National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for depth range ft

  1. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  2. Metal affinity enrichment increases the range and depth of proteome identification for extracellular microbial proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, Korin; Erickson, Brian K; Mueller, Ryan; Singer, Steven; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hwang, Mona; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Many key proteins, such as those involved in cellular signaling or transcription, are difficult to measure in microbial proteomic experiments due to the interfering presence of more abundant, dominant proteins. In an effort to enhance the identification of previously undetected proteins, as well as provide a methodology for selective enrichment, we evaluated and optimized immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) coupled with mass spectrometric characterization of extracellular proteins from an extremophilic microbial community. Seven different metals were tested for IMAC enrichment. The combined results added 20% greater proteomic depth to the extracellular proteome. Although this IMAC enrichment could not be conducted at the physiological pH of the environmental system, this approach did yield a reproducible and specific enrichment of groups of proteins with functions potentially vital to the community, thereby providing a more extensive biochemical characterization. Notably, 40 unknown proteins previously annotated as hypothetical were enriched and identified for the first time. Examples of identified proteins includes a predicted TonB signal sensing protein homologous to other known TonB proteins and a protein with a COXG domain previously identified in many chemolithoautotrophic microbes as having a function in the oxidation of CO.

  3. NPB UPC-FT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NPB UPC-FT NPB UPC-FT Description This is the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmark FT. The transpose communication is implemented using...

  4. Property:Depth(m) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Depth(m) Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Depth(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft...

  5. NPB UPC-FT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NPB UPC-FT NPB UPC-FT Description This is the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmark FT. The transpose communication is implemented using both blocking functions (upc_memget) and nonblocking functions (upc_memput_nb). The default is nonblocking functions, which is defined in UPC description 3.1. If nonblocking functions are not supported on your system, it will switch to blocking functions automatically. Users are allowed to change the selection by

  6. Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Ft Bidwell...

  7. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  8. Ft. Mojave Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Ft. Mojave Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Presented by Bill Cyr and Russell Gum Presented by Bill Cyr and Russell Gum Overview Document ...

  9. ARM - Measurement - Snow depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Snow depth Snow depth measured at the surface Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  10. Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A. E-mail: AAbdolmaleki@uok.ac.ir

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+?{sub 1}((?T)){sup n} and f(T) = T??{sub 2}T(1?e{sup ?T{sub 0}/T}), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, (we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it) is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.

  11. FT Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: South Jordan, Utah Zip: 84095 Product: JV between Headwaters Technology Innovation Group and Rentech to focus on Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquids processes and...

  12. Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing...

  13. 3-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ft Wave Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name 3-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC)...

  14. 5-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ft Wave Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name 5-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers (ERDC)...

  15. 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .5-ft Wave Flume Facility Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility Overseeing Organization United States Army Corp of Engineers...

  16. SWiFT performs accredited research testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performs accredited research testing for both collaborative and highly proprietary projects with industrial, governmental, and academic partners. A flexible Memorandum of Understanding, signed by all partners-Sandia, Vestas, Texas Tech Univ. National Wind Institute at Reese Technology Center and Group NIRE, a renewable energy development company- allows site use for collaborative and proprietary research, depending on research needs. SWiFT's primary research objectives are to: * reduce power

  17. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  18. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  19. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  20. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk and Decision Analysis Dept.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geologic Integration Group; Di Sanza, F. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA`s 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE`s actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA`s requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health.

  1. A new day: SWiFT reaches rotor mounting milestone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... on one of its SWiFT wind turbines, a heavily modified ...

  2. Coiled tubing velocity string set at record 20,500 ft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, L.S. )

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that coiled tubing, set at record depth, significantly reduced costs and posed lower mechanical failure risk for recompleting a gas well in the Delaware basin of West Texas. Alternative completions such as replacing the existing tubing string with smaller diameter conventional API production tubing was deemed less economical and effective. The gas well, George M. Shelton No. 2, was recompleted on July 18, 1991, by Chevron U.S.A. Production Co. The gas is produced from the deep, low-pressure Ellenburger formation in the Gomez field. The hang-off depth of 20,500 ft set a world record for the deepest permanently installed coiled tubing. The 1-1/2 in. coiled tubing velocity string, run within the existing 4-1/2 and 4-in. tapered production tubing string, consists of seven segments that vary in wall thickness from 0.087 to 0.156 in.

  3. Shape selective catalysts for F-T chemistry. Interim report : January 2001 - December 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D. C.

    2003-01-29

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) chemistry, specifically the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to F-T catalysts needing high activity, it is desirable that they have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. In this project, selectivity is directed toward the production of diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Shape-selective catalysts have the potential to both limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected ''cage.'' This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. Experimentation has included evaluation of samples of (1) iron-based F-T catalysts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory, (2) iron-based F-T catalysts prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER), (3) the Davis catalyst that were sized by differential gravity separation, and (4) the Davis catalyst onto which inorganic or catalytic ''shells'' were deposited. The ANL-prepared samples had a wide range of particle size and were irregular in shape. A sizeable portion of the samples provided by Davis were spherical, because they had been prepared by spray-drying. To compare the catalytic activities of the samples, we used a micro-scale fixed-bed reactor system for F-T runs of low conversion to avoid thermal and mass transfer effects. In summary, the highest activity was that of the original Davis catalyst; additional research must be carried out to generate more permeable surface cages. A number of approaches that have been published for other applications will be tested.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Testbed AOD : Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from atmospheric extinction of solar irradiance AATS : Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer...

  5. Spherically symmetric static spacetimes in vacuum f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2011-10-15

    We show that Schwarzschild geometry remains as a vacuum solution for those four-dimensional f(T) gravitational theories behaving as ultraviolet deformations of general relativity. In the gentler context of three-dimensional gravity, we also find that the infrared-deformed f(T) gravities, like the ones used to describe the late cosmic speed up of the Universe, have as the circularly symmetric vacuum solution a Deser-de Sitter or a Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli-like spacetime with an effective cosmological constant depending on the infrared scale present in the function f(T).

  6. Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado Springs, Colorado | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The system cost 140,000 to design, build, and install. The unglazed collector consists of 7,800 ft. of sheet metal dotted with tiny holes. It is mounted several inches from the ...

  7. SWiFT Turbines Full Dynamic Characterization Opens Doors for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    dynamics and will allow for an updated, realistic aero-elastic model to be used during performance prediction to support the design of future rotors for use at the SWiFT facility. ...

  8. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

    2008-12-22

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures. Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

  9. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

    2008-12-23

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures.Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

  10. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N. E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  11. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A.; Steeper, Timothy J.

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  12. New Facility Tool at SWiFT Makes Rotor Work More Efficient

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility Tool at SWiFT Makes Rotor Work More Efficient - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon ... New Facility Tool at SWiFT Makes Rotor Work More Efficient HomeEnergy, Facilities, News, ...

  13. 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: ...

  14. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR DOWNEAST LNG, INC. - FT DKT. NO. 14-172...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOWNEAST LNG, INC. - FT DKT. NO. 14-172-LNG - ORDER NO. 3600 (FTA) SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR DOWNEAST LNG, INC. - FT DKT. NO. 14-172-LNG - ORDER NO. 3600 (FTA) No Reports Received ...

  15. First Power for SWiFT Turbine Achieved during Recommissioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power for SWiFT Turbine Achieved during Recommissioning - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense

  16. Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

  17. The 200 ft. Solar Tower at Sandia National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    200 ft. Solar Tower at Sandia National Laboratories provides 218 computer-controlled heliostats to reflect concentrated solar energy onto the tower, producing a total thermal capacity of 6 MW and peak flux to 300 W/cm 2 . The NSTTF offers a complete testing environment for a variety of activities, including: * Thermal flash simulation * Thermal performance testing and thermophysical properties measurement * Space technology systems testing * Solar array and solar applications testing *

  18. Cosmological perturbation in f(T) gravity revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumi, Keisuke; Ong, Yen Chin E-mail: ongyenchin@member.ams.org

    2013-06-01

    We perform detailed investigation of cosmological perturbations in f(T) theory of gravity coupled with scalar field. Our work emphasizes on the way to gauge fix the theory and we examine all possible modes of perturbations up to second order. The analysis includes pseudoscalar and pseudovector modes in addition to the usual scalar, vector, and tensor modes. We find no gravitational propagating degree of freedom in the scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, as well as pseudovector modes. In addition, we find that the scalar and tensor perturbations have exactly the same form as their counterparts in usual general relativity with scalar field, except that the factor of reduced Planck mass squared M{sub pl}{sup 2}?1/(8?G) that occurs in the latter has now been replaced by an effective time-dependent gravitational coupling ?2(df/dT)|{sub T=T{sub 0}}, with T{sub 0} being the background torsion scalar. The absence of extra degrees of freedom of f(T) gravity at second order linear perturbation indicates that f(T) gravity is highly nonlinear. Consequently one cannot conclusively analyze stability of the theory without performing nonlinear analysis that can reveal the propagation of the extra degrees of freedom.

  19. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ?CDM cosmic history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N. E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ?CDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ?CDM (the radiation ere with ?{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ?{sub eff} = 0 and ?{sub eff} = ?1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with ?{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when ?{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ?CDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  20. Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil L. Oberlander; Charles E. Russell

    2005-12-31

    Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

  1. Recommended Practice: Defense-in-Depth

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    External Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies May 2006 Prepared by Idaho National Laboratory Recommended Best Practice: Defense in Depth 2 Table of Contents Keywords............................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 3 Background

  2. Uterine caliper and depth gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.

    1977-01-01

    A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

  3. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  4. SWiFT Turbines Full Dynamic Characterization Opens Doors for Research in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Dynamics of Coupled Systems | Department of Energy SWiFT Turbines Full Dynamic Characterization Opens Doors for Research in the Dynamics of Coupled Systems SWiFT Turbines Full Dynamic Characterization Opens Doors for Research in the Dynamics of Coupled Systems March 31, 2014 - 11:19am Addthis Research conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWiFT) in Lubbock, Texas, drew a lot of interest from attendees at the International Modal Analysis Conference held in Orlando,

  5. Sandia Energy - Power Production Started on All Three SWiFT Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Production Started on All Three SWiFT Turbines Home Renewable Energy Energy SWIFT Facilities Partnership News Wind Energy News & Events Power Production Started on All Three...

  6. SESAM FT-IR: A Comparison of the R&D Workhorse to Standard Emission Benches

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Data for a number of regulated emissions and ethanol using the SESAM FT-IR compare favorably with standard emissions analyzers.

  7. Violation of the first law of black hole thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Rong-Xin; Li, Miao; Miao, Yan-Gang E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn

    2011-11-01

    We prove that, in general, the first law of black hole thermodynamics, ?Q = T?S, is violated in f(T) gravity. As a result, it is possible that there exists entropy production, which implies that the black hole thermodynamics can be in non-equilibrium even in the static spacetime. This feature is very different from that of f(R) or that of other higher derivative gravity theories. We find that the violation of first law results from the lack of local Lorentz invariance in f(T) gravity. By investigating two examples, we note that f''(0) should be negative in order to avoid the naked singularities and superluminal motion of light. When f''(T) is small, the entropy of black holes in f(T) gravity is approximatively equal to f'(T)/4 A.

  8. Control of electrode depth in electroslag remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Damkroger, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace by driving the electrode at a nominal speed based upon melting rate and geometry while making minor proportional adjustments based on a measured metric of the electrode immersion depth. Electrode drive speed is increased if a measured metric of electrode immersion depth differs from a set point by a predetermined amount, indicating that the tip is too close to the surface of a slag pool. Impedance spikes are monitored to adjust the set point for the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon one or more properties of the impedance spikes.

  9. Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yd + Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + 1,500 m1.5 km 0.932 mi 4,921.26 ft 1,640.415 yd + Bad Blumau...

  10. Well cored to 9,800 ft in Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, K.B. )

    1991-05-13

    The mining industry's slim hole drilling rigs have proven applicable to primary oil exploration. These machines are smaller than conventional drilling rigs and can be transported with relative ease to remote locations. A typical rig drills an entire well by coring, with the cores retrieved by wire line without tripping the pipe. The core drilling system is specially suited to drilling hard rock formations. This paper reports on the project which evaluated the geological aspects of the Parana basin and determined the applicability of slim hole, core drilling techniques as an exploration tool. The Parana basin is found in the eastern third of Paraguay, part of northeastern Argentina, and part of southern Brazil. Much of the basin is overlaid by basalt flows up to 5,000-ft thick, and there are numerous igneous intrusions and dikes within the sedimentary section. This combination makes seismic quality poor and interpretation extremely difficult. The formations are relatively old, with Triassic red beds occurring only a few feet below the surface or immediately below the basalt. Beneath the Triassic are Permian marine deposits, Permo-Carboniferous tillites, and then Devonian, Silurian, and Ordovician deposits to the basement. The section outcrops 100 miles west of the Mallorquin Well No. 1 site. The Parana basin has been only randomly explored. To date, success has been limited to a minor gas find near Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Alvord (3000-ft Strawn) LPG flood: design and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000 ft Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model prediction, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of th oil originally in place in the Unit. An evaluation of the project performance to date is presented. In July of 1981 the injection of a 16% HPV slug of propane was completed. Natural gas is being used to drive the propane slug. A peak oil response of 222 BOPD was achieved in August of 1981 and production has since been declining. The observed performance of the flood indicates that the actual tertiary oil recovered will reach the predicted value, although the project life will be longer than expected. The results presented in this paper indicate that, without the DOE incentive program, the economics for this project would still be uncertain at this time.

  12. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  13. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  14. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  15. 10-ft Wave Flume Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    None Available Sensors Flow, Pressure Range(psi), Turbulence, Velocity, Wave Probe Data Generation Capability Real-Time No Test Services Test Services Yes Past Pertinent...

  16. SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced Turbine-Turbine Wake-Interaction-Control ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient ...

  17. SESAM FT-IR: A Comparison of the R&D Workhorse to Standard Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods Urea SCR and DPF System for Tier 2 Diesel ...

  18. Range gated imaging experiments using gated intensifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Yates, G.J.; Cverna, F.H.; Gallegos, R.A.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Numkena, D.M.; Payton, J.; Pena-Abeyta, C.R.

    1999-03-01

    A variety of range gated imaging experiments using high-speed gated/shuttered proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPII) are reported. Range gated imaging experiments were conducted in water for detection of submerged mines in controlled turbidity tank test and in sea water for the Naval Coastal Sea Command/US Marine Corps. Field experiments have been conducted consisting of kilometer range imaging of resolution targets and military vehicles in atmosphere at Eglin Air Force Base for the US Air Force, and similar imaging experiments, but in smoke environment, at Redstone Arsenal for the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Wavelength of the illuminating laser was 532 nm with pulse width ranging from 6 to 12 ns and comparable gate widths. These tests have shown depth resolution in the tens of centimeters range from time phasing reflected LADAR images with MCPII shutter opening.

  19. RangeTables.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vcmmg) LET vs. Range in Si for 15 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Range in Silicon (m) 4 He 14 N 20 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 50 100 150...

  20. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  2. RangeTables.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MeVcmmg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4 He 14 N 22 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 100 200 300 400 500...

  3. RangeTables.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30 35 40 45 eVcmmg) LET vs. Range in Si for 40 MeV SEE Beams 14 N 20 Ne 40 Ar 0 3 6 9 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 1 H 0 0.1 0.2 40 Ar 78 Kr 0 5 10 15 20 0 100 200 300 400 500...

  4. Light beam range finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  5. Light beam range finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  6. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Wolery, T. J.

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  7. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

  8. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  9. Property:Wave Period Range(s) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Property:Wave Period Range(s) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Wave Period Range(s) Property Type String Pages using the property "Wave...

  10. Utility Assessment Report for SPIDERS Phase 2: Ft. Carson (Rev 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hadley, Mark D.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the Utility Assessment Report (UAR) for the Phase 2 operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD). The UAR for Phase 2 shows that the SPIDERS system was able to meet the requirements of the Implementation Directive at Ft. Carson.

  11. Range imaging laser radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Marion W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  12. Range Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Range Resources Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleRangeResources&oldid612320...

  13. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM ...

  14. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  15. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  16. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    connor.flynn@pnnl.gov (509) 375-2041 PO Box 999, MS K9-24 Richland, WA 99352 US Resource(s) Data Directory ReadMe Site Information NIM Content Time Range 2005.11.01 - 2007.01...

  17. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  18. Application of Printed Circuit Board Technology to FT-ICR MS Analyzer Cell Construction and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) remains themass spectrometry platform that provides the highest levels of performance for mass accuracy and resolving power, there is room for improvement in analyzer cell design as the ideal quadrupolar trapping potential has yet to be generated for a broadband MS experiment. To this end, analyzer cell designs have improved since the field’s inception, yet few research groups participate in this area because of the high cost of instrumentation efforts. As a step towards reducing this barrier to participation and allowing for more designs to be physically tested, we introduce a method of FT-ICR analyzer cell prototyping utilizing printed circuit boards at modest vacuum conditions. This method allows for inexpensive devices to be readily fabricated and tested over short intervals and should open the field to laboratories lacking or unable to access high performance machine shop facilities because of the required financial investment.

  19. DE-AT26-99FT40267 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Testing of Gas Hydrate/Sediment Samples DE-AT26-99FT40267 Project Goal Develop understanding of the mechanical characteristics of hydrate-containing sediments. Background The ACE CRREL has a unique group of experienced personnel that have studied the mechanical characteristics of ice and permafrost that can be applied to the study and characterization of the mechanical properties of gas hydrates. The effort aims to quantify the mechanical characteristics of methane hydrate and hydrate

  20. An industrial FT-IR process gas analyzer for stack gas cems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, G.M.; Herman, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) technology to meet and exceed EPA requirements to Continuously Monitor Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO){sub 2} in an oil refinery. The application consists of Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEMS) of two stacks from a Fluid Catalytic Cracking unit (FCCU). The discussion will follow the project from initial specifications, installation, start-up, certification results (RATA, 7 day drift), Cylinder Gas Audit (CGA) and the required maintenance. FT-IR is a powerful analytical tool suitable for measurement of stack component gases required to meet CEMS regulations, and allows simultaneous multi-component analysis of complex stack gas streams with a continuous sample stream flow through the measurement cell. The Michelson Interferometer in a unique {open_quotes}Wishbone{close_quotes} design and with a special alignment control enables standardized configuration of the analyzer for flue gas analysis. Normal stack gas pollutants: NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO; as well as water soluble pollutants such as NH{sub 3} and HCI may be accurately determined and reported even in the presence of 0-31 Vol % water vapor concentrations (hot and wet). This FT-IR analyzer has been operating with EPA Certification in an oil refinery environment since September 1994.

  1. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Hoenicke, Dirk

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  2. Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss031_rask_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth)

  3. FT-IR and thermoluminescence investigation of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-BaO-K{sub 2}O glass system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivascu, C.; Timar-Gabor, A.; Cozar, O.

    2013-11-13

    The 0.5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅xBaO⋅(0.5−x)K{sub 2}O glass system (0≤x≤0.5mol%) is investigated by FT-IR and thermoluminescence as a possible dosimetic material. FT-IR spectra show structural network modifications with the composition variations of the studied glasses. The predominant absorption bands are characterized by two broad peaks near 500 cm{sup −1}, two weak peaks around 740 cm{sup −1} and three peaks in the 900–1270 cm{sup −1} region. The shift in the position of the band assigned to asymmetric stretching of PO{sub 2}{sup −} group, υ{sub as}(PO{sub 2}{sup −}) modes from ∼1100 cm{sup −1} to 1085 cm{sup −1} and the decrease in its relative intensity with the increasing of K{sub 2}O content shows a network modifier role of this oxide.. Luminescence investigations show that by adding modifier oxides in the phosphate glass a dose dependent TL signals result upon irradiation. Thus P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–BaO–K{sub 2}O glass system is a possible candidate material for dosimetry in the dose 0 – 50 Gy range.

  4. A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

  5. Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (DOE) has adopted an integrated protection system for the safety of radioactive waste ... The integrated protectionsystem is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking ...

  6. ARM - Evaluation Product - MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized Backscatter) and radiosonde thermodynamic profiles. The optical depth retrieval is derived following Comstock et al. (2001),...

  7. Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature in the Humboldt House geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  8. Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  9. Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling Advanced Technology ...

  10. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in ... strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a ...

