served as the target material for hadron production. Our measurements find a single-neutron production yield of (4.3{plus_minus}0.3{plus_minus}0.8){times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2} and a double-neutron production yield of (1.6{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.5){times}10{sup {minus}5} double neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}. We measured a {pi}{sup +} production yield of (3.5{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.7){times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}. Nearly all the {pi}{sup +} produced were accompanied by neutrons. These yields were dependent on the energy threshold of the muon trigger, revealing an enhancement associated with hadronic showers initiated by muons. The production yield due to nonshowering muons was lower: 2{times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with a single-to-double neutron multiplicity ratio of roughly 4:1. The nonshowering muon {pi}{sup +} production probability was 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with about half of these nonshowering {pi}{sup +} events accompanied by neutrons.

Hertenberger, R.; Chen, M. [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Dougherty, B.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for parallel-plate chambers in electron beams using a plastic scintillation detector  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the overall perturbation factor P{sub Q} in megavoltage electron beams for NACP-02 and Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6, 12, and 18 MeV clinical electron beams. The authors also measured depth-dose curves using the NACP-02 and PTW Roos chambers. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the NACP-02 and Roos chambers increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results were in good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo simulations reported by other investigators. The authors also found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed inside the air cavity reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: A PSD can be used to experimentally extract perturbation factors for ionization chambers. The dosimetry protocol recommendations indicating that the point of measurement be placed on the inside face of the front window appear to be incorrect for parallel-plate chambers and result in errors in the R{sub 50} of approximately 0.4 mm at 6 MeV, 1.0 mm at 12 MeV, and 1.2 mm at 18 MeV.

Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Gingras, Luc; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Ho circumflex tel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Ionizing Radiation Standards, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council (NRC), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Ho circumflex tel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

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481

MERCURY LEVELS IN HAWAIIAN PREDATORY PEI-AGIC FISHES AND THEIR PREY ASA FUNCTION OF DEPTH AND ECOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MERCURY LEVELS IN HAWAIIAN PREDATORY PEI-AGIC FISHES AND THEIR PREY ASA FUNCTION OF DEPTH Gregory F,. P.av:.zza N{argaretA. N.,Icl\\{anus #12;ABSTRACT Mercury is drstributedthroughout the Earth in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have

Luther, Douglas S.

482

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite pressure distribution moving with constant speed U in water of finite depth h . Localized solitary waves can only exist in subcritical flows where the Froude number F = U/(gh)1/2

483

Surface roughening during depth profiling by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) in GaAlAs and GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During bombardment of Ga1?xAlxAs and GaAs with oxygen we found an abrupt transition to higher sputter rates, change of the useful yield and significant increase of surface roughness at a well defined depth, which...