  11. Fission track thermochronologic constraints on the timing and nature of major Middle Tertiary extension, Ruby Mountains - East Humboldt Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dokka, R.K.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Snoke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Fission Track (FT) apatite, zircon, and sphene ages were determined from both mylonitic and non-mylonitic rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The analyzed sample suite included various mylonitic orthogneisses as well as amphibolitic orthogneisses from the non-mylonitic infrastructural core. Porphyritic biotite granodiorite of the Oligocene Harrison Pass pluton was also dated. FT ages are concordant and range in age from 27 - 24 Ma. These dates reflect rapid cooling of the lower plate from temperatures above 250/sup 0/C to below 100/sup 0/C during the early Miocene. The general concordance of the FT dates with /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar biotite and hornblende plateau ages from the same sample suite suggest an even more pronounced cooling history. This rapid cooling history is considered to reflect large-scale tectonic denudation (intracrustal thinning), a manifestation of intense crustal extension. Mylonitic rocks that originally formed along ductile shear zones in the middle crust (10-15 km) were quickly brought near the surface and juxtaposed against brittly distended rocks deformed under upper crustal conditions. FT data firmly establish the upper age limit on the timing of mylonitization during the shear zone deformation. This rapid cooling interval also coincides with the inferred age of extensive landscape disruption and the development of an alluvial fan-lacustrine system which included the periodic emplacement of landslide deposits (megabreccias).

  12. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  13. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal

  14. Effect of Ion Skin Depth on Relaxation of Merging Spheromaks to a Field-Reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Ono, Yasushi

    2005-08-19

    The effect of ion skin depth on the relaxation of merging spheromaks to a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is studied experimentally for a wide range of size parameter S* (ratio of minor radius to ion skin depth) from 1 to 7. The two merging spheromaks are observed to relax to an FRC or a new spheromak depending on whether the initial poloidal eigenvalue is smaller or larger than a threshold value. The bifurcation value is found to increase with decreasing size parameter S{sup *}, indicating that the low-S* condition provides a wide bifurcated range of relaxation to an FRC. The FRC-style relaxation under the low-S* conditions was accompanied by the suppression of the low-n modes (n is the toroidal mode number) activity. The fast rotations of the modes were followed by suppression of the low-n modes.

  15. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1992-12-31

    To avoid methane production in F-T synthesis on Fe catalysts, efforts are being made on conversion of synthesis gas to high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as waxes. Strong acidity of sulfated zirconium oxides, ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, is being used to pretreat long-chain paraffins with carbon numbers greater than n-C{sub 32}. Progress during this period is reported on reactivity of Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} for hydrocracking n-C{sub 32} and on effects of hydride donor solvent on hydrocracking of n-C{sub 32}. 5 figs.

  16. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1992-01-01

    To avoid methane production in F-T synthesis on Fe catalysts, efforts are being made on conversion of synthesis gas to high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as waxes. Strong acidity of sulfated zirconium oxides, ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4], is being used to pretreat long-chain paraffins with carbon numbers greater than n-C[sub 32]. Progress during this period is reported on reactivity of Pt/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] for hydrocracking n-C[sub 32] and on effects of hydride donor solvent on hydrocracking of n-C[sub 32]. 5 figs.

  17. DE-AT26-97FT34342 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterizing Arctic Hydrates (Canadian Test Well and Alaskan "Wells of Opportunity") photo of drilling rig at Mallik 2L-38 location Rig at Mallik 2L-38 location courtesy Geological Survey of Canada DE-AT26-97FT34342 Project Goal The purpose of this project is to assess the recoverability and potential production characteristics of the onshore natural gas hydrate and associated free-gas accumulations in the Arctic of North America Performer United States Geological Survey, Denver,

  18. DE-AT26-97FT34344 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar and Multibeam Bathymetric Data Collection and Processing, Atwater Canyon, Gulf of Mexico DE-AT26-97FT34344 photo of DTAGS seismic source being deployed DTAG seismic source being deployed. Courtesy Naval Research Laboratory Project Goal During February 14-18, 2005, a scientific cruise was conducted using the R/V Pelican to obtain high-resolution sidescan sonar and multibeam bathymetric data of Mounds D and F in the Atwater Valley area of the Gulf of Mexico, to

  19. ft. n. Both, Ohtef, RarourQb DWrion,Oak Ridgo

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    _ ,' .' ft. n. Both, Ohtef, RarourQb DWrion,Oak Ridgo hwt 2% w9 s. P. Morgan, Aar' t, Pimotor; Produotlon Dirirloa, i BY00 sniwm! OP Zr T~BIDm 1 . It ir axpeat tbt 4alivery of @air wteri8.l will be maa on orbaforo leptcmwrl, lg4g. Idantifioatioii my&ml "2416" haa been wr@md to thlr ahip nent and all related dauuuentr, aat ma&or Watlr Br n&R 1 ::_,, : ; .,. . . . ,~,-,.", :;> .

  20. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources:

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... In the Hamad BasinRisha prospective area, the depth of the "Upper Hot Shale" ranges from 6,500 to 10,000 ft, averaging 8,500 ft. Based on limited well test data, we assume that ...

  1. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  2. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  3. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  4. Confocal volume in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2011-11-15

    To clarify the degradation of confocality in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling (optical sectioning) and the influence of pinhole filtering on it, we investigate the confocal volume in detail based on Gaussian beam optics and scalar wave optics. Theoretical depth profiles of a homogeneous transparent sample for four different pinhole sizes, which are computed using the measured incident beam waist radius w{sub 0} and only a few optical system specific parameters such as a numerical aperture (NA) and a focal length, show a good agreement with the corresponding measured depth profiles. The computed confocal volume demonstrates that the pinhole size affects the actual probe depth as well as the axial resolution and the total intensity loss.

  5. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  6. Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow At Standard Depth Abstract Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface...

  7. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Journal Article: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Authors: Shinozuka Y. ; Wagener R. ; Johnson, R. R. ; Flynn, C. J. ; Russell, P. B. ; Schmid, B. ; Redemann, J. ; Dunagan, S. E. ; Kluzek, C. D. ; Hubbe, J. M. ; Segal-Rosenheimer, M. ; Livingston, J. M. ; Eck, T. F. ; Gregory, L. ; Chand, D. ; Berg, L. K. ; Rogers, R. R. ; Ferrare, R. A. ; Hair, J. W. ;

  8. Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report This report describes

  9. Assessing the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth W. O'Hirok and P. Ricchiazzi Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Analysis from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) reveals that the global mean cloud optical depth is surprisingly low (i.e., τ = 3.8).

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eight wells ranging in depth from 200 to 300 ft. References Gwen Holdmann, Dick Benoit, David Blackwell (2006) Integrated Geoscience Investigation and Geothermal Exploration at...

  11. Rolling Thunder -- Integration of the Solo 161 Stirling engine with the CPG-460 solar concentrator at Ft. Huachuca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, R.B.; Moss, T.A.; Goldberg, V.; Thomas, G.; Beaudet, A.

    1998-09-01

    Project Rolling Thunder is a dish/Stirling demonstration project at Ft. Huachuca, a US Army fort in southeastern Arizona (Huachuca means rolling thunder in Apache). It has been supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a cooperative program between the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy (DOE). As part of a 1992 SERDP project, Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) installed a CPG 7 kW(c) dish/Stirling system at the Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) in Ft. Huachuca, Arizona. The primary objective of the SERDP Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications project was to demonstrate a CPG 7-kW(c) dish/Stirling system at a military facility. Unfortunately, Cummins Engine Company decided to divest its solar operations. As a direct result of Ft. Huachuca`s interest in the Cummins dish/Stirling technology, Sandia explored the possibility of installing a SOLO 161 Stirling power conversion unit (PCU) on the Ft. Huachuca CPG-460. In January 1997, a decision was made to retrofit a SOLO 161 Stirling engine on the CPG-460 at Ft. Huachuca. Project Rolling Thunder. The SOLO 161 Demonstration at Ft. Huachuca has been a challenge. Although, the SOLO 161 PCU has operated nearly flawlessly and the CPG-460 has been, for the most part, a solid and reliable component, integration of the SOLO PCU with the CPG-460 has required significant attention. In this paper, the integration issues and technical approaches of project Rolling Thunder are presented. Lessons of the project are also discussed.

  12. Progress Report on FY15 Crystalline Experiments M4FT-15LL0807052

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-08-13

    Colloid-facilitated plutonium transport is expected to be the dominant mechanism in its migration through the environment. The forms of Pu colloids (intrinsic versus pseudo-colloid) and their stabilities control temporal and spatial scales of Pu transport in the environment. In the present study, we examine the stability of Pu intrinsic colloids freshly prepared in alkaline solution relative to Pu-montmorillonite pseudo-colloids using a dialysis device and modeling approaches. Intrinsic colloids prepared under alkaline conditions were found to be unstable over a timescale of months. The kinetics of multiple processes, including hydrolysis/precipitation of Pu(IV), dissolution of intrinsic colloids in the absence and presence of the clay colloids, transport of dissolved Pu species across the dialysis membrane, and formation of pseudo-colloids were examined. The dissolution of intrinsic colloids was the rate-limiting process in most cases. The apparent intrinsic colloid dissolution rate constants range from 6×10-7 to 1×10- 6 mol·m-2·day-1 and 4×10-6 to 8×10-6 mol·m-2·day-1 at 25 and 80°C, respectively, while the apparent diffusion rate constants for Pu ions crossing the dialysis membrane are >200 times higher. Elevated temperatures enhance dissolution of Pu colloids and the activation energy for the process is estimated to be 28 kJ mol-1. The sorption of Pu to montmorillonite appears to be endothermic as the affinity of Pu for the clay increases with increasing temperature. Our results provide an in-depth understanding of how intrinsic and pseudo-colloids interact with each other kinetically. Although the fact that intrinsic colloids tend to dissolve in the presence of montmorillonite and transform into pseudo-colloids may limit the migration of intrinsic colloids, the thermodynamically more stable pseudo-colloids may play an important role in Pu transport in the environment over significant temporal and spatial scales.

  13. In-situ FT-IR diagnostics for monitoring and control of fossil fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonanno, A.S.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Serio, M.A.; Nelson, C.M.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and testing of a prototype fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) based measurement system for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) and process control in fossil fuel-fired power plants. On several occasions, prototype systems have been transported and assembled at full-scale and pilot-scale fossil fuel-fired combustors. The in-situ version of the prototype is able to measure NH{sub 3} and HCl concentrations, which are difficult to measure extractively, as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, H{sub 2}O, and SO{sub x} concentrations. The results of recent tests will be presented which involve in-situ monitoring of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NO{sub x} based on simultaneous measurement of NO, NH{sub 3} and CO.

  14. ?CDM model in f(T) gravity: reconstruction, thermodynamics and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salako, I.G.; Kpadonou, A.V.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Rodrigues, M.E. E-mail: esialg@gmail.com E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr

    2013-11-01

    We investigate some cosmological features of the ?CDM model in the framework of the generalized teleparallel theory of gravity f(T) where T denotes the torsion scalar. Its reconstruction is performed giving rise to an integration constant Q and other input parameters according to which we point out more analysis. Thereby, we show that for some values of this constant, the first and second laws of thermodynamics can be realized in the equilibrium description, for the universe with the temperature inside the horizon equal to that at the apparent horizon. Moreover, still within these suitable values of the constant, we show that the model may be stable using the de Sitter and Power-Law cosmological solutions.

  15. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.

  16. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  17. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM Fed) has long been one of the Nation's principal sources of proved reserves. At the end of 2009, the GOM Fed accounted for close to one-fifth of oil proved reserves (second only to Texas) and just over four percent of natural gas proved reserves (the country's seventh largest reporting region). 1 Natural gas proved

  19. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995. No. 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, A.H.

    1996-09-05

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  20. Sandia Wake Imaging System Field Test Report: 2015 Deployment at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naughton, Brian Thomas; Herges, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.

  1. Analysis of Debris Trajectories at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Jonathan R.; Burnett, Damon J.

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWiFT) on behalf of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Technologies Office. An analysis was performed to evaluate the hazards associated with debris thrown from one of SWiFT’s operating wind turbines, assuming a catastrophic failure. A Monte Carlo analysis was conducted to assess the complex variable space associated with debris throw hazards that included wind speed, wind direction, azimuth and pitch angles of the blade, and percentage of the blade that was separated. In addition, a set of high fidelity explicit dynamic finite element simulations were performed to determine the threshold impact energy envelope for the turbine control building located on-site. Assuming that all of the layered, independent, passive and active engineered safety systems and administrative procedures failed (a 100% failure rate of the safety systems), the likelihood of the control building being struck was calculated to be less than 5/10,000 and ballistic simulations showed that the control building would not provide passive protection for the majority of impact scenarios. Although options exist to improve the ballistic resistance of the control building, the recommendation is not to pursue them because there is a low probability of strike and there is an equal likelihood personnel could be located at similar distances in other areas of the SWiFT facility which are not passively protected, while the turbines are operating. A fenced exclusion area has been created around the turbines which restricts access to the boundary of the 1/100 strike probability. The overall recommendation is to neither relocate nor improve passive protection of the control building as the turbine safety systems have been improved to have no less than two independent, redundant, high quality engineered safety systems. Considering this, in combination with a control building strike probability of less than 5/10,000, the overall probability of turbine debris striking the control building is less than 1/1,000,000.

  2. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  3. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    2014-11-06

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  4. Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss031_rask_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling Advanced Technology Vehicle Benchmark and Assessment

  5. Range determination for scannerless imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muguira, Maritza Rosa; Sackos, John Theodore; Bradley, Bart Davis; Nellums, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A new method of operating a scannerless range imaging system (e.g., a scannerless laser radar) has been developed. This method is designed to compensate for nonlinear effects which appear in many real-world components. The system operates by determining the phase shift of the laser modulation, which is a physical quantity related physically to the path length between the laser source and the detector, for each pixel of an image.

  6. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  7. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  8. Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Catalysts For F-T SBCRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2006-01-31

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+ H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. The use of iron-(FE) based catalysts is attractive not only due to their low cost and ready availability, but also due to their high water-gas shift activity which makes it possible to use these catalysts with low H{sub 2}/CO ratios. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment; makes the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult, if not impossible; and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. Under a previous Department of Energy (DOE)/University Research Grant (UCR) grant, Hampton University reported, for the first time, the development of demonstrably attrition-resistant Fe F-T synthesis catalysts having good activity, selectivity, and attrition resistance. These catalysts were prepared by spray drying Fe catalysts with potassium (K), copper (Cu), and silica (SiO{sub 2}) as promoters. SiO{sub 2} was also used as a binder for spray drying. These catalysts were tested for activity and selectivity in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. Fundamental understanding of attrition is being addressed by incorporating suitable binders into the catalyst recipe. This has resulted in the preparation of a spray dried HPR-43 catalyst having average particle size (aps) of 70 {micro}m with high attrition resistance. This HPR-43 attrition resistant, active and selective catalyst gave 95% CO conversion through 125 hours of testing in a fixed-bed at 270 C, 1.48 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO=0.67 and 2.0 NL/g-cat/h with C{sub 5+} selectivity of >78% and methane selectivity of less than 5% at an {alpha} of 0.9. Research is proposed to enable further development and optimization of these catalysts by (1) better understanding the role and interrelationship of various catalyst composition and preparation parameters on attrition resistance, activity, and selectivity of these catalysts, (2) the presence of sulfide ions on a precipitated iron catalyst, and (3) the effect of water on sulfided iron F-T catalysts for its activity, selectivity, and attrition. Catalyst preparations will be based on spray drying. The research employed, among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis at high pressure. Catalyst activity and selectivity is evaluated using a small fixed-bed reactor and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation, followed by binder addition and spray drying at 250 C in a 1-m-diameter, 2-m-tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt%. The results show that the use of small amounts of precipitated SiO{sub 2} alone in spray-dried Fe catalysts can result in good attrition resistance. All catalysts investigated with SiO2 wt% {le} 12 produced fines less than 10 wt% during the jet cup attrition test, making them suitable for long-term use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Thus, concentration rather than the type of SiO{sub 2} incorporated into catalyst has a more critical impact on catalyst attrition resistance of spray-dried Fe catalysts. Lower amounts of SiO{sub 2} added to a catalyst give higher particle densities and therefore higher attrition resistances. In order to produce a suitable SBCR catalyst, however, the amount of SiO{sub 2} added has to be optimized to provide adequate surface area, particle density, and attrition resistance. Two of the catalysts with precipitated and binder silica were tested in Texas A&M University's CSTR (Autoclave Engineers). The two catalysts were also tested at The Center for Applied Energy Research in Lexington, Kentucky of the University of Kentucky. Spray-dried catalysts with compositions 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/11 (P) SiO{sub 2} and

  9. Extended-range tiltable micromirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.; Wiens, Gloria J.; Bronson, Jessica R.

    2009-05-05

    A tiltable micromirror device is disclosed in which a micromirror is suspended by a progressive linkage with an electrostatic actuator (e.g. a vertical comb actuator or a capacitive plate electrostatic actuator) being located beneath the micromirror. The progressive linkage includes a pair of torsion springs which are connected together to operate similar to a four-bar linkage with spring joints. The progressive linkage provides a non-linear spring constant which can allow the micromirror to be tilted at any angle within its range substantially free from any electrostatic instability or hysteretic behavior.

  10. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  11. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  12. Coverage Range Retiree Only Retiree

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coverage Range Retiree Only Retiree and Spouse $10,000 7.00 $ 10.80 $ $20,000 14.00 $ 21.60 $ $25,000 17.50 $ 27.00 $ $30,000 21.00 $ 32.40 $ $40,000 28.00 $ 43.20 $ $50,000 35.00 $ 54.00 $ $60,000 42.00 $ 64.80 $ $70,000 49.00 $ 75.60 $ $80,000 56.00 $ 86.40 $ $90,000 63.00 $ 97.20 $ $100,000 70.00 $ 108.00 $ $150,000 105.00 $ 162.00 $ $200,000 140.00 $ 216.00 $ $250,000 175.00 $ 270.00 $ LANL Annual AD&D Retiree Insurance Premiums (Rates shown are paid by the partic

  13. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  14. Distributed computing strategies for processing of FT-ICR MS imaging datasets for continuous mode data visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Donald F.; Schulz, Carl; Konijnenburg, Marco; Kilic, Mehmet; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry imaging enables the spatial mapping and identification of biomolecules from complex surfaces. The need for long time-domain transients, and thus large raw file sizes, results in a large amount of raw data (“big data”) that must be processed efficiently and rapidly. This can be compounded by largearea imaging and/or high spatial resolution imaging. For FT-ICR, data processing and data reduction must not compromise the high mass resolution afforded by the mass spectrometer. The continuous mode “Mosaic Datacube” approach allows high mass resolution visualization (0.001 Da) of mass spectrometry imaging data, but requires additional processing as compared to featurebased processing. We describe the use of distributed computing for processing of FT-ICR MS imaging datasets with generation of continuous mode Mosaic Datacubes for high mass resolution visualization. An eight-fold improvement in processing time is demonstrated using a Dutch nationally available cloud service.

  15. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, A.H.

    1996-03-21

    The investigation of the effect of certain promoters (Fe, Pd, and Ru) on the deactivation characteristics of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis was continued during this reporting period. All catalysts were tested first at 220{degrees}C, then at higher temperatures from 240 to 280{degrees}C, while monitoring their deactivation. The choice of these promoters was based on their intrinsic ability to enhance the hydrogenation reactions while slowing down the Boudouard reaction under the conditions used in F-T synthesis. Olefin hydrogenation and CO dissociation reactions were used individually to investigate further the nature of the deactivation process of these catalyst during F-T synthesis. Hydrogenation of isobutene (IB) was carried out in the presence of CO between 120 and 180{degrees}C and atmospheric pressure. CO dissociation activities of the catalysts were measured using a pulse technique at 2.5 atm and at temperatures between 180 and 280{degrees}C with intermittent H{sub 2} bracketing at 350{degrees}C. Promotion with high loadings of Fe or Pd resulted in catalysts with relatively lower activity and higher methane selectivity. The deactivation process and rate for catalysts containing Pd or Fe were similar to those of the non-promoted or Ru-promoted alumina-supported Co catalysts tested previously. The only exception was Co.068 with 1% Pd which had adequate activity and selectivity as well as lower deactivation rate at the various temperatures tested.

  16. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  17. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  18. Identification Of Rippability And Bedrock Depth Using Seismic Refraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, Nur Azwin; Saad, Rosli; Nawawi, M. N. M; Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer; Mohamad, Edy Tonizam

    2010-12-23

    Spatial variability of the bedrock with reference to the ground surface is vital for many applications in geotechnical engineering to decide the type of foundation of a structure. A study was done within the development area of Mutiara Damansara utilising the seismic refraction method using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph. The geological features of the subsurface were investigated and velocities, depth to the underlying layers were determined. The seismic velocities were correlated with rippability characteristics and borehole records. Seismic sections generally show a three layer case. The first layer with velocity 400-600 m/s predominantly consists of soil mix with gravel. The second layer with velocity 1600-2000 m/s is suggested to be saturated and weathered area. Both layers forms an overburden and generally rippable. The third layer represents granite bedrock with average depth and velocity 10-30 m and >3000 m/s respectively and it is non-rippable. Steep slope on the bedrock are probably the results of shear zones.

  19. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prommapan, Plegchart

    2011-08-15

    A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 0.7}P{sub 0.3}){sub 2} (BaP122). These phenomena probably coincide with anomalous Meissner effect reported in pnicitde superconductors [Prozorov et al. (2010b)] however more studies are needed in order to clarify this.

  20. An in-depth longitudinal analysis of mixing patterns in a small scientific collaboration network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pepe, Alberto [UCLA

    2009-01-01

    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on large-scale statistical analyses of networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a small-scale network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research center involved in the development and application of sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortativity mixing of these node characteristics: academic department, affiliation, position, and country of origin of the individuals in the network. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration.

  1. Front Range Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Logo: Front Range Energy LLC Name: Front Range Energy LLC Address: 31375 Great Western Dr Place: Windsor, Colorado Zip: 80550 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biofuels...

  2. Viability of the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology for general potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haro, Jaume; Amors, Jaume E-mail: jaume.amoros@upc.edu

    2014-12-01

    We consider the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for phenomenological potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding or contracting phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these potentials, numerically solving the dynamical perturbation equations we have seen that, for the particular F(T) model that we will name teleparallel version of LQC, and whose modified Friedmann equation coincides with the corresponding one in holonomy corrected LQC when one deals with the flat Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry, the corresponding equations obtained from the well-know perturbed equations in F(T) gravity lead to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in this teleparallel version of LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with Planck's experimental data. On the other hand, in the standard holonomy corrected LQC, using the perturbed equations obtained replacing the Ashtekar connection by a suitable sinus function and inserting some counter-terms in order to preserve the algebra of constrains, the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in the teleparallel version, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with Planck's data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.

  3. Accelerated Aging of BKC 44306-10 Rigid Polyurethane Foam: FT-IR Spectroscopy, Dimensional Analysis, and Micro Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbertson, Robert D.; Patterson, Brian M.; Smith, Zachary

    2014-01-02

    An accelerated aging study of BKC 44306-10 rigid polyurethane foam was carried out. Foam samples were aged in a nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures: 50 C, 65 C, and 80 C. Foam samples were periodically removed from the aging canisters at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 month intervals when FT-IR spectroscopy, dimensional analysis, and mechanical testing experiments were performed. Micro Computed Tomography imaging was also employed to study the morphology of the foams. Over the course of the aging study the foams the decreased in size by a magnitude of 0.001 inches per inch of foam. Micro CT showed the heterogeneous nature of the foam structure likely resulting from flow effects during the molding process. The effect of aging on the compression and tensile strength of the foam was minor and no cause for concern. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the foam chemistry. However, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the changes in chemical nature of the materials due to large variability throughout the samples.

  4. Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Oliver Astley 2014.11.12 The challenges of ...

  5. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument ...

  6. Tunnel and Subsurface Void Detection and Range to Target Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip B. West

    2009-06-01

    Engineers and technicians at the Idaho National Laboratory invented, designed, built and tested a device capable of detecting and measuring the distance to, an underground void, or tunnel. Preliminary tests demonstrated positive detection of, and range to, a void thru as much as 30 meters of top-soil earth. Device uses acoustic driving point impedance principles pioneered by the Laboratory for well-bore physical properties logging. Data receipts recorded by the device indicates constructive-destructive interference patterns characteristic of acoustic wave reflection from a downward step-change in impedance mismatch. Prototype tests demonstrated that interference patterns in receipt waves could depict the patterns indicative of specific distances. A tool with this capability can quickly (in seconds) indicate the presence and depth/distance of a void or tunnel. Using such a device, border security and military personnel can identify threats of intrusion or weapons caches in most all soil conditions including moist and rocky.

  7. Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Physics Long Range Plan June 26, 2014 For a couple of years now, we have been waiting to get started on the next nuclear physics long range plan (LRP). What does that mean? ...

  8. Viking Range: Order (2014-CE-23014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Viking Range, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Viking Range had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. American Range: Order (2014-CE-23006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Range Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Range had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Final Report - Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth for Underground Test Area (UGTA) Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Oberlander; D. McGraw; C. Russell

    2007-10-31

    Hydraulic conductivity with depth has been calculated for Underground Test Area (UGTA) wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock. The following wells in volcanic tuff are evaluated: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-2a, ER-EC-4, ER-EC-5, ER-5-4#2, ER-EC-6, ER-EC-7, and ER-EC-8. The following wells in carbonate rock are evaluated: ER-7-1, ER-6-1, ER-6-1#2, and ER-12-3. There are a sufficient number of wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock to associate the conductivity values with the specific hydrogeologic characteristics such as the stratigraphic unit, hydrostratigraphic unit, hydrogeologic unit, lithologic modifier, and alteration modifier used to describe the hydrogeologic setting. Associating hydraulic conductivity with hydrogeologic characteristics allows an evaluation of the data range and the statistical distribution of values. These results are relevant to how these units are considered in conceptual models and represented in groundwater models. The wells in volcanic tuff illustrate a wide range of data values and data distributions when associated with specific hydrogeologic characteristics. Hydraulic conductivity data within a hydrogeologic characteristic can display normal distributions, lognormal distributions, semi-uniform distribution, or no identifiable distribution. There can be multiple types of distributions within a hydrogeologic characteristic such as a single stratigraphic unit. This finding has implications for assigning summary hydrogeologic characteristics to hydrostratigraphic and hydrogeologic units. The results presented herein are specific to the hydrogeologic characteristic and to the wells used to describe hydraulic conductivity. The wells in carbonate rock are associated with a fewer number of hydrogeologic characteristics. That is, UGTA wells constructed in carbonate rock have tended to be in similar hydrogeologic materials, and show a wide range in hydraulic conductivity values and data distributions. Associations of hydraulic conductivity and hydrogeologic characteristics are graphically presented even when there are only a few data. This approach benchmarks what is currently known about the association of depth-specific hydraulic conductivity and hydrogeologic characteristics.

  11. Monte Carlo study of the depth-dependent fluence perturbation in parallel-plate ionization chambers in electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink, K.; Czarnecki, D.; Voigts-Rhetz, P. von; Looe, H. K.; Harder, D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The electron fluence inside a parallel-plate ionization chamber positioned in a water phantom and exposed to a clinical electron beam deviates from the unperturbed fluence in water in absence of the chamber. One reason for the fluence perturbation is the well-known inscattering effect, whose physical cause is the lack of electron scattering in the gas-filled cavity. Correction factors determined to correct for this effect have long been recommended. However, more recent Monte Carlo calculations have led to some doubt about the range of validity of these corrections. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to reanalyze the development of the fluence perturbation with depth and to review the function of the guard rings. Methods: Spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the dose profiles within gas-filled cavities with various radii in clinical electron beams have been performed in order to determine the radial variation of the fluence perturbation in a coin-shaped cavity, to study the influences of the radius of the collecting electrode and of the width of the guard ring upon the indicated value of the ionization chamber formed by the cavity, and to investigate the development of the perturbation as a function of the depth in an electron-irradiated phantom. The simulations were performed for a primary electron energy of 6 MeV. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrated a surprisingly large in- and outward electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary. This results in a strong influence of the depth-dependent development of the electron field in the surrounding medium upon the chamber reading. In the buildup region of the depth-dose curve, the inout balance of the electron fluence is positive and shows the well-known dose oscillation near the cavity/water boundary. At the depth of the dose maximum the inout balance is equilibrated, and in the falling part of the depth-dose curve it is negative, as shown here the first time. The influences of both the collecting electrode radius and the width of the guard ring are reflecting the deep radial penetration of the electron transport processes into the gas-filled cavities and the need for appropriate corrections of the chamber reading. New values for these corrections have been established in two forms, one converting the indicated value into the absorbed dose to water in the front plane of the chamber, the other converting it into the absorbed dose to water at the depth of the effective point of measurement of the chamber. In the Appendix, the inout imbalance of electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary is demonstrated in the approximation of classical small-angle multiple scattering theory. Conclusions: The inout electron transport imbalance at the lateral boundaries of parallel-plate chambers in electron beams has been studied with Monte Carlo simulation over a range of depth in water, and new correction factors, covering all depths and implementing the effective point of measurement concept, have been developed.

  12. Range Fuels Commercial-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Range Fuels commercial-scale biorefinery will use a variety of feedstocks to create cellulosic ethanol, methanol, and power.

  13. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.1, Effects of supports and promoters on cobalt F-T catalyst behavior in fixed bed vs. slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1995-01-17

    A series of cobalt-based F-T catalysts supported on alumina, silica, or titania were prepared with Ru and/or ZrO{sub 2} as promoters. All catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts were evaluated in terms of their activity and selectivity both in fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactors. Similar trends were observed in both reactors for support effects. However, this was not the case for the effects of promoters. Noble metal promotion effects were much more accentuated in the fixed bed reactor than under slurry bubble column reaction conditions, while the opposite seemed to hold true in the case of ZrO{sub 2} promotion effects, at least for SiO{sub 2}-supported Co catalysts.

  14. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei X.; Braverman J.; Miranda, M.; Rosario, M.E.; Costantino, C.J.

    2015-02-25

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  15. Conceptual design report for the project to install leak detection in FAST-FT-534/548/549

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, K.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report provides conceptual designs and design recommendations for installing secondary containment and leak detection systems for three sumps at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST), CPP-666. The FAST facility is located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The three sumps receive various materials from the FAST water treatment process. This project involves sump upgrades to meet appropriate environmental requirements. The steps include: providing sump modifications or designs for the installation of leak chases and/or leakage accumulation, coating the sump concrete with a chemical resistant sealant (except for sump VES-FT-534 which is already lined with stainless steel) to act as secondary containment, lining the sumps with a primary containment system, and providing a means to detect and remove primary containment leakage that may occur.

  16. American Range: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Range Corporation failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation effects. Abstract not provided. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: ...

  18. Magnetotellurics At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  19. Range Design Criteria- June 4, 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the currently-approved firearms "Range Design Criteria" referred to on DOE O 473.3, Protection Program Operations

  20. Viking Range: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Viking Range, LLC failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. Milestone Report - M3FT-15OR03120215 - Recommend HIP Conditions for AgZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to continue research to determine if HIPing could directly convert I-Ag0Z into a suitable waste form. Fiscal year (FY) 2015 work completed studies of Phase IIA, IIB, and IIC samples. Product consistency testing (PCT) of Phase IIA samples resulted in iodine release below detection limit for six of twelve samples. This is promising and indicates that a durable waste form may be produced through HIPing even if transformation of the zeolite to a distinct mineral phase does not occur. From PCT results of Phase IIA samples, it was determined that future pressing should be conducted at a temperature of 900°C. Phase IIC testing continued production of samples to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional variations, and an expanded temperature range. The density of each sample was determined and x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were obtained. In all cases, there was nothing in the XRD analyses to indicate the creation of any AgI-containing silicon phase; the samples were found to be largely amorphous.

  2. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-12-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  3. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  4. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  5. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  6. Help:Range blocks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    accounts editing from these IP addresses will also be blocked, unless you check the box to only block anonymous editors. Range blocking is enabled on all Wikimedia wikis; to...

  7. Programmable near-infrared ranging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, Jr., Hobart R. (San Diego, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A high angular resolution ranging system particularly suitable for indoor plications involving mobile robot navigation and collision avoidance uses a programmable array of light emitters that can be sequentially incremented by a microprocessor. A plurality of adjustable level threshold detectors are used in an optical receiver for detecting the threshold level of the light echoes produced when light emitted from one or more of the emitters is reflected by a target or object in the scan path of the ranging system.

  8. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

  9. Two weight system for measuring depth and sediment in slurry-supported excavations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deming, P.; Good, D.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a two weight system using bar and flat shaped weights for measuring depth and detecting sediment at the bottom of slurry-supported excavations. Currently there are no standard depth measurement weights or methods for reliably identifying bottom sediment. Two weights and a procedural system for using the weights is described. Details suitable for manufacture are provided.

  10. Method for determining depth and shape of a sub-surface conductive object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, Jr.

    1984-06-27

    The depth to and size of an underground object may be determined by sweeping a controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) signal and locating a peak response when the receiver spans the edge of the object. The depth of the object is one quarter wavelength in the subsurface media of the frequency of the peak. 3 figures.

  11. Using the depth-velocity-size diagram to interpret equilibrium bed configurations in river flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southard, J.B. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Data from flume studies that report equilibrium bed configuration as well as water temperature, flow depth, flow velocity, and sediment size were used to develop the best approximation to the relationships among the various bed phases (ripples, dunes, lower regime plane bed, upper regime plane bed, and antidunes) in a three-axis graph (depth-velocity-size diagram) with dimensionless measures of mean flow depth, mean flow velocity, and sediment size along the axis. Relationships are shown in a series of depth-velocity and velocity-size sections through the diagram. Boundaries between bed-phase stability fields are drawn as surfaces that minimize, misplacement of data points. A large subset of the data, for which reliable values of bed shear stress are reported, was also used to represent the stability relationships in a graph of dimensionless boundary shear stress against dimensionless sediment size, but with results less useful for fluvial flow interpretation. The diagram covers about one order of magnitude in flow depth. To be useful for river flows, the diagram must be extrapolated in flow depth by about one more order of magnitude, but this is not a serious problem for approximate work. The depth-velocity-size diagram permits prediction of equilibrium bed configuration in river flows when the approximate flow depth and mean flow velocity are known. Because the diagram is essentially dimensionless, the effect of water temperature (via the fluid viscosity) on the bed configuration is easily accounted for by use of the diagram.

  12. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  13. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  14. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  15. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  16. Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking November 6, 2007 - 5:00pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Secretary Bodman Thank you. And let me say how much it means to have my old friend Vinodh here to introduce me. You are a true pioneer in this industry. I also want to thank Mitch for asking me to be here. It's good to see Tom Dorr from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, our partner in so much of the federal government's biomass research and development and

  17. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sixsmith, H.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Nutt, W.E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof. 6 figures.

  18. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-01-01

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  19. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnside, W.D.; Rudduck, R.C.; Yu, J.S.

    1987-02-27

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector. 2 figs.

  20. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-09-08

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling. 25 figs.

  1. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-08

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna (10), so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive (24) and transmit cavities (22) by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling.

  2. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sixsmith, Herbert; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Nutt, William E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof.

  3. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.

    1998-01-01

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time.

  4. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.

    1998-04-28

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time. 12 figs.

  5. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  6. Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Depth profiling for the amount of lattice damage using a Confocal Micro-Raman (CMR) spectrometer is demonstrated in this paper. Samples of n-type silicon carbide were implanted with 2 MeV He and O ions at both room temperature and 500 C, and fluences between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 17}

  7. SWiFT Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  8. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  9. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. Mishra, X. Zhang, K. Chesnel, J.B. Kortright, S.K. Sinha, and I.K. Schuller,, "Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange Bias System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 047201...

  10. NREL Takes First In-Depth Look at Solar Project Completion Timelines...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Takes First In-Depth Look at Solar Project Completion Timelines Report examines new data to show how long the PV interconnection process takes in the U.S. February 11, 2015 The ...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking- Level 2 (in-depth)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about level 2 (in-depth...

  12. Method of varying a physical property of a material through its depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-04-21

    A method is disclosed for varying a mechanical property of a material at two depths. The method involves the application of at least two laser pulses of different durations. The method involves a determination of the density of the material from the surface to each depth, a determination of the heat capacity of the material from the surface to each depth, and a determination of the thermal conductivity of the material from the surface to each depth. Each laser pulse may affect the density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the material, so it may be necessary to re-evaluate those parameters after each laser pulse and prior to the next pulse. The method may be applied to implantation materials to improve osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  13. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

  14. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

  15. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

  16. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

  17. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

  18. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Wednesday, 25 January 2006 00:00 The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used

  19. Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Gianelli, Scott Columbia University - NASA/GISS Lacis, Andrew NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Carlson, Barbara NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Category: Aerosols Bimodal aerosol retrievals, and high-resolution retrevals of nitrogen dioxide, are performed on the Langley optical depth data from the RSS 103 device

  20. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  1. Non-destructive in-situ method and apparatus for determining radionuclide depth in media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, X. George; Naessens, Edward P.

    2003-01-01

    A non-destructive method and apparatus which is based on in-situ gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the depth of radiological contamination in media such as concrete. An algorithm, Gamma Penetration Depth Unfolding Algorithm (GPDUA), uses point kernel techniques to predict the depth of contamination based on the results of uncollided peak information from the in-situ gamma spectroscopy. The invention is better, faster, safer, and/cheaper than the current practice in decontamination and decommissioning of facilities that are slow, rough and unsafe. The invention uses a priori knowledge of the contaminant source distribution. The applicable radiological contaminants of interest are any isotopes that emit two or more gamma rays per disintegration or isotopes that emit a single gamma ray but have gamma-emitting progeny in secular equilibrium with its parent (e.g., .sup.60 Co, .sup.235 U, and .sup.137 Cs to name a few). The predicted depths from the GPDUA algorithm using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) simulations and laboratory experiments using .sup.60 Co have consistently produced predicted depths within 20% of the actual or known depth.

  2. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-06-04

    We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

  3. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van der Laan, J. D.; Sandia National Lab.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists bettermore » than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.« less

  4. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Laan, J. D.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists better than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.

  5. Long Range Interactions in Nanoscale Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Podgonik, Rudolph; Rajter, Rick; Jagota, Anand; Luo, Jian; Asthagiri, Dilip; Chaudhury, Manoj; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Granick, Steve; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kardar, Mehran; Kjellander, Roland; Langreth, David C.; Lewis, Jennifer; Lustig, Steve; Wesolowski, David J; Wettlaufer, John; Ching, Wai-Yim; Finnis, Mike; Houlihan, Frank; Von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Van Oss, Carel; Zemb, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the long range electrodynamic, electrostatic, and polar interactions that dominate the organization of small objects at separations beyond an interatomic bond length is reviewed. From this basic-forces perspective, a large number of systems are described from which one can learn about these organizing forces and how to modulate them. The many practical systems that harness these nanoscale forces are then surveyed. The survey reveals not only the promise of new devices and materials, but also the possibility of designing them more effectively.

  6. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required.

  7. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  8. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  9. Ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brashear, Hugh R.; Blair, Michael S.; Phelps, James E.; Bauer, Martin L.; Nowlin, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic ranging and data telemetry system determines a surveyor's position and automatically links it with other simultaneously taken survey data. An ultrasonic and radio frequency (rf) transmitter are carried by the surveyor in a backpack. The surveyor's position is determined by calculations that use the measured transmission times of an airborne ultrasonic pulse transmitted from the backpack to two or more prepositioned ultrasonic transceivers. Once a second, rf communications are used both to synchronize the ultrasonic pulse transmission-time measurements and to transmit other simultaneously taken survey data. The rf communications are interpreted by a portable receiver and microcomputer which are brought to the property site. A video display attached to the computer provides real-time visual monitoring of the survey progress and site coverage.

  10. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  11. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  12. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2008-09-02

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  13. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2009-02-24

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  14. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  15. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

  16. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

  17. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  19. Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, L.J.; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H.

    1997-02-01

    This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

  20. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  1. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  2. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  3. Influence of nuclear interactions in polyethylene range compensators for carbon-ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa; Himukai, Takeshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: A recent study revealed that polyethylene (PE) would cause extra carbon-ion attenuation per range shift by 0.45%/cm due to compositional differences in nuclear interactions. The present study aims to assess the influence of PE range compensators on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Methods: Carbon-ion radiation was modeled to be composed of primary carbon ions and secondary particles, for each of which the dose and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were estimated at a tumor depth in the middle of spread-out Bragg peak. Assuming exponential behavior for attenuation and yield of these components with depth, the PE effect on dose was calculated for clinical carbon-ion beams and was partly tested by experiment. The two-component model was integrated into a treatment-planning system and the PE effect was estimated in two clinical cases. Results: The attenuation per range shift by PE was 0.1%0.3%/cm in dose and 0.2%0.4%/cm in RBE-weighted dose, depending on energy and range-modulation width. This translates into reduction of RBE-weighted dose by up to 3% in extreme cases. In the treatment-planning study, however, the effect on RBE-weighted dose to tumor was typically within 1% reduction. Conclusions: The extra attenuation of primary carbon ions in PE was partly compensated by increased secondary particles for tumor dose. In practical situations, the PE range compensators would normally cause only marginal errors as compared to intrinsic uncertainties in treatment planning, patient setup, beam delivery, and clinical response.

  4. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  5. Measurement of the Muon Atmospheric Production Depth with the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina Bueno, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are particles of uncertain origin and composition, with energies above 1 EeV (1018 eV or 0.16 J). The measured flux of UHECR is a steeply decreasing function of energy. The largest and most sensitive apparatus built to date to record and study cosmic ray Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory has produced the largest and finest amount of data ever collected for UHECR. A broad physics program is being carried out covering all relevant topics of the field. Among them, one of the most interesting is the problem related to the estimation of the mass composition of cosmic rays in this energy range. Currently the best measurements of mass are those obtained by studying the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic part of the EAS with the Fluorescence Detector. However, the collected statistics is small, specially at energies above several tens of EeV. Although less precise, the volume of data gathered with the Surface Detector is nearly a factor ten larger than the fluorescence data. So new ways to study composition with data collected at the ground are under investigation. The subject of this thesis follows one of those new lines of research. Using preferentially the time information associated with the muons that reach the ground, we try to build observables related to the composition of the primaries that initiated the EAS. A simple phenomenological model relates the arrival times with the depths in the atmosphere where muons are produced. The experimental confirmation that the distributions of muon production depths (MPD) correlate with the mass of the primary particle has opened the way to a variety of studies, of which this thesis is a continuation, with the aim of enlarging and improving its range of applicability. We revisit the phenomenological model which is at the root of the analysis and discuss a new way to improve some aspects of the model. We carry out a thorough revision of the original analysis with the aim of understanding the different contributions to the total bias and resolution when building MPDs on an event-by-event basis. We focus on an alternative way to build MPDs by considering average MPDs for ensembles of air-showers, with the aim of enlarging the range of applicability of this kind of analysis. Finally, we analyze how different improvements in the Surface Detector electronics and its internal configuration affect the resolution of the MPD. We conclude by summarizing the main results and discussing potential ways to improve MPD-based mass composition studies.

  6. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  7. ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling Of Insulating Samples, Interlaced Mode Or Non-interlaced Mode?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2014-11-01

    Dual beam depth profiling strategy has been widely adopted in ToF-SIMS depth profiling, in which two basic operation modes, interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode, are commonly used. Generally, interlaced mode is recommended for conductive or semi-conductive samples, whereas non-interlaced mode is recommended for insulating samples, where charge compensation can be an issue. Recent publications, however, show that the interlaced mode can be used effectively for glass depth profiling, despite the fact that glass is an insulator. In this study, we provide a simple guide for choosing between interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode for insulator depth profiling. Two representative cases are presented: (1) depth profiling of a leached glass sample, and (2) depth profiling of a single crystal MgO sample. In brief, the interlaced mode should be attempted first, because (1) it may provide reasonable-quality data, and (2) it is time-saving for most cases, and (3) it introduces low H/C/O background. If data quality is the top priority and measurement time is flexible, non-interlaced mode is recommended because interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity and poor mass resolution. A big challenge is tracking trace H/C/O in a highly insulating sample (e.g., MgO), because non-interlaced mode may introduce strong H/C/O background but interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity. Meanwhile, a C or Au coating is found to be very effective to improve the signal intensity. Surprisingly, the best analyzing location is not on the C or Au coating, but at the edge (outside) of the coating.

  8. LINKING Lyα AND LOW-IONIZATION TRANSITIONS AT LOW OPTICAL DEPTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-08-20

    We suggest that low optical depth in the Lyman continuum (LyC) may relate the Lyα emission, C II and Si II absorption, and C II* and Si II* emission seen in high-redshift galaxies. We base this analysis on Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectra of four Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which may be analogs of z > 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs). In the two GPs with the strongest Lyα emission, the Lyα line profiles show reduced signs of resonant scattering. Instead, the Lyα profiles resemble the Hα line profiles of evolved star ejecta, suggesting that the Lyα emission originates from a low column density and similar outflow geometry. The weak C II absorption and presence of non-resonant C II* emission in these GPs support this interpretation and imply a low LyC optical depth along the line of sight. In two additional GPs, weak Lyα emission and strong C II absorption suggest a higher optical depth. These two GPs differ in their Lyα profile shapes and C II* emission strengths, however, indicating different inclinations of the outflows to our line of sight. With these four GPs as examples, we explain the observed trends linking Lyα, C II, and C II* in stacked LAE spectra, in the context of optical depth and geometric effects. Specifically, in some galaxies with strong Lyα emission, a low LyC optical depth may allow Lyα to escape with reduced scattering. Furthermore, C II absorption, C II* emission, and Lyα profile shape can reveal the optical depth, constrain the orientation of neutral outflows in LAEs, and identify candidate LyC emitters.

  9. In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs January 7, 2014 - 5:30pm Addthis These solar power collection dishes at Sandia National Labs' National Solar Thermal Test Facility are capable of some of the highest solar to electricity conversion. In January 2008, this technology set a new solar-to-grid system conversion efficiency record of 31.25 percent net efficiency rate; the technology is still available to benefit the U.S. by delivering power at all hours

  10. Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    behavior in a crystal featuring a skin layer with defects (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover behavior in a crystal featuring a skin layer with defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover behavior in a crystal featuring a skin layer with defects Structural defects in a crystal are responsible for the ''two-length-scale'' behavior in which a sharp

  11. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  12. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  13. Secure distance ranging by electronic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritton, Dale G.

    1992-01-01

    A system for secure distance ranging between a reader 11 and a tag 12 wherein the distance between the two is determined by the time it takes to propagate a signal from the reader to the tag and for a responsive signal to return, and in which such time is random and unpredictable, except to the reader, even though the distance between the reader and tag remains the same. A random number (19) is sent from the reader and encrypted (26) by the tag into a number having 16 segments of 4 bits each (28). A first tag signal (31) is sent after such encryption. In response, a random width start pulse (13) is generated by the reader. When received in the tag, the width of the start pulse is measured (41) in the tag and a segment of the encrypted number is selected (42) in accordance with such width. A second tag pulse is generated at a time T after the start pulse arrives at the tag, the time T being dependent on the length of a variable time delay t.sub.v which is determined by the value of the bits in the selected segment of the encrypted number. At the reader, the total time from the beginning of the start pulse to the receipt of the second tag signal is measured (36, 37). The value of t.sub.v (21, 22, 23, 34) is known at the reader and the time T is subtracted (46) from the total time to find the actual propagation t.sub.p for signals to travel between the reader 11 and tag 12. The propagation time is then converted into distance (46).

  14. NanoLC-FT-ICR MS improves proteome coverage attainable for ~3000 laser microdissected breast carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umar, Arzu; Luider, Theo N.; Foekens, J. A.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana

    2007-01-29

    Genomics and proteomics assays hold great promise for unrevealing molecular events that underlie human disease. Essential to this quest is the ability to effectively analyze clinical samples, but this task is considerably complicated by tissue heterogeneity. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) can be used to selectively isolate targeted cell populations (such as tumor cells) from their native tissue environment. However, the small number of cells that are typically procured by LCM severely limits the proteome coverage and biomarker discovery potential achievable by conventional proteomics platforms. Herein, we report on the use of a nano liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion clyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (nLC-FTICR MS) platform for analyzing protein digests of approximately 3,000 LCM-derived tumor cells from breast carcinoma tissue, which corresponds to approximately 300 ng of total protein. A total of 2,836 peptides were identified by matching LC-MS data to accurate mass and time (AMT) tag databases that were previously established for the human mammary epithelium and several breast cancer cell lines. The peptide identifications correspond to 1,139 unique proteins confidently identified with 2 or more peptides. Based on categorization by Gene Ontology, identified proteins appear to cover a wide variety of biological functions and cellular compartments. This work demonstrates that a substantial number of proteins can be identified from a limited number of cells using the AMT tag approach and opens a door for high throughput in-depth proteomics analysis of clinical samples.

  15. Method and system for determining depth distribution of radiation-emitting material located in a source medium and radiation detector system for use therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benke, Roland R.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2003-03-04

    A method, system and a radiation detector system for use therein are provided for determining the depth distribution of radiation-emitting material distributed in a source medium, such as a contaminated field, without the need to take samples, such as extensive soil samples, to determine the depth distribution. The system includes a portable detector assembly with an x-ray or gamma-ray detector having a detector axis for detecting the emitted radiation. The radiation may be naturally-emitted by the material, such as gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, or emitted when the material is struck by other radiation. The assembly also includes a hollow collimator in which the detector is positioned. The collimator causes the emitted radiation to bend toward the detector as rays parallel to the detector axis of the detector. The collimator may be a hollow cylinder positioned so that its central axis is perpendicular to the upper surface of the large area source when positioned thereon. The collimator allows the detector to angularly sample the emitted radiation over many ranges of polar angles. This is done by forming the collimator as a single adjustable collimator or a set of collimator pieces having various possible configurations when connected together. In any one configuration, the collimator allows the detector to detect only the radiation emitted from a selected range of polar angles measured from the detector axis. Adjustment of the collimator or the detector therein enables the detector to detect radiation emitted from a different range of polar angles. The system further includes a signal processor for processing the signals from the detector wherein signals obtained from different ranges of polar angles are processed together to obtain a reconstruction of the radiation-emitting material as a function of depth, assuming, but not limited to, a spatially-uniform depth distribution of the material within each layer. The detector system includes detectors having different properties (sensitivity, energy resolution) which are combined so that excellent spectral information may be obtained along with good determinations of the radiation field as a function of position.

  16. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomersmore » and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.« less

  17. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  18. Direct observation of surface ethyl to ethane interconversion uponC2H4 hydrogenation over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2004-12-10

    Time-resolved FT-IR spectra of ethylene hydrogenation over alumina-supported Pt catalyst were recorded at 25 ms resolution in the temperature range 323 to 473 K using various H2 flow rates (1 atm total gas pressure). Surface ethyl species (2870 and 1200 cm-1) were detected at all temperatures along with the gas phase ethane product (2954 and 2893 cm-1). The CH3CH2Pt growth was instantaneous on the time scale of 25ms under all experimental conditions. At 323 K, the decay time of surface ethyl (122 + 10 ms) coincides with the rise time of C2H6 (144 + 14 ms).This establishes direct kinetic evidence for surface ethyl as the kinetically relevant intermediate. Such a direct link between the temporal behavior of an observed intermediate and the final product growth in a heterogeneous catalytic system has not been demonstrated before to our knowledge. A fraction (10 percent) of the asymptotic ethane growth at 323 K is prompt, indicating that there are surface ethyl species that react much faster than the majority of the CH3CH2Pt intermediates. The dispersive kinetics is attributed to the varying strength of interaction of the ethyl species with the Pt surface caused by heterogeneity of the surface environment. At 473 K, the majority of ethyl intermediates are hydrogenated prior to the recording of the first time slice (24 ms), and a correspondingly large prompt growth of ethane is observed. The yield and kinetics of the surface ethylidyne are in agreement with the known spectator nature of this species.

  19. Range-gated field disturbance sensor with range-sensitivity compensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-28

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudorandomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. 8 figs.

  20. Range-gated field disturbance sensor with range-sensitivity compensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudorandomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies.

  1. Geographic Information System At Nw Basin & Range Region (Nash...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nw Basin & Range Region (Nash & Johnson, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Nw Basin & Range...

  2. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) You are ...

  3. Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Basin and Range Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Details Areas (51) Power Plants (10)...

  4. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of...

  5. Title Preactivity Survey Report for Five Tonopah Test Range Explosive...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Preactivity Survey Report for Five Tonopah Test Range Explosive Ordnance Disposal Sites ... PREACTIVITY AND RECLAMATION SURVEY REPORTS FOR FIVE TONOPAH TEST RANGE EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE ...

  6. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the ... Title: Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National ...

  7. New Compressor Concept Improves Efficiency and Operation Range...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressor Concept Improves Efficiency and Operation Range New Compressor Concept Improves Efficiency and Operation Range Advanced turbocharger compressor design with active casing ...

  8. Fact #797: September 16, 2013 Driving Ranges for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The figure below shows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) driving ranges for ... not directly match EPA-stated ranges that were obtained through actual vehicle testing. ...

  9. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Authors: ...

  10. Long Range Neutron Detection: A Progress Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long Range Neutron Detection: A Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long Range Neutron Detection: A Progress Report You are accessing a document from the ...

  11. Long Range Neutron Detection: A Progress Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long Range Neutron Detection: A Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long Range Neutron Detection: A Progress Report The detection of neutron sources horn a ...

  12. Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area (Redirected from Nevada Test And Training Range Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Nevada Test And...

  13. Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Nevada Test And Training Range Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview...

  14. Fallon Test Ranges Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Test Ranges Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Fallon Test Ranges Geothermal Project Project Location Information...

  15. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

    2015-12-08

    Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

  16. Surface hardening of titanium alloys with melting depth controlled by heat sink

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L.; Turner, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for forming a hard surface coating on titanium alloys includes providing a piece of material containing titanium having at least a portion of one surface to be hardened. The piece having a portion of a surface to be hardened is contacted on the backside by a suitable heat sink such that the melting depth of said surface to be hardened may be controlled. A hardening material is then deposited as a slurry. Alternate methods of deposition include flame, arc, or plasma spraying, electrodeposition, vapor deposition, or any other deposition method known by those skilled in the art. The surface to be hardened is then selectively melted to the desired depth, dependent on the desired coating thickness, such that a molten pool is formed of the piece surface and the deposited hardening material. Upon cooling a hardened surface is formed.

  17. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401

  18. New method to determine planetary boundary layer depth | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) New method to determine planetary boundary layer depth Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC

  19. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-129 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product A Koontz C Flynn G Hodges J Michalsky J Barnard March 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use

  20. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  1. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

  2. Determination of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H by hydrogen depth profiling with a tritium imaging plate technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higaki, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2015-03-15

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) and an oxide dispersion strengthened F82H (ODS-F82H) have been determined from depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen with a tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) in the temperature range from 298 K to 523 K. Data on hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D, in F82H, are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =1.1*10{sup -7}exp(-16[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT). The present data indicate almost no trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion due to an excess entry of energetic hydrogen by the plasma loading, which results in saturation of the trapping sites at the surface and even in the bulk. In the case of ODS-F82H, data of hydrogen diffusion coefficients are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =2.2*10{sup -7}exp(-30[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT) indicating a remarkable trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion caused by tiny oxide particles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the bulk of F82H. Such oxide particles introduced in the bulk may play an effective role not only on enhancement of mechanical strength but also on suppression of hydrogen penetration by plasma loading.

  3. Short range smectic order driving long range nematic order: Example of cuprates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Lorenzana, J.; Seibold, G.; Bansil, A.

    2016-01-27

    We present a model for describing the combined presence of nematic and ‘smectic’ or stripe-like orders seen in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on cuprates. The smectic order is treated as an electronic charge density wave with an associated Peierls distortion or a ‘Pomeranchuk wave’. This primary order is restricted to nanoscale domains by disorder effects, while the secondary coupling to strain generates the nematic order with a considerably longer range. Lastly, a variety of experimental results are shown to be consistent with our theoretical predictions.

  4. STARSPOTS-TRANSIT DEPTH RELATION OF THE EVAPORATING PLANET CANDIDATE KIC 12557548b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawahara, Hajime; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ito, Yuichi; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hirano, Teruyuki

    2013-10-10

    Violent variation of transit depths and an ingress-egress asymmetry of the transit light curve discovered in KIC 12557548 have been interpreted as evidence of a catastrophic evaporation of atmosphere with dust ( M-dot {sub p}?>1 M{sub ?} Gyr{sup 1}) from a close-in small planet. To explore what drives the anomalous atmospheric escape, we perform time-series analysis of the transit depth variation of Kepler archival data for ?3.5 yr. We find a ?30% periodic variation of the transit depth with P {sub 1} = 22.83 0.21 days, which is within the error of the rotation period of the host star estimated using the light curve modulation, P {sub rot} = 22.91 0.24 days. We interpret the results as evidence that the atmospheric escape of KIC 12557548b correlates with stellar activity. We consider possible scenarios that account for both the mass loss rate and the correlation with stellar activity. X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV)-driven evaporation is possible if one accepts a relatively high XUV flux and a high efficiency for converting the input energy to the kinetic energy of the atmosphere. Star-planet magnetic interaction is another possible scenario, though huge uncertainty remains for the mass loss rate.

  5. Method for the depth corrected detection of ionizing events from a co-planar grids sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Carini, Gabriella

    2009-05-12

    A method for the detection of ionizing events utilizing a co-planar grids sensor comprising a semiconductor substrate, cathode electrode, collecting grid and non-collecting grid. The semiconductor substrate is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A voltage less than 0 Volts is applied to the cathode electrode. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the cathode is applied to the non-collecting grid. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the non-collecting grid is applied to the collecting grid. The collecting grid and the non-collecting grid are summed and subtracted creating a sum and difference respectively. The difference and sum are divided creating a ratio. A gain coefficient factor for each depth (distance between the ionizing event and the collecting grid) is determined, whereby the difference between the collecting electrode and the non-collecting electrode multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient is the depth corrected energy of an ionizing event. Therefore, the energy of each ionizing event is the difference between the collecting grid and the non-collecting grid multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient. The depth of the ionizing event can also be determined from the ratio.

  6. Wide tracking range, auto ranging, low jitter phase lock loop for swept and fixed frequency systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerner, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a wide tracking range phase locked loop (PLL) circuit that achieves minimal jitter in a recovered clock signal, regardless of the source of the jitter (i.e. whether it is in the source or the transmission media). The present invention PLL has automatic harmonic lockout detection circuitry via a novel lock and seek control logic in electrical communication with a programmable frequency discriminator and a code balance detector. (The frequency discriminator enables preset of a frequency window of upper and lower frequency limits to derive a programmable range within which signal acquisition is effected. The discriminator works in combination with the code balance detector circuit to minimize the sensitivity of the PLL circuit to random data in the data stream). In addition, the combination of a differential loop integrator with the lock and seek control logic obviates a code preamble and guarantees signal acquisition without harmonic lockup. An adaptive cable equalizer is desirably used in combination with the present invention PLL to recover encoded transmissions containing a clock and/or data. The equalizer automatically adapts to equalize short haul cable lengths of coaxial and twisted pair cables or wires and provides superior jitter performance itself. The combination of the equalizer with the present invention PLL is desirable in that such combination permits the use of short haul wires without significant jitter.

  7. Milestone M3FT-15OR0203112. Build redesigned HFIR rabbit capsules and make ready for insertion for irradiation in HFIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, Richard H; McDuffee, Joel Lee; Okuniewski, Maria A.

    2015-09-01

    This report details the fabrication and delivery of two Fuel Cycle Research and Development irradiation capsules (FCRP20 and FCRP03), with associated quality assurance documentation, to the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The capsules and documentation were delivered by September 30, 2015, thus meeting the deadline for milestone M3FT-15OR0203112. These irradiation experiments irradiate metal parallelepiped specimens that may consist of various compositions including uranium metal, steel, etc. This document contains a copy of the completed capsule fabrication request sheets, which detail all constituent components, pertinent drawings, etc., along with a detailed summary of the capsule assembly process performed by the Thermal Hydraulics and Irradiation Engineering Group (THIEG) in the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division. A complete fabrication package record is maintained by THIEG and is available upon request.

  8. Observed damage during Argon gas cluster depth profiles of compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, Anders J. Portoles, Jose F.; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2014-08-07

    Argon Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) sources have become very popular in XPS and SIMS in recent years, due to the minimal chemical damage they introduce in the depth-profiling of polymer and other organic materials. These GCIB sources are therefore particularly useful for depth-profiling polymer and organic materials, but also (though more slowly) the surfaces of inorganic materials such as semiconductors, due to the lower roughness expected in cluster ion sputtering compared to that introduced by monatomic ions. We have examined experimentally a set of five compound semiconductors, cadmium telluride (CdTe), gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP), indium arsenide (InAs), and zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a high-? dielectric material, hafnium oxide (HfO), in their response to argon cluster profiling. An experimentally determined HfO etch rate of 0.025?nm/min (3.95??10{sup ?2}?amu/atom in ion) for 6?keV Ar gas clusters is used in the depth scale conversion for the profiles of the semiconductor materials. The assumption has been that, since the damage introduced into polymer materials is low, even though sputter yields are high, then there is little likelihood of damaging inorganic materials at all with cluster ions. This seems true in most cases; however, in this work, we report for the first time that this damage can in fact be very significant in the case of InAs, causing the formation of metallic indium that is readily visible even to the naked eye.

  9. Results of Hg speciation testing on tanks 30, 32, and 37 depth samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2015-11-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The twelfth shipment of samples was designated to include 3H evaporator system Tank 30, 32, and 37 depth samples. The Tank 30 depth sample (HTF-30-15-70) was taken at 190 inches from the tank bottom and the Tank 32 depth sample (HTF-32-15-68) was taken at 89 inches from the tank bottom and both were shipped to SRNL on June 29, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottles. The Tank 37 surface sample (HTF-37-15-94) was taken around 253.4 inches from the tank bottom and shipped to SRNL on July 21, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottle. All samples were placed in the SRNL Shielded Cells and left unopened until intermediate dilutions were made on July 24, 2015 using 1.00 mL of sample diluted to 100.00 mL with deionized H2O. A 30 mL Teflon® bottle was rinsed twice with the diluted tank sample and then filled leaving as little headspace as possible. It was immediately removed from the Shielded Cells and transferred to refrigerated storage where it remained at 4 °C until final dilutions were made on October 20. A second portion of the cells diluted tank sample was poured into a shielded polyethylene bottle and transferred to Analytical Development for radiochemical analysis data needed for Hazardous Material Transportation calculations.

  10. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 ?M of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 ? coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  11. Milestone report - M4FT-14OR0302102b - Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Surry-2 Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Chattin, Marc Rhea; Giaquinto, Joseph M.; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2014-09-01

    To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified.To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding will behave during processing, scoping tests are being performed to determine the tritium content in the cladding pre- and post-tritium pretreatment. A sample of Surry-2 pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding was heated to 11001200C to oxidize the zirconium and release all of the tritium in the cladding sample. The tritium content was measured to be ~240 Ci/g. Cladding samples were heated to 500C, which is within the temperature range (480 - 600C) expected for standard air tritium pretreatment systems, and to a slightly higher temperature (700C) to determine the impact of tritium pretreatment on tritium release from the cladding. Heating at 500C for 24 hr removes ~0.2% of the tritium from the cladding, and heating at 700C for 24 hr removes ~9%. Thus, a significant fraction of the tritium remains bound in the cladding and must be considered in operations involving cladding recycle.

  12. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, M.D.

    1994-01-11

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position. 8 figures.

  13. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

  14. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Melvin D.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position.

  15. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-133 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument B Ermold CJ Flynn J Barnard September 2013 Version 1.0 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  16. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  17. Seismicity of the Coso Range, California | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Coso Range, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Seismicity of the Coso Range, California Abstract A 16-station...

  18. ARM: ABLE: minisodar (mini - sound det. and ranging) wind profiles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ABLE: minisodar (mini - sound det. and ranging) wind profiles, 100-200 m, avg Title: ARM: ABLE: minisodar (mini - sound det. and ranging) wind profiles, 100-200 m, avg ABLE: ...

  19. Geothermal Literature Review At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  20. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity...

  1. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report provides documentation of the semiannual inspections conducted at the following Corrective Action Units (CAU)s: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill; CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench; CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area; CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes; CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches; CAU 427: Septic Waste Systems 2, 6; and CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, all located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Post-closure inspections are not required at CAU 400 but are conducted to monitor vegetation and fencing at the site. Site inspections were conducted in May and November 2002. All site inspections were made after Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approval of the appropriate Closure Report (CR), excluding CAU 400 which did not require a CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plans in the NDEP-approved CRs. Post-closure inspections conducted during 2002 identified several areas requiring maintenance/repairs. Maintenance work and proposed additional monitoring are included in the appropriate section for each CAU. This report includes copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Plans, Post-Closure Inspection Checklists, copies of the field notes, photographs, and the Post-Closure Vegetative Monitoring Report. The Post-Closure Inspection Plan for each CAU is located in Attachment A. Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are in Attachment B. Copies of the field notes from each inspection are included in Attachment C. Attachment D consists of the photographic logs and photographs of the sites. The post-closure vegetative monitoring report for calendar year 2002 is included in Attachment E.

  2. Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Linda Suttora*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Andrew Wallo, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted an integrated protection system for the safety of radioactive waste disposal similar to the concept of a safety case that is used internationally. This approach has evolved and been continuously improved as a result of many years of experience managing low-level waste (LLW) and mixed LLW from on-going operations, decommissioning and environmental restoration activities at 29 sites around the United States. The integrated protection system is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking into account the combination of natural and engineered barriers, performance objectives, long-term risk assessments, maintenance of those assessments based on the most recent information to ascertain continued compliance, site-specific waste acceptance criteria based on the risk assessment and a commitment to continuous improvement. There is also a strong component of stakeholder involvement. The integrated protection system approach will be discussed to demonstrate the commitment to safety for US DOE disposal.

  3. Device and method for the measurement of depth of interaction using co-planar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-09-18

    A device and method for measuring a depth of interaction of an ionizing event and improving resolution of a co-planar grid sensor (CPG) are provided. A time-of-occurrence is measured using a comparator to time the leading edge of the event pulse from the non-collecting or collecting grid. A difference signal between the grid signals obtained with a differential amplifier includes a pulse with a leading edge occurring at the time-of-detection, measured with another comparator. A timing difference between comparator outputs corresponds to the depth of interaction, calculated using a processor, which in turn weights the difference grid signal to improve spectral resolution of a CPG sensor. The device, which includes channels for grid inputs, may be integrated into an Application Specific Integrated Circuit. The combination of the device and sensor is included. An improved high-resolution CPG is provided, e.g., a gamma-ray Cadmium Zinc Telluride CPG sensor operating at room temperature.

  4. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-25

    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  5. Migration depths of adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to dissolved gas supersaturation in a regulated river system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Caudill, Christopher C.; keefer, matthew L.; Peery, Christopher A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-04-01

    Adult steelhead tagged with archival transmitters primarily migrated through a large river corridor at depths > 2 m, interspersed with frequent but short (< 5 min) periods closer to the surface. The recorded swimming depths and behaviours probably provided adequate hydrostatic compensation for the encountered supersaturated dissolved gas conditions and probably limited development of gas bubble disease (GBD). Results parallel those from a concurrent adult Chinook salmon study, except steelhead experienced greater seasonal variability and were more likely to have depth-uncompensated supersaturation exposure in some dam tailraces, perhaps explaining the higher incidence of GBD in this species.

  6. Source Parameters for Moderate Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains with Implications for the Depth Extent of Seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, A; Brazier, R; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2009-02-23

    Six earthquakes within the Zagros Mountains with magnitudes between 4.9 and 5.7 have been studied to determine their source parameters. These events were selected for study because they were reported in open catalogs to have lower crustal or upper mantle source depths and because they occurred within an area of the Zagros Mountains where crustal velocity structure has been constrained by previous studies. Moment tensor inversion of regional broadband waveforms have been combined with forward modeling of depth phases on short period teleseismic waveforms to constrain source depths and moment tensors. Our results show that all six events nucleated within the upper crust (<11 km depth) and have thrust mechanisms. This finding supports other studies that call into question the existence of lower crustal or mantle events beneath the Zagros Mountains.

  7. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,635 1950's 3,742 3,944 4,132 4,069 4,070 4,101 4,080 4,174 4,118 4,220 1960's 4,213 4,285 4,408 4,405 4,431 4,510 4,478 4,385 4,738 4,881 1970's 4,943 4,858 4,974 5,041 4,662 4,661 4,577 4,708 4,760 4,689

  9. Aerosol optical depth derived from solar radiometry observations at northern mid-latitude sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Larson, N.R.; Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Routine, automated solar radiometry observations began with the development of the Mobile Automated Scanning Photometer (MASP) and its installation at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (RMO). We have introduced a microprocessor controlled rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR), both the single detector and the multi-filter/detector (MFRSR) versions to replace the MASP. The operational mode of the RSRs is substantially different than the MASP or other traditional sun-tracking radiometers, because, by virtue of the automated rotating shadowband, the total and diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane are measured and the direct-normal component deduced through computation from the total and diffuse components by the self-contained microprocessor. Because the three irradiance components are measured using the same detector for a given wavelength, the calibration coefficients are identical for each component, thus reducing errors when comparing them. The MFRSR is the primary radiometric instrument in the nine-station Quantitative Links Network (QLN) established in the eastern United States in late 1991. Data from this network are being used to investigate how cloud- and aerosol-induced radiative effects vary in time and with cloud structure and type over a mid-latitude continental region. This work supports the DOE Quantitative Links Program to quantify linkages between changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. In this paper we describe the setup of the QLN and present aerosol optical depth results from the on-going measurements at PNL/RMO, as well as preliminary results from the QLN. From the time-series of data at each site, we compare seasonal variability and geographical differences, as well as the effect of the perturbation to the stratosphere by Mt. Pinatubo. Analysis of the wavelength dependence of optical depth also provides information on the evolution and changes in the size distribution of the aerosols.

  10. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onstott, T. C.; Aubrey, A.D.; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Van Heerden, E.; Opperman, D. J.; Bada, J L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1 2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Stand-Off Experiment Range draft environmental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assessment available for public review and comment News Media Contact: Tim Jackson (208) 526-8484 For Immediate Release December 22, 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Stand-Off Experiment Range draft environmental assessment available for public review and comment Idaho Falls, ID � The U.S. Department of Energy today published a draft environmental assessment for a proposed Stand-Off Experiment Range at Idaho National Laboratory. �This range would represent an expansion of capability and

  12. CALCULATION OF STOPPING POWER VALUES AND RANGES OF FAST IONS.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-03-18

    STOPOW calculates a set of stopping power values and ranges of fast ions in matter for any materials. Furthermore STOPOW can calculate a set of values for one special auxiliary function (e.g. kinematic factors, track structure parameters, time of flight or correction factors in the stopping function) . The user chooses the physical units for stopping powers and ranges and the energy range for calculations.

  13. High Island Densities and Long Range Repulsive Interactions:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    long range repulsive interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory calculations support this conclusion. In addition to answering an outstanding...

  14. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    saecomveh.saejournals.org Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells Eric Wood, Lijuan Wang, Jeffrey ...

  15. Geographic Information System At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nash & Johnson, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Northern Basin & Range Region (Nash &...

  16. Development of a Thermal Enhancer ’ for Combined Partial Range...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Thermal Enhancer for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research ...

  17. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter ...

  18. Kinematic model for postorogenic Basin and Range extension |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Article: Kinematic model for postorogenic Basin and Range extension Abstract The Raft River extensional shear zone is exposed in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek...

  19. Field Mapping At Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    extension over broad areas of the northern Basin and Range. References Dumitru, T.; Miller, E.; Savage, C.; Gans, P.; Brown, R. (1 April 1993) Fission track evidence for...

  20. Isotopic Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  3. Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  4. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...

  5. Geothermal Resource Analysis And Structure Of Basin And Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Structure Of Basin And Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geothermal...

  6. ORISE: Nuclear engineering degrees at highest ranges since 1980s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates for nuclear engineering candidates are still at highest ranges reported since 1980s Report also shows shifts in career opportunities beyond graduation in nuclear utilities ...

  7. Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline Explores the ...

  8. China Lake South Range Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: China Lake South Range Geothermal Project Project Location Information Coordinates 35.65,...

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    generic Basin and Range systems based on Dixie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal...

  10. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    generic Basin and Range systems based on Dixie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal...

  11. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Northern Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2)...

  12. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2)...

  13. Micro-Earthquake At Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At...

  14. Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  15. Geodetic Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  16. Contrasting behavior of intermediate-range order structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Contrasting behavior of intermediate-range order structures in jadeite glass and melt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Contrasting behavior of ...

  17. Contemporary Strain Rates in the Northern Basin and Range Province...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    province using data from continuous GPS (CGPS) networks, supplemented by additional campaign data from the Death Valley, northern Basin and Range, and Sierra Nevada-Great Valley...

  18. Multispectral Imaging At Rangely Oilfield Area (Pickles & Cover...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Notes Airborne hyperspectral imaging applied to determine vegetation and CO2 leakage in the Rangely oilfield of northwest Colorado - results may be useful for...

  19. Tonopah Test Range Environmental Restoration Corrective Action Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-08-04

    This report describes the status (closed, closed in place, or closure in progress) of the Corrective Action Sites and Corrective Action Units at the Tonopah Test Range

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  1. Magnetotellurics At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  3. Self Potential At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  5. Self Potential At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  6. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity...

  8. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Northern Basin & Range Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  10. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Nw Basin & Range Region (Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References D. D. Blackwell, K. W. Wisian, M. C. Richards, Mark Leidig, Richard Smith, Jason McKenna (2003) Geothermal Resource Analysis And Structure Of Basin And Range...

  11. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References D. D. Blackwell, K. W. Wisian, M. C. Richards, Mark Leidig, Richard Smith, Jason McKenna (2003) Geothermal Resource Analysis And Structure Of Basin And Range...

  12. Field Mapping At Northern Basin & Range Region (Blewitt Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At Northern Basin & Range Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  14. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Northern Basin & Range Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  15. Geothermometry At Nw Basin & Range Region (Shevenell & De Rocher...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry At Nw Basin & Range Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Nw...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cole, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Cole, 1983) Exploration Activity...

  17. Water Sampling At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Northern Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  18. Water Sampling At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  19. Geodetic Survey At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Nevada Test And...

  20. Geothermometry At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Nevada Test And...

  1. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nevada Test And Training Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Nevada...

  2. Geographic Information System At Nevada Test And Training Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Nevada...

  3. Aerial Photography At Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Aerial Photography At Nevada Test And...

  4. Dixie Valley - Geothermal Development in the Basin and Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Dixie Valley - Geothermal Development in the Basin and Range Citation Dixie...

  5. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  6. Seismotectonics of the Coso Range-Indian Wells Valley region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jeffrey R. Unruh, Egill Hauksson, Francis C. Monastero, Robert J. Twiss and Jonathan C. Lewis. 2002. Seismotectonics of the Coso Range-Indian Wells Valley region, California:...

  7. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs.more » disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.« less

  8. EV Everywhere: Maximizing Electric Cars' Range in Extreme Temperatures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As with conventional vehicles, the efficiency and all-electric driving range of plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EVs) varies substantially based on driving conditions and habits. Using the economy mode, avoiding hard braking, using accessories wisely, and observing the speed limit will help EV drivers maximize their all-electric range.

  9. Decreasing range resolution of a SAR image to permit correction of motion measurement errors beyond the SAR range resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Heard, Freddie E. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-07-20

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  10. Rocky Flats Plant Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of the Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report (RAR) is to provide an authorization basis for operation as required by DOE 5480.16. The existing Live-Fire Range does not have a safety analysis-related authorization basis. EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. has worked with DOE and its representatives to develop a format and content description for development of an RAR for the Live-Fire Range. Development of the RAR is closely aligned with development of the design for a baffle system to control risks from errant projectiles. DOE 5480.16 requires either an RAR or a safety analysis report (SAR) for live-fire ranges. An RAR rather than a SAR was selected in order to gain flexibility to more closely address the safety analysis and conduct of operation needs for a live-fire range in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Snow Depth and Density at End-of-Winter for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2016-02-02

    End-of-winter snow depth and average snow density from area A, B, C and D, which include 1000's of point depth measurement located between approximately 20 and 50 cm apart.

  12. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.3, Zirconia promotion of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt catalysts: Behavior in fixed-bed and slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1995-01-17

    A series of cobalt-based F-T catalysts supported on alumina and silica were prepared with different loadings of Zr and different sequences of impregnation of Co and Zr. All catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts were evaluated in terms of their activity and selectivity both in fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactors. Addition of ZrO{sub 2} to both Co/SiO{sub 2} and Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts resulted in at least a twofold increase in the catalyst activity for F-T synthesis in the fixed bed reactor. In the slurry bubble column reactor, a similar promotion effect was observed for the SiO{sub 2}-supported catalysts, while the addition of Zr to a cobalt/alumina catalyst had a less significant effect.

  13. SWiFT Research Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Program - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - ft

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    &3;&27;09072&4;3&4;3&4;&3;,&3;'&4;,-&4;0&3;,9&4;&3;94 08&4;&4;&4;03.0&3;,9&3;&28;&5;,8.,&4;0 &29;7,3&4;&3;&30;:0&4;&4;07 &27;059 &3;41&3;&26;425:907&3;.&4;03.0 &31;479&4;&3;&26;,74&4;&4;3,&3;9,90&3;&3&4;;078&4;9&5; &15; 08&4;&4;&4;03.0&3;&4;3&3;&2;&26; &7; &2;&26;&1;&3;&14; &4; &14; &4;&3;3408...

  15. Clutter in the GMTI range-velocity map.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-04-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar maps echo data to range and range-rate, which is a function of a moving target's velocity and its position within the antenna beam footprint. Even stationary clutter will exhibit an apparent motion spectrum and can interfere with moving vehicle detections. Consequently it is very important for a radar to understand how stationary clutter maps into radar measurements of range and velocity. This mapping depends on a wide variety of factors, including details of the radar motion, orientation, and the 3-D topography of the clutter.

  16. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile is consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.

  17. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 4,232 1950's 4,335 4,609 4,781 4,761 4,740 4,819 4,901 5,036 4,993 5,021 1960's 5,170 5,099 5,124 4,878 5,509 5,672 5,700 5,758 5,914 6,054 1970's 6,247 5,745 5,880 6,243 5,855 5,913 6,010 5,902 6,067 6,011 1980's 5,727 5,853 5,504 5,141 5,565 5,865 6,069 6,104 6,182 6,028 1990's 6,838 6,641 6,930 6,627 6,671

  18. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,720 1950's 3,893 4,103 4,214 4,033 4,028 3,981 3,942 4,021 3,916 3,935 1960's 3,889 3,994 4,070 4,063 4,042 4,059 4,013 3,825 4,153 4,286 1970's 4,385 4,126 4,330 4,369 3,812 3,943 3,895 4,025 4,017 3,966 1980's 3,801 3,923 3,793 3,662 3,791 3,906 3,999

  19. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,568 1950's 3,691 3,851 3,999 3,880 3,905 3,904 3,880 3,966 3,907 3,999 1960's 4,020 4,064 4,227 4,193 4,179 4,288 4,112 4,004 4,328 4,431 1970's 4,610 4,480 4,590 4,687 4,249 4,285 4,214 4,404 4,421 4,374 1980's 4,166 4,209 4,225 4,004 4,125

  20. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,842 1950's 3,898 4,197 4,476 4,557 4,550 4,632 4,587 4,702 4,658 4,795 1960's 4,770 4,953 4,966 5,016 5,174 5,198 5,402 5,388 5,739 5,924 1970's 5,885 5,915 6,015 5,955 5,777 5,842 5,825 5,798 5,978 5,916 1980's 5,733 5,793 5,597 5,035 5,369 5,544 5,680 5,563

  1. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Well) Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,473 1950's 3,445 3,706 3,983 4,004 4,004 4,161 4,079 4,126 4,110 4,275 1960's 4,248 4,311 4,524 4,552 4,598 4,723 4,573 4,616 5,053 5,195 1970's 5,265 5,305 5,377 5,403 5,191 5,073 5,014 5,120 5,183 5,071 1980's 4,791 4,827 4,691 4,320 4,631 4,733 4,763

  2. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,225 1950's 3,077 3,255 3,520 3,401 3,512 3,699 3,574 3,605 3,631 3,844 1960's 3,889 3,782 4,239 4,143 4,207 4,446 3,900 3,901 4,311 4,437 1970's 4,714 4,633 4,725 4,851 4,599 4,415 4,439 4,662 4,600 4,517 1980's 4,214 4,226 4,184 3,974 4,205 4,306 4,236 4,390 4,704 4,684 1990's 4,755 4,629

  3. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,658 1950's 3,733 4,059 4,334 4,447 4,408 4,498 4,425 4,488 4,449 4,602 1960's 4,575 4,799 4,790 4,933 4,980 5,007 5,117 5,188 5,589 5,739 1970's 5,700 5,796 5,882 5,808 5,649 5,674 5,607 5,605 5,812 5,716 1980's 5,533 5,582 5,367 4,800 5,178 5,317 5,447 5,294 5,748 5,579 1990's 5,685 5,658 5,480

  4. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,412 1950's 3,766 3,837 4,015 4,373 4,365 4,339 4,734 4,950 4,801 5,120 1960's 5,321 5,145 5,186 5,198 5,171 5,337 5,474 5,629 5,716 5,531 1970's 5,644 5,670 5,259 5,286 5,173 5,238 4,960 5,053 5,066 5,082 1980's 5,093 5,149 5,453 5,187 5,158 5,193 5,080 5,112 5,155 5,038 1990's

  5. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 5,682 1950's 5,466 5,497 6,071 5,654 6,059 5,964 6,301 6,898 6,657 6,613 1960's 6,298 6,457 6,728 6,370 7,547 7,295 8,321 7,478 7,697 8,092 1970's 7,695 7,649 7,400 6,596 6,456 6,748 6,777 6,625 6,662 6,630 1980's 6,604 6,772 6,921 6,395 6,502 6,787 6,777 6,698 6,683 6,606 1990's 7,100 7,122 6,907 6,482 6,564

  6. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,698 1950's 3,979 4,056 4,342 4,599 4,670 4,672 5,018 5,326 5,106 5,396 1960's 5,486 5,339 5,408 5,368 5,453 5,562 5,928 5,898 5,994 5,918 1970's 5,860 5,890 5,516 5,488 5,387 5,470 5,220 5,254 5,262 5,275 1980's 5,275 5,351 5,617 5,319 5,276

  7. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyunsoo

    2013-05-15

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti#12;cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s#6; superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  8. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  9. Seismic Velocities Contain Information About Depth, Lithology, Fluid Content, and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berge, P A; Bonner, B P

    2002-01-03

    Recent advances in field and laboratory methods for measuring elastic wave velocities provide incentive and opportunity for improving interpretation of geophysical data for engineering and environmental applications. Advancing the state-of-the-art of seismic imaging requires developing petrophysical relationships between measured velocities and the hydrogeology parameters and lithology. Our approach uses laboratory data and rock physics methods. Compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave velocities, Vp/Vs ratios, and relative wave amplitudes show systematic changes related to composition, saturation, applied stress (analogous to depth), and distribution of clay for laboratory ultrasonic measurements on soils. The artificial soils were mixtures of Ottawa sand and a second phase, either Wyoming bentonite or peat moss used to represent clay or organic components found in natural soils. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured for dry, saturated, and partially-saturated conditions, for applied stresses between about 7 and 100 kPa, representing approximately the top 5 m of the subsurface. Analysis of the results using rock physics methods shows the link between microstructure and wave propagation, and implications for future advances in seismic data interpretation. For example, we found that Vp in dry sand-clay mixtures initially increases as clay cements the sand grains and fills porosity, but then Vp decreases when the clay content is high enough that the clay matrix controls the elastic response of the material. Vs decreases monotonically with increasing clay content. This provides a method for using Vp/Vs ratios to estimate clay content in a dry soil.

  10. Active probing of cloud thickness and optical depth using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60{sup o} full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Section 2 covers the up-to-date evolution of the nighttime WAIL instrument at LANL. Section 3 reports our progress towards daytime capability for WAIL, an important extension to full diurnal cycle monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter. Section 4 describes briefly how the important cloud properties can be inferred from WAIL signals.

  11. Cenozoic volcanic geology of the Basin and Range province in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Basin and Range province in Hidalgo County, southwestern New Mexico Authors Deal, E. G., Elston, W.E., Erb, E. E., Peterson, S. L., & Reiter and D. E. Conference 29th Field...

  12. EV Everywhere: Maximizing Electric Cars' Range in Extreme Temperatures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the internal combustion engine will turn on more quickly, increasing fuel cost and emissions. All-Electric Range and Very Hot or Cold Weather ...

  13. EV Everywhere: Maximizing All-Electric Range | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduced all-electric range in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle will result in the internal combustion engine turning on more quickly, increasing fuel cost and emissions. There are ...

  14. VEE-0075- In the Matter of Viking Range Corporation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Decision and Order considers an Application for Exception filed by Viking Range Corporation (Viking) seeking exception relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation...

  15. Innovative Cell Materials and Designs for 300 Mile Range EVs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative Cell Materials and Design for 300 Mile Range EVs Yimin Zhu, PDPI OneD Material, LLC (former Nanosys Energy Storage) Palo Alto, California June 16 20, 2014 DOE Vehicle ...

  16. Nanomaterial Applications Range From Eyeliner to Turbines | GE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jet-engine turbine blades are made of Ni-base superalloys, containing precipitate particles in the size ranges of (400-600) nm.These nano-precipitates (called g') attribute to the ...

  17. Seismicity and seismic stress in the Coso Range, Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and seismic stress in the Coso Range, Coso geothermal field, and Indian Wells Valley region, Southeast-Central California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  18. Diachroneity of Basin and Range Extension and Yellowstone Hotspot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Basin and Range Province. Authors Joseph P. Colgan, Trevor A. Dumitru and Elizabeth L. Miller Published Journal Geology, 2004 DOI 10.1130G20037.1 Online Internet link for...

  19. Structure, tectonics and stress field of the Coso Range, Inyo...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tectonics and stress field of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Structure, tectonics and...

  20. Characteristics of Basin and Range Geothermal Systems with Fluid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 150-200C have been discovered in the northern Basin and Range Province of the USA. A comparison of these high and moderate temperature systems shows considerable overlap...

  1. Reconciliation of local and long range tilt correlations in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO planes in...

  2. Tonopah Test Range Summary of Corrective Action Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald B. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Clean Closure/No Further Action, Closure in Place, or Closure in Progress.

  3. Multi-dimensional position sensor using range detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    A small, non-contact optical sensor uses ranges and images to detect its relative position to an object in up to six degrees of freedom. The sensor has three light emitting range detectors which illuminate a target and can be used to determine distance and two tilt angles. A camera located between the three range detectors senses the three remaining degrees of freedom, two translations and one rotation. Various range detectors, with different light sources, e.g. lasers and LEDs, different collection options, and different detection schemes, e.g. diminishing return and time of flight can be used. This sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines, e.g. it can instruct a robot how to adjust automatically to different positions and orientations of a part.

  4. Notice of Compliance Determination for Viking Range Corporation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a data request to Viking Range Corporation (Viking) in response to information received by DOE indicating that Viking's refrigerator-freezer, model VCSB542, exceeds the applicable...

  5. On the Road to ANG Vehicles with Increased Driving Ranges

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Road to ANG Vehicles with Increased Driving Ranges On the Road to ANG Vehicles with Increased Driving Ranges Print Thursday, 21 January 2016 16:08 As a cleaner, cheaper, and more globally evenly distributed fuel, natural gas has considerable environmental, economic, and political advantages over petroleum as a source of energy for the transportation sector. But its low energy density at ambient temperature and pressure has posed a severe challenge for onboard fuel storage in cars in the

  6. Data Products from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Forecasts) Covering the MAGIC AMF2 Deployment (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Data Products from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) Covering the MAGIC AMF2 Deployment Title: Data Products from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) Covering the MAGIC AMF2 Deployment ECMWF derived diagnostic variables over MAGIC's ship path from Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI. Two dimensional (time and height) slices were extracted once the

  7. EM Tackles Cleanup at Tonopah Test Range | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tackles Cleanup at Tonopah Test Range EM Tackles Cleanup at Tonopah Test Range September 30, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Field technicians survey a shaker used in past cleanup operations. Field technicians survey a shaker used in past cleanup operations. A field technician in protective gear surveys a bucket used during soil cleanup in 1997. A field technician in protective gear surveys a bucket used during soil cleanup in 1997. Field technicians survey a shaker used in past cleanup operations. A

  8. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  9. Reciprocal space XRD mapping with varied incident angle as a probe of structure variation within surface depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qiguang; Williams, Frances; Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles E.; Krishnan, Mahadevan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used a differential-depth X-Ray diffraction Reciprocal Spacing Mapping (XRD RSM) technique to investigate the crystal quality of a variety of SRF-relevant Nb film and bulk materials. By choosing different X-ray probing depths, the RSM study successfully revealed evolution the of materials? microstructure after different materials processes, such as energetic condensation or surface polishing. The RSM data clearly measured the materials? crystal quality at different thickness. Through a novel differential-depth RSM technique, this study found: I. for a heteroepitaxy Nb film Nb(100)/MgO(100), the film thickening process, via a cathodic arc-discharge Nb ion deposition, created a near-perfect single crystal Nb on the surface?s top-layer; II. for a mechanically polished single-crystal bulk Nb material, the microstructure on the top surface layer is more disordered than that in-grain.

  10. Engineering Task Plan for Development and Fabrication and Deployment of Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampling and At Tank Analysis Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-10-30

    This engineering task plan identifies the resources, responsibilities, and schedules for the development and deployment of a mobile, variable depth sampling system and an at-tank analysis system. The mobile, variable depth sampling system concept was developed after a cost assessment indicated a high cost for multiple deployments of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. The sampling will provide double-shell tank (DST) staging tank waste samples for assuring the readiness of the waste for shipment to the LAW/HLW plant for treatment and immobilization. The at-tank analysis system will provide ''real-time'' assessments of the samples' chemical and physical properties. These systems support the Hanford Phase 1B vitrification project.

  11. Estimation of m.w.e (meter water equivalent) depth of the salt mine of Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.; Stoica, S.; Petcu, M.; Brancus, I. M.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.

    2010-11-24

    A new mobile detector was developed in IFIN-HH, Romania, for measuring muon flux at surface and in underground. The measurements have been performed in the salt mines of Slanic Prahova, Romania. The muon flux was determined for 2 different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at surface at different altitudes were performed. Based on the results, the depth of the 2 galleries was established at 610 and 790 m.w.e. respectively.

  12. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  13. A Comparison of Short Rayleigh Range FEL Performance with Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Stephen; Evtushenko, Pavel; Michelle D. Shinn; Neil, George; Blau, Joe; Burggraff, D.; Colson, William; Crooker, P.P.; Sans Aguilar, J.

    2007-08-01

    One approach to attaining very high power in a free-electron laser (FEL) is to operate with a Rayleigh range much smaller than the wiggler length. Previously, 3D simulations of Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators showed that FEL gain doesn't fall off with Rayleigh range as predicted by one-dimensional simulations*. They also predict that the angular tolerance for the mirrors is much large than simplistic theory predicts. Using the IR Upgrade laser at Jefferson Lab lasing at 935 nm we have studied the performance of an FEL with very short Rayleigh range. We also looked at the angular sensitivity for several different Rayleigh ranges. We find very good agreement between simulations and measured gain and angular sensitivities. Surprisingly the gain continues to rise as the Rayleigh range is shortened and continues to grow even when the resonator becomes geometrically unstable. The same behavior is seen in both the experiment and simulations. We also find that, even for large Rayleigh r

  14. Depth-resolved confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy for characterizing GaN-based light emitting diode structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Lee, Yu-Yang; Chang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ymchang@ntu.edu.tw [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chiao-Yun; Huang, Huei-Min; Lu, Tien-Chang [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, 30010 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, 30010 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we demonstrate that depth-resolved confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to characterize the active layer of GaN-based LEDs. By taking the depth compression effect due to refraction index mismatch into account, the axial profiles of Raman peak intensities from the GaN capping layer toward the sapphire substrate can correctly match the LED structural dimension and allow the identification of unique Raman feature originated from the 0.3 ?m thick active layer of the studied LED. The strain variation in different sample depths can also be quantified by measuring the Raman shift of GaN A{sub 1}(LO) and E{sub 2}(high) phonon peaks. The capability of identifying the phonon structure of buried LED active layer and depth-resolving the strain distribution of LED structure makes this technique a potential optical and remote tool for in operando investigation of the electronic and structural properties of nitride-based LEDs.

  15. Range of Neutronic Parameters for Repository Criticality Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J. Anderson

    1999-09-28

    The ''Range of Neutronic Parameters for Repository Criticality Analyses'' technical report contains a summary of the benchmark criticality analyses (including the laboratory critical experiment [LCEs] and the commercial reactor criticals [CRCs]) used to support the validation of the criticality evaluation methods. This report also documents the development of the Critical Limits (CLs) for the repository criticality analyses.

  16. Technique for extending the range of a signal measuring circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaprnka, Anthony G.; Sun, Shan C.; Vercellotti, Leonard C.

    1978-01-01

    An input signal supplied to a signal measuring circuit is either amplified or attenuated as necessary to establish the magnitude of the input signal within the defined dynamic range of the measuring circuit and the output signal developed by the measuring circuit is subsequently readjusted through amplification or attenuation to develop an output signal which corresponds to the magnitude of the initial input signal.

  17. Folding associated with extensional faulting: Sheep Range detachment, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guth, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sheep Range detachment is a major Miocene extensional fault system of the Great Basin. Its major faults have a scoop shape, with straight, N-S traces extending 15-30 km and then abruptly turning to strike E-W. Tertiary deformation involved simultaneous normal faulting, sedimentation, landsliding, and strike-slip faulting. Folds occur in two settings: landslide blocks and drag along major faults. Folds occur in landslide blocks and beneath them. Most folds within landslide blocks are tight anticlines, with limbs dipping 40-60 degrees. Brecciation of the folds and landslide blocks suggests brittle deformation. Near Quijinump Canyon in the Sheep Range, at least three landslide blocks (up to 500 by 1500 m) slid into a small Tertiary basin. Tertiary limestone beneath the Paleozoic blocks was isoclinally folded. Westward dips reveal drag folds along major normal faults, as regional dips are consistently to the east. The Chowderhead anticline is the largest drag fold, along an extensional fault that offsets Ordovician units 8 km. East-dipping Ordovician and Silurian rocks in the Desert Range form the hanging wall. East-dipping Cambrian and Ordovician units in the East Desert Range form the foot wall and east limb of the anticline. Caught along the fault plane, the anticline's west-dipping west limb contains mostly Cambrian units.

  18. Analysis of gamma-ray spectra from foils activated in a range-thick lead target by 800-MeV protons. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laird, C.E.; Mullins, D.H.

    1995-06-12

    Approximately 400 gamma-ray spectra have been analyzed to obtain the types and quantities of radioisotopes produced when 800-MeV protons interact with a range-thick lead target. These spectra were obtained from the radioactive decay of product isotopes in lead disks placed at various depths and radial positions within the target. These spectra were analyzed with the computer code HYPERMET and the photopeak areas were reduced to nuclei produced per incident proton per cubic centimeter of material. Product nuclei ranged from atomic mass 160 to mass 206 and over a range of half lives from a few minutes to several weeks. The results of this analysis have been outlined in this report and transmitted on computer disk to Los Alamos National Laboratory. The consistency of these analyses have been confirmed by a comparison of photopeak areas obtained at LANL with the computer code GAMANAL with those from HYPERMET for two gamma-ray spectra. Also, the nuclear production per proton per cm{sub 3} obtained from these two spectra analyzed both at LANL and at EKU have been found to agree to within the statistical accuracy of the peak-fitting programs. This analysis of these 400 gamma-ray spectra has determined the nuclear production per incident proton per cm{sub 3} at five regularly-spaced radial positions and depths up to 40 cm into a range-thick lead target.

  19. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  20. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-30

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. 20 figs.

  1. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings.

  2. Can CMB data constrain the inflationary field range?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan [Instituto de Fsica Terica IFT-UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, C/ Nicols Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco; Zavala, Ivonne, E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es, E-mail: d.roest@rug.nl, E-mail: m.scalisi@rug.nl, E-mail: e.i.zavala@rug.nl [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    We study to what extent the spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r determine the field excursion ?? during inflation. We analyse the possible degeneracy of ?? by comparing three broad classes of inflationary models, with different dependence on the number of e-foldings N, to benchmark models of chaotic inflation with monomial potentials. The classes discussed cover a large set of inflationary single field models. We find that the field range is not uniquely determined for any value of (n{sub s},r); one can have the same predictions as chaotic inflation and a very different ??. Intriguingly, we find that the field range cannot exceed an upper bound that appears in different classes of models. Finally, ?? can even become sub-Planckian, but this requires to go beyond the single-field slow-roll paradigm.

  3. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  4. Multi-range force sensors utilizing shape memory alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2003-04-15

    The present invention provides a multi-range force sensor comprising a load cell made of a shape memory alloy, a strain sensing system, a temperature modulating system, and a temperature monitoring system. The ability of the force sensor to measure contact forces in multiple ranges is effected by the change in temperature of the shape memory alloy. The heating and cooling system functions to place the shape memory alloy of the load cell in either a low temperature, low strength phase for measuring small contact forces, or a high temperature, high strength phase for measuring large contact forces. Once the load cell is in the desired phase, the strain sensing system is utilized to obtain the applied contact force. The temperature monitoring system is utilized to ensure that the shape memory alloy is in one phase or the other.

  5. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. In dosimetry, solid phantoms are often used for convenience. These materials should ideally be equivalent to water. In this study, the authors evaluated dosimetric water equivalence of four common plastics, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyoxymethylene (POM). Methods: Using the Bethe formula for energy loss, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, the authors calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. The authors experimentally measured variation of the Bragg peak of carbon-ion beams by insertion of HDPE, PMMA, and POM, which were compared with analytical model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculation resulted in slightly reduced multiple scattering and severely increased nuclear interactions for HDPE, compared to water and the other plastics. The increase in attenuation of carbon ions for 20-cm range shift was experimentally measured to be 8.9% for HDPE, 2.5% for PMMA, and 0.0% for POM while PET was theoretically estimated to be in between PMMA and POM. The agreement between the measurements and the calculations was about 1% or better. Conclusions: For carbon-ion beams, POM was dosimetrically indistinguishable from water and the best of the plastics examined in this study. The poorest was HDPE, which would reduce the Bragg peak by 0.45% per cm range shift, although with marginal superiority for reduced multiple scattering. Between the two clear plastics, PET would be superior to PMMA in dosimetric water equivalence.

  6. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  7. Hybrid Wide Range Detector Amplifier - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid Wide Range Detector Amplifier Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (827 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryMany applications require detection of both very small and very large signals. High gain detector amplifiers provide low noise but are easily swamped by large signals. Logarithmic amplifiers

  8. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  9. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  10. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  11. Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition from shallow to deep convection using a dual mass flux boundary layer scheme Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts Introduction ! " #" $ % % & # % " " " ' % ' ( ) * + " % ( , - . / 0 / " 0 . * 0 . * . . " 0 References A short model description Sensitivity tests Results Tropospheric humidity # " humidity 1 % 2 % ' 3 " % + 1 % 2 % % 3 % Updraft entrainment ' + % " 3 % 4 # " + %' 5 6)( . % ' 1 % .7

  12. NREL to Host Range of Activities for Energy Awareness Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Host Range of Activities for Energy Awareness Month Events devoted to energy savings, environmentally sustainable resources For more information contact: Gary Schmitz, 303-275-4050 email: Gary Schmitz Golden, Colo., Sept. 20, 2000 - Visitors will get an inside look at advanced energy technologies and learn tips for cutting utility bills when the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) opens its doors throughout October for Energy Awareness Month. Events include

  13. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Miyano, Kenjiro; Ketterson, John B.

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  14. Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-15

    A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

  15. Bonding energies and long-range order in the trialuminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, C.J.; Specht, E.D.; Ice, G.E.; Zschack, P.; Schneibel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The degree of long-range order in the trialuminides is determined by X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Long-range order exists to their melting points. For the binary trialuminides Al{sub 3}Ti, Al{sub 73}Ti{sub 27}, and Al{sub 3}Sc, the degree of long-range order is nearly perfect and is a measure of the lack of mixing of the aluminum atoms onto the sublattice occupied by either Ti or Sc. A calculation of the bond energy between neighboring pairs of atoms from the ordering (melting) temperature is made following the Bragg-Williams mean field theory approach. These bond energies compare favorably with more sophisticated calculations. Bond energies are found to be larger than the energy difference between the crystal structure forms DO{sub 22}, Ll{sub 2}, and DO{sub 23}, and therefore, more relevant to understanding the mechanical and chemical behavior of the trialuminides. Ordering or melting temperatures of these intermetallics reflect the strong Al-metal near-neighbor pair potentials and may provide insights to their brittle properties. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  17. Noise pair velocity and range echo location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-02-16

    An echo-location method for microwaves, sound and light capable of using incoherent and arbitrary waveforms of wide bandwidth to measure velocity and range (and target size) simultaneously to high resolution is disclosed. Two interferometers having very long and nearly equal delays are used in series with the target interposed. The delays can be longer than the target range of interest. The first interferometer imprints a partial coherence on an initially incoherent source which allows autocorrelation to be performed on the reflected signal to determine velocity. A coherent cross-correlation subsequent to the second interferometer with the source determines a velocity discriminated range. Dithering the second interferometer identifies portions of the cross-correlation belonging to a target apart from clutter moving at a different velocity. The velocity discrimination is insensitive to all slowly varying distortions in the signal path. Speckle in the image of target and antenna lobing due to parasitic reflections is minimal for an incoherent source. An arbitrary source which varies its spectrum dramatically and randomly from pulse to pulse creates a radar elusive to jamming. Monochromatic sources which jigger in frequency from pulse to pulse or combinations of monochromatic sources can simulate some benefits of incoherent broadband sources. Clutter which has a symmetrical velocity spectrum will self-cancel for short wavelengths, such as the apparent motion of ground surrounding target from a sidelooking airborne antenna. 46 figs.

  18. Noise pair velocity and range echo location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    An echo-location method for microwaves, sound and light capable of using incoherent and arbitrary waveforms of wide bandwidth to measure velocity and range (and target size) simultaneously to high resolution. Two interferometers having very long and nearly equal delays are used in series with the target interposed. The delays can be longer than the target range of interest. The first interferometer imprints a partial coherence on an initially incoherent source which allows autocorrelation to be performed on the reflected signal to determine velocity. A coherent cross-correlation subsequent to the second interferometer with the source determines a velocity discriminated range. Dithering the second interferometer identifies portions of the cross-correlation belonging to a target apart from clutter moving at a different velocity. The velocity discrimination is insensitive to all slowly varying distortions in the signal path. Speckle in the image of target and antenna lobing due to parasitic reflections is minimal for an incoherent source. An arbitrary source which varies its spectrum dramatically and randomly from pulse to pulse creates a radar elusive to jamming. Monochromatic sources which jigger in frequency from pulse to pulse or combinations of monochromatic sources can simulate some benefits of incoherent broadband sources. Clutter which has a symmetrical velocity spectrum will self-cancel for short wavelengths, such as the apparent motion of ground surrounding target from a sidelooking airborne antenna.

  19. Final Report: Depth-specific Hydraulic Testing of Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat Environmental Restoration Wells, FY 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberlander, Phil; Russell, Charles

    2004-03-09

    Borehole flow logging contributes a greater understanding of subsurface conditions than measuring well discharge only at land surface. Combining the results of up to nine borehole flow logs to estimate hydraulic conductivity with depth includes data averaging over vertical intervals and averaging of calculated hydraulic conductivities among the various flow logs. Data filtering is also necessary to aid in differentiating between changes in borehole flow rate due to flow turbulence (and other causes) and those associated with groundwater inflow. Borehole flow logging during well pumping has provided the quantity of groundwater iniflow and hydraulic conductivity at depth for three wells. The results provided are believed to be an appropriate balance between predictive accuracy and preserving spatial resolution.

  20. Single-vortex pinning and penetration depth in superconducting NdFeAsO1-xFx

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Jessie T.; Kim, Jeehoon; Huefner, Magdalena; Ye, Cun; Kim, Stella; Canfield, Paul C.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Auslaender, Ophir M.; Hoffman, Jennifer E.

    2015-10-12

    We use a magnetic force microscope (MFM) to investigate single vortex pinning and penetration depth in NdFeAsO1-xFx, one of the highest-Tc iron-based superconductors. In fields up to 20 Gauss, we observe a disordered vortex arrangement, implying that the pinning forces are stronger than the vortex-vortex interactions. We measure the typical force to depin a single vortex, Fdepin ≃ 4.5 pN, corresponding to a critical current up to Jc ≃ 7×105 A/cm2. As a result, our MFM measurements allow the first local and absolute determination of the superconducting in-plane penetration depth in NdFeAsO1-xFx, λab = 320 ± 60 nm, which ismore » larger than previous bulk measurements.« less

  1. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing ofmore » ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.« less

  2. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  3. Ground-based retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel Dave Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin - Madison Aerosol Working Group Breakout Session 10 March 2008 ARM STM, Norfolk, VA Background and Objectives * Many airborne minerals have absorption features in the thermal infrared (8-13 µm) * These absorption features can be used to determine the "radiatively relevant" mineral composition of atmospheric

  4. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-09-04

    Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

  5. SU-E-T-435: Development and Commissioning of a Complete System for In-Vivo Dosimetry and Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, D; Testa, M; Park, Y; Schneider, R; Moteabbed, M; Janssens, G; Prieels, D; Orban de Xivry, J; Lu, H; Bentefour, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In-vivo dose and beam range verification in proton therapy could play significant roles in proton treatment validation and improvements. Invivo beam range verification, in particular, could enable new treatment techniques one of which, for example, could be the use of anterior fields for prostate treatment instead of opposed lateral fields as in current practice. We have developed and commissioned an integrated system with hardware, software and workflow protocols, to provide a complete solution, simultaneously for both in-vivo dosimetry and range verification for proton therapy. Methods: The system uses a matrix of diodes, up to 12 in total, but separable into three groups for flexibility in application. A special amplifier was developed to capture extremely small signals from very low proton beam current. The software was developed within iMagX, a general platform for image processing in radiation therapy applications. The range determination exploits the inherent relationship between the internal range modulation clock of the proton therapy system and the radiological depth at the point of measurement. The commissioning of the system, for in-vivo dosimetry and for range verification was separately conducted using anthropomorphic phantom. EBT films and TLDs were used for dose comparisons and range scan of the beam distal fall-off was used as ground truth for range verification. Results: For in-vivo dose measurement, the results were in agreement with TLD and EBT films and were within 3% from treatment planning calculations. For range verification, a precision of 0.5mm is achieved in homogeneous phantoms, and a precision of 2mm for anthropomorphic pelvic phantom, except at points with significant range mixing. Conclusion: We completed the commissioning of our system for in-vivo dosimetry and range verification in proton therapy. The results suggest that the system is ready for clinical trials on patient.

  6. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  7. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  8. A Wide Range Neutron Detector for Space Nuclear Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassif, Eduardo; Sismonda, Miguel; Matatagui, Emilio; Pretorius, Stephan

    2007-01-30

    We propose here a versatile and innovative solution for monitoring and controlling a space-based nuclear reactor that is based on technology already proved in ground based reactors. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) allows for a reduction in the complexity of space based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. A ground model, predecessor of the proposed system, has been installed and is operating at the OPAL (Open Pool Advanced Light Water Research Reactor) in Australia, providing long term functional data. A space compatible Engineering Qualification Model of the WRND has been developed, manufactured and verified satisfactorily by analysis, and is currently under environmental testing.

  9. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  10. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  11. Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

  12. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  13. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  14. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  15. Short range spread-spectrum radiolocation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-04-29

    A short range radiolocation system and associated methods that allow the location of an item, such as equipment, containers, pallets, vehicles, or personnel, within a defined area. A small, battery powered, self-contained tag is provided to an item to be located. The tag includes a spread-spectrum transmitter that transmits a spread-spectrum code and identification information. A plurality of receivers positioned about the area receive signals from a transmitting tag. The position of the tag, and hence the item, is located by triangulation. The system employs three different ranging techniques for providing coarse, intermediate, and fine spatial position resolution. Coarse positioning information is provided by use of direct-sequence code phase transmitted as a spread-spectrum signal. Intermediate positioning information is provided by the use of a difference signal transmitted with the direct-sequence spread-spectrum code. Fine positioning information is provided by use of carrier phase measurements. An algorithm is employed to combine the three data sets to provide accurate location measurements.

  16. Numerical analysis of the spatial range of the Kondo effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busser, C. A.; Martins, G. B.; Ribeiro, L. Costa; Vernek, E.; Anda, E. V.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2010-01-01

    The spatial length of the Kondo screening is still a controversial issue related to Kondo physics. While renormalization-group and Bethe-Ansatz solutions have provided detailed information about the thermodynamics of magnetic impurities, they are insufficient to study the effect on the surrounding electrons, i.e., the spatial range of the correlations created by the Kondo effect between the localized magnetic moment and the conduction electrons. The objective of this work is to present a quantitative way of measuring the extension of these correlations by studying their effect directly on the local density of states (LDOS) at arbitrary distances from the impurity. The numerical techniques used, the embedded cluster approximation, the finite-U slave bosons, and numerical renormalization group, calculate the Green s functions in real space. With this information, one can calculate how the local density of states away from the impurity is modified by its presence, below and above the Kondo temperature, and then estimate the range of the disturbances in the noninteracting Fermi sea due to the Kondo effect, and how it changes with the Kondo temperature TK. The results obtained agree with results obtained through spin-spin correlations, showing that the LDOS captures the phenomenology of the Kondo cloud as well.

  17. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  19. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 110{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 110{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

  20. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  1. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler and analysis system deployment strategy and plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1998-07-28

    Under the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requires the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Team to supply tank wastes to the Privatization Contractor for separation, treatment and immobilization (verification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) envelopes represent the range of the liquid wastes in the large underground waste-storage tank at the Hanford Site. The PHMC Team also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) to the Privatization Contractor. The LAW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration period will extend over 10-plus years. Wastes processed during this period will result in 6% to 13% of the total Hanford Site tank waste being treated. The purpose of this document is to provide a strategy and top-level implementation plan for the demonstration and deployment of an alternative sampling technology as an improvement to the current grab sampling approach to support the TWRS privatization. Included in this work is the addition of the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the use of this technology for meeting the PHMC Team`s needs. The first application of this technology is to LAW feed staging, then to HLW feed staging, and finally to cross-site transfer to support feed staging from 200 West Area tanks. The TWRS retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed activities in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 identified the primary uncertainties and risks that must be managed to successfully carry out the support of the TWRS Phase 1 activities. Four of the critical risks could be mitigated, at least partially, by the use of an improved alternative to grab sampling. In addition, eight of the risks with the Waste Feed Delivery Project were associated with the sampling activities. Over 25 logic elements, Technical Basis Reviews (TBR), were reviewed and found to be relevant to risk mitigation using an improved alternative to grab sampling. This document describes these risks and uses a methodology for risk analysis to determine a preliminary estimate of return on investment for pursuing an alternative sampling technology. The basis for the estimate will be firmed up as fiscal year multi-year work planning is conducted and the associated TBRs and cost estimating input sheets are updated. In this calculation the benefits were conservatively estimated to accrue only during the first five years of operation; with this assumption, a return of about double the original investment for development and deployment was projected.

  2. Property:Current Velocity Range(m/s) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Velocity Range(ms) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Current Velocity Range(ms) Property Type String Pages using the property "Current Velocity Range(ms)"...

  3. BRAHMS (Broad Range Hadron Magnetic Spectrometer) Figures and Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The BRAHMS experiment was designed to measure charged hadrons over a wide range of rapidity and transverse momentum to study the reaction mechanisms of the relativistic heavy ion reactions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the properties of the highly excited nuclear matter formed in these reactions. The experiment took its first data during the RHIC 2000 year run and completed data taking in June 2006. The BRAHMS archive makes publications available and also makes data and figures from those publications available as separate items. See also the complete list of publications, multimedia presentations, and related papers at http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/brahms/WWW/publications.html

  4. Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Monard, H.; Larbre, J. P.; De Waele, V.; Marignier, J. L.; Mostafavi, M.

    2006-10-15

    This article gives a detailed description of a single shot electron spectrometer which was used to characterize electron beams produced by laser-plasma interaction. Contrary to conventional electron sources, electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators can produce a broad range of energies. Therefore, diagnosing these electron spectra requires specific attention and experimental development. Here, we provide an absolute calibration of the Lanex Kodak Fine screen on a laser-triggered radio frequency picosecond electron accelerator. The efficiency of scintillating screens irradiated by electron beams has never been investigated so far. This absolute calibration is then compared to charge measurements from an integrating current transformer for quasimonoenergetic electron spectra from laser-plasma interaction.

  5. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sanders, Alvin J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-09-24

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through a screen at least partially opaque at the wavelength. The screen has an aperture sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector spaced some distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam as well as a set of intensities displaced from a center of the aperture. The distance from the source to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, and beam intensity.

  6. Constant power speed range extension of surface mounted PM motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawler, Jack Steward; Bailey, John Milton

    2001-01-01

    A circuit and method for controlling a rotating machine (11) in the constant horsepower range above base speed uses an inverter (15) having SCR's (T1-T6) connected in series with the primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) to control turn off of the primary commutation switches and to protect the primary commutation switches from faults. The primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) are controlled by a controller (14), to fire in advance or after a time when the back emf equals the applied voltage, and then to turn off after a precise dwell time, such that suitable power is developed at speeds up to at least six times base speed.

  7. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne; Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  9. Search for exotic short-range interactions using paramagnetic insulators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chu, Pinghan; Weisman, E.; Liu, C. -Y.; Long, J. C.

    2015-05-26

    We describe a proposed experimental search for exotic spin-coupled interactions using a solid-state paramagnetic insulator. The experiment is sensitive to the net magnetization induced by the exotic interaction between the unpaired insulator electrons with a dense, nonmagnetic mass in close proximity. An existing experiment has been used to set limits on the electric dipole moment of the electron by probing the magnetization induced in a cryogenic gadolinium gallium garnet sample on application of a strong electric field. With suitable additions, including a movable source mass, this experiment can be used to explore “monopole-dipole” forces on polarized electrons with unique ormore » unprecedented sensitivity. As a result, the solid-state, nonmagnetic construction, combined with the low-noise conditions and extremely sensitive magnetometry available at cryogenic temperatures could lead to a sensitivity over 10 orders of magnitude greater than exiting limits in the range below 1 mm.« less

  10. Method for detection and imaging over a broad spectral range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yefremenko, Volodymyr (Westmont, IL); Gordiyenko, Eduard (Westmont, IL); Pishko, legal representative, Olga (Kharkov, UA); Novosad, Valentyn (Chicago, IL); Pishko, deceased; Vitalii (Westmont, IL)

    2007-09-25

    A method of controlling the coordinate sensitivity in a superconducting microbolometer employs localized light, heating or magnetic field effects to form normal or mixed state regions on a superconducting film and to control the spatial location. Electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching were applied as pattern transfer processes in epitaxial Y--Ba--Cu--O films. Two different sensor designs were tested: (i) a 3 millimeter long and 40 micrometer wide stripe and (ii) a 1.25 millimeters long, and 50 micron wide meandering-like structure. Scanning the laser beam along the stripe leads to physical displacement of the sensitive area, and, therefore, may be used as a basis for imaging over a broad spectral range. Forming the superconducting film as a meandering structure provides the equivalent of a two-dimensional detector array. Advantages of this approach are simplicity of detector fabrication, and simplicity of the read-out process requiring only two electrical terminals.

  11. Search for exotic short-range interactions using paramagnetic insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Pinghan; Weisman, E.; Liu, C. -Y.; Long, J. C.

    2015-05-26

    We describe a proposed experimental search for exotic spin-coupled interactions using a solid-state paramagnetic insulator. The experiment is sensitive to the net magnetization induced by the exotic interaction between the unpaired insulator electrons with a dense, nonmagnetic mass in close proximity. An existing experiment has been used to set limits on the electric dipole moment of the electron by probing the magnetization induced in a cryogenic gadolinium gallium garnet sample on application of a strong electric field. With suitable additions, including a movable source mass, this experiment can be used to explore “monopole-dipole” forces on polarized electrons with unique or unprecedented sensitivity. As a result, the solid-state, nonmagnetic construction, combined with the low-noise conditions and extremely sensitive magnetometry available at cryogenic temperatures could lead to a sensitivity over 10 orders of magnitude greater than exiting limits in the range below 1 mm.

  12. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  13. Stopping Power and Range of Ions in Matter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-06-19

    SRIM is a group of programs which calculate the stopping and range of ions (10ev - 2 GeV/amu) into matter. TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) is the most comprehensive program included. Trim will accept complex targets made of compound materials with up to eight layers, each with different materials. It will calculate both the final 3d distribution of the inner ions and also all kinetic phenomena associated with the ion''s energy loss; targetmore » damage, sputtering, ionization, and phonon production. All targets atom cascades in the target are followed in detail. It can be used for physics of recoil cascades, physics of sputtering, the stopping of ions in compounds and stopping power for ions in gases; This included radiation damage from neutron , electrons, and photons.« less

  14. MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE DISSIPATION RANGE OF STRONG IMBALANCED TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovskii, S. A.; Vasquez, Bernard J. E-mail: bernie.vasquez@unh.edu

    2013-05-01

    Hybrid numerical simulations of freely decaying two-dimensional turbulence are presented. The background magnetic field is perpendicular to the simulation plane, which eliminates linear kinetic Alfven waves from the system. The net magnetic helicity of the initial fluctuations at large scales is zero. The turbulence is set to be imbalanced in the sense that the net cross-helicity is not zero. As the turbulence evolves, it develops nonzero magnetic helicity at smaller scales, in the proton kinetic range. In the quasi-steady state of evolution, the magnetic helicity spectrum has a peak consistent with the solar wind observations. The peak position depends on the plasma beta and correlates with a sharp decline of the cross-helicity spectrum.

  15. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t?30psec) and low energy (E?200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P?30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  16. Assessment of Barotrauma Resulting from Rapid Decompression of Depth Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radio Telemetry Transmitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Theriault, Marie-Helene

    2007-09-06

    A multifactor study was conducted by Battelle for the US Army Corps of Engineers to assess the significance of the presence of a radio telemetry transmitter on the effects of rapid decompression from simulated hydro turbine passage on depth acclimated juvenile run-of-the-river Chinook salmon. Study factors were: (1) juvenile chinook salmon age;, subyearling or yearling, (2) radio transmitter present or absent, (3) three transmitter implantation factors: gastric, surgical, and no transmitter, and (4) four acclimation depth factors: 1, 10, 20, and 40 foot submergence equivalent absolute pressure, for a total of 48 unique treatments. Exposed fish were examined for changes in behavior, presence or absence of barotrauma injuries, and immediate or delayed mortality. Logistic models were used to test hypotheses that addressed study objectives. The presence of a radio transmitter was found to significantly increase the risk of barotrauma injury and mortality at exposure to rapid decompression. Gastric implantation was found to present a higher risk than surgical implantation. Fish were exposed within 48 hours of transmitter implantation so surgical incisions were not completely healed. The difference in results obtained for gastric and surgical implantation methods may be the result of study design and the results may have been different if tested fish had completely healed surgical wounds. However, the test did simulate the typical surgical-release time frame for in-river telemetry studies of fish survival so the results are probably representative for fish passing through a turbine shortly following release into the river. The finding of a significant difference in response to rapid decompression between fish bearing radio transmitters and those not implies a bias may exist in estimates of turbine passage survival obtained using radio telemetry. However, the rapid decompression (simulated turbine passage) conditions used for the study represented near worst case exposure for fish passing through turbines. At this time, insufficient data exist about the distribution of river-run fish entering turbines, and particularly, the distribution of fish passing through turbine runners, to extrapolate study findings to the population of fish passing through FCRPS turbines. This study is the first study examining rapid decompression study to include acclimation depth as an experimental factor for physostomous fish. We found that fish acclimated to deeper depth were significantly more vulnerable to barotrauma injury and death. Insufficient information about the distribution of fish entering turbines and their depth acclimation currently exists to extrapolate these findings to the population of fish passing through turbines. However, the risk of barotrauma for turbine-passed fish could be particularly high for subyearling Chinook salmon that migrate downstream at deeper depths late in the early summer portion of the outmigration. Barotrauma injuries led to immediate mortality delayed mortality and potential mortality due to increased susceptibility to predation resulting from loss of equilibrium or swim bladder rupture.

  17. A summary report on the search for current technologies and developers to develop depth profiling/physical parameter end effectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.H.

    1994-09-12

    This report documents the search strategies and results for available technologies and developers to develop tank waste depth profiling/physical parameter sensors. Sources searched include worldwide research reports, technical papers, journals, private industries, and work at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) at Richland site. Tank waste physical parameters of interest are: abrasiveness, compressive strength, corrosiveness, density, pH, particle size/shape, porosity, radiation, settling velocity, shear strength, shear wave velocity, tensile strength, temperature, viscosity, and viscoelasticity. A list of related articles or sources for each physical parameters is provided.

  18. The change of microstructure and thermal properties in ion irradiated carbon nanotube mats as a function of ion penetration depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitkaliyeva, A. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Shao, L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States) [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    A stack of three carbon nanotube (CNT) mats was irradiated with 3 MeV He ions. The change in structural and thermal properties of individual mats as a function of ion penetration depth was characterized using electron microscopy and laser flash techniques. Ion irradiation can enhance thermal conductivity of the mats by introducing inter-tube displacements, which improve phonon transport across adjacent nanotubes. The enhancement, however, is reduced at higher damage levels due to the increasing phonon-defect scattering within the tubes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ion irradiation to manipulate thermal transport in carbon nanotubes.

  19. Enhanced α-particle optical potential at low energies, for the mass range A∼45-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.; Mănăilescu, C.

    2015-02-24

    An updated optical potential is thus provided for α-particles on nuclei within the mass number range 45≤A≤209, below the Coulomb barrier (B), on the basis of recent high-precision measurements of α-particle induced reaction data below B that made possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the α-particle optical-model potentials. The main revision concerns actually only the surface imaginary potential depth at the lowest α-particle energies well below B, and in fact only for the mass range above A∼130. A further regional point is the underestimation of reaction cross sections for the rare-earth nuclei by using the spherical optical potential unless a 7% larger value of the surface imaginary potential radius is taken into account. Involvement of this potential for further description of both the scattering and α-particles induced reactions is moreover discussed in the present work, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear technology for fusion devices.

  20. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  1. Method for increasing the dynamic range of mass spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail; Smith, Richard D.; Udseth, Harold R.

    2004-09-07

    A method for enhancing the dynamic range of a mass spectrometer by first passing a sample of ions through the mass spectrometer having a quadrupole ion filter, whereupon the intensities of the mass spectrum of the sample are measured. From the mass spectrum, ions within this sample are then identified for subsequent ejection. As further sampling introduces more ions into the mass spectrometer, the appropriate rf voltages are applied to a quadrupole ion filter, thereby selectively ejecting the undesired ions previously identified. In this manner, the desired ions may be collected for longer periods of time in an ion trap, thus allowing better collection and subsequent analysis of the desired ions. The ion trap used for accumulation may be the same ion trap used for mass analysis, in which case the mass analysis is performed directly, or it may be an intermediate trap. In the case where collection is an intermediate trap, the desired ions are accumulated in the intermediate trap, and then transferred to a separate mass analyzer. The present invention finds particular utility where the mass analysis is performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer or a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

  2. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Key, William S. (Knoxville, TN); Sanders, Alvin J. (Knoxville, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  3. Wide range modeling study of dimethyl ether oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Dagaut, P.; Boettner, J-C; Cathonnet, M.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model has been used to study dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation over a wide range of conditions. Experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at I and 10 atm, 0.2 < 0 < 2.5, and 800 < T < 1300 K were modeled, in addition to those generated in a shock tube at 13 and 40 bar, 0 = 1.0 and 650 :5 T :5 1300 K. The JSR results are particularly valuable as they include concentration profiles of reactants, intermediates and products pertinent to the oxidation of DME. These data test the Idnetic model severely, as it must be able to predict the correct distribution and concentrations of intermediate and final products formed in the oxidation process. Additionally, the shock tube results are very useful, as they were taken at low temperatures and at high pressures, and thus undergo negative temperature dependence (NTC) behavior. This behavior is characteristic of the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbon fuels, (e.g. the primary reference fuels, n-heptane and iso- octane) under similar conditions. The numerical model consists of 78 chemical species and 336 chemical reactions. The thermodynamic properties of unknown species pertaining to DME oxidation were calculated using THERM.

  4. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  5. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. Low-cost conformable storage to maximize vehicle range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) are currently the leading fuel contenders for converting vehicles from gasoline and diesel to alternative fuels. Two factors that inhibit conversion are additional vehicle costs and reduced range compared to gasoline. In overcoming these barriers, a key element of the alternative fuel system becomes the storage tank for these pressurized fuels. Using cylindrical pressure vessels is the conventional approach, but they do not package well in the available vehicle volume. Thiokol Corporation has developed and is now producing a conformable (non-cylindrical) aluminum storage system for LPG vans. This system increases fuel storage in a given rectangular envelope. The goal of this project was to develop the technology for a lower cost conformable tank made of injection-molded plastic. Much of the cost of the aluminum conformable tank is in the fabrication because several weld seams are required. The injection-molding process has the potential to greatly reduce the fabrication costs. The requirements of a pressurized fuel tank on a vehicle necessitate the proper combination of material properties. Material selection and tank design must be optimized for maximum internal volume and minimum material use to be competitive with other technologies. The material and the design must also facilitate the injection-molding process. Prototype tanks must be fabricated to reveal molding problems, prove solutions, and measure results. In production, efficient fabrication will be key to making these tanks cost competitive. The work accomplished during this project has demonstrated that conformable LPG tanks can be molded with thermoplastics. However, to achieve a competitive tank, improvements are needed in the effective material strength. If these improvements can be made, molded plastics should produce a lower cost tank that can store more LPG on a vehicle than conventional cylinders.

  7. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6 1/8-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently planning to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Depending on the results of these logs, an acidizing or re-drill program will be planned.

  8. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6{Delta}-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 and 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor attempted in July, 2006, to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Application of surfactant in the length of the horizontal hole, and acid over the fracture zone at 10,236 was also planned. This attempt was not successful in that the clean out tools became stuck and had to be abandoned.

  9. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6.-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently investigating the costs and operational viability of re-entering the well and conducting an FMI (fracture detection) log and/or an acid stimulation. No final decision or detailed plans have been made regarding these potential interventions at this time.

  10. TH-C-BRD-01: Analytical Computation of Prompt Gamma Ray Emission and Detection for Proton Range Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterpin, E; Vynckier, S; Janssens, G; Smeets, J; Prieels, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A prompt gamma (PG) slit camera prototype demonstrated that on-line range monitoring within 12 mm could be performed by comparing expected and measured PG detection profiles. Monte Carlo (MC) can simulate the expected PG profile but this would result in prohibitive computation time for a complete pencil beam treatment plan. We implemented a much faster method that is based on analytical processing of pre-computed MC data. Methods: The formation of the PG detection signal can be separated into: 1) production of PGs and 2) detection by the camera detectors after PG transport in geometry. For proton energies from 40 to 230 MeV, PG productions in depth were pre-computed by MC (PENH) for 12C, 14N, 16O, 31P and 40Ca. The PG production was then modeled analytically by adding the PG production for each element according to local proton energy and tissue composition.PG transport in the patient/camera geometries and the detector response were modeled by convolving the PG production profile with a transfer function. The latter is interpolated from a database of transfer functions fitted to pre-computed MC data (PENELOPE). The database was generated for a photon source in a cylindrical phantom with various radiuses and a camera placed at various positions.As a benchmark, the analytical model was compared to PENH for a water phantom, a phantom with different slabs (adipose, muscle, lung) and a thoracic CT. Results: Good agreement (within 5%) was observed between the analytical model and PENH for the PG production. Similar accuracy for detecting range shifts was also observed. Speed of around 250 ms per profile was achieved (single CPU) using a non-optimized MatLab implementation. Conclusion: We devised a fast analytical model for generating PG detection profiles. In the test cases considered in this study, similar accuracy than MC was achieved for detecting range shifts. This research is supported by IBA.

  11. Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the Bipartisan Policy Center on the IEA In-Depth Review of U.S. Energy Policy-- As Delivered

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Moniz's remarks, as delivered, at the Bipartisan Policy Center on the IEA In-Depth Review of U.S. Energy Policy on December 18, 2014 in Washington, DC.

  12. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  13. Spatially resolved penetration depth measurements and vortex manipulation in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon

    2015-07-31

    We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi2B2C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth λ and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosovmore » vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.« less

  14. A Bayesian inversion framework for yield and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial for near-surface explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johannesson, Gardar; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Ramirez, Abe; Ford, Sean; Rodgers, Artie

    2015-09-07

    A Bayesian inversion framework is presented to estimate the yield of an explosion and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial (HOB/DOB) using seismic and air pressure data. This is accomplished by first calibrating the parameters in the forward models that relate the observations to the yield and HOB/DOB and then using the calibrated model to estimate yield and HOB/DOB associated with a new set of seismic and air pressure observations. The MCMC algorithms required to perform these steps are outlined, and the results with real data are shown. Finally, an extension is proposed for a case when clustering in the seismic displacement occurs as a function of different types of rock and other factors.

  15. Depth-dependent magnetism in epitaxial MnSb thin films: effects of surface passivation and cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldous J. D.; Sanchez-Hanke C.; Burrows, C.W.; Maskery, I.; Brewer, M.S.; Hase, T.P.A.; Duffy, J.A.; Lees, M. Rs; Decoster, T.; Theis, W.; Quesada, A.; Schmid, A.K.; Bell, G.R.

    2012-03-15

    Depth-dependent magnetism in MnSb(0001) epitaxial films has been studied by combining experimental methods with different surface specificities: polarized neutron reflectivity, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), x-ray resonant magnetic scattering and spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy (SPLEEM). A native oxide {approx}4.5 nm thick covers air-exposed samples which increases the film's coercivity. HCl etching efficiently removes this oxide and in situ surface treatment of etched samples enables surface magnetic contrast to be observed in SPLEEM. A thin Sb capping layer prevents oxidation and preserves ferromagnetism throughout the MnSb film. The interpretation of Mn L{sub 3,2} edge XMCD data is discussed.

  16. Protections = Defenses in Depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protections: Cleanup Cleanup 101 Corrective Measures Process Protection 1: Remove the Source Example Cleanup: Removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Hillside 140 Environmental ...

  17. Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of large dust particles in the atmosphere around Niamey.

  18. Fact #854 January 5, 2015 Driving Ranges for All-Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (62 miles) while the Tesla Model S with an 85 kW-hr battery pack has a range of 265 miles. ... Both Tesla models exceed 200 miles of range. Driving Ranges for Model Year 2014 Electric ...

  19. Property:Wind Velocity Range(m/s) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Range(ms) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Wind Velocity Range(ms) Property Type String Pages using the property "Wind Velocity Range(ms)" Showing 10 pages...

  20. Off-Cycle Benchmarking of PHEVs; Wide Range of Temperatures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Off-Cycle Benchmarking of PHEVs; Wide Range of Temperatures and Aggressive Driving Cycles Off-Cycle Benchmarking of PHEVs; Wide Range of Temperatures and Aggressive Driving ...

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- John Van Range Co Div of...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    John Van Range Co Div of Edwards Manufacturing - OH 40 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: JOHN VAN RANGE CO., DIV. OF EDWARDS MANUFACTURING (OH.40 ) Eliminated from consideration under...

  2. SU-E-T-589: A Comparison of Field Size Dependence of Electron Depth Dose From Different Linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, M; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For accurate dose calculation in electron beam therapy, it is important to know the percentage depth dose (PDD) for each beam. This can vary depending on the machine make and model and the field size. Three different linear accelerators were compared in this study. Methods: PDD data was collected for different output beam energies and different field sizes for three different linear accelerators (Siemens Primus, Varian 2300ix, Varian Truebeam). Data was compared for the same energy with the same field size to see if the PDD differed among manufacturers. Furthermore, PDD was compared for different field sizes of the same machine at the same energy. Results: For the same beam energy and the same field size, the PDD curves were comparable for the three linacs with variations within 13%. PDD curves for different field sizes and beam energies were compared to verify this result. At higher beam energies, the disagreement between PDD curves is more pronounced between different field sizes for all three of the linacs compared. Conclusions: For the same energy and field size, the variation between different machines was within 13%. For the same manufacturer (Varian Clinac 2300ix and Truebeam), the agreement is within 3% with a standard deviation of less than 2.5%. PDD curves for different field sizes for the same energy were also investigated for the three linacs.

  3. In-Depth Analysis of Simulation Engine Codes for Comparison with DOE s Roof Savings Calculator and Measured Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan; Levinson, Ronnen; Huang, Yu; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Miller, William A.; Mellot, Joe; Childs, Kenneth W.; Kriner, Scott

    2014-06-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) was developed through collaborations among Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), White Box Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Environmental Protection Agency in the context of a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research project to make cool-color roofing materials a market reality. The RSC website and a simulation engine validated against demonstration homes were developed to replace the liberal DOE Cool Roof Calculator and the conservative EPA Energy Star Roofing Calculator, which reported different roof savings estimates. A preliminary analysis arrived at a tentative explanation for why RSC results differed from previous LBNL studies and provided guidance for future analysis in the comparison of four simulation programs (doe2attic, DOE-2.1E, EnergyPlus, and MicroPas), including heat exchange between the attic surfaces (principally the roof and ceiling) and the resulting heat flows through the ceiling to the building below. The results were consolidated in an ORNL technical report, ORNL/TM-2013/501. This report is an in-depth inter-comparison of four programs with detailed measured data from an experimental facility operated by ORNL in South Carolina in which different segments of the attic had different roof and attic systems.

  4. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  5. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Heard, Freddie E. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-17

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  6. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this program is to construct and demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The system, which was designed in an earlier effort, is built in a modular fashion in order to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system to be built under this project will include all the basic modules needed by the system, i.e. the locomotion, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has been designed, constructed and tested in the earlier effort. In the current effort, the full prototype system will be tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The purpose for EXPLORER is to be able to access live gas mains, insert the system in the piping network, and remotely ''drive'' it within the gas main and its laterals through distances of five to ten thousand feet. Its adaptable locomotion system allows the robot to function through varying diameter pipes (150 - 200 mm or 6- to 8-inches) and is powered via on-board battery-banks. The presence of fish-eye cameras in both ends of the robot allows the operator to view the forward and circumferential views of the internals live using an above-ground TV. Communication takes place via wireless link between the robot and the launch-chamber used to insert/retrieve the system. This link is based on commercial technology presently employed in wireless telecommunication networks. Communication over long distances as well as battery re-charging will be accomplished without retrieving the robot but through the use of auxiliaries, to be developed in a follow-on phase, that will allow insertion of additional antennas and battery recharge plugs into the pipe under live conditions through inexpensive keyhole sized excavations. The proposed system significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the New York Gas Group (NYGAS; a trade association of the publicly owned gas utilities in New York State), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The DOE's contribution to this project is $499,023 out of a total of $780,735 (not including NASA's contribution). The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during the first six months since funding from DOE commenced. The project has achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. Currently the fabrication of the prototype is in progress and it should be completed by late-summer 2002. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by November 2002, to be followed by two field demonstrations in early 2003.

  7. Clinal morphological variation along a depth gradient in the living scleractinian reef coral Favia pallida: Effects on perceived evolutionary tempos in the fossil record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuffey, R.J. ); Pachut, J.F. )

    1990-12-01

    The Holocene reef-building coral Favia pallida was sampled at 4.5 m depth increments (to 40 m) from two reefs on Enewetak Atoll to examine intraspecific environmental effects. An exposed outer reef was massive and wall-like, whereas a sheltered lagoonal reef grew as a slender pinnacle. Corallite diameter and growth rate, two attributes retrievable in fossil corals, were measured with data partitioned into shallow (<20 m), intermediate (20 to 29 m), and deep-water (>29 m) subsets. Highly significant differences between depth zone populations were found for both corallite diameters and growth rates in analyses of individual and combined reef data sets. Canonical variates analyses (CVA) separated populations from depth zones along single, highly significant, functions. Centroids and 95% confidence intervals, calculated from CVA scores of colonies in each population, are widely separated for the lagoon reef and combined data sets. Conversely, populations from shallow and intermediate depths on the outer reef display overlapping confidence bars indicative of more gradational morphologic changes. When CV's were used to classify specimens to groups, misassignments of intermediate depth specimens to shallow or deep-water populations underscored the gradational nature of the environment. Completely intergrading populations of Favia pallida collected from different depths can be morphologically separated into statistically distinct groupings. A stratigraphic succession of such morphotypes might be interpreted as abruptly appearing separate species if sampling were not as uniform, systematic, and detailed as was possible on modern reefs. Analyses of evolutionary patterns must carefully assess potential effects of clinal variation if past evolutionary patterns are to be interpreted correctly.

  8. Application of solar energy for the generation and supply of industrial-process low-to intermediate-pressure steam ranging from 300/sup 0/F-550/sup 0/F (high-temperature steam). Final report, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteo, M.; Kull, J.; Luddy, W.; Youngblood, S.

    1980-12-01

    A detailed design was developed for a solar industrial process heat system to be installed at the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Oil Storage Terminal in Mobile, Alabama. The 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process heat at temperatures ranging from 150 to 290/sup 0/C (300 to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored No. 6 fuel oil, making it easier to pump from storage to transport tankers. Heat transfer oil is circulated in a closed system, absorbing heat in the collector field and delivering it through immersed heat exchangers to the stored fuel oil. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44 percent of the process heat required.

  9. Battery Electric Vehicles: Range Optimization and Diversification for the U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    Properly selecting the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the market acceptance and the resulting social benefits of BEVs. Analysis of transportation technology transition could be biased against battery electric vehicles (BEV) and mislead policy making, if BEVs are not represented with optimal ranges. This study proposes a coherent method to optimize the BEV driving range by minimizing the range-related cost, which is formulated as a function of range, battery cost, energy prices, charging frequency, access to backup vehicles, and the cost and refueling hassle of operating the backup vehicle. This method is implemented with a sample of 36,664 drivers, representing U.S. new car drivers, based on the 2009 National Household Travel Survey data. Key findings are: 1) Assuming the near term (2015) battery cost at $405/kWh, about 98% of the sampled drivers are predicted to prefer a range below 200 miles, and about 70% below 100 miles. The most popular 20-mile band of range is 57 to77 miles, unsurprisingly encompassing the Leaf s EPA-certified 73-mile range. With range limited to 4 or 7 discrete options, the majority are predicted to choose a range below 100 miles. 2) Found as a statistically robust rule of thumb, the BEV optimal range is approximately 0.6% of one s annual driving distance. 3) Reducing battery costs could motivate demand for larger range, but improving public charging may cause the opposite. 4) Using a single range to represent BEVs in analysis could significantly underestimate their competitiveness e.g. by $3226/vehicle if BEVs are represented with 73-mile range only or by $7404/BEV if with 150-mile range only. Range optimization and diversification into 4 or 7 range options reduce such analytical bias by 78% or 90%, respectively.

  10. Heat flow in the northern Basin and Range province | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat flow in the northern Basin and Range province Abstract The heat flow in the Basin and Range...

  11. Integrated Smart Grid Provides a Wide Range of Benefits in Ohio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Smart Grid Provides a Wide Range of Benefits in Ohio and the Carolinas Integrated Smart Grid Provides a Wide Range of Benefits in Ohio and the Carolinas October 20, 2014 ...

  12. Evaluation of Range Estimates for Toyota FCHV-adv Under Open...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Range Estimates for Toyota FCHV-adv Under Open Road Driving Conditions Evaluation of Range Estimates for Toyota FCHV-adv Under Open Road Driving Conditions An evaluation to ...

  13. ETA-TP014 Appendix A: Day 1 Range and Charge Data Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Day 1 Range and Charge Data Sheet Page 2 of 2 20 Segment Number % of TP4 Range Distance Required (miles) Segment Speed (mph) Initial SOC Time Start Time End Miles Driven Final ...

  14. Long-Range Neutron Detection (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long-Range Neutron Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-Range Neutron Detection You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech ...

  15. Long-Range Neutron Detection (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long-Range Neutron Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-Range Neutron Detection A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to ...

  16. Application of multivariate statistical analysis methods for improved time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling of buried interfaces and particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, K. G.

    2007-07-15

    Buried irregular interfaces and particulate present special challenges in terms of chemical analysis and identification, and are critical issues in the manufacture of electronic materials and devices. Cross sectioning at the right location is often difficult, and, while dual-beam scanning electron microscopy/focused ion beam instruments can often provide excellent visualization of buried defects, matching chemical analysis may be absent or problematic. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling, with its ability to acquire spatially resolved depth profiles while collecting an entire mass spectrum at every 'voxel,' offers a way to revisit the problem of buried defects. Multivariate analysis of the overwhelming amount of data can reduce the output from essentially a depth profile at every mass to a small set of chemically meaningful factors. Data scaling is an important consideration in the application of these methods, and a comparison of scaling procedures is shown. Examples of ToF-SIMS depth profiles of relatively homogeneous layers, severely inhomogeneous layers, and buried particulate are discussed.

  17. Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating Temperature and Humidity Ranges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    provides an overview of how operators of data centers can increase energy efficiency at wider operating temperatures and humidity ranges

  18. Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs This presentation covers: deep inelastic processes and transverse momentum distributions; chiral symmetry breaking, including the physical picture, the dynamical model, and parton distributions; partonic structures, including transverse momentum distributions, coordinate space correlator, and short range correlations; and measurements of semi-inclusive deep

  19. Development of a novel depth of interaction PET detector using highly multiplexed G-APD cross-strip encoding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, A. Parl, C.; Liu, C. C.; Pichler, B. J.; Mantlik, F.; Lorenz, E.; Renker, D.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a prototype PET detector module for a combined small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) system. The most important factor for small animal imaging applications is the detection sensitivity of the PET camera, which can be optimized by utilizing longer scintillation crystals. At the same time, small animal PET systems must yield a high spatial resolution. The measured object is very close to the PET detector because the bore diameter of a high field animal MR scanner is limited. When used in combination with long scintillation crystals, these small-bore PET systems generate parallax errors that ultimately lead to a decreased spatial resolution. Thus, we developed a depth of interaction (DoI) encoding PET detector module that has a uniform spatial resolution across the whole field of view (FOV), high detection sensitivity, compactness, and insensitivity to magnetic fields. Methods: The approach was based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD) detectors with cross-strip encoding. The number of readout channels was reduced by a factor of 36 for the chosen block elements. Two 12 × 2 G-APD strip arrays (25μm cells) were placed perpendicular on each face of a 12 × 12 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal block with a crystal size of 1.55 × 1.55 × 20 mm. The strip arrays were multiplexed into two channels and used to calculate the x, y coordinates for each array and the deposited energy. The DoI was measured in step sizes of 1.8 mm by a collimated {sup 18}F source. The coincident resolved time (CRT) was analyzed at all DoI positions by acquiring the waveform for each event and applying a digital leading edge discriminator. Results: All 144 crystals were well resolved in the crystal flood map. The average full width half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of the detector was 12.8% ± 1.5% with a FWHM CRT of 1.14 ± 0.02 ns. The average FWHM DoI resolution over 12 crystals was 2.90 ± 0.15 mm. Conclusions: The novel DoI PET detector, which is based on strip G-APD arrays, yielded a DoI resolution of 2.9 mm and excellent timing and energy resolution. Its high multiplexing factor reduces the number of electronic channels. Thus, this cross-strip approach enables low-cost, high-performance PET detectors for dedicated small animal PET and PET/MRI and potentially clinical PET/MRI systems.

  20. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, B.E. (ed.)

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50[degree]C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110[degree]C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.